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  • 1.
    Bellogín, Alejandro
    et al.
    Iniversidad Autńoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Said, Alan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information Retrieval and Recommender Systems2019In: Data Science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 79-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives a brief introduction to what artificial intelligence is. We begin discussing some of the alternative definitions for artificial intelligence and introduce the four major areas of the field. Then, in subsequent sections we present these areas. They are problem solving and search, knowledge representation and knowledge-based systems, machine learning, and distributed artificial intelligence. The chapter follows with a discussion on some ethical dilemma we find in relation to artificial intelligence. A summary closes this chapter.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Christoffer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Bingdahl, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Dom kom för våra hjärnor: En studie om zombier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Zombiens rötter ligger i myter men den har gått igenom en rad förändringar och håller nu platsen som en av världens mest igenkännbara monster. Efter 1932 har zombier inom media används för reflektion kring mänsklighetens farhågor och teman som krig och sjukdom har präglat zombiens narrativ i årtionden. Denna rapport ger en överblick över zombiens utveckling och undersöker vad för associationer och tankar zombien väcker som figur inom olika katastrofmiljövisualiseringar hos betraktare.

    Tre artefakter som representerar zombier i olika katastrofmiljöer har producerats för studien, de har använts i intervjuer där deltagarna fått bygga egna narrativ kring dem. Zombien inom en nutida miljö var den som deltagarna ansågs vara mest naturlig för zombien att vistas i men deltagarna visade störst intresse inför zombien i den dystopiska Cyberpunk-miljön. Ytterligare studier av zombien behövs för att tydligare kartlägga folks attityder gentemot zombien och hur relevant den kan fortsätta hålla sig.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Kristoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Spelartyper och ljudperception: Kan man med hjälp av olika mixar med distinktiva särdrag i ett spels ljudbild förändra en spelartyps prestationsförmåga?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie ämnar att ta reda på om det finns något samband mellan olika spelartyper och olika ljudbilder som representeras av mixar med olika distinktiva särdrag. Undersökningen har skett genom att deltagare fått spela ett kompetativt spel mot artificiella spelare ett flertal omgångar. De senare omgångarna presenteras med en ny ljudbild som tydligt skiljer sig från omgångarna innan. Via en kvantitativ studie med kvalitativa drag så har ett resultat framtagits som redovisar svar på studiens frågeställning. Studien har fokuserat kring hur reaktionsförmågan och den allmänna prestationen hos specifika spelartyper påverkas av de olika mixningarna. Genom studiens resultat så kan man i möjliga framtida arbeten kunna frambringa ett ramverk för hur man med hjälp av realtidsmixning kan förändra en spelares prestation i ett spel.

  • 4.
    Falk, Terése
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Gestförmedling av Animerad Karaktär: Problemlösning genom Instruktuva Gester2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete undersöker hur karaktärsanimationer kan användas som gränssnittsfunktion i både underhållande och lärande spel. Bakgrund behandlar gränssnittsdesign, karaktärsanimation i relation till instruktionsdesign samt förutsättningar för inlärning enligt kognitionsteori. Frågeställningen som undersökningen ämnar att besvarar utreder om en spelare kan lösa enklare spatiala uppgifter som förmedlas genom gestindikation från en 3D-animerad karaktär. Artefakten består av ett kort spel där karaktärsindikation hänvisar till ett objekt i scenen med nivåer från vag till tydlig indikation där respondenten ska lyckas klicka på rätt objekt. Av 28 respondenter var det 22 personer som löste uppgiften och 6 respondenter inte lyckades att lösa uppgiften. Resultaten från undersökningen visar på att det är möjligt för en spelare att lösa enklare spatiala uppgifter på en bredd mellan subtil indikation till mycket tydligt indikation från en icke spelbar karaktär. Framtida studier kan ämnas att vidare utreda hur olika nivåer av subtil till tydlig gestindikation kan vägleda en spelare.

  • 5.
    Fasthén, Patrick
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Diachronic Identity: Temporal Plasticity of Functional Organisms2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eliminative materialism is a view that has been sparsely acknowledged and often overlooked when it comes to providing us with a criterion of what it takes for you and me to persist over time. This owes much to its counterintuitive belief in the non-existence of folk-psychological notions, such as persons. Against a backdrop of philosophical and scientific inquiry, this paper amounts to providing such a criterion in the form of f-organisms, taking a different route based on emergent descriptions, instead of conventional reductive explanations. The temporal plasticity (change over time) of such f-organisms display stable persistence conditions despite their constant state of reconstruction. What informs the question of identity in such a paradigm is dealt with accordingly, and the notion of the self is put in a context in which it can no longer be said to be the self we are familiar with – a context in which the center fails to hold. The imperative question for any of such criteria will be to accommodate the concept of identity as unconstrained and far away from uncertainty as possible. The main theme will thus be to reassess the general notion of diachronic identity to include our identity over time, and make explicit the various implications for such a view.

  • 6.
    Flamm, Gabriel
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Karaktärsanimation till avataren i spelet Dreamlords the Reawakening: Hur funktionella och dekorativa animationer samspelar i ett MMORTS2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en reflexiv text och presenterar hur funktionella animationer, skapad med animationsprincipen Straight Ahead Action, samspelar med dekorativa animationer, skapad med en modifierad upplaga av animationsprincipen Pose to Pose, och hur de båda formerna av animation förmedlar samma karaktär hos en avatar i spelet Dreamlord the Reawakening (Lockpick Entertainment, 2008). Animationerna representerar det kvinnliga och det manliga könet i sitt utförande, förhåller sig till givna riktlinjer om animationslängd och begränsad yta de kan utspela sig på samt fungerar med en rad olika uppsättningar av vapen och rustningar.

    Hos avataren i spelet Dreamlords the Reawakening finns det animationer som syftar till att indikera för spelaren vad som händer med spelarens avatar på skärmen och är direkt kopplat till den funktion i spelet animationen representerar. Det finns dessutom animationer vars syfte är att förtydliga och underhålla samtliga spelare när två spelare spelar mot varandra.

    Denna reflexiva text behandlar den metod som använts vid skapande av animationerna, bestående av ett förarbete, ett iterativt huvudarbete och slutligen en utvärdering. Arbetet som utförts har sammanställts till ett verk och en analys av verket har genererat flertalet resultat.

    Syftet med denna text var att identifiera och analysera två typer av animation i spelet Dreamlords the Reawakening för att ge en djupare kunskap av de problem som uppstår och den problemlösning som krävs för att skapa dynamiska animationer för det två typerna av animation till ett MMORTS-spel.

  • 7.
    Granström, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Elements in games for virtual heritage applications2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The methods of preserving cultural heritage are becoming increasingly digital, and with this development it is becoming all the more open to public scrutiny. The field of virtual heritage and their applications, which digitally preserve cultural heritage using virtual reality, are struggling to live up to the expectations of the public. The virtual heritage field has begun to look for solutions to their problems in other fields, such as that of video games. This thesis identifies 17 elements which are sought after for incorporation in virtual heritage applications, by conducting a literature review of recent virtual heritage research and organizing the findings into a matrix. The occurrence of the identified elements in four different modern entertainment video games is further analyzed and described. The resulted element matrix and game reviews could be used in the future development of virtual heritage applications, and of cultural heritage or historical video games.

  • 8.
    Hallin, Nathalie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    FROM GUILT TO REGRET: The impact of neuroscientific evidence upon our ideas of libertarian free will and moral responsibility2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay I will investigate some different opinions about how or whether we should change our views concerning moral responsibility if neuroscience shows that contra-causal free will is implausible and also argue that holding people morally responsible is not the best method of making people act morally. A common approach is to argue that we can hold people responsible in a non-absolute sense and many argue that this has practical benefits (i.e. that people would act more morally). I evaluate different alternatives and conclude that there are different beliefs and opinions that cause disagreement in this question. I argue that moral responsibility is implausible without the existence of contra-causal free will (because it is then just a question of luck what actions you will perform) and that it is more practical to shift our focus to other ways of changing people and not blaming them.

  • 9.
    Hammarberg, Maxine
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Kognitiv kontroll, självreglering och impulsivitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitiv kontroll är förmågan att flexibelt anpassa sitt beteende till en eller flera specifika inre motiverande handlingar. Kognitiv kontroll möjliggör denna fokusering för de krav som informationsprocessen kräver. Kognitiv kontroll samt självreglering handlar bland annat om en så kallad top-down informationsprocess i ett globalt neuralt nätverk som pågår i den mänskliga hjärnan. Vi människor utövar denna kognitiva kontroll varje dag i vårat vardagliga liv utan vidare reflektioner. Detta sker genom flera informationsprocesser samtidigt och det är därför svårt att finna en enhetlig integrerad förklaring till de underliggande neurala mekanismerna. Syftet med arbetet är att förklara vad kognitiv kontroll, självreglering och impulsivitet innebär. Kopplingen mellan dessa två kognitiva kapaciteter föreskrivs i denna uppsats gällande de neurala mekanismerna och även kopplingen mellan kognitiv kontroll och självreglering i form av prestationer av både kontrollerade experiment och det vardagliga livet. Medan impulsivitet kopplat till kognitiv kontroll och självreglering är konsekvensen av när de neurala och kognitiva processerna brister i någon mening. Studier relaterat till kognitiv kontroll, inhibering och impulsbeteende använder sig bland annat av functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) för att studera och undersöka detta kognitiva fenomen. Idag beskrivs impulsivitet samt bristande kontroll möjligen som ett maladaptivt beteende med hjälp av bland annat fMRI. Ytterligare fMRI studier har även visat på att kognitiv kontroll samt bristande kognitiv kontroll möjligen kan handla om en minskad eller ökad aktivering i nucleus accumbens, insulan och anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Forskare inom ämnet har försökt att grundligt undersöka detta neurala nätverk genom flera olika perspektiv och därav presenterar uppsatsen några olika exempel av dessa ingångar för att möjliggöra ett brett perspektiv av denna komplexa mentala kapacitet. Resultaten inom ämnet visar än idag på en komplex multifaciterad natur av de underliggande neurala korrelaten.

  • 10.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University .
    Billing, ErikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 15th SweCog Conference2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an article published in Nature: Human Behavior, Nunez et al. (2019) asks What happened to cognitive science? The authors review bibliometric and socio-institutional aspects of the field and argues that the transition from a multi-disciplinary program to a mature inter-disciplinary coherent field has failed. Looking at the Swedish environment, we can nothing but agree. Many of us identifying ourselves as researchers in cognitive science are working at departments primarily focused at other disciplines, teaching within other objects and publishing in journals and conferences adjacent to the field. The diversity of cognitive science is also present in the number of directions that has has evolved over the years. The embodied approaches that many of us align with are not evolving towards a coherent view, but is today found under numerous labels such as situated cognition, distributed cognition, extended cognition, and enactive cognition. The so called 4E perspectives on the field have now ventured beyond the four, and is today more often referred to as the multi-E framework.

    While we agree with Nunez et al. that we remain a multi-disciplinary, multi-perspective, and multi-method group of researchers who may share an interest for the science of the mind, rather than a coherent approach or perspective, we disagree that this entails a failure for the enterprise of cognitive science. We dare to say that the Sweish Cognitive Science Society has embraced the multi-perspectives idea by adopting an inclusive approach in the selection of research and methods presented at our conferences. We hope that SweCog will remain a forum for inclusive discussions, working against discipline conformism and isolation, in a time where both public and scientific debate is increasingly shattered.

  • 11. Hooshyar Yousefi, Bahram
    Special Discussion with Abdolhamid NoghrehKar: «The Challenge of Identity»2015In: Designer Magazine, ISSN 2008-9538, no 11, p. 40-43Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Jafarneiad, Laleh
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Genus, en social konstruktion?: En socialpsykologisk studie som behandlar om och hur interaktioner påverkas av genusordningen iden icke-verbala kommunikationen underanställningsintervjuer.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa studie har som syfte att skapa en förståelse för om och i så fall hurden icke-verbala kommunikationen (Dimbleby & Burton) och den insocialiseradegenusordningen (Connell, 2003) påverkar interaktioner vid anställningsintervjuer tillchefsposition. Studien utgår ifrån ett socialkonstruktionistiskt perspektiv (Gergen,2007) som anser att individer skapas och insocialiseras i mötet med andra. Studien harobservationer som metod för att försöka få förståelse för genusordningen och denicke-verbala kommunikationen i interaktionerna under anställningsintervjuer. Vidareupprättades en observationsmatris utifrån icke-verbalt beteende, samt manligt ochkvinnligt hexis. Resultatet från observationerna inbegriper både de enskildaindividernas icke-verbala kommunikation och den gemensamma interaktionen somuppstår under anställningsintervjun. Fokus i analysen ligger i interaktionerna mellanindividerna, eftersom det är mellan individerna som den icke-verbalakommunikationen kan fångas och utifrån detta tolkar, förstår och förklarar jag om ochhur den insocialiserade genusordningen påverkar den icke-verbala kommunikationen iinteraktionerna. Genom analysen har jag kommit fram till att både den icke-verbalakommunikationen och genus har en viss påverkan för hur interaktionerna skapas underanställningsintervjuer.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Henning
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Framväxten av korrespondensläran: Swedenborgs esoteriska doktrins filosofihistoriska grund2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

     

    The purpose of this paper is to exam the philosophical development of Emanuel Swedenborg's doctrine of correspondence and to note some of the more important parallels between Swedenborg's doctrine and the three contemporary most debated theories concerning the mind-body problem. These three theories was pre-established harmony, its opponent physical influx and finally occasionalism. Especially occasionalism has close connections to Descartes' dualism, but neither pre-established harmony or physical influxus, which in some ways can be dated before Descartes, would have looked the same, if it were not for the Cartesian way of thinking. Also Swedenborg initially inherited major influences from Descartes and that is the first approach in this paper. From there on the paper follows the development of the doctrine of correspondence and the parallels according Swedenborg's more contemporary philosophical writers, until Swedenborg gets to a point where he underwent a profound spiritual crisis and turned his focus on an all together theological approach.

     

  • 14.
    Kronander, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Språkförmågan med andra ögon2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom kognitionsvetenskapen växer det på flera håll fram konkurrenter till det synsätt på språklig kognition som förespråkats främst av lingvisten Noam Chomsky. Han har argumenterat för att barns förmåga till att snabbt förvärva språks grammatiska komplexitet, beror på att all världens språk delar en underliggande universell grammatik som finns inkodad i människohjärnan från födseln. Enligt denna syn betraktas grammatik som ett abstrakt regelstyrt system, slutet och utan direkt påverkan från omgivningen. Efterföljande forskning har kommit att visa på många svårigheter för denna hypotes, varvid alternativa ansatser har trätt fram. Som ett resultat försöker många forskare numera istället förklara färdigheter i grammatik som en förlängning av kognitiva och kommunikativa förmågor. Uppsatsen ger en kort bakgrund om Chomskys idéer och hur han resonerade sig fram till sin hypotes. Via en rad olika överväganden utifrån empiriska observationer och experiment, och på området nyutvecklad teori, söks därmed andra förklaringsvägar. Uppsatsen undersöker ett antal implikationer och hur de påverkar forskningen kring språkförmågan.

  • 15.
    Kärrström, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural correlates of mindfulness related to stress: How mindfulness promotes wellbeing2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness practice is used to treat mental and physical symptoms. The problem is that research on the long-term effects and the neural changes involved, correlated with well-being, are inconsistent. The purpose of this review is to create a deeper understanding of mindfulness and its neural correlates related to stress. In mindfulness, one can use focused attention meditation (FA), involving anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal areas, thalamus, visual cortex, intraparietal sulcus, and amygdala. In open monitoring meditation (OM), ACC, PFC, insula, somatosensory cortex, limbic areas and amygdala are involved. In exposure to a high amount of stress, the grey matter volume decreases in the hippocampus, PFC, and amygdala. Research has also shown that 19 000 hours of mindfulness practice increases activation in areas involved in FA and OM. This increased activation might also enhance the subject’s ability to control emotions. After 44 000 hours of meditation, areas involved in FA showed less activation which might imply that more hours of mindfulness practice involve less cognitive activity and a calmer state of mind. Regardless of hours spent on meditating, a decreased activation in the amygdala and ACC occurs, which correlates with less response towards negative stimuli. The neural changes involved in mindfulness practice was related to less experienced stress and enhanced psychological well-being. For future research, an investigation of the interaction between attentional networks and stress would be of relevance.

  • 16.
    Lamb, Maurice J.
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, University of Cincinnati, United States.
    Chemero, Anthony P.
    Department of Philosophy and Psychology, University of Cincinnati, United States.
    Interaction-dominant dynamics and extended embodiment2013In: Constructivist Foundations, ISSN 1782-348X, E-ISSN 1782-348X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 88-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Liljebjer, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Mental Visualisering i Ledarskap2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine the link between mental visualization and leadership. As times change so will also the role for a good leader change. I will first examine what distinguishes such a leadership and which qualities characterize a good leader. Futhermore, I will examine the possible problems  that might occur with using modern neuroscience techniques to identify the characteristics that are considered relevant for a good leadership. One such feature that I will examine closer is mental visualization. Where and how is this property active in the brain? Finally, I will try to answer how or if,  visualization is a critical characteristic of good leadership.

  • 18.
    Löf, Kasper
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Investigating the Neural Correlates of Perceived Social Isolation: Is Perceived Social Isolation Confined to the Social Brain?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Loneliness, or the perceived discrepancy of ones relationships in terms of quality, is known as Perceived Social Isolation (PSI). Studies have shown that PSI is both increasing and is correlated with health risks. Specifically, PSI is not only related with risks of mortality but is also linked with variations in the brain. Having few social contacts, or being Objectively Socially Isolated (OSI) does not qualify as PSI. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the neural correlates of PSI, as distinguished from OSI. The true role of PSI is still unknown, however, arguments can be made that PSI serves an important role in survival. The social brain, which allows for social cognition is used as a basis for understanding PSI in this thesis. In this thesis, I found that individuals suffering from PSI have increased attention towards social threat, and a preference to engage in positive social stimuli. Further, PSI affects both social cognition and the social brain. However, regional brain activity was not confined to the social brain. The results showed that PSI may be related to both affective and attentional networks of the brain. PSI also affects activity in the ventral striatum. Further, PSI is related to varied regional brain size. I argue that PSI can be reduced by mainly fixing maladaptive cognitive patterns.

  • 19.
    MacGregor, Oskar
    Swansea University, UK.
    Performance-enhancing technologies in sports: Ethical, conceptual, and scientific issues2010In: Sport, Ethics and Philosophy, ISSN 1751-1321, E-ISSN 1751-133X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 106-8Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 20.
    MacGregor, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Trivial Love2015In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 497-500Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    MacGregor, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    WADA's Whereabouts Requirements and Privacy2015In: Routledge Handbook of Drugs and Sport / [ed] Verner Møller, Ivan Waddington & John M. Hoberman, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 310-321Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Department of Behavioral Science and Social Work, Jönköping university, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Cultivating mindfulness through the practice of iaidō2017In: Contemporary Buddhism, ISSN 1463-9947, E-ISSN 1476-7953, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Department of Literature, History of Ideas and Religion, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Making Mindfulness: Highlighting the Social and Existential Dimensions2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Mindful hållbart åldrande – holistiskt åldrande i ny belysning2016In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 93, no 6, p. 692-703Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Socioexistential mindfulness: Bringing empathy and compassion into health care practice2016In: Spirituality in Clinical Practice, ISSN 2326-4500, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 22-31Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet / Karolinska Institutet.
    Mindfulness – terapier och paradoxer2016In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 93, no 1, p. 106-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    From Buddhist sati to Western mindfulness practice: A contextual analysis2016In: Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Social Work, ISSN 1542-6432, Vol. 35, no 1-2, p. 7-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last three decades the practice of mindfulness has grown to become one of the most widespread health promoting applications in the West—so much that terms like yoga and meditation have now become standard household words. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the meaning of mindfulness within both its Buddhist and its Western context. In the former case, the aim will be to shed light on mindfulness as a concept and practice that is rooted in Buddhist understandings (i.e., the Buddhist perspective); and in the latter case, the meaning of mindfulness will be more broadly explored in terms of its relevance to society, social work and everyday life (i.e., the social (work) perspective).

  • 28.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Reconciling and Thematizing Definitions of Mindfulness: The Big Five of Mindfulness2016In: Review of General Psychology, ISSN 1089-2680, E-ISSN 1939-1552, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 183-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in Review of General Psychology on Jul 11 2016 (see record 2016-33699-001). In the original article, there was an error in the abstract. The second core element of the concept of mindfulness yielded by the analysis was incorrectly listed as “nonjudgmental attitude.” It should be “present-centeredness.” The online version of this article has been corrected.] Mindfulness is an emerging concept in many professions and spheres of social life. However, mindfulness (or sati in Buddhism) can connote many plausible meanings. Thus, the concept is not easily defined and the definitions provided in the literature easily confuse the reader. Some mindfulness researchers offer definitions whereas others do not and take the definition of mindfulness for granted. Beyond the problem of defining mindfulness, the fact that the phenomenon is of great interest to various disciplines, each of which has its own theoretical and methodological approaches, different authors use different terms in describing this phenomenon. In the present article 33 definitions of mindfulness were extracted from a pool of 308 peer-reviewed full-length theoretical or empirical articles written in English, published between 1993 and March 2016, after systematic searches in Google Scholar, PsycARTICLES, and SocINDEX. The definitions were analyzed with a particular focus on the defining attributes or core elements of the concept of mindfulness. The analysis yielded 4 core elements of awareness and attention, present-centeredness, external events, and cultivation. Furthermore, an additional core element emerged from this analysis as being absent in Western definitions of mindfulness. This formed the basis for formulation of a new definition of mindfulness with an emphasis on ethical-mindedness. We argue that this core element is instrumental in filling in the gap that exists in current Western definitions, and with highlighting this element we hope to bridge the Western and Buddhist notions of mindfulness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

  • 29.
    Nilsson, Kenny
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Wittgenstein´s “Private Language Argument” According to Kripke2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wittgenstein was a very important philosopher of the early twentieth century. One of his most important points was that which has been known as the Private Language Argument. This argument was given a new interpretation by Saul Kripke in 1982, which stirred up much debate. This essay investigates Kripke´s so called “skeptical challenge” and his “skeptical solution” to that challenge. To further enlighten the subject this essay also discusses a critique to Kripke´s interpretation, provided by the main critics, Baker and Hacker (1984). The conclusion of the essay is that Kripke´s theory takes up some interesting and important issues, although there are some serious flaws in Kripke´s solution that needs to be addressed if the solution is to be taken seriously.

  • 30.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    A cognitive semiotic perspective on the nature and limitations of concepts andconceptual frameworks2016In: Meaning, Mind and Communication: Explorations in Cognitive Semiotics / [ed] Jordan Zlatev, Göran Sonesson, Piotr Konderak, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016, p. 47-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Known under the potentially misleading rubric of “knowledge representation” in cognitive science, theories of concepts represent both a subfield within philosophy of mind and an application area for cognitive semiotics. They describe the properties of conceptual thought, typically through a listing of those properties: minimally taken to include systematicity, productivity, compositionality, intentionality, and endogenous control. Beyond that point, most things are up for grabs. Debate rages over such questions as whether concepts are representations or abilities; likewise unclear is whether they are essentially public or largely private, discrete or continuous, stable or dynamic, transparent or translucent or opaque. Cognitive semiotics helps clarify discussion over an inevitably abstract area in a number of key ways: through its grounding in semiotics, showing how concepts both are entwined with language (intrinsically public) and pull apart from it; through its roots in phenomenology, showing how concepts both are and are not representations; through its focus on meaning as a dynamic process, showing how concepts’ relative stability belies an underlying dynamics; through its deep resonance with enactive philosophy, showing how concepts impose seemingly sharp boundaries onto underlying continuities; through its bold refusal to shy away from apparent contradictions and paradox, revealing how concepts both reveal the world and simultaneously hide it from us. As a concrete example, I discuss the conceptual nature of metaphor from a cognitive semiotic perspective. I show how – given the problematic nature of so-called literal meaning – the crucial distinction is not between literal and metaphorical meanings, but between tertiary/novel meanings and primary/secondary ones: between meanings that call attention to themselves and those that do not, where only the former are appropriately termed “metaphors”. The lesson is not that all meaning is metaphorical but rather that the line between metaphor and non-metaphor is pragmatic rather than absolute, conceptual rather than ontological.

  • 31.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Consciousness, semiosis, and the unbinding problem2017In: Language & Communication, ISSN 0271-5309, E-ISSN 1873-3395, Vol. 54, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any wider discussion of semiosis must address not only how semiosis came about, in terms of evolutionary pressures and requisite cognitive infrastructure, but also – as importantly, and too easily forgotten – how human beings experience and have experienced it, and how that experience reflects (at the same time shaping) its development. Much discussion has focused on resolving how inputs from external sensory modalities combine with internal brain processes to produce unified consciousness: the so-called binding problem. One might wish to distinguish between the coming together of conscious experience in terms of underlying mechanics and the seemingly unavoidable reality that human beings experience a consciousness that is, from the onset, phenomenally unified. The unbinding problem is shown to be potentially just as important to telling the story.

  • 32.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Understanding empathy: Metaphysical starting assumptions in the modeling of empathy and emotions2017In: Proceedings of AISB Annual Convention 2017: Society with AI / [ed] Joanna Bryson, Marina De Vos, Julian Padget, Bath, UK: The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour (AISB) , 2017, p. 263-267Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has three main purposes: to set out the relationship between empathy and related phenomena, including emotional contagion; to explain how metaphysical starting assumptions regarding the nature of empathy predispose one toward one or another account of these phenomena and toward different interpretations of the same empirical data -- often radically different; and to use recent discussions of empathy in the phenomenological and enactive communities (in particular their rejection of theory of mind accounts) to put forward a radical proposal. In the paradigmatic cases, one feels that one is feeling (at least some substantive portion of) what another person is feeling: “I feel your pain”. But there are certain intense experiences along with certain related but less intense ones where there is, I claim, a single joint experience among two or more individuals. One could call these experiences “extreme” empathy. This is how phenomenologists should, I think, cash out the frequent claim that in many circumstances, one agent “directly” experiences the emotional state of another without requiring the mediation of anything like theory of mind.

  • 33.
    Persson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Putnam's Moral Realism2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Moral realism is the view that there are such things as moral facts. Moral realists have attempted to combat the skeptical problem of relativism, which is that the truth of an ethical value judgment is often, or always, subjective, that is, relative to the parties it involves. This essay presents, discusses, and criticizes Hilary Putnam’s attempt at maintaining moral realism while at the same time maintaining a degree of epistemological relativism. Putnam’s positive account originates in moral epistemology, at the heart of which lies truth, as idealized rational acceptability or truth under ideal conditions. The bridge between moral epistemology and normative ethics stems from Putnam’s disintegration of facts and values. His theory is finalized in the construction of a normative moral theory, in which the central notion is incessant self-criticism in order to maintain rationality. After presenting Putnam’s core thesis, the criticism raised by Richard Rorty, is deliberated upon. Rorty is critical of Putnam’s attempt at holding on to objectivity, because he does not understand how objective knowledge can be both relative to a conceptual scheme, and at the same time objective. The conclusion is that Putnam is unable to maintain his notion of truth as idealized rational acceptability and is forced into epistemological relativism. Putnam’s normative ethics has characteristics in common with virtue ethics, and is of much interest regardless of whether it can be grounded epistemologically or not.

  • 34.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.
    Garcia, Denilo
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Testing construct independence in the Short Dark Triad using Item Response Theory2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 117, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) is a popular construct for describing socially aversive personality traits. In recent years, the Short Dark Triad (SD3; Jones & Paulhus, 2014) has become a popular measure for assessing the Dark Triad constructs. However, recent research has called the supposed dissimilarity between the Dark Triad constructs into question. In particular, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that a distinction between Machiavellianism and psychopathy may not be tenable. In order to investigate this issue further, we analyzed the SD3 in a large sample (N = 1983) using Item Response Theory. We establish item response parameter estimates for each Dark Triad construct and further test whether the Dark Triad constructs can be modelled together. Results show that Machiavellianism and narcissism could not be modelled together, but the combinations Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and narcissism and psychopathy, yielded acceptable model fit. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of how the Dark Triad constructs may be interpreted and studied in the future.

  • 35.
    Pethrus, Anton
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Informationens effekt i moraliska dilemman: Effekterna mängden tillgänglig information har på spelares beslut i prohibition dilemman2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete redogör för effekterna tillgången eller avsaknaden av omfattande karaktärsinformation samt information om beslutens direkta konsekvenser har på spelarens beslutsprocess i narrativa prohibition dilemman. Då det finns avsaknad av konsensus om dess effekter i ämnesområdet och en frånvaro av objektiva studier för att undersöka de aktuella ståndpunkterna, är studien nödvändig för att förbättra kunskapen inom området och för att generera objektiva resultat av dess effekter på spelare. För att undersöka problemformuleringen skapades två likadana textbaserade spel, där skillnaden mellan dem var att den ena gav spelaren omfattande karaktärsinformation och information om beslutens direkta konsekvenser i spelet narrativa prohibition dilemman, medan den andra artefakten saknade den informationen. Respektive artefakt testades på en separat testgrupp för att generera resultat om dess respektive effekt på testgruppen som spelade den. Resultaten var blandade i de olika testgrupperna. Det gick dock att finna tendenser i resultaten i de olika grupperna. När spelare inte hade omfattande karaktärsinformation samt information om beslutens konsekvenser, var de mer benägna att välja de beslut de kände var rätt utifrån deras egna värderingar när de inte kunde härleda beslutens konsekvenser. När de kunde härleda beslutens konsekvenser valde de ofta det val vilket gav dem den mest fördelaktiga utkomsten. När spelaren hade tillgång omfattande karaktärsinformation samt information om beslutens direkta konsekvenser motiverades deras beslut av att väga fördelarna och nackdelarna av respektive beslutsalternativ mot varandra, utifrån en strategisk och/eller moralisk basis, där de tog det alternativ som gav dem den mest optimala utkomsten. I fall där spelarna hade en emotionell investering i besluten valde de oftast oavsett mängden tillgänglig information vid beslutet att välja det beslut som kändes rätt. Något som även framkom i studien var att bättre resultat för att besvara problemformuleringen och explorativt undersöka ämnesområdet, skulle vara att göra ett liknande test av artefakterna på grupper av definierade spelartyper. Det skulle ge en bättre översikt av respektive utgångspunkts påverkan på specifika spelartyper och generera tydligare samt mer användbara resultat att besvara problemformuleringen med.   

  • 36.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. The Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Can Bohmian Quantum Information Help us to Understand Consciousness?2016In: Quantum Interaction: 9th International Conference, QI 2015, Filzbach, Switzerland, July 15-17, 2015, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, Emmanuel Pothos, Springer Publishing Company, 2016, p. 76-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores whether David Bohm’ s proposal about quantum theoretical active information, and the mind-matter scheme he developed on the basis of it, can help us to explain consciousness (Bohm and Hiley 1987, 1993; Bohm 1989, 1990 ; Pylkkänen 2007 ). Here it is important to acknowledge that other researchers in philosophy of mind and consciousness studies have also made use of the concept of information in their theories of mind and consciousness. For example, Dretske (1981 ) and Barwise and Seligman (1997 ) have explored the possibility that information in the sense of factual semantic contents (i.e. information as meaningful data that represents facts correctly or incorrectly) can be grounded in environmental information (i.e.information as mere correlation, e.g. the way tree rings carry information about age). For Dretske this was an important part of his attempts to give a naturalistic account of sensory experiences, qualia and consciousness. During recent years the notion of information has been used to explain consciousness most notably by David Chalmers (1996 ), as well as by Giulio Tononi and his co-workers (Tononi and Koch 2014 ; Oizumi, Albantakis and Tononi 2014 ). The strategy of this paper will be to first describe Bohm’ s mind-matter scheme, and then to briefl y consider Chalmers’  and Tononi et al.’ s ideas in the light of this scheme.

  • 37.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Can quantum analogies help us to understand the process of thought?2014In: Mind and Matter, ISSN 1611-8812, E-ISSN 2051-3003, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 61-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Cognition, the implicate order and rainforest realism2012In: Futura, ISSN 0785-5494, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 74-83Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, Finland & Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Consciousness in the light of quantum theory2016In: Consciousness: Integrating Eastern and Western Perspectives / [ed] Prem Saran Satsangi, Stuart Hameroff, Vishal Sani, Pami Dua, New Delhi: New Age Books , 2016, p. 23-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the theme “quantum approaches to consciousness” by considering the work of one of the pioneers in the field. The physicist David Bohm (1917-1992) not only made important contributions to quantum physics, but also had a long-term interest in interpreting the results of quantum physics and relativity in order to develop a general world view.  His idea was further that living and mental processes could be understood in a new, scientifically and philosophically more coherent way in the context of such a new world view. This paper gives a brief overview of different – and sometimes contradictory - aspects of Bohm’s research programme, and evaluates how they can be used to give an account of topics of interest in contemporary consciousness studies, such as analogies between thought and quantum processes, the problem of mental causation, the mind-body problem and the problem of time consciousness. 

  • 40.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki.
    Fundamental Physics and the Mind – Is There a Connection?2015In: Quantum Interaction 2014: 8th International Conference, QI 2014, Filzbach, Switzerland, June 30 - July 3, 2014. Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Harald Atmanspacher, Claudia Bergomi, Thomas Filk, Kirsty Kitto, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, p. 3-11Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in the field of quantum cognition (Pothos and Busemeyer 2013; Wang et al. 2013) suggest a puzzling connection between fundamental physics and the mind. Many researchers see quantum ideas and formalisms merely as useful pragmatic tools, and do not look for deeper underlying explanations for why they work. However, others are tempted to seek for an intelligible explanation for why quantum ideas work to model cognition. This paper first draws attention to how the physicist David Bohm already in 1951 suggested that thought and quantum processes are analogous, adding that this could be explained if some neural processes underlying thought involved non-negligible quantum effects. The paper next points out that the idea that there is a connection between fundamental physics and the mind is not unique to quantum theory, but was there already when Newtonian physics was assumed to be fundamental physics, advocated most notably by Kant. Kant emphasized the unique intelligibility of a Newtonian notion of experience, and this historical background prompts us to ask in the final part of the paper whether we can really make sense of any quantum-like experience (whether experience of the empirical phenomena in the external worldor the inner worldof psychological phenomena). It is proposed that intelligibility is a relative notion and that, regardless of initial difficulties, quantum approaches to cognition and consciousness are likely to provide valuable new ways of understanding the mind.

  • 41.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Henry Stapp Vs. David Bohm on Mind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics2019In: Activitas Nervosa Superior: Journal for Neuroscience and Cognitive Research, ISSN 1802-9698, Vol. 61, no 1-2, p. 48-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper briefly discusses some of David Bohm’s views on mind and matter and suggests that they allow for a stronger possibility for conscious free will to influence quantum dynamics than Henry Stapp’s approach.

  • 42.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Is there room in quantum ontology for a genuine causal role of consciousness?2017In: The Palgrave Handbook of Quantum Models in Social Science: Applications and Grand Challenges / [ed] Emmanuel Haven and Andrei Khrennikov, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 293-317Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Western philosophy and science have a strongly dualistic tradition regarding the mental and physical aspects of reality, which makes it difficult to understand their possible causal relations. In recent debates in cognitive neuroscience it has been common to claim on the basis of neural experiments that conscious experiences are causally inefficacious. At the same time there is much evidence that consciousness does play an important role in guiding behavior. The author explores whether a new way of understanding the causal role of mental states and consciousness could be provided by the ontological interpretation of the quantum theory (Bohm and Hiley, Phys. Rep. 144:323–348, 1987; Bohm and Hiley, The undivided universe: An ontological interpretation of quantum theory. Routledge: London, 1993). This interpretation radically changes our notion of matter by suggesting that a new type of active information plays a causal role at the quantum level of reality. The author thus considers to what extent the alleged causal powers of consciousness involve information, and then moves on to consider whether information in (conscious) mental states can be connected to the information at the level of quantum physics. In this way he sketches how quantum theory might help to throw light upon one of the grand challenges facing the social sciences and the humanities, namely the question of whether consciousness plays any genuine causal role in the physical world.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-01 01:00
  • 43.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum Theories of Consciousness2018In: The Routledge Handbook of Consciousness / [ed] Rocco J. Gennaro, Taylor & Francis, 2018, 1, p. 216-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a brief historical introduction to quantum theory, and shows that the theory opens up some radically new ways of thinking about the place of mind and consciousness in nature. Quantum theory is all about learning, on the basis of scientific experiments, to question the "obvious" truths about the nature of the physical world and to come up with more coherent alternatives. The chapter considers the famous two-slit experiment. It explores what the different interpretations of quantum theory say about situations like the two-slit experiment, and also considers what kind of theories of mind and consciousness some interpretations have inspired. The attempt to explain mind and consciousness in terms of the quantum theory involves heavy speculation. The advances in quantum biology, while not giving direct support to quantum brain theory, perhaps make a biologically grounded quantum theory of consciousness seem less inconceivable.

  • 44.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum theory, active information and the mind-matter problem2015In: Contextuality from Quantum Physics to Psychology / [ed] E. Dzhafarov, S. Jordan, R. Zhang and V. Cervantes, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2015, p. 325-334Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bohm and Hiley suggest that a certain new type of active information plays a key objective role in quantum processes. This paper discusses the implications of this suggestion to our understanding of the relation between the mental and the physical aspects of reality.

  • 45.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History and Art Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum Theory and the Place of Mind in the Causal Order of Things2019In: Quanta and Mind: Essays on the Connection between Quantum Mechanics and the Consciousness / [ed] J. Acacio de Barros, Carlos Montemayor, Springer, 2019, p. 163-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The received view in physicalist philosophy of mind assumes that causation can only take place at the physical domain and that the physical domain is causally closed. It is often thought that this leaves no room for mental states qua mental to have a causal influence upon the physical domain, leading to epiphenomenalism and the problem of mental causation. However, in recent philosophy of causation there has been growing interest in a line of thought that can be called causal antifundamentalism: causal notions cannot play a role in physics, because the fundamental laws of physics are radically different from causal laws. Causal anti-fundamentalism seems to challenge the received view in physicalist philosophy of mind and thus raises the possibility of there being genuine mental causation after all. This paper argues that while causal anti-fundamentalism provides a possible route to mental causation, we have reasons to think that it is incorrect. Does this mean that we have to accept the received view and give up the hope of genuine mental causation? I will suggest that the ontological interpretation of quantum theory provides us both with a view about the nature of causality in fundamental physics, as well as a view how genuine mental causation can be compatible with our fundamental (quantum) physical ontology.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-09-20 00:01
  • 46.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The crisis of intelligibility in physics and the prospects of a new form of scientific rationality2017In: On the Human Condition: Philosophical Essays in Honour of the Centennial Anniversary of Georg Henrik von Wright / [ed] Ilkka Niiniluoto & Thomas Wallgren, Helsinki: The Philosophical Society of Finland , 2017, p. 373-399Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies & The Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    The quantum epoché2015In: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, ISSN 0079-6107, E-ISSN 1873-1732, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 332-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theme of phenomenology and quantum physics is here tackled by examining some basic interpretational issues in quantum physics. One key issue in quantum theory from the very beginning has been whether it is possible to provide a quantum ontology of particles in motion in the same way as in classical physics, or whether we are restricted to stay within a more limited view of quantum systems, in terms of complementary but mutually exclusive phenomena. In phenomenological terms we could describe the situation by saying that according to the usual interpretation of quantum theory (especially Niels Bohr's), quantum phenomena require a kind of epoche (i.e. a suspension of assumptions about reality at the quantum level). However, there are other interpretations (especially David Bohm's) that seem to re-establish the possibility of a mind-independent ontology at the quantum level. We will show that even such ontological interpretations contain novel, non-classical features, which require them to give a special role to phenomenaor appearances, a role not encountered in classical physics. We will conclude that while ontological interpretations of quantum theory are possible, quantum theory implies the need of a certain kind of epoche even for this type of interpretations. While different from the epoche connected to phenomenological description, the quantum epochenevertheless points to a potentially interesting parallel between phenomenology and quantum philosophy.

  • 48.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of History, Philosophy, Culture and Art Studies & Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The role of Eastern approaches in David Bohm's scientific-philosophical odysseia2017In: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, ISSN 0079-6107, E-ISSN 1873-1732, Vol. 131, p. 171-178Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Weak vs. Strong Quantum Cognition2015In: Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics (IV): Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics - 2013 / [ed] Hans Liljenström, Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015, p. 411-418Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades some cognitive scientists have adopted a program of quantum cognition. For example, Pothos and Busemeyer (PB) argue that there are empirical results concerning human decision-making and judgment that can be elegantly accounted for by quantum probability (QP) theory, while classical (Bayesian) probability theory fails. They suggest that the reason why QP works better is because some cognitive phenomena are analogous to quantum phenomena. This naturally gives rise to a further question about why they are analogous. Is this a pure coincidence, or is there a deeper reason? For example, could the neural processes underlying cognition involve subtle quantum effects, thus explaining why cognition obeys QP? PB are agnostic about this controversial issue, and thus their kind of program could be labeled as “weak quantum cognition” (analogously to the program of weak artificial intelligence as characterized by Searle). However, there is a long tradition of speculating about the role of subtle quantum effects in the neural correlates of cognition, constituting a program of “strong quantum cognition” (SQC) or “quantum cognitive neuroscience”. This paper considers the prospects of SQC, by briefly reviewing and commenting on some of the key proposals. In particular, Bohm and Hiley’s active information program will be discussed.

  • 50.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki.
    Hiley, Basil
    University of London.
    Pättiniemi, Ilkka
    University of Helsinki.
    Bohm's approach and individuality2015In: Individuals Across the Sciences / [ed] Guay, A. and Pradeu, T., Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 226-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Ladyman and Ross (LR) argue that quantum objects are not individuals (or are at most weakly discernible individuals) and use this idea to ground their metaphysical view, ontic structural realism, according to which relational structures are primary to things. LR acknowledge that there is a version of quantum theory, namely the Bohm theory (BT), according to which particles do have denite trajectories at all times. However, LR interpret the research by Brown et al.  as implying that "raw stuff" or haecceities  are needed for the individuality of particles of BT, and LR dismiss this as idle metaphysics. In this paper we note that Brown et al.'s research does not imply that haecceities are needed. Thus BT remains as a genuine option for those who seek to understand quantum particles as individuals. However, we go on to discuss some problems with BT which led Bohm and Hiley to modify it. This modified version underlines that, due to features such as context-dependence and non-locality, Bohmian particles have a very limited autonomy in situations where quantum effects are non-negligible. So while BT restores the possibility of quantum individuals, it also underlines the primacy of the whole over the autonomy of the parts. The later sections of the paper also examine the Bohm theory in the general mathematical context of symplectic geometry. This provides yet another way of understanding the subtle, holistic and dynamic nature of Bohmian individuals. We finally briefly consider Bohm's other main line of research, the "implicate order", which is in some ways similar to LR's structural realism.

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