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  • 1.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Chakravarthy, Sharma
    University of Florida, Gainsville, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Extending Active Capability Mechanisms for Context Based Subscriptions1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest has increased recently in synthesizing solutions to CIS problems by using results from the database and distributed AI communities. Such synthesis is not without its difficulties; results do not always transfer seamlessly to a new, complex domain. In this paper we highlight the difficulties encountered in our attempts to use event detection and subscription mechanisms (proposed in current active databases) for the problem of efficient result sharing in CIS. A solution to such problems is described, in the form of a refined, context based subscription mechanism.

  • 2.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Chakravarty, Sharma
    University of Florida, Gainsville, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Coordination Among Agents Using Reactive Rules1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordination and collaboration are naturally used by groups for carrying out activities and solving problems that require cooperation. However, getting a set of computer agents to do that same has been a problem -- primarily addressed by the AI community and recently by the database community as workflow and process management problems (e.g. in business processes, electronic commerce, logistics).

    Not surprisingly, the problem has been addressed at different levels of abstraction by the two communities. Coordination protocols (both static and dynamic) as well as task and result sharing have been investigated by the AI community; system level support as well as specification and execution of relaxed notions of transaction (sometimes termed an activity) have been addressed by the database community. It is evident that combining the two will provide an effective unified solution for a class of problems that require cooperation. This paper classifies problems addressed in the AI and database literature according to degree of coordination and collaboration. It reports on work done by the authors in utilising the reactive paradigm to synthesize, from the yechniques in these areas, a common framework for the support of multi-agent problem solving, workflow, and process management. In addition to resolving the terminology used by different groups, task sharing is used to demonstrate the approach described. It is accomplished by creating either static or dynamic plans that are coordinated by ECA rules -- both pre-defined and dynamically created. The paper details the applicability of ECA rules in this domain, their adequacy, and a prototype implementation.

  • 3.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Logical Events and ECA Rules1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach to support event-condition-action rules and logical events in an object-oriented environment. Previous approaches in active object-oriented databases support either traditional event-condition-action rules or logical events. We see the need to integrate these two concepts in order to efficiently support specialization of events.

  • 4.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Foster, Lou
    Valparaiso University, USA.
    Systematic Treatment of Events and Rules1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current prototype Active Object-Oriented database systems introduce powerful event and rule specification languages. We contend that this is not in general done in a uniform and integral manner. We present a modified design for an ACtive Object-Oriented DBMS (ACOOD) currently under development at the University of Skovde. The design emphasises the key concepts being investigated, namely Events and Rules as 1st Class (ER1C). It is important because it addresses the key issue of inheritance, something not prominent in current prototype systems with a fully developed event specification system. Key features in the design are that it has a unifying concept of primitive event and of behaviour, and achieves uniformity and power with respect to inheritance. It further relates this to event specification languages for composite events, guaranteeing orthogonality of features. The paper emphasises modeling concepts, and the design is therefore of relevance to all active, object-oriented database systems. It seeks to explore the wider implications and underpinnings of current active O-O suggestions rather than enriching event and/or rule specification languages.

  • 5.
    Birgisson, Ragnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Mellin, Jonas
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Bounds on Test Effort for Event-Triggered Real-Time Systems1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The test effort required for full test coverage is much higher in an event-triggered than in a time-triggered real-time system. This makes it difficult to attain confidence in the correctness of event-triggered real-time applications by testing, which is a necessary complement to other verification methods. We present a more general upper bound on the test effort of constrained event-triggered real-time systems, assuming multiple resources (a refinement of previous results). The emphasis is on system level testing of application timeliness, assuming that sufficient confidence in its functional correctness has been attained. Covered fault types include incorrect assumptions about temporal attributes of application and execution environment, and synchronization faults. An analysis of the effects that our constraints have on predictability and efficiency shows that the use of designated preemption points is required. A key factor in this approach is the ability to reduce the number of required test cases while maintaining full test coverage.

  • 6.
    Biro, Zoltan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Evolution of visually-guided approach behaviour in recurrent artificial neural network robot controllers1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis of internal structures of embodied and situated agents may provide insights into the mechanisms underlying adaptive behaviour. This paper is concerned with the evolution and analysis of visually-guided approach behaviour in a simulated robotic agent controlled by a recurrent artificial neural network, whose connection weights have been evolved using evolutionary algorithms. Analysis of the evolved behaviours and their network-internal mechanisms reveals a behavioural structure and organization resembling a Brooksian subsumption architecture. The task decomposition, as well as the resulting individual behaviours and their integration, however, are realized as network-internal state space dynamics, evolved in the course of agent-environment interaction, i.e. with a minimum of designer intervention.

  • 7.
    Bodén, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    A Connectionist Variation on Inheritance1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A connectionist architecture is outlined which makes use of RAAM to generate representations for objects in inheritance networks and extended learning to make such representations context-sensitive. The architecture embodies inheritance quite differently by relying on associative similarities and regions in representational space. The model avoids many of the problems identified for traditional inheritance.

  • 8.
    Bodén, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Narayanan, Ajit
    Department of Computer Science, University of Exeter, UK.
    A Connectionist Model of Nonmonotonic Reasoning: Handling Exceptions in Inheritance Hierarchies1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonmonotonic reasoning is a core problem in AI. An example of nonmonotonic reasoning is the type of default reasoning which occurs with inheritance structures which allow exceptions. This paper describes a connectionist model of a hierarchical inheritance structure with exceptions. Existing symbolic and related connectionist research are described, and their limitations summarized. The requirements for an adaptable connectionist model are laid out, and a representational architecture is constructed. The architecture requires relations (i.e. links between objects) to be bi-directional or directional, where the former is meant to capture those relations for which it is useful to have the inverse relation (e.g. `isa', `part-of'). The general assumption is that inferential distances are best captured by relying on representational similarities in the semantic features of tokens and types. Both the encoding mechanism and the decoding mechanism (for checking the uniqueness of the distributed representations) are described in detail. The representational architecture is implemented in recursive autoassociative memory. The model is successful, and future adaptation or handling multiple inheritance with exceptions is briefly explored.

  • 9.
    Bodén, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Narayanan, Ajit
    Department of Computer Science, University of Exeter, UK.
    A Representational Architecture for Nonmonotonic Inheritance Structures1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a connectionist system for representing and reasoning with multiple inheritance structures with exceptions. The representational architecture has three characteristics. First, it merges relational with taxonomic representations. Secondly, it handles conflicts generated by exceptions and the use of multiple superclasses. Thirdly, it uses fully distributed representations. One novel feature is that, since the distributed representation of an entity is influenced by its position in the inheritance structure, representations of assertions are influenced by the context of the entities. An extension to the model which implements and makes use of confluent inference is described.

  • 10.
    Bodén, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Features of distributed representations for tree-structures: A study of RAAM1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis of properties of patterns, generated by the Recursive Auto-Associative Memory, based on the idea that representational features can be detected by a classification network. The intension of this analysis is to examine the actual reasons for the success of connectionist processes acting on super-positional activity vectors generated in the fashion described. We show that the structure supplied during training is maintained and is extractable from the generated pattern. Further, we show that the influence of the actual constituents in the structures supplied during training is not necessarily available, in the generated patterns, for holistic processing. The outlook for holistic processing is therefore limited unless new forms can be found which take into account, what Sharkey and Jackson call, `whole net' representations.

  • 11.
    Buason, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Competitive co-evolution of sensory-motor systems: Appendix2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This serves as an appendix to report HS-IDA-MD-02-004, and documents in further detail the experimental results discussed therein.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Joakim
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Real-Time and Active Databases: A survey1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Active real-time databases have emerged as a research area in which concepts of active databases and real-time databases are combined into a real-time database with reactive behavior. However, this marriage is not free from complications. The main problem is that timeliness, i.e., predictability and efficiency, is of paramount importance in real-time databases, while reactive behavior may add to the unpredictability of the database. This survey addresses reactive behavior and timing constraints from a database perspective. Results of both real-time databases and active databases are discussed, as well as projects which have done research on active real-time databases.

  • 13.
    Evermann, Joerg
    et al.
    The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Söderström, EvaUniversity of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.Kotlarsky, JuliaRotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University, The Netherlands.
    Proceedings of the CAiSE*03 10th Doctoral Consortium on Advanced Information Systems Engineering2003Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The papers published in these proceedings were presented at the 10th Doctoral Consortium of the Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering, taking place in Velden, Klagenfurt, Austria on June 16-17, 2003. Starting in 1994, the Doctoral Consortium has been held annually during the CAiSE conference, in Utrecht (Netherlands, 1994), Jyväskylä (Finland, 1995), Heraklion (Greece, 1996), Barcelona (Spain, 1997), Pisa (Italy, 1998), Heidelberg (Germany, 1999), Stockholm (Sweden, 2000), Interlaken (Switzerland, 2001), and Toronto (Canada, 2002).

    The Doctoral Consortia on Advanced Information Systems Engineering are intended to bring PhD students together within the information systems engineering field, and give them an opportunity to present and discuss their research in a constructive and international atmosphere. They are accompanied by prominent professors in the information systems engineering field that provide feedback on the research work presented by the PhD students.

    Submissions to the Doctoral Consortia are extended abstracts of ongoing PhD research. For the 10th Doctoral Consortium of CAiSE*03, 10 submissions were accepted and presented at the workshop. The papers demonstrate a variety of research topics and approaches, covering research in: business process modelling and integration, events in active systems, semantic interoperability, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), mobile agents, e-commerce consumers, data management, data quality, and knowledge-based methods for Asbru protocols. During the workshop, each paper was introduced by a 20 minute presentation followed by a 25 minute discussion of the topic, research approach and research limitations. Furthermore, during the consortium, the professors gave talks on general questions related to PhD research, and participated in a panel debate on what constitutes a good PhD thesis.

    Our special thanks go to the accompanying professors at the consortium: Jeffrey Parsons (Faculty of Business Administration, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada), Richard Welke (J. Mack Robinson College of Business, Georgia State University, USA), Sudha Ram (College of Business and Public Administration, University of Arizona, USA), and Hans Oppelland (Faculty of Economics, Erasmus University of Rotterdam, Netherlands). The Doctoral Consortium would not have been possible without their valuable contributions.

    We would also like to thank the participants of the 2002 Doctoral Consortium. They have been involved in the reviewing process, several of them for the first time. Furthermore, we thank all the participants for their great interest and effort displayed both in the preparation and presentation of their work, as well as in the discussion of the contributions of others. Finally, we sincerely thank the organising committee and local organisers of the CAiSE*03 conference, for their support in preparing the Doctoral Consortium. Velden, June 2003 Joerg Evermann, Eva Söderström, Julia Kotlarsky.

  • 14.
    Hagen, Ivar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Chakravarthy, Sharma
    Computer and Information Science and Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    Department of Computer Science, University of Exeter, UK.
    Challenges for ECA Rule Designers when Implementing Coordination Protocols1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present lessons learned from an implementation of a task shared cooperation protocol using event-condition-action (ECA) rules in the active database ACOOD. In particular we present details of challenges for ECA rule designers when supporting advanced forms of coordination protocols.

  • 15.
    Hansson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Using RAAM to model human sequence representation and processing2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The human mind has been studied from various perspectives. Some adopt an analytical approach by analyzing humans, yet others attempt to construct automated systems exhibiting certain aspects of mind. Here we argue that connectionist architectures generally fail to exhibit important aspects of mind. We present a number of aspects, relating to human short-term and long-term memory during sequence representation and processing. These aspects are then used as a means to measure the explanatory power of connectionist architectures. We find that connectionist architectures (specifically Recursive Auto-Associative Memories, RAAM) generally fail to model important aspects of the short-term and long-term memory, when representing and processing sequences. Some aspects are correctly modeled, whereas others are modeled incorrectly or it is an open question whether or not they can be modeled at all. From this we go on to present the areas in which more research is needed, before connectionist RAAM-like architectures can be finally claimed to model important aspects of short-term and long-term memory.

  • 16.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Obtaining Psychologically Motivated Spaces with MDS1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose with this paper is to describe how a psychologically motivated conceptual space can be obtained with MDS (multidimensional scaling) and how it can be expressed in terms of a more primitive "physical" (or mathematical) one. The idea is demonstrated practically with the aid of two experimental pilot studies. The paper is concluded by a critical discussion of the method used.

  • 17.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    The Problem of Combining Integral and Separable Dimensions2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For geometrical models of cognition, the notion of distance rules - or metrics - is fundamental. Within psychology, it is well established that pairs of dimensions that are processed holistically - integral dimensions - normally combine so as they are best described with a Euclidean metric, whereas pairs of dimensions that are processed analytically - separable dimensions - most often combine with a city-block metric. The experimental tradition studying information integration has typically been limited to two-dimensional stimuli. A next step is to study information integration when dealing with more complex stimuli. This step give rise to several interesting questions regarding information integration behaviour, especially when both integral and separable pairs are included. For example: How do we integrate information when both integral and separable pairs are involved? This paper extends earlier research regarding information integration in that it deals with stimuli with more than two dimensions, and with complex stimuli consisting of both dimensional pairs previously identified as holistic, and dimensional pairs previously identified as analytical. The general pattern identified is that information integration can be more accurately described with a rule taking aspects of stimuli into consideration compared to a traditional rule. For example, it appears that combinations of analytical and holistic stimuli, are better described by treating the different subspaces individually and then combining these with addition, compared to any single Minkowskian rule, and much better compared to any of the Minkowskian rules traditionally used (i.e. the city-block-, the Euclidean or the dominance-metrics).

  • 18.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Active Support for ER Modelling1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly used methodology in the design of a database system is to use the ER Model for the conceptual design together with the RDM during the implementation phase. This methodology requires that a mapping between the two data models be performed.

    This paper addresses the `lost semantics' problem caused by the impedance mismatch between the two models and reports on a prototype system which has been developed in order to bridge this gap. The aim of the system is to provide a tool for preserving the semantics of a conceptually rich model when automatically translating it into a working system.

    The graph oriented approach suggested by Dogac [Dog90] makes use of the implicit information from the ER Schema when identifying the correct update propagations. They suggest a preprocessor which must be run on all applications for this automatic generation of relational code. We take this a stage further and suggest how, using the

    emerging active technology of new DBMS, the techniques can be used to provide full, automatic and centralised support for an ER design. Details of an initial prototype (for non-active systems) and a refined prototype (for the latest release of a system, with triggers) are provided.

    There are a number of aspects to the architecture which has been developed: it is multi-level, for targeting different database systems; it preserves the ER Model in the working system; it can be used for both active and passive database systems. The early (passive) prototype has been designed to run on top of the commercial RDBMS

    INFORMIX. Work on both the passive and active designs targets the commercial RDBMS INFORMIX; the active design uses a general intermediate form of ECA rule as a target for translation.

  • 19.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    On mehod support for developing pre-usage evaluation frameworks for case-tools1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider the issue of providing method support for evaluation of CASE tools. The importance of this issue is indicated by the high percentage of CASE tools which are purchased but rarely or never used. We consider the issue of CASE evaluation, and report on an extensive study of related literature, the goal of which was to identify key issues in developing reliable frameworks for evaluation. A number of weaknesses were found in available method support for evaluation where the goal was successful adoption. These weaknesses are highlighted in the paper. The claims for a recently proposed method in this area are then analysed for impact in each of the highlighted areas. It is found that the qualitative approach used in the method, and its emphasis on iterative, holistic refinement, offer significant methodological advantage.

  • 20.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    The use of Grounded Theory for evaluation and selection of CASE tools: A note on its applicability1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of evaluating CASE-tools and adopting a suitable tool for each specific situation within organisations is widely recognised as a difficult task. We view it as complex decision making involving a large number of factors. In this paper we address the problem in the light of the recently published ISO standard for evaluation and selection of CASE-tools. The contribution of this paper is threefold. Firstly, we provide a critique of selected parts of the standard, thereby describing our current interpretation of it. Secondly, we discuss the nature and difficulty of complex decision making, thereby relating our own experiences in the light of this standard. Thirdly, we stress the usability of a qualitative methodology within this framework, and motivate why Grounded Theory may be appropriate for use within this complex decision making process. In this way, we hope to illuminate the references to Grounded Theory which appear in an annexe to the standard. To support our standpoint, we provide empirical results from a commercial system in a related area that has applied Grounded Theory for complex decision making in diffuse domains.

  • 21.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Gustafsson, Per-Ola
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    CASE-tool support for organisational requirements: An experience report1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the issue of evaluation related to the selection of CASE tools. In particular, we consider the criteria for assessment in the light of the 1995 ISO standard for evaluation and selection of CASE tools. The application area is information systems development for supporting quality control in the car manufacturing industry. We take the results of an empirically based study, in the form of a critical set of evaluation criteria, and use them in a pilot evaluation of two commercial CASE tools. It is found that the identified evaluation criteria give significant insights into the merits and demerits of the tools tested, and compare favorably for the task with the criteria identified in the standard. The pilot also allowed reflection on the criteria, and assisted in their further refinement.

  • 22.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Gustafsson, Per-Ola
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Method support for developing evaluation frameworks for CASE tool evaluation1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Whatever CASE tools are developed to support database applications development, the process of tool selection will continue to be a major factor influencing successful adoption. In this paper we consider the necessary organisational preparation for CASE tool selection, describing a method for the development of an evaluation framework which is based on application requirements. The proposed method offers organisations considering CASE tool adoption an important complement to current practice, as exemplified in the 1995 ISO standard for CASE tool evaluation. We report on a field study which exemplifies the use of this method in an organisational setting.

  • 23.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Gustafsson, Per-Ola
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Qualitative methods in the evaluation of CASE-tools: Facilitating IS development for the manufacturing industry1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address the issue of evaluation related to the selection of CASE tools. In particular, we consider the problem of developing criteria for assessment in the light of the recently published ISO standard for evaluation and selection of CASE tools. Earlier work identified a lack of methodological support for this important phase of the evaluation process, and suggested that a Grounded Theory approach would offer a sound basis for, and insights into this phase. We report on a case study which tests this claim in the context of a complex domain: information systems development for supporting quality control in the car manufacturing industry.

  • 24.
    Malmsjö, Anders
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    A Study of Two Nordic Information Services: A Comparison between TRANSGUIDE and NYRIB1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two evaluations of information services are analysed in this paper. The reasons for performing the evaluations were in both cases to clarify how the services were used, what kind of problems were associated with the services, and what were the users' attitudes to the services. The evaluations should form a backbone for a total estimation of the usefulness of the services today and for the near future. Another important purpose was to create a foundation for improving both services. The focus of this paper is to compare the two different services and based on an analysis specify implications for other services in general. The material for the evaluations has been collected by interviews, studies of documents, and observations. The evaluations which are presented in this paper are based on a systems theory approach or systems approach. It was concluded from the evaluations that there are important features of the development of information services that were not attended to. These important features are: the quality of the databases; the standardisation of the databases; the need for strategies and offensive goals for the services; involvement of users in the development processes (participation); knowledge of users' information seeking behaviour. Guidelines are formulated for designers of information services.

  • 25.
    Malmsjö, Anders
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Information Seeking Behaviour and Development of Information Systems: A Contextual View1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work is considered how knowledge from the area information seeking behaviour can be used when information systems are to be developed. This work emphasize a holistic view on how information systems are related to object systems. The conditions for developing an information system differ depending on what kind of information the system should provide. It is in this paper noticed that it is more challenging to develop information systems for what is here called supportive information compared with systems that will provide operative information. If an information system should be able to function in a changeable environment it must have a flexible design. Futhermore, to get an understanding of the mechanisms of change is more relevant than to accomplish minute specifications of users' needs. An effort in this paper is done to elucidate factors such as triggering of information behaviour, usability based on evaluations of information systems or sources, and selection of information sources or systems. It is proposed that an understanding of the mechanisms of change should form one basis for analysing changing conditions for information systems due to dynamics in the objectsystem.

  • 26.
    Malmsjö, Anders
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Systems development and information seeking behavior: A study of the relationship between information seeking behavior and the development of information systems1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will discuss the relationship between the areas of informati on needs and uses, and development of information systems. Empirical studies made in three different government agencies (about 150 interviews), form a basis for the discussion. This work takes an inductive qualitatative approach. The first step has been to try to get an understanding of why users in particular situations seek information from certain kinds of information sources and neglect others. What are the factors that play a role in explaining a user's in formation seeking behaviour? Based on my reflections on results from ot her research, and my own work, I have identified factors in the user's environment (context) which can contribute to explain users' information seeking behaviour. One result of my work is a model showing components (factors)of the context that influence users' information seeking behaviour. In an effort to pave the way for a better usage of insights from the area information needs and uses, when information systems are to be develope or improved, it is shown that it is important to clarify what kind of information a system should handle. In this work I have therefore specified and defined types of information, in a holistic way, according to function in an organization . These types are: operative, directive, supporting, state-of-the art, feed-back and private information. The conditions for developing information systems differ according to the type of information considered. Another imported reason for specifying types of information here is that the different types often are interrelated. In this study it has been found that one reason why knowledge from the area of information needs and uses ought to be of great interest when systems improvement is considered, is that the context, i. e. where the information system is to be or has been developed, is changing and complex. The rate of change and complexity is apparently increasing. And how do we handle change and complexity? The only way is by understanding its nature. The contextual model that has already been mentioned can be seen as one contribution to a better undertanding of user's behaviour in seeking information. In an effort to bring about a better understanding of the consequences of change and complexity for an information system, this paper specifies relationships involving the following concepts: -factors of importance when the usability of an information source is valued by a user (usability) - factors of importance when an information source is to be selected or not by a user (selection) -factors that contribute to trigger a user to search for information (triggering).

  • 27.
    Mellin, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Refining Design Constraints using a System Services Model of a Real-Time DBMS1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the DeeDS prototype, active database functionality and critical timing constraints are combined with integrated monitoring techniques. In the scope of DeeDS, this paper presents a mathematical model which is used to derive two important design constraints; worst-case minimum delay and maximum frequency of events. This model is based on a dual-processor hybrid-monitoring solution. Furthermore, different interaction styles between the scheduler and the event monitor are evaluated.

  • 28.
    Narayanan, Ajit
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Bodén, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    On changing one's mind: A connectionist account1995Report (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Bounds on Test Effort for Event-Triggered Real-Time Systems1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The test effort required for full test coverage is much higher in an event-triggered than in a time-triggered real-timesystem. This makes it difficult to attain confidence in the correctness of event-triggered real-time applications by testing,which is a necessary complement to other verification methods. We present a more general upper bound on the test effort of constrained event-triggered real-time systems, assuming multiple resources (a refinement of previous results). The emphasis is on system level testing of application timeliness, assuming that sufficient confidence in its functional correctness has been attained. Covered fault types include incorrect assumptions about temporal attributes of application and execution environment, and synchronization faults. An analysis of the effects that our constraints have on predictability and efficiency shows that the use of designated preemption points is required. A key factor in this approach is the ability to reduce the number of required test cases while maintaining full test coverage.

  • 30.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Structure Sensitivity in Connectionist Models1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    HS-IDA-TR-93-003. Annotation: Published in The Proceedings of the 1993 Connectionist Models Summer School, (Eds) Mozer et al., Lawrence Erlbaum, 1993.

  • 31.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Bodén, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science. Department of CS and EE, University of Queensland, Australia.
    Content, Context and Connectionist Networks1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question whether connectionism offers a new way of looking at the cognitive architecture, or if its main contribution is as an implementational account of the classical (symbol) view, has been extensively debated for the last decade. Of special interest in this debate has been to achieve tasks which easily can be explained within the symbolic framework, i.e., tasks which seemingly require the possession of a systematicity of representation and process, in a novel way in connectionist systems.

    In this paper we argue that connectionism can offer a new explanational framework for aspects of cognition. Specifically, we argue that connectionism can offer new notions of compositionality, content and context-dependence based on connectionist primitives, i.e., architectures, learning, weights and internal activations, which open up for new variations of systematicity.

  • 32.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Bodén, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Representing Structure and Structured Representations in Connectionist Networks1997Report (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Sharkey, Noel E.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Connectionism and the Issues of Compositionality and Systematicity1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectionism as a model of the mind has been attacked by the advocators of the classical paradigm, who claim that Connectionism can only work if it is an implementation of Classical representations. This could be true for some of the models that claim to be Connectionist, but it will in this paper be shown that this is not true for Connectionist architectures that use non-symbolic representations. We will provide evidence in the form of simulation results that severely weaken of the arguments raised by Fodor and Pylyshyn and Fodor and McLaughlin, including their two main arguments, which are the lack of compositionality and systematicity.

  • 34.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Sharkey, Noel E.
    Centre for Connection Science, University of Exeter, UK.
    Connectionism: The Miracle Mind Model1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Connectionism as a model of the mind has recently been challenging the Classical model, in which the mind is regarded as symbol manipulating system. The main arguments against Connectionism concern its inability to form mental representations for complex expressions, which can be used for structure sensitive operations. Some argue for hybrid models which combine some of the most attractive features of the Classical and Connectionist models. This paper starts off by examining the definitions of the different approaches and also their strengths and weaknesses. One section is devoted to the debate between the advocators of the different paradigms, including the arguments about the lack of compositionality and systematicity in Connectionist cognitive models. We then argue for the Connectionist approach as the most attractive model of the mind. This includes performing the "miracle" of defining structure sensitive operations on non-symbolic representations of concepts.

  • 35.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    van Gelder, Tim
    Philosophy Program, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.
    Can Connectionist Models Exhibit Non-Classical Structure Sensitivity?1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Several connectionist models have been supplying non-classical explanations to the challenge of explaining systematicity, i.e., structure sensitive processes, without merely being implementations of classical architectures. However, lately the challenge has been extended to include learning related issues. It has been claimed that when these issues are taken into account, only a restricted form of systematicity could be claimed by the connectionist models put forward so far. In this paper we investigate this issue further, and supply a model and results that satisfies even the revised challenge.

  • 36.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lärande Datorer: Utopi eller Verklighet?1996Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna populärvetenskapliga rapport ger en kort introduktion till självlärande artificiella neurala nätverk, samt sätter dem i relation till den science fiction-version som ges på TV och film.

  • 37.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Certification Principles for Correct Implementation of B2B Standards, Thesis Proposal2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis proposal starts by providing a short introduction to the research area, which is standardisation of inter-organisational business processes. Three main problem areas are introduced, of which one is selected for further research. The research problem is defined as how an organisation can certify that it has correctly implemented a B2B standard. The underlying assumption is that it is possible for organisations to make mistakes, such as misinterpret standards specifications, while implementing a standard. In order to investigate and attempt to bring clarity to this problem, five research questions are formulated and motivated. The research as a whole is also motivated, from both a theoretical, or academic viewpoint, and from a practical viewpoint. A tentative research approach is outlined, and guidelines for future actions are provided, along with a preliminary timeplan. Attached in an appendix is a tentative thesis outline, in which headings are provided and complemented with meta-text regarding the contents of each chapter.

  • 38.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Adaptive Behavior in Autonomous Agents1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of the bottom-up approach to artificial intelligence (AI), commonly referred to as behavior-oriented AI. The behavior-oriented approach, with its focus on the interaction between autonomous agents and their environments, is introduced by contrasting it with the traditional approach of knowledge-based AI. Different notions of autonomy are discussed, and key problems of generating adaptive and complex behavior are identified. A number of techniques for the generation of behavior are introduced and evaluated regarding their potential for realizing different aspects of autonomy as well as adaptivity and complexity of behavior. It is concluded that in order to realize truly autonomous and intelligent agents, the behavior-oriented approach will have to focus even more on life-like qualities in both agents and environments.

  • 39.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science. Linköping University.
    Rethinking Grounding1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The grounding problem is, generally speaking, the problem of causally connecting an artificial agent with its environment such that the agent's (internal) mechanisms and behaviour can be intrinsic and meaningful to itself, rather than dependent on an external designer or observer. This paper briefly reviews Searle's and Harnad's analyses of the grounding problem are and evaluates cognitivist and enactivist approaches to solving it. It is argued that, although the two categories of grounding approaches differ in their nature and the problems they have to face, both, so far, fail to provide fully grounded systems. Further it is argued here that the reason the problem is somewhat underestimated lies in the notions of situatedness and embodiment in modern AI, which goes beyond purely computational systems, but fails to acknowledge the historically grounded nature of the relation between living systems and their environments.

  • 40.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Bodén, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Oil Spill Detection: A Case Study of Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes and analyzes the results of a case study of artificial neural networks for the detection of oil spills from radar imagery, which has been carried as a joint project between the Connectionist Research Group, University of Skövde, and Ericsson Microwave Systems AB, Mölndal, Sweden.

  • 41.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Jirenhed, Dan-Anders
    Lund University.
    Hesslow, Germund
    Lund University.
    Blind Adaptive Behavior Based on Internal Simulation of Perception2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experiments, based on a neuroscientific hypothesis, exploring the possibility of an 'inner world' based on internal simulation of perception rather than an explicit representational world model. First a series of initial experiments is discussed, in which recurrent neural networks were evolved to (a) control collision-free corridor following behavior in a simulated Khepera robot, and (b) predict the next time step's sensory input as accurately as possible. Attempts to let the robot act 'blindly', repeatedly using its own prediction instead of the real sensory input, were not particularly successful. This motivated the second series of experiments, on which this paper focuses. A feed-forward network was used which, as above, controlled behavior and predicted sensory input. However, weight evolution was now guided by the sole fitness criterion of successful, 'blind' corridor following behaviour, including timely turns, as above using as input only own predictions rather than real sensory input. The trained robot is in some cases actually able to move 'blindly' in a simple environment for hundreds of time steps, successfully handling several multi-step turns. Somewhat surprisingly, however, it does so based on self-generated input that is very different from the actual sensory values.

  • 42.
    Åström, Emil
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science. Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science. University of Sheffield, UK.
    Robot Navigation using the Connectionist Navigational Map1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The `grounding problem' poses the question of how the function and internal mechanisms of a machine, natural or artificial, can be intrinsic to the machine itself, i.e. independent of an external designer or observer. Searle's and Harnad's analyses of the grounding problem are briefly reviewed as well as different approaches to solving it, based on the cognitivist and the enactive paradigms in cognitive science. It is argued that, although the two categories of grounding approaches differ in their nature and the problems they have to face, both, so far, fail to provide fully grounded systems for similar reasons: Only isolated parts of systems are grounded, whereas other, essential, parts are left ungrounded. Hence, it is further argued that grounding should instead be understood and approached as radical bottom-up development of complete robotic agents in interaction with their environment.

1 - 42 of 42
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