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  • 1.
    Areizaga Blanco, Ander
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Patterns in Mainstream Programming Games2020In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERIOUS GAMES, E-ISSN 2384-8766, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 97-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have found serious games to be good tools for programming education. As anoutcome from such research, several game solutions for learning computer programming have appeared. Most of these games are only used in the research field where only a few are published and made available for the public. There are however numerous examples of programming games in commercial stores that have reached a large audience.This article presents a systematic review of publicly available and popular programming games. It analyses which fundamental software development concepts, as defined by theACM/IEEE Computer Science Curricula, are represented in these games and identifies game design patterns used to represent these concepts.This study shows that fundamental programming concepts and programming methods have a good representation in mainstream games. There is however a lack of games addressing data structures, algorithms and design. There is a strong domination of puzzle games. Only two of the 20 studied games belong to a different genre. The eleven game design patterns identified in this study have potential to contribute to future efforts in creating engaging serious games for programming education.

  • 2.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    National Road Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Internet of Things data analytics for parking availability prediction and guidance2020In: European transactions on telecommunications, ISSN 1124-318X, E-ISSN 2161-3915, Vol. 31, article id e3862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cutting-edge sensors and devices are increasingly deployed within urban areas to make-up the fabric of transmission control protocol/internet protocol con- nectivity driven by Internet of Things (IoT). This immersion into physical urban environments creates new data streams, which could be exploited to deliver novel cloud-based services. Connected vehicles and road-infrastructure data are leveraged in this article to build applications that alleviate notorious parking and induced traffic-congestion issues. To optimize the utility of parking lots, our proposed SmartPark algorithm employs a discrete Markov-chain model to demystify the future state of a parking lot, by the time a vehicle is expected to reach it. The algorithm features three modular sections. First, a search pro- cess is triggered to identify the expected arrival-time periods to all parking lots in the targeted central business district (CBD) area. This process utilizes smart-pole data streams reporting congestion rates across parking area junc- tions. Then, a predictive analytics phase uses consolidated historical data about past parking dynamics to infer a state-transition matrix, showing the transfor- mation of available spots in a parking lot over short periods of time. Finally, this matrix is projected against similar future seasonal periods to figure out the actual vacancy-expectation of a lot. The performance evaluation over an actual busy CBD area in Stockholm (Sweden) shows increased scalability capa- bilities, when further parking resources are made available, compared to a baseline case algorithm. Using standard urban-mobility simulation packages, the traffic-congestion-aware SmartPark is also shown to minimize the journey duration to the selected parking lot while maximizing the chances to find an available spot at the selected lot.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-09 00:01
  • 3.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Jönköping University, Department of Computer Science and Informatics, School of Engineering, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Nowaczyk, Slawomir
    University of Halmstad, School of Information Technology, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Bouguelia, Mohamed-Rafik
    University of Halmstad, School of Information Technology, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Interactive clustering: A comprehensive review2020In: ACM Computing Surveys, ISSN 0360-0300, E-ISSN 1557-7341, Vol. 53, no 1, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this survey, 105 papers related to interactive clustering were reviewed according to seven perspectives: (1) on what level is the interaction happening, (2) which interactive operations are involved, (3) how user feedback is incorporated, (4) how interactive clustering is evaluated, (5) which data and (6) which clustering methods have been used, and (7) what outlined challenges there are. This article serves as a comprehensive overview of the field and outlines the state of the art within the area as well as identifies challenges and future research needs.

  • 4.
    Bartlett, Madeleine E.
    et al.
    Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems, University of Plymouth, UK.
    Costescu, Cristina
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Baxter, Paul
    Lincoln Centre for Autonomous Systems, School of Computer Science, University of Lincoln, UK.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Requirements for Robotic Interpretation of Social Signals “in the Wild”: Insights from Diagnostic Criteria of Autism Spectrum Disorder2020In: Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last few decades have seen widespread advances in technological means to characterise observable aspects of human behaviour such as gaze or posture. Among others, these developments have also led to significant advances in social robotics. At the same time, however, social robots are still largely evaluated in idealised or laboratory conditions, and it remains unclear whether the technological progress is sufficient to let such robots move “into the wild”. In this paper, we characterise the problems that a social robot in the real world may face, and review the technological state of the art in terms of addressing these. We do this by considering what it would entail to automate the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Just as for social robotics, ASD diagnosis fundamentally requires the ability to characterise human behaviour from observable aspects. However, therapists provide clear criteria regarding what to look for. As such, ASD diagnosis is a situation that is both relevant to real-world social robotics and comes with clear metrics. Overall, we demonstrate that even with relatively clear therapist-provided criteria and current technological progress, the need to interpret covert behaviour cannot yet be fully addressed. Our discussions have clear implications for ASD diagnosis, but also for social robotics more generally. For ASD diagnosis, we provide a classification of criteria based on whether or not they depend on covert information and highlight present-day possibilities for supporting therapists in diagnosis through technological means. For social robotics, we highlight the fundamental role of covert behaviour, show that the current state-of-the-art is unable to charact

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  • 5.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Coping with large disruptions in the payment system: stakeholder experience from stakeholder workshops and computer based simulation gaming exercises2020In: Proceedings of the 2020 the 3rd International Conference on Computers in Management and Business (ICCMB 2020) Session - Computer and Mobile Technology, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, p. 141-145Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe a work in progress where a mixed methods approach is used to increase insight into what kind of consequences a temporal disruption or total breakdown of the payment system creates for a large variety of societal actors and to increase insight in how their collaborative behaviour can be guided to be more resilient. This approach includes data from different types of data collections; workshop with high-level decisionmakers from involved sectors, interviews with citizens, representatives from the fuel, foods, and finance sectors, as well as experiences from 15 simulation game exercises with stakeholders. The triangulated and aggregated outcomes of the different data collections resulted in a set of recommendations on how to cope with disruptions in the card payment system.

  • 6.
    Bergsten, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University.
    Designing engaging computer based simulation games for increasing societal resilience to payment system2020In: Proceedings of the 2020 the 3rd International Conference on Computers in Management and Business (ICCMB 2020) Session - Computer and Mobile Technology, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, p. 166-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large or lengthy disruptions to the card payment system are threats that can cause crisis in society, especially in countries where other payment options are scarce. This paper presents a study that provides suggestions on how to improve a simulation game used to increase societal resilience to payment system disruptions. Questionnaires and interviews have been used to investigate how 16 participant in crisis exercises experience realism, relevance and validity in such exercises. Suggestions on how to improve the simulation game are provided, such as improvements to the graphical interface and introducing supporting roles from the exercise management.

  • 7.
    Brusk, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Marvinter: A case study of an inclusive transmedia storytelling production2020In: Convergence. The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, ISSN 1354-8565, E-ISSN 1748-7382, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how the unique characteristics of Marvinter, an inclusive transmedia Advent calendar, affected its production and the individual media workers involved in this. In the native transmedia Marvinter project, a radio series and a mobile game were created and released simultaneously. Using ‘partly shared’ resources, the project was developed by two collaborating, non-profit organisations. Each chapter of the digital game had to match the corresponding radio episode. The whole had to be designed to provide a shared cultural experience that included people with hearing or visual impairments. The authors of the present article were part of the game development team and thus directly experienced the complexity of developing a digital game as part of a transmedia project. This article presents the results of a case study with an insider perspective. It is supplemented by semi-structured interviews with key people in the project. The transmedia nature of Marvinter was justified by the need to include people with complementary disabilities. Although sometimes associated with negative connotations of ‘naked commercialisation’ in transmedia contexts, the marketing strategy was here an important element in promoting inclusivity. However, owing to the concurrent work processes, game production became overly complex.

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  • 8.
    Bröndum, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Graphic Notation, Indeterminacy and Improvisation: Implementing Choice Within a Compositional Framework2018In: Open Cultural Studies, ISSN 2451-3474, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 639-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine the use of graphic notation in relation to improvisation and indeterminacy in practice. The paper opens with a background context around terms and ideas about improvisation and indeterminate music pioneered by composers in the 20th century. The techniques the author used in the pieces Fluttering (Brondum 2015) and Serpentine Line (Brondum 2010) are examined and discussed in informal interviews with four musicians. The paper closes with a discussion and conclusions gained from the interviews and from working with musicians in the context of using graphic notation as a bridge between improvisation and notated music. Documentation of the author’s practice and research of these methodological and aesthetical issues may be of interest to composers and musicians that work with similar techniques. It may also add to theory by developing the understanding of a composer’s own approach, and in extension, to ask questions on how to develop these theories further.

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  • 9.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lyu, Ruimin
    Jiangnan University, China.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Rosendahl Ehmsen, Palle
    Erhvervsakademi Dania, Denmark.
    Shared learning objectives in interdisciplinary projects: Game design in a Sino-Scandinavian context2020In: Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, ISSN 1449-9789, E-ISSN 1449-9789, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-22, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The learning goals of project-based courses are typically specific for each involved discipline. Game development is deeply interdisciplinary and some of its core principles are shared across disciplines, from art to programming. This article presents a project-based approach where students majoring in arts and students majoring in technology share learning objectives. The course has been developed in a Sino- Scandinavian collaboration. Experiences from well-established Scandinavian game development programmes have been transferred to a Chinese university context.

    This article presents an explorative mixed method evaluation of this course. The research design had two phases with an initial qualitative analysis resulting in a set of observations that were tested in the second, quantitative phase. A total of 34 students from a range of disciplines participated in a two week course. The quantitative analysis shows that art (n=13) and technology (n=14) students' reported very similar experiences and similar insights into core learning objectives. This study shows that deeply interdisciplinary project-based courses, with shared learning objectives can successfully be conducted even in a context with no prior experience of such approaches.

  • 10.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Bae, Juhee
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Intelligent User Interfaces: Trends and application areas2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report outlines trends and application areas within the research field of intelligent user interfaces(IUIs) from 2010-2018. The purpose of the report is to give an overview of the IUI research area andpoint out particular subfields that have been given attention in the recent years, indicating possible trendsfor future research. Our report indicates that the field of IUIs is very broad, resulting in rather diverseresearch trends within the area. However, general trends could be identified, such as an increasing interest inbetter human-machine decision-making, where strategies for explaining the automatic reasoning are beinginvestigated together with ways of improving the trustworthiness of the systems and their possible adaptationsto individuals’ needs. The report also outlines research on multimodal interactions, adaptivity and humanrobotcollaboration, addressing challenges such as increased human workload, unobtrusiveness, privacy andmultiparty communication.

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  • 11.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Översikt: AI: nuläget och vart är vi på väg?2019In: NOD: forum för tro, kultur och samhälle, ISSN 1652-6066, no 3Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 12.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    To AIR is Human, or is it?: The Role of High-Level Representations and Conscious Awareness in Biological Motion Perception2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to address the nature of high-level processing within visual perception. In particular, results from the visual processing of biological motion will be used to discuss the role of attention in high-level vision and visual consciousness. Original results from 3 priming experiments indicate “automatic” high-level semantic activation in biological motion perception. The view presented here is discussed in the context of Prinz’s (2000, 2003) AIR-theory. AIR stands for Attended Intermediate-level Representations and claims that visual consciousness resides at the level of intermediate-level representations. In contrast, the view presented here is that results from behavioral and neuroscientific studies of biological motion suggest that visual consciousness occurs at high cortical levels. Moreover, the Reverse Hierarchy Theory of Hochstein and Ahissar (2002) asserts that spread attention in high cortical areas is indicative of what they term “vision at a glance.” The gist of their theory is that explicit high-level visual processing involves initial feedforward mechanisms that implicitly follow a bottom-up hierarchical pathway. The end product of the processing, and the beginning of explicit visual perception, is conscious access to perceptual content in high-level cortical areas. Finally, I discuss the specific claims in AIR and present objections to Prinz’s arguments for why high-level visual processors are not good candidates for the locale of consciousness. In conclusion, the central claim of AIR with an emphasis on the connection between intermediate level representations and perceptual awareness seems to be too strong, and the arguments against high-level perceptual awareness are not convincing

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  • 13.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Iftimie, Ion A.
    NATO Defense College, Rome, Italy / European Union Research Center, George Washington School of Business, Washington, DC, United States / Central European University, Vienna, Austria.
    Toward an ambidextrous framework for offensive cyberspace operations: A theory, policy and practice perspective2020In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, ICCWS 2020 / [ed] Brian K. Payne, Hongyi Wu, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2020, p. 243-253Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the rise in state-sponsored cyber attacks over the past three decades and proposes a new ambidextrous framework for offensive cyberspace operations. Since 1982, nation states have embarked in a fierce race to develop both clandestine and covert offensive cyber capabilities. Their intended targets range from foreign militaries and terrorist organizations to civilian populations and the critical infrastructures that they rely upon. Advancements in cyber security have, however, contributed to the discovery and attribution of offensive cyber operations, such as state-sponsored ransomware attacks, where state-built cyber capabilities have been used to attack governments, industries, academia and citizens of adversary nations. The financial and psychological costs of these ransomware attacks are today a threat to any state's national security. This article draws from academic research, the cyber military doctrines of four countries-a total of eight models from the Netherlands, Sweden, the U.S., and the U.K.-and the authors' operational experience to propose a new ambidextrous framework for offensive cyberspace operations. This ambidextrous framework for offensive cyberspace operations and the associated Cyberspace Operations Canvas are needed today in order to increase the resilience of national critical infrastructures against attacks from state-developed tools. We use the WannaCry-case to illustrate how the implementation of the ambidextrous framework for offensive cyberspace operations would result in increased awareness and understanding of the prospective cyber threats, their intended target(s), the likelihood of cascading effects and the options available by nation states to minimize them. 

  • 14.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wilson, Richard L.
    Towson University, United States / Hoffberger Center for Professional Ethics, University of Baltimore, United States.
    An anticipatory ethical analysis of offensive cyberspace operations2020In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, ICCWS 2020 / [ed] Brian K. Payne, Hongyi Wu, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2020, p. 512-520Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the ethical issues using offensive cyberspace operations. Previously enshrouded in secrecy, and now becoming the new norm, countries are using offensive cyberspace operations to achieve their strategic interests. Russia has conducted multiple offensive operations targeting Estonia, Georgia and the Ukraine; Hamas has targeted Israeli targets; and Iran has been targeting U.S. targets. The response to these operations has varied; Estonia and Georgia struggled with the attacks and were unable to respond while Ukraine tried to respond but the response was inefficient. Israel's response on Hamas offensive operations was an air strike on a building with Hamas Cyber-operatives. Iran shot down a U.S. Drone over the Strait of Hormuz, and the U.S. initially intended to respond with kinetic capabilities in the form of missile strikes. However, in the last minute, the U.S. chose to respond with offensive cyberspace operations targeting the Iranian missile systems. This last-minute change of response choosing between kinetic or cyber capabilities shows a need to further investigate how offensive cyberspace operations can be used against which targets from an ethical perspective. This article applies anticipatory ethical analysis on U.S. offensive operations in the “Global Hawk”-case when Iran shot down a U.S. drone over the Strait of Hormuz. Anticipatory ethical analysis looks at emerging technologies and their potential consequences. Offensive cyberspace operations present a range of possibilities, which include lowering the risk of harm to cyber operatives' lives belonging to the responding nation. However, a response can also be kinetic. Therefore, the analysis of the “Global Hawk”-case is compared with the Israeli-air strike of the building of Hamas Cyber-operatives. The authors argue that applying anticipatory ethical analysis on offensive operations and kinetic operations assist decision makers in choosing response actions to re-establish deterrence through the use of offensive cyberspace operations. 

  • 15.
    Huskaj, Gazmend
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Swedish Defence University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wilson, Richard L.
    Towson University, United States / Hoffberger Center for Professional Ethics, University of Baltimore, United States.
    Anticipatory ethics for vulnerability disclosure2020In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, ICCWS 2020 / [ed] Brian K. Payne, Hongyi Wu, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2020, p. 254-261Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the ethical dilemma related to under what circumstances vulnerabilities should be disclosed. Vulnerabilities exist in hardware and software, and can be as a consequence of programming errors or design flaws. Threat actors can exploit these vulnerabilities to gain otherwise unintended access to information systems, resources and/or stored information. In other words, they can be used to impact the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information in information systems. As a result, various types of vulnerabilities are highly sought after since they enable this type of access. The most highly sought are so-called “zero-day”-vulnerabilities. These are vulnerabilities that exist but are unknown, and when exploited, enable one way of entry into a system that is not thought possible. This is also why zero-day vulnerabilities are very popular among criminal organizations, states and state-sponsored advanced persistent threats. The other side of the coin is when a state identifies a zero-day, and ends up in the ethical dilemma of whether to release the news and inform the vendor to patch it, i.e. close the vulnerability, or to use it for offensive or intelligence purposes. This article employs these distinctions to apply anticipatory ethics in the Stuxnet-case. Stuxnet was a computer software that was allegedly developed by the U.S. together with Israel to disrupt Iran's development of uranium for their nuclear program. More exactly, it was developed to disable the uranium centrifuges used to enrich uranium. To achieve this, Stuxnet exploited four zero-day vulnerabilities and, according to some experts, managed to delay Iran's nuclear program by one to two-years, forcing them to the negotiation table. Using vulnerabilities like zero-days presents opportunities but also risks. The results of the application of anticipatory ethics to the Stuxnet case are then compared with the “Osirak”-case and the “al-Kibar”-case. Osirak was the nuclear reactor in Iraq and was bombed in 1981; al-Kibar was the nuclear reactor being built up in Syria, also bombed in 2007. 

  • 16.
    Koubarakis, Manolis
    et al.
    Department of Informatics and Telecommunications, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens University Campus, Greece.
    Borgida, Alexander
    Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ, USA.
    Constantopoulos, Panos
    Department of Informatics, Athens University of Economic and Business, Greece.
    Doerr, Martin
    Institute of Computer Science, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
    Jarke, Matthias
    RWTH Aachen, Lehrstuhl Informatik 5, Germany.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Mylopoulos, John
    School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), University of Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Plexousakis, Dimitris
    Institute of Computer Science, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.
    A retrospective on Telos as a metamodeling language for requirements engineering2020In: Requirements Engineering, ISSN 0947-3602, E-ISSN 1432-010XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    Telos is a conceptual modeling language intended to capture software knowledge, such as software system requirements, domain knowledge, architectures, design decisions and more. To accomplish this, Telos was designed to be extensible in the sense that the concepts used to capture software knowledge can be defined in the language itself, instead of being built-in. This extensibility is accomplished through powerful metamodeling features, which proved very useful for interrelating het- erogeneous models from requirements, model-driven software engineering, data integration,ontology engineering, cultural informatics and education. We trace the evolution of ideas and research results in the Telos project from its origins in the late eighties. Our account looks at the semantics of Telos, its various implementations and its applications. We also recount related research by other groups and the cross-influences of ideas thereof. We conclude with lessons learnt.

  • 17.
    Kourentzes, Nikolaos
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Department of Management Science, Lancaster University Management School, Bailrigg, Lancaster, United Kingdom.
    Athanasopoulos, George
    Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics, Monash University, Caulfield East, Australia.
    Elucidate structure in intermittent demand series2020In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intermittent demand forecasting has been widely researched in the context of spare parts management. However, it is becoming increasingly relevant to many other areas, such as retailing, where at the very disaggregate level time series may be highly intermittent, but at more aggregate levels are likely to exhibit trends and seasonal patterns. The vast majority of intermittent demand forecasting methods are inappropriate for producing forecasts with such features. We propose using temporal hierarchies to produce forecasts that demonstrate these traits at the various aggregation levels, effectively informing the resulting intermittent forecasts of these patterns that are identifiable only at higher levels. We conduct an empirical evaluation on real data and demonstrate statistically significant gains for both point and quantile forecasts.

  • 18.
    Kourentzes, Nikolaos
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Department of Management Science, Lancaster University Management School, UK.
    Trapero, Juan R.
    Department of Business Administration, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real, Spain.
    Barrow, Devon K.
    Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham, UK.
    Optimising forecasting models for inventory planning2020In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 225, article id 107597Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inaccurate forecasts can be costly for company operations, in terms of stock-outs and lost sales, or over-stocking, while not meeting service level targets. The forecasting literature, often disjoint from the needs of the forecast users, has focused on providing optimal models in terms of likelihood and various accuracy metrics. However, there is evidence that this does not always lead to better inventory performance, as often the translation between forecast errors and inventory results is not linear. In this study, we consider an approach to parametrising forecasting models by directly considering appropriate inventory metrics and the current inventory policy. We propose a way to combine the competing multiple inventory objectives, i.e. meeting demand, while eliminating excessive stock, and use the resulting cost function to identify inventory optimal parameters for forecasting models. We evaluate the proposed parametrisation against established alternatives and demonstrate its performance on real data. Furthermore, we explore the connection between forecast accuracy and inventory performance and discuss the extent to which the former is an appropriate proxy of the latter. 

  • 19.
    Kristensen, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Evgeniia Iatskina and Alena Rubinshtein: It’s Not Forever (Eto ne navsegda, 2019)2020In: KinoKultura, ISSN 1478-6567, no 68Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 20.
    Kävrestad, Joakim
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Fundamentals of Digital Forensics: Theory, Methods, and Real-Life Applications2020 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This practical and accessible textbook/reference describes the theory and methodology of digital forensic examinations, presenting examples developed in collaboration with police authorities to ensure relevance to real-world practice. The coverage includes discussions on forensic artifacts and constraints, as well as forensic tools used for law enforcement and in the corporate sector. Emphasis is placed on reinforcing sound forensic thinking, and gaining experience in common tasks through hands-on exercises.

    This enhanced second edition has been expanded with new material on incident response tasks and computer memory analysis.

  • 21.
    Kävrestad, Joakim
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Zaxmy, Johan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Nohlberg, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Analyzing the usage of character groups and keyboard patterns in password creation2020In: Information and Computer Security, E-ISSN 2056-4961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Using passwords to keep account and data safe is very common in modern computing. The purpose of this paper is to look into methods for cracking passwords as a means of increasing security, a practice commonly used in penetration testing. Further, in the discipline of digital forensics, password cracking is often an essential part of a computer examination as data has to be decrypted to be analyzed. This paper seeks to look into how users that actively encrypt data construct their passwords to benefit the forensics community.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study began with an automated analysis of over one billion passwords in 22 different password databases that leaked to the internet. The study validated the result with an experiment were passwords created on a local website was analyzed during account creation. Further a survey was used to gather data that was used to identify differences in password behavior between user that actively encrypt their data and other users.

    Findings

    The result of this study suggests that American lowercase letters and numbers are present in almost every password and that users seem to avoid using special characters if they can. Further, the study suggests that users that actively encrypt their data are more prone to use keyboard patterns as passwords than other users.

    Originality/value

    This paper contributes to the existing body of knowledge around password behavior and suggests that password-guessing attacks should focus on American letters and numbers. Further, the paper suggests that forensics experts should consider testing patterns-based passwords when performing password-guessing attacks against encrypted data.

  • 22.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    User Related Challenges of Self-Service Business Intelligence2020In: Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences , 2020, p. 188-197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-service Business Intelligence (SSBI) is an upcoming trend allowing non-technical casual users to use Business Intelligence (BI) in a self-reliant manner without the support of technical power users. Many organizations struggle to utilize the potential of SSBI and experience data-related and user-related SSBI implementations challenges. This study aimed at exploring user-related SSBI challenges by conducting and analyzing a total of 30 qualitative interviews with 5 BI consultants and 10 customer representatives involved in 2 SSBI implementation project teams. Analysis of the interviews revealed ten challenges related to “self-reliant users”, seven challenges related to “creating SSBI reports” and five challenges related to “SSBI education”, which differ considerably from SSBI challenges commonly discussed in literature. Awareness of these 22 challenges can help practitioners to avoid unnecessary obstacles when implementing and using SSBI, and guide SSBI researchers in simplifying the implementation process of SSBI.

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  • 23.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Evaluating the User Experience of Human-Robot Interaction2020In: Human-Robot Interaction: Evaluation Methods and Their Standardization / [ed] Céline Jost, Brigitte Le Pévédic, Tony Belpaeme, Cindy Bethel, Dimitrios Chrysostomou, Nigel Crook, Marine Grandgeorge, Nicole Mirnig, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 231-256Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For social robots, like in all other digitally interactive systems, products, services, and devices, positive user experience (UX) is necessary in order to achieve the intended benefits and societal relevance of human–robot interaction (HRI). The experiences that humans have when interacting with robots have the power to enable, or disable, the robots’ acceptance rate and utilization in society. For a commercial robot product, it is the achieved UX in the natural context when fulfilling its intended purpose that will determine its success. The increased number of socially interactive robots in human environments and their level of participation in everyday activities obviously highlights the importance of systematically evaluating the quality of the interaction from a human-centered perspective. There is also a need for robot developers to acquire knowledge about proper UX evaluation, both in theory and in practice. In this chapter we are asking: What is UX evaluation? Why should UX evaluation be performed? When is it appropriate to conduct a UX evaluation? How could a UX evaluation be carried out? Where could UX evaluation take place? Who should perform the UX evaluation and for whom? The aim is to briefly answer these questions in the context of doing UX evaluation in HRI, highlighting evaluation processes and methods that have methodological validity and reliability as well as practical applicability. We argue that each specific HRI project needs to take the UX perspective into account during the whole development process. We suggest that a more diverse use of methods in HRI will benefit the field, and the future users of social robots will benefit even more.

  • 24.
    Mahmoud, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    The Kaizen Agent: A self-driving car continuously learns by imagination2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For an agent to autonomously interact in a real world environment, it needs tolearn how to behave in the different scenarios that it may face. There are differentapproaches of modeling an artificial agent with interactive capabilities. Oneapproach is providing the agent with knowledge beforehand. Another approachis to let the agent learn from data and interaction. A well-known techniques ofthe former approach is supervised learning. In this approach, data is collected,labeled and provided to train the network as pre-defined input and correct outputas a training set. This requires data to be available beforehand. In a realworld environment however, it is difficult to determine all possible interactionsand provide the correct response to each. The agent thus needs to be able tolearn by itself from the environment to figure out the best reaction in each situation.To facilitate this, the agent needs to be able to sense the environment,make decisions and react back to the environment. The agent repeats this tryingdifferent decisions. To learn from these trials, the agent needs to accumulate oldexperiences, learn and adjust its knowledge and develop progressively after eachinteraction. However, in many applications, experiencing various actions in differentscenarios is difficult, dangerous or even impossible. The agent thereforeneeds an experimental environment where it can safely explore the possibilities,learn from experiences and develop new skills.This research aims to develop a methodology to build an interactive learningagent that can improve its learning performance progressively and perform wellin real world environments. The agent follows the Japanese concept Kaizenwhich refers to activities that continuously improve all functions. It meansstriving for continuous improvement and not radically changing processes. Thecontribution of this research is first to model and develop this agent so thatit can acquire new knowledge based on existing knowledge without negativelyaffecting the old knowledge and skills. Secondly, this research aims to developa novel method to systematically generate synthetic scenarios that contributesto its learning performance.This proposal consists of the background of artificial cognitive systems, acomparison of the theories and approaches in artificial cognitive systems fordeveloping a learning interactive system, and a review of the state of the artin reinforcement learning. Imagination-based learning is discussed and the purposesof imagination are defined. Imagination for creation is used as a scenariogenerator for practicing new skills without the necessity to try them all in thereal world. The research proposal results in the research questions and objectivesto be investigated as well as an outline of the methodology.

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    The Kaizen Agent- A self-driving car continuously learns by imagination
  • 25.
    Mahmoud, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Cognitively-inspired episodic imagination for self-driving vehicles2019In: Towards Cognitive Vehicles: perception, learning and decision making under real-world constraints. Is bio-inspiration helpful?: Proceedings, 2019, p. 28-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The controller of an autonomous vehicle needsthe ability to learn how to act in different driving scenariosthat it may face. A significant challenge is that it is difficult,dangerous, or even impossible to experience and explore variousactions in situations that might be encountered in the realworld. Autonomous vehicle control would therefore benefitfrom a mechanism that allows the safe exploration of actionpossibilities and their consequences, as well as the ability tolearn from experience thus gained to improve driving skills.In this paper we demonstrate a methodology that allows alearning agent to create simulations of possible situations. Thesesimulations can be chained together in a sequence that allowsthe progressive improvement of the agent’s performance suchthat the agent is able to appropriately deal with novel situationsat the end of training. This methodology takes inspirationfrom the human ability to imagine hypothetical situations usingepisodic simulation; we therefore refer to this methodology asepisodic imagination.An interesting question in this respect is what effect thestructuring of such a sequence of episodic imaginations hason performance. Here, we compare a random process to astructured one and initial results indicate  that a structuredsequence outperforms a random one.

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    Cognitively-inspired episodic imagination for self-driving vehicles
  • 26.
    Nanni, Mirco
    et al.
    CNR, ISTI, Rome, Italy.
    Andrienko, Gennady
    IAIS Fraunhofer, Germany / City University London, England, UK.
    Barabási, Albert-László
    Northeastern University, Boston, USA.
    Boldrini, Chiara
    CNR, IIT, Rome, Italy.
    Bonchi, Francesco
    ISI Foundation, Italy / Eurecat, Spain.
    Cattuto, Ciro
    University of Torino, Italy / ISI Foundation, Italy.
    Chiaromonte, Francesca
    Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies Pisa, Italy / Penn State University, USA.
    Comande, Giovanni
    Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies Pisa, Italy.
    Conti, Marco
    IIT-CNR, Italy.
    Coté, Mark
    King’s College London, UK.
    Dignum, Frank
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Dignum, Virginia
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Domingo-Ferrer, Josep
    Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Catalonia.
    Ferragina, Paolo
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Giannotti, Fosca
    ISTI-CNR, Italy.
    Guidotti, Riccardo
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Helbing, Dirk
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Kaski, Kimmo
    Aalto University School of Science, Finland.
    Kertesz, Janos
    Central European University, Hungary.
    Lehmann, Sune
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Lepri, Bruno
    FBK, Italy.
    Lukowicz, Paul
    DFKI, Germany.
    Matwin, Stan
    Dalhousie University, Canada / Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland.
    Jiménez, David Megías
    Universitat Oberta de Catalunya.
    Monreale, Anna
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Morik, Katharina
    TU Dortmund University, Germany.
    Oliver, Nuria
    ELLIS Alicante, Spain / Data-Pop Alliance, USA.
    Passarella, Andrea
    IIT-CNR, Italy.
    Passerini, Andrea
    Universita degli Studi di Trento.
    Pedreschi, Dino
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Pentland, Alex
    MIT, USA.
    Pianesi, Fabio
    EIT Digital, Italy.
    Pratesi, Francesca
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Rinzivillo, Salvatore
    ISTI-CNR, Italy.
    Ruggieri, Salvatore
    University of Pisa, Italy.
    Siebes, Arno
    Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Maynooth University, Ireland.
    Trasarti, Roberto
    ISTI-CNR, Italy.
    van den Hoven, Jeroen
    TU Delft, The Netherlands.
    Vespignani, Alessandro
    Northeastern University, USA.
    Give more data, awareness and control to individual citizens, and they will help COVID-19 containment2020In: Transactions on Data Privacy, ISSN 1888-5063, E-ISSN 2013-1631, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 61-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid dynamics of COVID-19 calls for quick and effective tracking of virus transmission chains and early detection of outbreaks, especially in the "phase 2" of the pandemic, when lockdown and other restriction measures are progressively withdrawn, in order to avoid or minimize contagion resurgence. For this purpose, contact-tracing apps are being proposed for large scale adoption by many countries. A centralized approach, where data sensed by the app are all sent to a nation-wide server, raises concerns about citizens' privacy and needlessly strong digital surveillance, thus alerting us to the need to minimize personal data collection and avoiding location tracking. We advocate the conceptual advantage of a decentralized approach, where both contact and location data are collected exclusively in individual citizens' "personal data stores", to be shared separately and selectively (e.g., with a backend system, but possibly also with other citizens), voluntarily, only when the citizen has tested positive for COVID-19, and with a privacy preserving level of granularity. This approach better protects the personal sphere of citizens and affords multiple benefits: it allows for detailed information gathering for infected people in a privacy-preserving fashion; and, in turn this enables both contact tracing, and, the early detection of outbreak hotspots on more finely-granulated geographic scale. The decentralized approach is also scalable to large populations, in that only the data of positive patients need be handled at a central level. Our recommendation is two-fold. First to extend existing decentralized architectures with a light touch, in order to manage the collection of location data locally on the device, and allowthe user to share spatio-temporal aggregates - if and when they want and for specific aims - with health authorities, for instance. Second, we favour a longerterm pursuit of realizing a Personal Data Store vision, giving users the opportunity to contribute to collective good in the measure they want, enhancing self-awareness, and cultivating collective efforts for rebuilding society.

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  • 27.
    Nilsson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Rethinking HCI for information fusion and decision support2020In: Proceedings of the 20th BCS HCI Group Conference: Engage, HCI 2006 / [ed] B. Fields, T. Stockman, L. V. Nickerson, P. G. T. Healey, British Computer Society (BCS), 2020, p. 225-227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of information fusion has traditionally been on the technical aspects e.g. algorithms. However, the importance of also understanding human information processing is gaining increasing recognition. The research outlined here aims to incorporate and widen the perspective of HCI in information fusion and decision support research i.e. the utilisation of the user as an active component in the information fusion process. A new perspective of the information fusion process is proposed and distributed cognition is identified as a theoretical framework capturing the process. Also, initial results indicate that trust, uncertainty and temporal aspects are issues affecting the interaction between the user and the information fusion system. © BCS HCI Group Conference: Engage, HCI 2006.All right reserved.

  • 28.
    Nurgalieva, Leysan
    et al.
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland / University of Trento, Italy.
    Cajander, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Moll, Jonas
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Huvila, Isto
    Uppsala University, Sweden / Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Marchese, Maurizio
    University of Trento, Italy.
    ‘I do not share it with others. No, it’s for me, it’s my care’: On sharing of patient accessible electronic health records2020In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores patients’ perspectives on sharing their personal health data, which is traditionally shared through discussions with peers and relatives. However, other possibilities for sharing have emerged through the introduction of online services such as Patient Accessible Electronic Health Records (PAEHR). In this article, we investigate strategies that patients adopt in sharing their PAEHR. Data were collected through a survey with 2587 patients and through 15 semi-structured interviews with cancer patients. Results show that surprisingly few patients share their information, and that older patients and patients with lower educational levels share more frequently. A large majority of patients trust the security of the system when sharing despite the high sensitivity of health information. Finally, we discuss the design implications addressing identified problems when sharing PAEHR, as well as security and privacy issues connected to sharing.

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  • 29.
    Padyab, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Information Systems, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Habibipour, Abdolrasoul
    Information Systems, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rizk, Aya
    Information Systems, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ståhlbröst, Anna
    Information Systems, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Adoption Barriers of IoT in Large Scale Pilots2020In: Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pervasive connectivity of devices enabled by Internet of Things (IoT) technologies is leading the way in various innovative services and applications. This increasing connectivity comes with its own complexity. Thus, large scale pilots (LSPs) are designed to develop, test and use IoT innovations in various domains in conditions very similar to their operational scalable setting. One of the key challenges facing the diffusion of such innovations within the course of an LSP is understanding the conditions in which their respective users decide to adopt them (or not). Accordingly, in this study we explore IoT adoption barriers in four LSPs in Europe from the following domains: smart cities, autonomous driving, wearables and smart agriculture and farming. By applying Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation as a theoretical lens and using empirical data from workshops and expert interviews, we identify a set of common and domain specific adoption barriers. Our results reveal that trust, cost, perceived value, privacy and security are common concerns, yet shape differently across domains. In order to overcome various barriers, the relative advantage or value of using the innovation needs to be clearly communicated and related to the users’ situational use; while this value can be economic in some domains, it is more hedonic in others. LSPs were particularly challenged in applying established strategies to overcome some of those barriers (e.g., co-creation with end-users) due to the immaturity of the technology as well as the scale of pilots. Accordingly, we reflect on the theoretical choice in the discussion as well as the implications of this study on research and practice. We conclude with providing practical recommendations to LSPs and avenues for future research.

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  • 30.
    Palmquist, Adam
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. School of Informatics, University of Skövde.
    Motiverande undervisning: Att använda speldesign för att skapa motivation2020 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Palmquist, Adam
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    The First Rule of Gamification Is “Don’t Talk About Gamification”: Discussions about gamified workforce retraining in the age of digitalization2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerating workplace digitalization and increasing automation in society calls for swift retraining of the existing workforce. Existing research on gamification has investigated how to improve the outcomes of different learning contexts. However, the field of gamified employee training has been sparsely investigated. By participating in different gamification design workshops with a gamification studio and its clients, this study takes into perspective the challenges of designing a gamified solution for adult retraining situations. The findings of the study propose that designing gamified employee training involves complexities relating to the client’s preconceived notion of gamification.

  • 32.
    Palmquist, Adam
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Gillberg, David
    Insert Coin, Sweden.
    Eye of the Beholder: Analyzing a Gamification Design Through a Servicescape Lens2020In: Utilizing Gamification in Servicescapes for Improved Consumer Engagement / [ed] Miralem Helmefalk, Leif Marcusson, IGI Global, 2020, p. 86-118Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamification, the idea of using game design elements to make tasks more engaging, is used in many contexts. The enthusiasm for gamification and its potential uses can be seen in different research- as well as business fields. As of this day, there exists no dominant design principle or standard on how to construct a gamified solution. However, there seem to exist generic dogmas on what a gamification solution should include, look and feel like. The theories used to explain the gamification techniques often originate from the field of game design and psychology. It is possible that more research fields could be used as a lens to magnify the effects of gamified information systems. In this report, we use the theories from environmental psychology and the servicescape methods to construct a lens to suggest improvements in gamification design for a learning management system used in higher education.

  • 33.
    Pilco, Hennry
    et al.
    Department of Informatics and Computer Science, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, 170525, Ecuador.
    Sanchez-Gordon, Sandra
    Department of Informatics and Computer Science, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, 170525, Ecuador.
    Calle-Jimenez, Tania
    Department of Informatics and Computer Science, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito, 170525, Ecuador.
    Pérez-Medina, Jorge Luis
    Intelligent and Interactive Systems Lab (SI2 Lab), Universidad de Las Américas, Quito, 170125, Ecuador.
    Rybarczyk, Yves
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Intelligent and Interactive Systems Lab (SI2 Lab), Universidad de Las Américas, Quito, 170125, Ecuador / Department of Electrical Engineering, CTS/UNINOVA, Nova University of Lisbon, Monte de Caparica, 2829-516, Portugal.
    Jadán-Guerrero, Janio
    Institute of Research, Development and Innovation, Mechatronics and Interactive Systems Center MIST, Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica, Quito, 170301, Ecuador.
    Maldonado, César G.
    Institute of Research, Development and Innovation, Mechatronics and Interactive Systems Center MIST, Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica, Quito, 170301, Ecuador.
    Nunes, Isabel L.
    Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica, Portugal / UNIDEMI, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica, Portugal.
    An agile approach to improve the usability of a physical telerehabilitation platform2019In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 3, article id 480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of a telerehabilitation platform is to safely and securely facilitate the rehabilitation of patients through the use of telecommunication technologies complemented with the use of biomedical smart sensors. The purpose of this study was to perform a usability evaluation of a telerehabilitation platform. To improve the level of usability, the researchers developed and proposed an iterative process. The platform uses a digital representation of the patient which duplicates the therapeutic exercise being executed by the patient; this is detected by a Kinect camera and sensors in real time. This study used inspection methods to perform a usability evaluation of an exploratory prototype of a telerehabilitation platform. In addition, a cognitive workload assessment was performed to complement the usability evaluation. Users were involved through all the stages of the iterative refinement process. Usability issues were progressively reduced from the first iteration to the fourth iteration according to improvements which were developed and applied by the experts. Usability issues originally cataloged as catastrophic were reduced to zero, major usability problems were reduced to ten (2.75%) and minor usability problems were decreased to 141 (38.74%). This study also intends to serve as a guide to improve the usability of e-Health systems in alignment with the software development cycle. 

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  • 34.
    Robles, Gregorio
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. GSyC/LibreSoft, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Setting Up Government 3.0 Solutions Based on Open Source Software: The Case of X-Road2019In: Electronic Government: 18th IFIP WG 8.5 International Conference, EGOV 2019, San Benedetto Del Tronto, Italy, September 2–4, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Ida Lindgren, Marijn Janssen, Habin Lee, Andrea Polini, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez Bolívar, Hans Jochen Scholl, Efthimios Tambouris, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 69-81Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Government 3.0, which builds on openness and transparency, sharing, increased communication and collaboration, government reorganization through integration and interoperability, and use of new technologies, is an emerging concept in eGovernance. However, few systems that qualify as Government 3.0 have been described in detail so far. And there is a lack of research on how governments can put in place such systems. This study investigates and characterizes an innovative eGovernment project, based on Open Source Software (OSS), that could be considered as an example of a Government 3.0 project. Therefore, we report from a case study of X-Road, an originally Estonian eGovernment project for creating a data sharing infrastructure, which today is also used in other countries. We present the main characteristics of X-Road from the point of view of Government 3.0, how the X-Road project is organized, compare its organization to other OSS projects, identify who contributes to the project, and point out what challenges are perceived by their stakeholders. We conclude offering some reflections on how X-Road and other Government 3.0 projects can benefit from OSS. 

  • 35.
    Rouse, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Corron, Amy
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA.
    Levelling Up: A Critical Feminist Pedagogy for Game Design2020In: MAI: Journal of Feminism and Visual Culture, ISSN 2003-167X, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imagine a game design classroom in which students not only hone artistic and technical design skills but also develop interpersonal awareness so that they form a commitment to address the systems of social inequalities in games. As the course progresses, students begin to take ownership of their inherent power as future game developers, reflect on their spheres of influence, and even consider where they can begin to effect change during their time in college. In this paper, we discuss our use of a feminist, dialogic approach to teaching in the games classroom. Our project is a response to the crisis of toxicity and harassment continually playing out throughout the games field. 

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  • 36.
    Salas, Julián
    et al.
    Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3), Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), Barcelona, Spain / CYBERCAT-Center for Cybersecurity Research of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
    Megías, David
    Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3), Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), Barcelona, Spain / CYBERCAT-Center for Cybersecurity Research of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Hamilton Institute, Maynooth University, Ireland.
    Toger, Marina
    Department of Economic and Cultural Geography, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Dahne, Joel
    Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sainudiin, Raazesh
    Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, Sweden / Combient Competence Centre for Data Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Swapping trajectories with a sufficient sanitizer2020In: Pattern Recognition Letters, ISSN 0167-8655, E-ISSN 1872-7344, Vol. 131, p. 474-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time mobility data is useful for several applications such as planning transports in metropolitan areas or localizing services in towns. However, if such data is collected without any privacy protection it may reveal sensible locations and pose safety risks to an individual associated to it. Thus, mobility data must be anonymized preferably at the time of collection. In this paper, we consider the SwapMob algorithm that mitigates privacy risks by swapping partial trajectories. We formalize the concept of sufficient sanitizer and show that the SwapMob algorithm is a sufficient sanitizer for various statistical decision problems. That is, it preserves the aggregate information of the spatial database in the form of sufficient statistics and also provides privacy to the individuals. This may be used for personalized assistants taking advantage of users’ locations, so they can ensure user privacy while providing accurate response to the user requirements. We measure the privacy provided by SwapMob as the Adversary Information Gain, which measures the capability of an adversary to leverage his knowledge of exact data points to infer a larger segment of the sanitized trajectory. We test the utility of the data obtained after applying SwapMob sanitization in terms of Origin-Destination matrices, a fundamental tool in transportation modelling.

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  • 37.
    Su, Yanhui
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Interaction Lab.
    Game Analytics Research: Status and Trends2019In: Advances in E-Business Engineering for Ubiquitous Computing: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on e-Business Engineering (ICEBE 2019) / [ed] Kuo-Ming Chao, Lihong Jiang, Omar Khadeer Hussain, Shang-Pin Ma, Xiang Fei, Cham: Springer, 2019, Vol. 41, p. 572-589Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to perform a systematic literature review of the business intelligence used in the game industry which mainly focuses on the game analytics side. First, according to the game industry value chain, a review identifying and classifying the relevant papers which had been published, exploring them systematically to extract similarities and status. Results show how game analytics can be used in the game industry, with player analytics, game development analytics, game publishing analytics and also channel analytics. Second, considering the business intelligence problems or potential challenges in the game industry, how game analytics can help to solve that also be discussed. Third, as recent game analytics research is highly fragmented and the underexplored areas, especially for the potential research gaps and trends are also explored. The main contribution of this paper includes giving a clear and reasonable classification based on the game industry value chain about game analytics and making a detailed overview of current research status and also discussing the potential trends as the baseline for future research.

  • 38.
    Su, Yanhui
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Business Intelligence Challenges for Independent Game Publishing2020In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, Vol. 2020, p. 1-8, article id 5395187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the continuous development of the game industry, research in the game field is also deepening. Many interdisciplinary areas of knowledge and theory have been used to promote the development of the game industry. Business intelligence technologies have been applied to game development for game design and game optimization. However, few systematic research efforts have focused on the field of game publishing, particularly with regard to independent (indie) game publishing. In this paper, we analyse data collected from a set of interviews with small indie game developers. The results indicate that most of the indie game developers have already used business intelligence for game self-publishing, although three main challenges have been identified: first, how to conduct marketing promotion and improve the return on investment (ROI); second, how to collect game publishing data; and third, how to analyse the data in order to guide game self-publishing. Our interviews also reveal that the business model applied to a game significantly impacts the role of game analytics. The study expands and advances the research on how game analytics can be used for game publishing, particularly for indie game self-publishing.

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  • 39.
    Svensson, Torbjörn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Using VR to Simulate Interactable AR Storytelling2019In: Interactive Storytelling: 12th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2019, Little Cottonwood Canyon, UT, USA, November 19–22, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Rogelio E. Cardona-Rivera, Anne Sullivan, R. Michael Young, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 328-332Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a system that simulates location based AR storytelling in a VR environment and explores how VR simulation might be used as a prototyping and user-testing tool. The system is currently developed and used for testing possible future versions of local news distribution with AR devices- However it can be used as a more general tool for testing what, where and how to augment reality in other contexts. 

  • 40.
    Svorc, Jiri
    et al.
    Moorcrofts LLP, UK.
    Katz, Andrew
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Moorcrofts LLP, UK.
    Breathe In, Breathe Out: How open hardware licensing can help save the world2019In: The Journal of Open Law, Technology & Society, ISSN 2666-8106, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As with any other open source field, there are countless far-reaching advantages in open hardware licensing, as opposed to its proprietary counterpart. This paper takes the example of a low-cost portable mechanical ventilator design and considers the effect of the application of the three different variants of the newly-released CERN Open Hardware Licence Version 2. This paper considers the importance of licensing, and demonstrates how open hardware licensing can facilitate efficient further development of a project, improve its safety and reliability, and encourage collaboration. Most importantly, open hardware licensing allows anyone to freely use, study, modify and distribute improvements to project design, and make, sell or otherwise distribute products made to that design, making it a cost-effective means of developing and deploying the device throughout the world, from the most developed to the most vulnerable territories. Finally, this paper argues that open hardware licensing also encourages economic activity whilst it protects third-party intellectual property rights.

  • 41.
    Torra, Vicenç
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Hamilton Institute, Maynooth University, Ireland.
    Narukawa, Yasuo
    Department of Management Science, Tamagawa University, Japan.
    On network analysis using non-additive integrals: extending the game-theoretic network centrality2019In: Soft Computing - A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies and Applications, ISSN 1432-7643, E-ISSN 1433-7479, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 2321-2329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are large amounts of information that can be represented in terms of graphs. This includes social networks and internet. We can represent people and their interactions by means of graphs. Similarly, we can represent web pages (and sites) as well as links between pages by means of graphs. In order to study the properties of graphs, several indices have been defined. They include degree centrality, betweenness, and closeness. In this paper, we propose the use of Choquet and Sugeno integrals with respect to non-additive measures for network analysis. This is a natural extension of the use of game theory for network analysis. Recall that monotonic games in game theory are non-additive measures. We discuss the expected force, a centrality measure, in the light of non-additive integral network analysis. We also show that some results by Godo et al. can be used to compute network indices when the information associated with a graph is qualitative.

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  • 42.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Davis, Joanna
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Iterative Game Design to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience2019In: Simulation & gaming through times and across disciplines: past and future, heritage and progress: 50th ISAGA Anniversary Conference proceedings 2019 / [ed] Marcin Wardaszko, Warsaw: Kozminski University , 2019, p. 128-138, article id 140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience of interdependent infrastructures increasingly depends on collaborative responses from actors with diverse backgrounds that may not be familiar with cascade effects into areas beyond their own sector. A simulation-game can enable societal actors to obtain a deeper understanding of the interdependencies between their respective infrastructures and their respective crisis responses. Following a design science approach, a simulation-game has been developed that combines role-playing simulation and computer simulation. The simulation-game challenges participants to address the interaction between payment disruptions, food and fuel supply, security problems (riots, robberies) and communication challenges (preventing hoarding). The game has been played on 15 occasions with representatives from different sectors in society and the game design has been changed iteratively after each playing-session. The paper reflects on the impact of initial design choices and the effects on later modifications. Finally, it is discussed how the current version of the game serves multiple purposes: awareness raising, education of participants, model validation, identification of new mitigating actions, and development of collective critical infrastructure resilience in society.

  • 43.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Määttä, Peter
    Combitech AB.
    Mitigating Escalation of Cascading Effects of a Payment Disruption across other Critical Infrastructures: Lessons Learned in 15 Simulation-Games2019In: Proceedings of  the 14th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security (CRITIS) 2019, Linköping: Linköping University , 2019, Vol. 4, article id 9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A disruption in one critical infrastructure can quickly lead to cascading effects in several other ones. Much research has been done to analyze dependencies between different critical infrastructures, but little is known about how to mitigate escalation and cascading effects across several critical infrastructures, i.e. how to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience. This research presents the results of 15 simulation-games where groups of 6 to 8 field experts from different sectors were challenged to collaboratively manage a disruption in the payment system that quickly affected food distribution, fuel distribution, transport, health care et cetera. Teams discussed possible strategies, which next were implemented in a computer simulation. Teams could influence the sequence of events on 4 decision points during a 10 day scenario, and play the same scenario several times to test alternative solutions. Each simulation-game session lasted a full day. Data analysis involved the recorded team discussions as well as computer simulation logs of the implemented decisions and their impacts. The results show how escalation and the severity of cascading effects largely depends on the quality of the early crisis response and not so much on the initial disruption. Also, it is shown how cross sectorial collaboration is required. Responses where groups focus too much on cascading effects in one area lead too poor overall performance for society at large. Groups tend to overbalance their mitigating strategies initially, until they arrive at a more balanced strategy that covers challenges in several different critical infrastructures from an integral perspective.

  • 44.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Määttä, Peter
    Combitech, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mitigating Escalation of Cascading Effects of a Payment Disruption Across Other Critical Infrastructures: Lessons Learned in 15 Simulation-Games2020In: Critical Information Infrastructures Security: 14th International Conference, CRITIS 2019, Linköping, Sweden, September 23–25, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Simin Nadjm-Tehrani, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 110-121Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A disruption in one critical infrastructure can quickly lead to cascading effects in several other ones. Much research has been done to analyze dependencies between different critical infrastructures, but little is known about how to mitigate escalation and cascading effects across several critical infrastructures, i.e. how to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience. This research presents the results of 15 simulation-games where groups of 6 to 8 field experts from different sectors were challenged to collaboratively manage a disruption in the payment system that quickly affected food distribution, fuel distribution, transport, health care et cetera. Teams discussed possible strategies, which next were implemented in a computer simulation. Teams could influence the sequence of events on 4 decision points during a 10 day scenario, and play the same scenario several times to test alternative solutions. Each simulation-game session lasted a full day. Data analysis involved the recorded team discussions as well as computer simulation logs of the implemented decisions and their impacts. The results show how escalation and the severity of cascading effects largely depends on the quality of the early crisis response and not so much on the initial disruption. Also, it is shown how cross sectorial collaboration is required. Responses where groups focus too much on cascading effects in one area lead too poor overall performance for society at large. Groups tend to overbalance their mitigating strategies initially, until they arrive at a more balanced strategy that covers challenges in several different critical infrastructures from an integral perspective.

  • 45.
    Ventocilla, Elio
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Department of Computer Science and Informatics, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    A Model for the Progressive Visualization of Multidimensional Data Structure2020In: Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications: 14th International Joint Conference, VISIGRAPP 2019, Prague, Czech Republic, February 25–27, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Ana Paula Cláudio, Kadi Bouatouch, Manuela Chessa, Alexis Paljic, Andreas Kerren, Christophe Hurter, Alain Tremeau, Giovanni Maria Farinella, Cham: Springer, 2020, Vol. 1182, p. 203-226Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model for the progressive visualization and exploration of the structure of large datasets. That is, an abstraction on different components and relations which provide means for constructing a visual representation of a dataset’s structure, with continuous system feedback and enabled user interactions for computational steering, in spite of size. In this context, the structure of a dataset is regarded as the distance or neighborhood relationships among its data points. Size, on the other hand, is defined in terms of the number of data points. To prove the validity of the model, a proof-of-concept was developed as a Visual Analytics library for Apache Zeppelin and Apache Spark. Moreover, nine user studies where carried in order to assess the usability of the library. The results from the user studies show that the library is useful for visualizing and understanding the emerging cluster patterns, for identifying relevant features, and for estimating the number of clusters. 

  • 46.
    Wallström, Josefine
    et al.
    Uptive, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Design and Development of the USUS Goals Evaluation Framework2020In: Human-Robot Interaction: Evaluation Methods and Their Standardization / [ed] Céline Jost, Brigitte Le Pévédic, Tony Belpaeme, Cindy Bethel, Dimitrios Chrysostomou, Nigel Crook, Marine Grandgeorge, Nicole Mirnig, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 177-201Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For social robots to provide long-term added value to people’s lives, it is of major importance to emphasize the need for developing a positive user experience (UX). In this chapter, we address the identified lack of available and suitable UX evaluation methods in social human-robot interaction (HRI). Inspired by Blandford’s and Green’s iterative method development process, this lack was mainly handled by a state-of-the art review of current HRI evaluation methods that identified some tentative candidates, of which the USUS framework was considered the most prominent. However, upon closer examination it was revealed that the USUS framework explicitly omitted UX goals, which are considered a significant aspect in UX evaluation. We designed and developed an enhanced version of the USUS framework in order to include UX goals that we denoted the USUS Goals evaluation framework. Besides the modified framework, some recommendations are presented that may contribute to the ongoing work of integrating UX in the HRI field.

  • 47.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Activities to Support Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes2020In: EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies, ISSN 2409-9708, Vol. 6, no 20, article id e4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The problem addressed in this work is the lack of knowledge of what inclusive game design would mean in practice within existing design processes of game companies. A pilot project was devised to involve both the game industry and disabled people.

    OBJECTIVES: The goal in this study was to identify activities that constitute the biggest obstacles to realising sustainable design processes for inclusive game design.

    METHODS: The study is mainly based on two full-day workshops with the game industry and three game studios, three organisations of disabled youth and authorities.

    RESULTS: Five activities were identified in the analysis of the workshops: 1) Find opportunities for inclusive game design; 2) Raise awareness about inclusive game design; 3) Handle integrity and security; 4) Recruit the right competence; and 5) Adapt workplaces and tools.

    CONCLUSION: The five main activities should be considered to achieve sustainable inclusive game design processes.

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  • 48.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Everyone Is not a Gamer!: Developing Cultural Heritage Experiences for Diverse Audiences2020In: Visual Computing for Cultural Heritage / [ed] Fotis Liarokapis, Athanasios Voulodimos, Nikolaos Doulamis, Anastasios Doulamis, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 263-281Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serious games and gamification have been proposed as approaches to solve problems in various areas by utilizing game technologies, game design components and even fully fledged games. However, when games are applied in a context outside the gaming sphere where users are not used to game interfaces and game culture, this may cause problems. In the case of cultural heritage applications this may create confusion or even put people off if they don’t understand what to do to take part in the experience. This chapter contributes a synthesized retrospective overview of three successive research and development projects conducted at the University of Skövde since 2007 and will present theoretical frameworks, conceptual studies, and production models for cultural heritage experiences for diverse audiences. In particular, we present a detailed case of a cultural heritage site which has been enhanced by game design concepts and visualizations to provide a richer experience for visitors. The chapter will also show the importance of user experience testing as an integral part of the production cycle in order to ensure a pleasant and understandable visit for visitors with different backgrounds and experiences of video games.

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