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  • 1.
    Aalinejad, Elaheh
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Information Asset Accountability in practice: information owner’s perspective: A qualitative case study2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information plays an essential role in supporting an organization's business; this information encounters any business's technology, people, and process aspects. In contrast, each aspect can risk an organization's information assets. Information traceability and accountability can play a significant role in controlling and protecting information assets. When individuals perceive accountability for each modification or change, they will behave systematically in their activities because they can expect their actions to impact others. A sense of information accountability increases the likelihood that people think about their behaviors in daily processes. However, if the accountability mechanism is insufficient, it can cause conflicts between information owners and employees. Previous works are based on the theories to increase the sense of information accountability and have efficient mechanisms. Moreover, improvement of the accountability mechanism is a concern because researchers rely on laboratory results, which is not enough to develop and have a systematic mechanism. Therefore, existing theories and explanations of information accountability tend to be unclear in practice.This study presents a qualitative case study focusing on information asset accountability among information owners and finding the practical tools and techniques to enforce the accountability. Data collection is carried out through ten semi-structured interviews among information owners who directly own information and make decisions related to classified information and controlling access levels. The interview questions were based on the increasing information asset accountability to reveal the influential factors that must be addressed. Data analysis discloses information owners’ requirements to increase the sense of accountability in an organization when it comes to information asset accountability. Key findings seem to be applying proper tools and processes such as verification and traceability to strengthen the information asset accountability within organizations. It also reveals the employee’s awareness and training to understand the information handling and processes. Employees get involved with processes by receiving training, clarifying their accountability expectations within information assets, and acknowledging the importance of their actions to secure critical information. The study's contribution provides an insight into the information accountability mechanism to identify the enforcement requirement from the information owner’s perspective. Based on the result of the study, it can raise the significance of accountability and traceability mechanisms to the information owners and provide input to maximize their information asset’s security level within the organization. 

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  • 2.
    Aastrup, Minna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Bergström, Tyra
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans postoperativa omhändertagande av patienter som genomgått generell narkos.2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that the care should be adapted to the individual patient. The postoperative patient has a special need for information. The postoperative needs are ranked different by nurses and patients. Nurses find that competent caregivers, pain relief and the treatment should be a high priority. Patients feel that competent caregivers, communication and a good care are the most important needs that they have in the postoperative setting. The aim of this study is to describe nurses postoperative care of patients who has undergone a general anesthesia and who is treated at surgical ward. The study has a qualitative approach. The data has been collected through semistructural interviews. Six nurses’ have been interviewed. This study shows that information is an important aspect in the patients care. It is important to inform the patient about what is going to happen and what has happened, the patient should also inform the nurse about their condition. There should also be a communication between the different caregivers. Is it also essential that the nurses are attentive to the patient’s pain. Collaboration between caregivers and between the nurse and patient is vital for a good care. The care should be adapted to the individual needs of the patients.

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  • 3.
    Abas Hashmi, Zaynab
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Pettersson, Wilma
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Structural Brain Correlates of Psychopathy and Violent Crime2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is a frequently reported personality trait among violent offenders, and psychopaths have a higher rate of recidivism than inmates without psychopathic features. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether structural brain differences, measured with magnetic resonance imaging, are observed in violent offenders with psychopathy compared to violent offenders without psychopathy or healthy non-violent controls. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The search utilised the academic databases Web of Science and Medline EBSCO and included original peer-reviewed articles written in English and published between 2013 and 2023. Seven articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected for the review. The findings indicated that there are structural differences between violent psychopaths compared to non-violent psychopaths and healthy controls, such as reduced grey matter volume in the prefrontal cortical areas, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and striatal and limbic regions. Further, the degree of structural brain differences in psychopaths correlated with the degree of psychopathic traits. The structural differences found in the brains of violent psychopaths can provide insight into the neurobiological basis and neural mechanisms of psychopathy and elucidate how changes in brain morphology relate to antisocial behaviour and psychopathic personality traits. In addition, the evidence of structural abnormalities in the brain of psychopaths may help develop targeted treatments that could reduce the risk of psychopathic individuals turning to crime and violence or committing repeated violent crimes. 

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  • 4.
    Abbas, Assad
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Identifying design issues related to the knowledge bases of medical decision support systems2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The modern medical diagnostic systems are based on the techniques using digital data formats – a natural feed for the computer based systems. With the use of modern diagnostic techniques the diagnosis process is becoming more complex as many diseases seem to have the same pre-symptoms at early stages. And of course computer based systems require more efficient and effective ways to identify such complexities. However, the existing formalisms for knowledge representation, tools and technologies, learning and reasoning strategies seem inadequate to create meaningful relationship among the entities of medical data i.e. diseases, symptoms and medicine etc. This inadequacy actually is due to the poor design of the knowledge base of the medical system and leads the medical systems towards inaccurate diagnosis. This thesis discusses the limitations and issues specific to the design factors of the knowledge base and suggests that instead of using the deficient approaches and tools for representing, learning and retrieving the accurate knowledge, use of semantic web tools and techniques should be adopted. Design by contract approach may be suitable for establishing the relationships between the diseases and symptoms. The relationship between diseases and symptoms and their invariants can be represented more meaningfully using semantic web. This can lead to more concrete diagnosis, by overcoming the deficiencies and limitations of traditional approaches and tools.

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  • 5.
    Abbas, Assad
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Nohlberg, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Design issues related to the knowledge bases of medical decision support systems2010In: Proceedings, ICIIT 2010 International Conference on Intelligence and Information Technology, 28-30 October, 2010, Lahore, Pakistan: Volume 2, Lahore: IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 54-58Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Abbas, Sahar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Rydholm, Tuija
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Barnmorskans stategier för att skapa ett positivt möte med kvinnan2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det första mötet mellan barnmorskan och kvinnan är nyckeln till en positiv upplevelse av förlossningen. Dagens förlossningsvård strävar efter att varje förlossning ska bli en unik händelse för kvinnan. Barnmorskans ansvar med bakomliggande strategier är att se till att det här första mötet blir ett lyckat möte. Syftet med denna studie var att belysa vilka strategier barnmorskan har för att skapa ett positivt första möte, där kvinnan är i ett aktivt värkarbete. Metoden som användes var intervjuer som analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Sex barnmorskor vilka arbetar inom förlossningsvård i ett län i Västsverige deltog i studien. De svarade på fyra öppna frågor hur de skapar ett positivt första möte med kvinnan. Barnmorskornas strategier beskrivs i huvudtemat Närvarande och Lyhörd med kategorierna: Kvinnan i fokus, Skapa trygghetskänsla och Skapa delaktighet. Det framkom även hur viktigt dialogen mellan barnmorskan och kvinnan är för att sedan utveckla en relation och skapa ett positivt första möte.

  • 7.
    Abbasi, Muhammad Abbas Khan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    The effect of time pressure on human behavior regarding phishing susceptibility: Human aspects in information security2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human errors are common in the contemporary cyber ecosystem, and in an organization’s cybersecurity chain, humans are considered the weakest link. Cybercriminals exploit human vulnerabilities using sophisticated attacks such as phishing. Human susceptibility to phishing is a persistent threat, and has a devastating effect on organizational and personal security. Previous researchers found that human susceptibility to phishing increases in presence of some factors such as organizational, individual, and environmental. Various studies highlight time pressure as one of the influencing factors that can negatively or positively impact human behavior. This research study aimed to investigate the effect of time pressure on human cybersecurity behavior regarding the ability to detect phishing. The study used quantitative research and developed a questionnaire comprising interactive phishing emails distributed online to 03 random groups having different time limits to complete the questionnaire. The study received 356 complete responses. The study's result shows a slight change in user behavior under time pressure, and the impact of time pressure can be positive or negative. However, the results are not statistically significant for all demographic groups to accept this slight change in variance. Moreover, this study's results validate previous studies on human susceptibility to phishing and found more than 50 % of respondents vulnerable to phishing.

    Thus, the results of this study indicate that the factor of time pressure itself does not significantly impact the human ability to detect phishing. However, it is essential to note that other work-related tasks or stress associated with time pressure can influence human behavior in detecting phishing attempts.

    In conclusion, the author also proposes further testing and some methodology tweaking by modifying the time given to each tested group and adding more elements to the questionnaire. Finally, the study also suggested conducting the same analysis on physically controlled groups in an organizational or institutional setting. 

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  • 8.
    Abbay, Yonas Afewerki
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Patienters upplevelser av egenvård vid typ 2-diabetes2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund – Typ 2 diabetes mellitus är en av Värdens folksjukdomar som kraftigt ökar nedåt i åldrarna, med förändring i näringsvanor och stillasittande livsstil. Människor med typ 2 diabetes har stora risker att utveckla mikro- och makrovaskulära komplikationer och detta ökar behandlingskostnader och förkortar personens livslängd. Behandlingen för sjukdomen kräver att personen gör ett antal livsstilsförändringar i bland annat kost och motion. Syfte - syfte av denna studie är att beskriva patienters upplevelser av egenvård vid typ-2 diabetes. Metod - Denna studie genomfördes som en litteraturöversikt baserad på vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ design. Resultat - analysen resulterade i olika upplevelser av egenvård och dessa har kategoriserats i huvudkategorier med underkategorier: 1) Att anpassa sig till de nya levnadsvanorna: Ny kosthållning och Nya motionsvanor, 2) Behöv av stöd; Stöd från närstående och Stöd från sjuksköterska, 3) Att lära sig nya levnadsvanor. Patienterna upplevde en förändrad livsstil på grund av de omständigheter diabetes gav. Information, motivation och färdigheter var tre viktiga faktorer för att patienterna skulle göra livstilförändring för att egenvård ska lyckas. Diskussion - Patienten själv och relationen till sjuksköterskan är huvudpunkter som påverkar patientens livstilförändringsprocessen för att egenvården ska lyckas. Sjuksköterskan gör allt för att uppnå maximalt stöd för patienten.

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  • 9.
    Abdelaal, Abdelrahman
    et al.
    Department of General Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    El Ansari, Walid
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar / College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Abusabeib, Abdelrahman
    Department of General Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    Farghaly, Hanan
    Department of Lab Medicine & Pathology, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Tabeb, Abdelhakem A. M.
    Department of General Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
    Simultaneous occurrence of follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas in same thyroid lobe: A case series of six patients from Qatar2020In: International journal of surgery case reports, E-ISSN 2210-2612, Vol. 73, p. 65-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) are the first and second most common thyroid cancers comprising about 85% and 10% of all thyroid cancers. Simultaneous occurrence of medullary and papillary thyroid cancer has been reported with various presentations, but simultaneous occurrence of FTC in addition to PTC as differentiated cancers, is an unusual event that is rarely reported. Presentation of cases: We report our experience of six rare cases of synchronous coexistence of FTC and PTC with unique features. Case 1 is 31 old Egyptian female. Case 2 is a 61 year old Sudanese male. Case 3 is a 59 year old Sudanese male. Case 4 is a 56 years old Indian female. Case 5 is a 35 years old Filipina female. Case 6 is a 52 years old Qatari female. The six cases are special in their co-occurrence of two thyroid carcinoma, consisting of histologic features of follicular thyroid carcinomas, and classical papillary thyroid carcinoma, possibly the first case series of simultaneous occurrence of these two types of thyroid cancer in the Middle East and North Africa Region. Conclusions: We present rare cases of concurrent FTC and PTC. These six cases add more data highlighting the coincidental simultaneous coexistence of FTC and PTC. Endocrinologists and pathologists should be aware of and vigilant to this variety. © 2020 The Author(s)

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  • 10.
    Abdelhalem, Marwa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Comparison of exosome isolation methods: Size exclusion chromatography versus ultracentrifugation2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Extracellular vesicles are emitted by almost all cell types. They play an important role in cell-to-cell communication by passing biomolecules such as mRNAs to other cells by endocytosis. It is crucial to isolate and purify them from complex body fluids for studying exosomes. Various techniques, including ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, precipitation kits, and immunoprecipitation, are used to isolate exosomes (Bu et al., 2019). Each of these techniques has a significant impact on the properties and purity of the EVs obtained. This project aims to understand the effects of different isolation methods on exosome content by comparing the methods of UC and SEC, with three objectives. The first objective was to compare UC and SEC samples and identify DEGs from native EVs. The second objective was to analyze DEG functional annotation between isolation methods to understand their impact on EV content in biological processes and cellular components. The last objective was to investigate the protein-protien interactions (PPI) between the differentially expressed genes. To investigate the effects of EVs isolation methods at the transcriptional level, RNA-seq data were analyzed from a dataset of three different cell lines, including human lung epithelial cells (HTB-177), umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and cardiac progenitor cells (CPC). RNA-seq analysis used an available transcriptomic dataset of EV samples isolated by UC and SEC methods. It identified 10, 15509, and 8995 DEGs from HTB, HUVEC, and CPC, respectively, and mapped them to pathways using EnrichR software. The study found that isolation methods and cell line sources affect analysis results. EnrichR analysis revealed the isolation method's impact on exosomal RNA content and regulation of biological processes.

  • 11.
    Abdihodzic, Sanin
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Den digitala verktygslådan: En studie om de digitala verktygens svårigheter i distansundervisningen2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka vilka svårigheter högstadielärare upplever i distansundervisningen där digitala verktyg används. Studiens syfte är att undersöka vad som anses vara problematiskt med användningen av digitala verktyg när lärare och elever inte befinner sig på samma fysiska plats. För att skapa en god grund för läsaren presenteras en bakgrund där den rådande situationen kring pandemin Covid-19 och dess utveckling presenteras. I bakgrunden behandlas även den övergång som gjorts från det traditionella klassrummet till distansundervisning, vad digitala verktyg är, innebörden av digital kompetens, IKT i undervisningen samt olika typer av kommunikation. För att stärka studiens syfte ytterligare presenteras också delar från den tidigare forskning som gjorts inom ämnesområdet. Den insamling av data som gjort i studien är en fallstudie med en kvalitativ ansats där 10 högstadielärare intervjuats gällande ämnet digitala verktyg i distansundervisningen. Studien visar att lärare upplever de digitala verktygen som används idag som problematiska. Lärarna i fråga anser att de digitala verktygen inte är anpassade efter undervisningen syfte. De 10 intervjuer som genomförts mynnar ut i 3 huvudsakliga problemområden; kommunikation, uppkoppling och verktygets struktur som samtliga bearbetas i studiens analys. Studien visar att de digitala verktygen som idag används i distansundervisningen inte uppfyller de kriterier som lärare och skola har. Den bristande kommunikationen försvårar lärarnas arbete, gör undervisningen långsammare och komplicerar feedback. Uppkopplingsproblematiken skapar frustration och ett sämre lärande hos eleverna samtidigt som de digitala verktygens struktur anses vara svag och inte anpassad efter den hela massan.

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  • 12.
    Abdu, Hayat
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Vilka ungdomar är det som tar SMS-lån och varför?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SMS-lån är ett samhällsproblem där olika aktörer är inblandade. Utifrån treforskningsmetoder; kvantitativ- och kvalitativ undersökning samt innehållsanalys av tidningsartiklarna, har synsättet på fenomenet vidgats. Undersökningspopulationen som består av unga SMS-låntagare mellan 18-25 år, var en väldigt svår grupp att nå. Av allt att döma berodde detta på att de är en utsatt och sårbar grupp med ekonomiska svårigheter. SMS-lånet är ett snabbt och lättillgängligt lån vilket stärker ungdomarnas tendens att agera utifrån begär, som i enlighet med Maslows motivationsteori saknar en kognitiv förbindelse. Variationen var stor mellan respondenterna i fråga om vad pengarna användes till, där en del befann sig i den nedersta delen i behovstrappan för att kunna tillgodose de fysiologiska behoven, medan andra konsumerade över sina tillgångar. Låneföretagens systematiska marknadsföring förenklar för ungdomar att ta ett sådant lån med korta återbetalningstider. De ungdomar som inte betalar tillbaka lånet i tid hamnar i ekonomiska svårigheter, vilket påverkar deras liv för flera år framåt i tiden.

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  • 13.
    Abdul Hadi, Bisan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Miss.
    Bandic, Ermina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att vårda patienter med malnutrition: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Malnutrition means an imbalance between nutrition and energy that goes to the bodytissues and the existing need. With age, the physiological functions of the body change which have a bearing on the intake of food and fluid. Malnutrition can cause multiple consequences for the elderly, such as increased fall risk, reduced quality of life, increased hospitalization and mortality. The nurse has an essential role in the field of elderly care to assess, plan and implement measures regarding the nutrient and fluid intake of the elderly. Aim: The aim was to describe nurses experiences when it comes to nursing patients with malnutrition. Method: A literature review where data material consisted qualitative and quantitative article. Results: Five areas identified; knowledge by education, cooperation with different professions, nurses' work environment, dialogue for anamnesis and the use of assessment instrument. Conclusion: There is a need for increased knowledge in the care of patients with malnutrition because increased knowledge leads to less insecurity for the nurse.

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  • 14.
    Abdul, Nishan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Palmborg, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Analys och lösningsförslag för logistik inom Volvo Powertrain2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Powertrain in Skövde is a factory that manufactures truck and bus engines with various volumes. The factory has several departments and functions that together make up the three main parts: foundry, processing, and assembly. One of these departments is logistics, which has the task of organizing internal logistics activities at the company. The logistics department strives to provide good customer service with low costs and environmental impact. The work carried out concerns parts of the current data management system used within the departments warehouse management structure. The current system is not very user-friendly which makes it difficult to get an overview of the storage areas. This, together with other problems, causes the logistics department to experience the system as time-consuming and deficient. The purpose of this work is to produce solution proposals that address the shortcomings of the current system utilizing minimal investments, while facilitating data management and providing better visualization of the warehouses. The methods chosen to achieve the purpose of the work are motivated by a literature study.

    To compare solution proposals, standard IEEE-830 was used as a basis for producing a requirements specification. The requirements specification based on observations and interviews conducted with the logistics department. The solution proposals presented are based on interviews conducted at other sites within the Volvo Group and have been compared with the requirements specification to see how well they fit the needs of the logistics department. The methods used during the execution of the work are also discussed, and finally, recommendations are made for future work.

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  • 15.
    Abdulahad, Nathalie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Holmström, Jannike
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Anorexia Nervosa: Friskförklarade kvinnors upplevelser kring orsaksfaktorer för insjuknande2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anorexia is a global issue but occurs mainly in the Western world. Anorexia nervosa is a complex disease caused by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors which often interacts with each other. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to gain a greater understanding of how recovered women created meaning in their illness and if there are mutual factors in their life-stories. We have especially focused on family patterns and the communication within the family. We have based our study on symbolic interactionism as our theoretical perspective. The study is of a qualitative nature and we used semi structured interviews which later were interpreted from a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. In our result we could see that creating meaning was central throughout the disease and was expressed in different ways by our respondents. Ten themes appeared and the most vital findings were that anorexia was an active action and that it is an expression for self-hatred and low self-esteem. We could also see that lack of expression regarding emotions within the families and not being emotionally recognized by their parents were crucial factors. The most important result was the respondents own perception of anorexia as a symbolizing action and the content of the disease is about so much more than weight and looks.

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    Anorexia Nervosa
  • 16.
    Abdulalim Abdela, Anisa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Persson, Caroline
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Äldre personers upplevelser av depression: En kvalitativ litteraturöversikt2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression among older adults is increasing. Since many of the older adults are seeking medical care, nurses are faced with depressed elders. Most older adults with depression have experienced insufficient care, since the knowledge about older adults with depression is lacking among nurses. This can cause older adults to experience suffering. To avoid this, it is important to describe the older adults' experiences with depression.

    Method: A literature review that is based on eight qualitative articles. The articles have been both studied and analyzed and from that, a result has been produced. The databases Cinahl and PubMed have been used for article queries.

    Aim: To describe older adults' experience with depression and its influence on daily life.

    Findings: Older adults with depression experience both physical and psychic changes. The result brought four different categories, the influence of age on depression, a struggle against loneliness, the importance of autonomy for well-being and a strive for community and purpose.

    Conclusion: The subject of depression is an area in which healthcare workers need more knowledge. Awider and more in-depth understanding of depression can both prevent and give a better understanding of the subject. This in turn can lead to that the patients get good individual healthcare which causes suffering to be avoided.

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  • 17.
    Abdulhadi, Nora
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Omerovic, Kenan
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Attityder kring etnicitet hos anställda på socialtjänsten & dess påverkan på mötet med klienter2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attitudes and prejudice about ethnicity is a phenomenon that occurs in many different contexts. When working with people, attitudes about ethnicity is essential for how the workplace is experienced, both for the employees and clients. The work-life in Sweden consists of employees with different backgrounds and ethnicities. Norms about ethnicity create obstacles to achieve equality and the risk of ethnic discrimination enhances. The issue can be complex and requires employees to critically examine themselves and their colleagues. Experiences of attitudes depends on several individual factors, therefore they may differ in different workplaces. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate attitudes about ethnicity among Social Services' employees and how the attitudes affect the work with clients. With a social psychological approach, this study was conducted based on theories of social cognition theory, attitudes, social attribution theory and ethnicity, we and them-thinking & indirect discrimination. The essay contains ten semi-structured interviews with social workers in three different municipalities. The results show that it exists negative attitudes about ethnicity in the social services, both between employees and clients. How attitudes appear in the work is affected by several different factors such as experience, awareness of negative attitudes and open dialogues between employees. Whilst working with clients, the influence of attitudes has a basis in the employees´ level of understanding, treatment and ability to maintain the professional role. 

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  • 18.
    Abdulhadi, Osama
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    The human connection to information security: A qualitative study on policy development, communication and compliance in government agencies2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The human factor and insider threats play a crucial role in information security. In today’s digital age, protecting organizational data requires a deep understanding of human behaviour and its impact on information security. The increasing volume of electronically stored data has led to a rise in cyber threats and breaches, necessitating effective information security policies and regulations.

    This study focuses on the experiences and perspectives of employees and top management in government agencies regarding the development, communication, compliance, and attitudes towards information security policies and regulations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants from both top management or information security officers and regular employees, which allowed for an in-depth exploration of their experiences and perspectives.

    The findings show that government agencies systematically develop policies by engaging stakeholders, ensuring accessibility, and adhering to legal frameworks. Addressing the human factor involves training, awareness programs, and top management support. Policy development and implementation include risk assessment, stakeholder identification, objective setting, continuous review, and integration into daily operations. Communication channels such as intranets, training, coordinators, and awareness events are utilized, but their effectiveness is not directly measured. Proposed improvements include enhancing accessibility, improving policy document management, and using clearer language.

    Employees generally possess a positive attitude towards information security, though their understanding varies, and challenges to their understanding include complex language and unclear instructions. Compliance also varies, with difficulties arising from technical terminology and information overload. Enhanced compliance can be achieved through simplified language, providing better resources, and top management support. Proactive incident management focuses on learning and risk minimization. The human factor and insider threats remain significant concerns, which emphasizes the need for further education, awareness training, and motivation. 

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  • 19.
    Abdulkader, Mohamad
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Why do people use public Wi-Fi?: An investigation of risk-taking behaviour and factors lead to decisions2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of public Wi-Fi and hotspots has witnessed a substantial increase in recent times, providing convenient connectivity in various public areas. Public wireless networks are now widely accessible, especially in smart cities. However, utilising public Wi-Fi exposes individuals to potential threats to their privacy and security. Hackers can exploit vulnerabilities present in public Wi-Fi networks, such as the "Evil Twin" attack, to deceive users and unlawfully obtain their personal information. The main objective of the research was to investigate people's awareness of the security risks associated with public Wi-Fi usage and to identify the factors that contribute to their willingness to take such risks. The research adopted a qualitative approach, utilising semi-structured interviews with 14 participants to gain valuable insights into their understanding and knowledge of the risks connected with public Wi-Fi. The majority of respondents employed public Wi-Fi for educational purposes, browsing the Internet, and engaging with social media platforms. Additionally, the findings of the study explored the motivations and influences that lead individuals to take risks when using public Wi-Fi. Factors such as convenience, cost-effectiveness, saving mobile data usage, limited mobile network coverage, and a lack of awareness concerning privacy and security risks emerged as the most significant reasons and influences behind the utilisation of public Wi-Fi.

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  • 20.
    Abdullah, Mohammed
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Säkerhetsmedvetenhet och dess inverkan på informationssäkerhet inom hälso-och sjukvården2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Framväxten av digitalisering och skillnader i utvecklingstakt mellan digitalisering och informationssäkerhet har lett till ökade utmaningar för många sektorer i samhället, inklusive hälso- och sjukvården. En central del i att hantera dessa utmaningar är att förstå hur viktigt det är att ha en god säkerhetsmedvetenhet hos anställda. Säkerhetsmedvetenhet är därför en nödvändig komponent för att skydda och bevara informationssäkerheten i en organisation. Informationssäkerhet innefattar mer än tekniska och administrativa säkerhetsåtgärder, eftersom människor är involverade i alla aspekter av informationssäkerhet och ofta anses vara den svagaste länken i säkerhetskedjan. Till följd av detta kan ökad medvetenhet bland personalen bidra till mer effektiv informationssäkerhet. Studien fokuserade på att undersöka följande frågeställning: Hur kan IT-chefer inom hälso- och sjukvårdssektorn arbeta systematiskt för att öka personalens säkerhetsmedvetenhet?

    Resultatet visade att ledningens engagemang kan påverka personalens medvetenhet och bidra till att skapa en stark säkerhetskultur, vilket är i linje med vad litteraturen beskriver. Genom ökad medvetenhet bland personalen kan många säkerhetsincidenter relaterade till mänskliga misstag undvikas. Studien genomfördes med stöd av kvalitativa forskningsmetoder och semistrukturerade intervjuer, där ledande roller inom hälso- och sjukvården intervjuades. I nuläget visar resultatet att det finns utrymme för förbättring när det gäller personalens nuvarande medvetenhet. Dessutom visade resultatet att det inte finns en effektiv metod för att utvärdera och mäta denna medvetenhet. Däremot visar både praktiken och litteraturen att antalet ökade cyberattacker ökar och att det finns betydande utmaningar kopplade till att säkerställa informationssäkerhet. Samtidigt påvisar resultatet ett tydligt behov av ytterligare forskning samt utveckling av metoder för att mäta och förbättra personalens säkerhetsmedvetenhet.

  • 21.
    Abdullah, Zobin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Jafari, Hussein
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Tryggheten som stressar - stress och stresshantering bland unga vuxna - tidigare ensamkommande barn med rötter i Afghanistan2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals who have come to Sweden as unaccompanied refugee minors meet different difficulties. In previous research, the main focal points have been the unaccompanied minors' previous experiences of violence and war, and the importance of social support. The aims of this study were firstly to gain a greater understanding regarding stress and stress management among unaccompanied refugee minors, and secondly, to look at the importance of social relationships regarding stress management. This qualitative study is based upon ten semi-structured interviews. Ten young adults gave their subjective narrative. The interviewees had their roots in Afghanistan. They all came to Sweden as unaccompanied refugee minors. The interview was analyzed based on Bronfenbrenner´s Ecological systems theory and Lazarus stress theory, using thematic analysis. The results drawn were that unaccompanied refugee minors experience stress because of a) expressed and perceived demands from the family, b) for the family's situation in the home country, c) the oral interaction with ethnical Swedes, d) be able to find work, and e) not recognizing the physical environment. The result regarding stress management shows that social relations, help from professional contacts, and their own personality were of importance for the study participants. Furthermore, the results show that being able to work and to educate themselves were important stress management strategies. Friends from the homeland and the mother tongue were sources of comfort for the participants.

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  • 22.
    Abdullahi, Fardosa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Investigating possible differential expression level of hsa-miR-708-5p in Neuroblastoma2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common extracranial cancers found in children under the age of five. The cause of NB is not well understood, about 2% of the cases have been linked to rare germline mutations in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. However, NB is thought to be mainly caused by genetic mutation at the early stages of development. Clinically, NB can be grouped into three risk groups: low, intermediate and high-risk disease. The survival rate of patients with high-risk NB is less than 50% of the diagnosed cases. Survival rates emphasizes the necessity for future NB diagnostic therapy. One potential study area is miRNA, studies have demonstrated both prognostic and predictive usefulness to therapies. MiRNA is a single-stranded RNA that is 18-24 nucleotides long. Its function is to regulate numerous cellular activities, and to act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Genetic anomalies such as MYCN amplification and 11q deletion cause NB by disrupting the expression patterns of certain miRNAs. In this experiment the miRNA, hsa-miR-708-5p, was examined in three genetically diverse NB cell lines; NB69 without MYCN amplification and 11q deletion, SKNBE with MYCN amplification, and Kelly with a chromosome 11q deletion, the cell lines were used to see if the expression levels of hsa-miR-708-5p differed. The expression level of hsa-miR-708-5p, was assessed using qPCR; variation in gene expression was identified between the cell lines. Therefore, miR-708-5p could be a viable option when looking at gene expression of hsa-miR-708-5p for future diagnostic or prognostic in NB.

  • 23.
    Abdulrazzaq, Sama
    et al.
    Department of Bariatric Surgery/Bariatric Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Elhag, Wahiba
    Department of Bariatric Surgery/Bariatric Medicine, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    El Ansari, Walid
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR). Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Mohammad, Amjad Salah
    Departments of General Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Sargsyan, Davit
    Department of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, Qatar.
    Bashah, Moataz
    Department of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, Qatar.
    Is Revisional Gastric Bypass as Effective as Primary Gastric Bypass for Weight Loss and Improvement of Comorbidities?2020In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 30, p. 1219-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Revisional gastric bypass (R-RYGB) surgery is utilized for the management of inadequate weight loss or weight regain observed after some cases of bariatric surgeries. Data on the mid-term effectiveness of primary gastric bypass (P-RYGB) compared to R-RYGB (e.g., post sleeve gastrectomy or gastric banding) are controversial. Methods: Retrospective chart review of all patients who received P-RYGB and R-RYGB (January 2011 - June 2015) at our center. One hundred and twenty patients who underwent P-RYGB and 34 R-RYGB who completed 18 months follow-up were included. We compared the effectiveness of P-RYGB with R-RYGB by assessing four anthropometric, two glycemic, and four lipid parameters, as well as the control of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension and dyslipidemia in terms of remission, improvement, persistence, relapse and de novo. The current study also assessed mortality and complications rates. Results: There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics of patients who received P-RYGB with those who received R-RYGB in terms of age, gender and preoperative BMI. However, at 18 months: a) Patients who received P-RYGB had lower mean weight (P = 0.001) and BMI (P <0.001), reflected by a higher mean delta BMI (P = 0.02), TWL%(P <0.0001) and EWL%(P < 0.0001); b) No differences were observed between the two patients groups in terms of glycemic parameters, lipid profiles, and control of T2DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia; and, c) No deaths were reported among both patients groups, and complication rates were comparable. Conclusion: Although R-RYGB effectively addressed inadequate weight loss, weight regain and recurrence of comorbidities after restrictive bariatric surgery, R-RYGB resulted in inferior weight loss compared to P-RYGB. There were no significant differences between the two procedures in terms of their clinical control of T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Both procedures exhibited comparable complication rates. 

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  • 24.
    Abi-Haidar, Layal
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Realtidsgenomsökning efter säkerhetsrisker i JavaScript-kod2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka om det är möjligt att kunna i realtid undersöka kod på en webbsida för att rekommendera uppdatering av en befintlig webbläsare vid behov, utan att användarupplevelsen påverkas negativt. För att undersöka detta implementerades ett program i JavaScript. Sex olika JavaScript-bibliotek användes som testfall. Programmet söker igenom koden som finns i ett JavaScript-bibliotek och gör en rekommendation med hänsyn till några kända säkerhetsrisker och försvar mot dem. Dessutom beräknar programmet svarstiden med hjälp av klockan på klientsidan.

    Enligt Tolia, Andersen och Satyanarayanan (2006) visar undersökningar som har gjorts att användare föredrar svarstider som är under en sekund, och att svarstider som är över en sekund kan få användarna att bli missnöjda. För att användarupplevelsen inte skall påverkas negativt, bör svarstiden inte överstiga en sekund.

    Resultaten från undersökningen visar att svarstiderna inte blir tillräckligt långa för att kunna påverka användarupplevelsen negativt.

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  • 25.
    Abika, Josephine
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att vårda patienter i livets slutskede2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year, about 90,000 to 100,000 people die in Sweden and the majority need palliative care. Nursing is the core competence of nurses and means a great responsibility in care at the end of life and can be difficult for some nurses because they provide support to patients and their relatives. Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of caring for patients at the end of life. Method: A literature-based study with qualitative approach based on ten scientific articles. Results: Five themes emerged from the analysis; Sorrow and frustration, factors that promote well-being, being able to build a good care relationship, being able to deal with family needs and lack of experience and education.Conclusion: The results show that nurses experience negative and positive feelings when caring for dying patients. Providing care at the end of life was emotionally challenging and a great commitment for nurses. The resources that nurses have are not enough. Nurses are in dire need of more support and education to be able to care for patients and relatives in a good way at the end of life.

  • 26.
    Aboagye, Stella
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Johansson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnans förlossningsrädsla i fokus - Ur barnmorskor inom barnmorskemottagningens perspektiv: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Midwives working at maternal care center experience insufficient knowledge about how professional support can be offered to pregnant women. It´s important that pregnant women with tocophobia receive professional care from midwives during the entire pregnancy.

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to highlight maternal care midwives’ experiences providing professional support for pregnant women who fear of giving birth.

    Method: A qualitative interview study with inductive approach was chosen for this study to gain broader view of the BMM midwives' experiences. Seven midwives were interviewed at two BMM in southwestern Sweden.

    Results: There were two main categories "Women's fear of childbirth tokophobia". There were two subcategories "Midwife's experiences about women's lack of knowledge about fear of childbirth" and "Guide pregnant women to correct care effort". Midwives offer professional support from their own experience when women express fear of birth. This through midwives being responsive when incuayaring causes to tokophobia women. in focus" and "Midwife's need for resources and knowledge about women`s

    Conclusion: BMM midwives need continuous education about fear of childbirth in order to offer women prophetic support. BMM occupational managers should offer midwives right prerequisites for midwives to feel safe by providing care to women suffering from tokophobia.

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  • 27.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Command Economy as Failed Model of Development: Lessons Not Yet Learned: The Case of Eritrea2004In: Global business: Coping with uncertainty: Thirteenth World Business Congress: July 14-18, 2004 Maastricht, The Netherlands / [ed] Erdener Kaynak; Talha D. Harcar, Hummelstown: International Management Development Association , 2004, p. 772-786Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Command Economy as Failed Model of Development: Lessons Not Yet Learned: The Case of Eritrea2010In: Journal of Management Policy and Practice, ISSN 1913-8067, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 49-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to identify which economic model is applied in Eritrea. The government claims to follow the market economy model(s), however, the actual practice seems to be different and casts doubts on the government's commitment to market economy. Against this background, the author has examined Eritrea's economic development model. Confirming to his doubts, the author found out that the government is applying a militarist command economy model, however, in an improperly planned, poorly coordinated and extremely mismanaged approach, with its serious negative impacts on the economic, social, cultural, diplomatic and political conditions in the country.

  • 29.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Leadership Crises and Nation Building in a Politically Turbulent Environment: The Case of the so Called Peoples Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) Central Office in Eritrea2010In: Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, ISSN 1913-8059, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 108-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to examine the social dimension of the nation building process in Eritrea. A qualitative case-study method which is composed of primary and secondary data is applied to conduct the research. The main findings show that (i) the social dimension of the nation building process was a complete failure, (ii) the main reason for the failure is the inappropriateness of the leadership to lead the  task properly and (iii) a directive, visionary, participative and interactive leader that possesses, quality, legitimacy, justice, care, competence and character, i.e. honesty, integrity, trustworthiness and principle-centeredness is a leader that can accomplish the task successfully.

  • 30.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Leadership Vacuum and its Catastrophic (Destructive) Impact on the Cultural Dimension of Nation Building2010In: Selected Papers from the Leadership & Management Studies in Sub-Sahara Africa 2010 conference, Leadership & Management Studies in Sub-Sahara Africa Conferences , 2010, p. 21-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    The Kleptomaniac Leadership and his Destructive Role on the Economic Dimension of Nation Building2015Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 32.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Björnsson, Berit
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Gender related counselling encounters among banks and entrepreneurs2003In: NFF 2003, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets: Volume I2021 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is much research into strategic business alliances in emerging markets, but none focuses on this form of collaboration within Europe’s emerging economies. This is a critical absence, as the European transition region is not only different from other European and Western regions but also from other regions with developing economies. Partners in the European transition region have unique cultural and social backgrounds, and consequently, unique ways of doing business. 

    Transformations of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets focuses on this important gap. This book, the first of a two-volume set, makes a unique contribution to emerging market research by investigating the transformation of alliances in Eastern and central Europe over the past forty years. It provides a conceptual framework to describe and analyse the formation, development and functional mechanisms of strategic alliances in the European transition region, ultimately offering an in-depth overview of the challenges and opportunities around strategic alliance formation in emerging European markets.  

    Transformations of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume I, is a must-read for academics and postgraduate students of development economics and business administration.

  • 34.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future Research Environment.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Transformation of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets: Volume II2021 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is much research into strategic business alliances in emerging markets, but none focuses on this form of collaboration within Europe’s emerging economies. This is a critical absence, as the European transition region is not only different from other European and Western regions but also from other regions with developing economies. Partners in the European transition region have unique cultural and social backgrounds, and consequently, unique ways of doing business.

    Transformations of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets focuses on this important gap. This book, the second of a two-volume set, makes a unique contribution to emerging market research by investigating the transformation of alliances in Eastern and central Europe over the past forty years. It provides a conceptual framework to describe and analyse the formation, development and functional mechanisms of strategic alliances in the European transition region, ultimately offering an in-depth overview of the challenges and opportunities around strategic alliance formation in emerging European markets.

    Transformations of Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets, Volume II, is a must-read for academics and postgraduate students of development economics and business administration.

  • 35.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Karim, S L
    Network Realities in the Age of Information and Communication Technology2004In: IMDA/MoM Thirteenth Annual World Business Congress, 2004, p. 787-798Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kaynak, Erdener
    Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, USA.
    Foreign Market Entry in a Transitional Environment: The case of Swedish Firms in Poland2004In: Journal of international selling and sales management, ISSN 1356-0565, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 29-51Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Acquiring Cross-Cultural Competence: Insights from International Firms in Four Countries2016In: Entrepreneurship Development in a Globalized Era / [ed] Dana-Nicoleta Lascu, 2016, Vol. 13, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms increasingly have to compete globally in order to survive. An understanding of the host country’s local culture arguably being one of the most important aspects of this survival. The greater the cultural difference, the higher the risk of miscommunication and of mismanagement. Given that cross-cultural management is acknowledged as an intrinsic part of firm establishment in foreign markets today, we set out to explore the linkages between the competence of international firms in managing cultural differences and the effectiveness of their business operations. How this ‘cross-cultural competence’ is acquired is of particular interest to this study. Swedish firms operating in Kenya, Lithuania, Poland and Russia are examined. The findings show that international firms tend not to formulate any preparatory measures to become ‘culturally competent’ prior to entering foreign markets. Learning takes place by doing. A Process Model of Acquiring Cross-Cultural Competence in Foreign Markets is constructed.

  • 38.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Learning from Failed Strategic Alliances: A European Case Study2015In: Regional and International Competiveness: Defining National and Governmental Drivers of Productivity, Efficiency, Growth and Profitability / [ed] E. Kaynak & T. D. Harcar, 2015, Vol. 24, p. 186-194Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    King Abdul Aziz University, Saudi Arabia.
    Strategic Alliance Breakups: The Volvo-Renault Story2015In: Exploring the Possibilities for Sustainable Future Grows in Business and Technology Management / [ed] N. J. Delener, Leonora Fuxman, F. Victor Lu & Susana Rodrigues, Global Business and Technology Association , 2015, p. 1-11Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Mukhtar, Syeda-Masooda
    Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, King AbdulAziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    The Process of Firm Establishment in International Markets: A European Telecommunications Operator in Latin America2016In: 17th International Academy of African Business and Development Conference Proceedings: Governance and business policies: Towards sustainable African business development / [ed] Anita Spring; Pantaleo Rwelamila, 2016, p. 376-390Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our understanding of the process of firm establishment of foregin firms within the developing and emerging countries remains limited, while the market-specific context-driven nature of the firm establishment process has been largely overlooked in the literature. We aim to address these omissions and explore the establishment process of a Spanish multinational telecommunication firm, Telefónica, in Brazil and Chile applying the "Four Stages Firm Establishment Process Model" by Abraha (1994). We identify strategic responses crafted by Telefónica to overcome competitive challenges during its establishment process. We revise Abraha's model in view of the findings and conclude with implications for managerial practices and future research.

  • 41.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Awuah, Gabriel
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Relations and Networks in the Processes of Establishment of Firms in Transitional Economies: The case of Scandinavian firms in Eastern and Central Europe2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus on the particular entry mode a firm uses to enter a new market, rather than the process of establishment dominates in extant literature. To fill this void, we apply an establishment process model developed from the network approach to illuminate the web of relationship forms embedded in the establishment process of two Scandinavian firms as they attempt to establish themselves in transition economies. In one case, the results show that Statoil’s process of establishment in Estonia was both less time- and resource-consuming because the firm drew support from significant actors in their network of exchange relationships. In the second case, a lack of home and host country support for Scania in Croatia resulted in an arduous and costly process and less stable position in the market, with the firm’s position changing several times as different problems cropped up. In light of the findings from the two cases, theoretical and practical implications for managing the establishment process are discussed.

  • 42.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Relationships and Networks in the Process of Establishment of Firms in Transaction Economies: Scandinavian firms in Central and Eastern Europe2008In: International Journal of Strategic Management, ISSN 1555-2411, E-ISSN 2378-8615, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 25-44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Radón, Anita
    Swedish Institute for Innovative Retailing, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sundström, Malin
    Swedish Institute for Innovative Retailing, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Reardon, James
    Monfort College of Business, University of Northern Colorado, USA.
    The effect of cosmopolitanism, national identity and ethnocentrism on Swedish purchase behavior2015In: Proceedings of the AABRI conference, Orlando Florida, January 1-3, Academic and Business Research Institute , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Radón, Anita
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Sundström, Malin
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Reardon, James
    Monfort College of Business, Greeley Colorado, USA.
    The effect of cosmopolitanism, national identity and ethnocentrism on Swedish purchase behavior2015In: Journal of Management and Marketing Research, ISSN 1941-3408, Vol. 18, article id 152146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Scandinavian market has changed significantly over the past half-decade with several online distributors, particularly of digital files such as music, originating locally. This ineffect has significantly further increased globalization of commerce in the Nordic countries. The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of more traditional models of consumer choice regarding local vs global products in this context. While the major metro areas of Scandinavia have always been largely global, this research reaches further into the central part where attitudes and globalization tends to be adopted at a slower pace

  • 45.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Zineldin, Mosad
    School of Management and Economics, Växjö University, Sweden.
    Major factors impacting the international market relationship and entry modes: A case of Swedish automotive industry in Mexico2007In: Studies of Sweden and Mexico: Economics, finance, trade and environment / [ed] Ignacio Perrotini Hernández; Fadi Zaher, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2007, p. 138-161Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Establishment processes in a one party economy: the case of Eritrea2010In: African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, ISSN 2040-0705, E-ISSN 2040-0713, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 91-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the issues of how business people perceive the business environment, how government policies impact the environment and how the environment impacts the establishment processes and position development of new firms in the Eritrean market. The process is discussed by keeping a strict focus on the main actors and the activities they carried out, as well as how the available resources are utilized and exchanged in the market.

    Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on the establishment process model developed from the network approach, case studies based on interviews and focus group discussions have been used to shed light on the extent to how government policies and the environment impacts the establishment processes and position development in the Eritrean market.

    Findings – An important conclusion of this paper is that the main obstacle for business establishment is the hostile attitude of the government to the private sector. Another significant obstacle for building a successful position in the market is the state-owned command economy network of relationships. An additional crucial hindrance is the non-existence of a market economy network of relationships that can provide firms in the private sector with the resources they need to perform their operations.

    Research limitations/implications – All firms in this paper have demonstrated that the main obstacle for establishment is the hostile attitude of the government to the private sector. Another obstacle is the state-owned command economy network of relationships, which hinders firms from building a successful position in the market. An additional crucial hindrance is the non-existence of a market economy network of relationships that can provide firms in the private sector with the resources they need to perform their operations. Since the paper is based on case studies and focus group discussions, conducting a similar study on a representative sample of firms selected from a larger population will be very useful.

    Originality/value – This paper makes a unique contribution by focusing on the establishment process in a market, which is regulated, controlled and owned by the one party government. The other unique contribution is that a firm has to identify the secrets of business success and to follow the same strategy.

  • 47.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Establishment Processes in the Traditional, Complex and Fast Developing Emerging Economy: The Case of Swedish Firms in China2012In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Marketing Studies (ICMS2012), academic-journal.org , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying a qualitative case-study method this article examines the establishment processes of IKEA and HELDING Share Company (HSC). The findings show that establishment in China is a complex, time and resources consuming process. This is because the Chinese culture makes it a pre-requisite to build social networks of harmonious interpersonal relationships, i.e. guanxi_to achieve success. The rules are changing continuously and there is an excessive involvement of the authorities in the economic activities in the market. It thus takes time and consumes enormous resources to understand the problems and to develop strategies to achieve success in establishments. IKEA and HSC developed interpersonal networks (guanxi) with the JV partners and the various influential people (facilitators) in the different phases of establishments. The developed guanxi enabled the two firms to understand and to handle; the cultural constraint, the complicated and continuously changing legal system, the bottlenecks in authorities relationships, the most complex and time consuming bureaucratic structures, the unique style of negotiations, to get operations and import license,  license for the land for running the business and to get various types of assistance in the network development.

  • 48.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    The Destructive Impact of the Psychopathic and Narcissistic Leadership on the Diplomatic Dimension of Nation Building2016In: 17th International Academy of African Business and Development Conference Proceedings: May 2016, IAABD Annual Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 51-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This article examines the Diplomatic Dimension of Nation building in Eritrea in light of the diplomatic vision adopted in 1994 by the so called the Peoples Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ). Both secondary and primary data are used to write this article. The primary data is collected through telephone interviews, personal interviews, skype-interviews and focus-group discussions with some veteran liberation fighters, former government officials, diplomats and some Eritreans who were holding key positions in the government and who have experience and knowledge as to how the narcissists and psychopaths deal with the neighboring countries and regional as well as international cooperation and relationships. The main findings show that the leadership has committed a diplomatic, moral and ethical blunder scoring one of its main failures in the diplomatic dimension of nation building. This is due to the fact that it has applied a militarist and one man owned, designed, decided and mismanaged diplomatic relationships which is not at all co-operative, although it claims that it applies a healthy neighborly, regional and international cooperation and relationships as stipulated in the diplomatic vision. Moreover, the dysfunctional militarist and one man owned, designed, decided and miss managed relationships and diplomatic approach is not properly planned and it is poorly coordinated and terribly mismanaged. This reality has a serious negative consequence on the diplomatic, economic, social, cultural, organizational and political conditions of the country. The other finding of this study is that the reason why the failed, i.e. narcissistic and psychopathic leadership applies a militarist and one man owned diplomatic relationships model is because it clearly understands that to maintain and strengthen its political, economic, cultural, organizational and social power i.e. power of all aspects it has to have a full control of all the diplomatic, economic, financial and human resources in the country. The reason why the psychopaths spear headed by the self-appointed destructive dictator do not implement the diplomatic vision is because like all the other visions envisaged in the 1994 charter, the diplomatic vision was not designed to be implemented but to help the dictator to get enough time to create the conditions necessary to implement the hidden vision which the Eritrean people couldn’t yet design appropriate strategies to fight it adequately and to dismantle its power apparatus. The last reason for the failure of the diplomatic dimension of nation building is the lack of a competent and authentic leadership that possesses the qualities of an effective, legacy building and developmental leadership.

  • 49.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    The leadership hypocrisy of four million parties and its insurmountable consequences on the political dimension of nation building: An Illustration of the so called “Peoples Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) Central Office in Eritrea”2014In: 15th annual IAABD international conference, International Academy of African Business and Development , 2014, p. 1-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The main results of this article are (i) the PFDJ and in particular Isayas has committed a political blunder  in the political dimension of nation building by refusing to implement the constitution, (ii) the PFDJ militarized political ideology is a poisonous tool applied to secure the political power of the dictator, (iii) the political vision was not developed to be implemented but to consolidate the raw political power’ of the ‘raw dictator’ in the raw and secretive underground party by liquidating all democratic elements, (iii) the dictator is incompetent to lead the task successfully, and (iv) the other cause for the failure is the lack of an authentic leader who possesses the qualities of a developmental and legacy-building leaders.

  • 50.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    A Longitudinal Study of Strategic Alliances in Eastern and Central Europe: The Case of ACCEL Share Company (ASC) and two Local Firms in Lithuania2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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