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  • 1.
    Abarca-Gómez, Leandra
    et al.
    Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, Costa Rica.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ezzati, Majid
    School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10113, p. 2627-2642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.

    METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5-19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).

    FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0·01 kg/m(2) per decade; 95% credible interval -0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m(2) per decade (0·69-1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m(2) per decade (0·64-1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m(2) per decade (-0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m(2) per decade (0·50-1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4-1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8-6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5-1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7-9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0-12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8-10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4-19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3-14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7-29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5-38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese.

    INTERPRETATION: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.

    FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, AstraZeneca Young Health Programme.

  • 2.
    Abdul Hadi, Bisan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Miss.
    Bandic, Ermina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att vårda patienter med malnutrition: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Malnutrition means an imbalance between nutrition and energy that goes to the bodytissues and the existing need. With age, the physiological functions of the body change which have a bearing on the intake of food and fluid. Malnutrition can cause multiple consequences for the elderly, such as increased fall risk, reduced quality of life, increased hospitalization and mortality. The nurse has an essential role in the field of elderly care to assess, plan and implement measures regarding the nutrient and fluid intake of the elderly. Aim: The aim was to describe nurses experiences when it comes to nursing patients with malnutrition. Method: A literature review where data material consisted qualitative and quantitative article. Results: Five areas identified; knowledge by education, cooperation with different professions, nurses' work environment, dialogue for anamnesis and the use of assessment instrument. Conclusion: There is a need for increased knowledge in the care of patients with malnutrition because increased knowledge leads to less insecurity for the nurse.

  • 3.
    Abdulahad, Nathalie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Holmström, Jannike
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Anorexia Nervosa: Friskförklarade kvinnors upplevelser kring orsaksfaktorer för insjuknande2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anorexia is a global issue but occurs mainly in the Western world. Anorexia nervosa is a complex disease caused by biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors which often interacts with each other. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to gain a greater understanding of how recovered women created meaning in their illness and if there are mutual factors in their life-stories. We have especially focused on family patterns and the communication within the family. We have based our study on symbolic interactionism as our theoretical perspective. The study is of a qualitative nature and we used semi structured interviews which later were interpreted from a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. In our result we could see that creating meaning was central throughout the disease and was expressed in different ways by our respondents. Ten themes appeared and the most vital findings were that anorexia was an active action and that it is an expression for self-hatred and low self-esteem. We could also see that lack of expression regarding emotions within the families and not being emotionally recognized by their parents were crucial factors. The most important result was the respondents own perception of anorexia as a symbolizing action and the content of the disease is about so much more than weight and looks.

  • 4.
    Aboagye, Stella
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Johansson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnans förlossningsrädsla i fokus - Ur barnmorskor inom barnmorskemottagningens perspektiv: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Midwives working at maternal care center experience insufficient knowledge about how professional support can be offered to pregnant women. It´s important that pregnant women with tocophobia receive professional care from midwives during the entire pregnancy.

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to highlight maternal care midwives’ experiences providing professional support for pregnant women who fear of giving birth.

    Method: A qualitative interview study with inductive approach was chosen for this study to gain broader view of the BMM midwives' experiences. Seven midwives were interviewed at two BMM in southwestern Sweden.

    Results: There were two main categories "Women's fear of childbirth tokophobia". There were two subcategories "Midwife's experiences about women's lack of knowledge about fear of childbirth" and "Guide pregnant women to correct care effort". Midwives offer professional support from their own experience when women express fear of birth. This through midwives being responsive when incuayaring causes to tokophobia women. in focus" and "Midwife's need for resources and knowledge about women`s

    Conclusion: BMM midwives need continuous education about fear of childbirth in order to offer women prophetic support. BMM occupational managers should offer midwives right prerequisites for midwives to feel safe by providing care to women suffering from tokophobia.

  • 5.
    Abraham, Klaus
    et al.
    BfR Fed Inst Risk Assessment, Natl Breastfeeding Comm, Berlin, Germany.
    Brennan, Christine
    Stillforderung Schweiz, Bern, Switzerland.
    Cattaneo, Adriano
    Univ La Laguna, Breastfeeding Comm Spanish Pediat Assoc, Tenerife, Spain.
    Gomez, Marta Diaz
    Univ La Laguna, Breastfeeding Comm Spanish Pediat Assoc, Tenerife, Spain.
    Grguric, Josip
    Univ Zagreb, UNICEF Off Croatia, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Solveig, Thorp Holmsen
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norwegian Resource Ctr Breastfeeding, Oslo, Norway.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    van Lonkhuijsen, Myrthe
    Nederlandse Vereniging van Lactatiekundigen, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Breastfeeding in Europe: Current Status and Perspectives2015In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 67, p. 15-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Elinor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Backlund, Carola
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Vilka framgångsfaktorer är förknippade med en ökning av den fysiska aktiviteten hos tonåringar?: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Frida
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ekelund, Sophie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    All kärlek är fin kärlek: Ungdomars kommunikation i bloggar om sex och relationer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under ungdomsåren förändras ungdomar fysiskt, emotionellt och kognitivt. De går in i en ny fas i livet och utvecklas från att vara barn till att bli vuxna. Under ungdomsåren etablerara och experimenterar ungdomar med vanor, attityder, tro samt livsstil. Vid ogynnsamma förhållanden kan olika riskbeteende öka. Bland ungdopmar idag ses en ökning av sexuellexponering på sociala medier. Etfersom internet idag är mer lättillgängligt än tidigare kan det medföra att ungdomar i högre utsträckning exponerar sig sexuellt, vilket kan leda till sexuella övergrepp och missbruk.

    Syfte: Är att beskriva vad ungdomar kommunicerar om i bloggar, angående sex och relationer.

    Metod: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys enligt Graneheim och Lundman användes där fem ungdomsbloggar i åldrarna 17-25 år användes och analyserades

    Resultat: Utifrån de analyserade ungdomsbloggarna framkom det två huvudkategorier; Samhällets trender påverkar ungdomars sexuella hälsa och Tillit har betydelse för relationen. Under kategorierna bildades sex underkategorier. I resultatet framkom det att ungdomar kommunicerar i stor utsträckning om sex och relationer på sociala forum. De ansåg att det idag är mer accepterat med olika sexuella läggningar och familjekonstellationer samt diskuterades dagens könsideal. Det uttrycktes en negativ syn på hormonella preventivmedel. Bloggarna uttryckte att det var viktigt med bekräftelse i en relation.

    Konklusion: Ungdomar kommunicerar brett om sex och relationer på nätet, där de har en possitiv inställning till alternativa familjekontellationer. Synen på preventivmedel var negativ bland annat på grund av dess biverkningar och de förespråkade istället hormonfria alternativ. Relationer kan påverkas av olika förändringar i livet och att vara offentlig på internet kan upplevas som ansträngande för relationen.

  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Linda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Bladh, Ramona
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Patienter med psykisk ohälsa och deras upplevelse av mötet med hälso- och sjukvården: En analys av bloggar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mental illness is a collective term that covers both mental disorders and psychiatric diagnoses. The healthcare system consists of a care chain where primary care, county healthcare, regional healthcare, national highly specialized care and homecare are included. The nurse should defend socially vulnerable individuals and groups at risk in society, and is responsible for ensuring that patients and relatives receive correct information in a manner that is comprehensible. Patients with mental illness experience that their physical health problems are not taken seriously by healthcare providers. Purpose: To illuminate how patients with mental illness experience the interaction with healthcare providers. Method: The study is an analysis of blogs based on a qualitative content analysis. Eleven blogs have been used as data source. Result: It is common that patients suffering from mental illness experience being labeled. The waiting time for adequate psychiatric care is long. Patients find that healthcare professionals often take the easy way out and send them home with a pillbox that is expected to solve their problems. However there is hope for a better psychiatric care. Conclusion: It is the nurse's responsibility to take these patients seriously and give them the care they deserve, regardless of mental illness.

  • 9.
    Abulafia, Carolina
    et al.
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Applied Neuroscience Laboratory, Institute for Biomedical Research, School of Medical Sciences, Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Duarte-Abritta, Bárbara
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Villarreal, Mirta F.
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Ladrón-de-Guevara, Maria S.
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Garcia, Celeste
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Sequeyra, Geraldine
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Sevlever, Gustavo
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Fiorentini, Leticia
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Bär, Karl-Jürgen
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Universitätsklinikum Jena, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena, Germany.
    Gustafson, Deborah R.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Neurology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA / Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vigo, Daniel E.
    Applied Neuroscience Laboratory, Institute for Biomedical Research, School of Medical Sciences, Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Guinjoan, Salvador M.
    FLENI Foundation Department of Psychiatry, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina / FLENI Teaching Unit, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine, Buenos Aires, Argentina / Department of Neurophysiology, University of Buenos Aires School of Psychology, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Relationship between Cognitive and Sleep-wake Variables in Asymptomatic Offspring of Patients with Late-onset Alzheimer's Disease2017In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 9, article id 93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early neuropathological changes characteristic of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) involve brain stem and limbic structures that regulate neurovegetative functions, including sleep-wake rhythm. Indeed, sleep pattern is an emerging biomarker and a potential pathophysiological mechanism in LOAD. We hypothesized that cognitively asymptomatic, middle-aged offspring of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) would display a series of circadian rhythm abnormalities prior to the onset of objective cognitive alterations. We tested 31 children of patients with LOAD (O-LOAD) and 19 healthy individuals without family history of Alzheimer's disease (control subjects, CS) with basic tests of cognitive function, as well as actigraphy measures of sleep-wake rhythm, cardiac autonomic function, and bodily temperature. Unexpectedly, O-LOAD displayed subtle but significant deficits in verbal episodic memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test delayed recall 10.6 +/- 0.4 vs. 8.6 +/- 0.6, t = 4.97, df = 49, p < 0.01) and language (Weschler's vocabulary 51.4 +/- 1.3 vs. 44.3 +/- 1.5, t = 2.49, df = 49, p < 0.001) compared to CS, even though all participants had results within the clinically normal range. O-LOAD showed a phase-delayed rhythm of body temperature (2.56 +/- 0.47 h vs. 3.8 +/- 0.26 h, t = 2.48, df = 40, p = 0.031). Cognitive performance in O-LOAD was associated with a series of cardiac autonomic sleep-wake variables; specifically indicators of greater sympathetic activity at night were related to poorer cognition. The present results suggest sleep pattern deserves further study as a potential neurobiological signature in LOAD, even in middle-aged, at risk individuals.

  • 10.
    Aden, Najmo
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Luwedde, Jalia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Närståendes upplevelser efter att en anhörig har begått suicid: En litteraturstudie baserad på självbiografier2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicide is self-destructive act that leads to death and is usually a consequence of mental illness and disease. Suicide also leads to great suffering for the relatives left behind. The nurse’s role in cases like these is therefore to acknowledge and support relatives in their grieving process. Aim: Is to describe relatives’ lived experiences after their next of kin commits suicide in order to create an understanding on how nurses can respond to their needs. Method: The study was based on seven autobiographies. Dahborg-lyckhage’s method for analyzing narratives was used to analyze the chosen biographies. Results: The results describe the relatives’ feelings like guilt, shame, relief among others and reactions after their next of kin’s suicide. They experienced avoidance by people in their surroundings. They also lacked professional support to assist them in their bereavement and had to reach out for it themselves. Conclusion: Nurses have a role to fulfill with supporting relatives in their grieving process with aim to help on improving their wellbeing and relieve their suffering. Information about support groups and helpful organizations like SPES as a form of social support can be very helpful in achieving this.

  • 11.
    Adielsson, Camilla
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Växt av meticillinresistenta staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) i vårdrum på sjukhus i Region Halland efter vård av patient med känd MRSA: Koppling till riskfaktorer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria poses a major threat to public health. All patients are entitled to a non-infectious care environment; despite the fact that infectious transmission in health care is possible. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients, staff and in health care environment represents such a threat. 

    In infection prevention in health care established routines in patient care, handling of medical equipment and cleaning in care environment are essential.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the fraction of MRSA positive environmental sampling following terminal cleaning of a room where a patient with confirmed MRSA was treated, and to assess whether potential patient’s risk factors and/or length of hospital stay influenced the result.

    Methods: Quantitative study with consecutive material consisting of data from in total 180 environmental samplings performed in Region Halland. The material has been processed with the statistic program SPSS, and analyzed with Chi2 test. 

    Results: In 14 % (25 out of 180) of the environmental samplings MRSA was detected. A statistically significant association between prevalence of patient risk factors as wounds/skin lesions, drainage, catheters, tracheostomy or other artificial body openings could not be shown. However, a hospital stay exceeding 24 hours significantly increased risk of detecting MRSA in the patient room after terminal cleaning. 

    Conclusion: Quality of terminal cleaning is important in preventing transmission of MRSA in health care environment and probably more important than the impact of patient risk factors. However, length of hospital stay is a factor worth consideration and can possibly be used to influence care routines in prevention of transmission of MRSA in health care environment.

  • 12.
    Adolfsson, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Axelsson, Hanna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av deras sexualitet efter genomgången mastektomi: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A number of 9400 women is diagnosed with breast cancer every year i Sweden and increased age is a significant risk factor. Breast cancer is diagnosed with a triple diagnostics; mammography, palpation and cytology. The treatment of breast cancer consists of surgical-, radiation-, hormonal-, and chemotherapy. The human being sense and experience, which is also linked to the environment to other individuals. The sexual health is complex and is related to the woman's body perception. A good body image gives increased well-being and sexual health. The nursing of the women's sexual health is provided by the nurse, who will support and information the woman Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe the women's sexuality after mastectomy. Method: The chosen method was a literature review of women´s experience of their body after mastectomy by analysing qualitative studies from women’s perspective in a literature study. Findings: The result shows that women who have undergone mastectomy suffer from lower self-esteem related to impaired body image. The women also experience sexual problems such as vaginal dryness, reduced sex drive and difficulty in achieving orgasm. The women find that support from partners and health care is essential for better sexual health, but there is a lack of support and information from healthcare providers. Conclusion: Women undergoing mastectomy need increased support from the health care providers to experience participation and safety in their care and everyday life.

  • 13.
    Adolfsson, Lisa
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ATT LEVA MED HIV/AIDS I SYDAFRIKA: en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    BAKGRUND: Humant Immunbrist Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) är en pandemi som hårdast drabbat utvecklingsländer i världen. I Sydafrika är 6,300 000 HIV/AIDS positiva. Studier visar att människor som lever i fattigdom utsätts för den största risken att bli drabbad av HIV/AIDS, då utbildning och möjligheten till val av livsstil är låg. Skam och stigmatisering drabbar både människan i fråga och dess närstående. SYFTE: Syftet med studien är att beskriva Sydafrikanska människor upplevelse av sin livssituation efter en HIV/AIDS diagnos. METOD: Litteraturöversikt, åtta artiklar har analyserats för att nå arbetets resultat. RESULTAT: Resultatet är uppbyggt under tre huvudteman; Egenupplevt och samhällets skuldbeläggande hos HIV/AIDS-positiva människor, Viktiga faktorer för att uppnå en känsla av hälsa hos HIV/AIDS-positiva människor samt Behov och längtan av stöd från närstående. Resultatet beskriver att den drabbade värderar anonymitet högt för att undvika samhällets stigmatisering. Gott bemötande hos vårdpersonalen visade sig också vara en viktig faktor för välbefinnande hos människan, men även stöd från familj. Stödet från familjen upplevdes dock i vissa fall som svårt att finna. DISKUSSION: Stigma som är ett stort problem hos den drabbade skulle kunna minskas med utbildning och spridning av kunskap hos allmänheten. Bemötande som ger människan en känsla av trygghet och ett system som är gynnsamt för individens anonymitet är eftersökt. Detta trots att forskning visar att en öppenhet uppmuntras hos de HIV positiva för att minska stigma. Rädslan är dock för stor för att detta skulle kunna bli aktuellt för många

  • 14.
    Adolfsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hellström, Mimmi
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Fysisk aktivitet och den byggda miljön2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Trots vetskapen om vikten av fysisk aktivitet rör männiksor på sig allt mindre, vilket kan bero på ändrade förutsättningar i samhället. En väletablerad faktor, som påverkar intresset för att vara fysisk aktiv, är den byggda miljön. Syftet med litteraturöversikten är därför att beskriva vilka faktorer i den byggda miljön som främjar fysisk aktiviet hos vuxna kvinnor och män. Metod: Uppsatsen utgår från metoden litteraturöersikt och är baserad på tio vetenskapliga originalartiklar. Resultat: Genom analyser av de tio vetenskapliga artiklarna kunde fyra teman urskiljas; tillgänglighet till cyckel- och gångvägar, avstånd till grönområden och parker, miljömässiga faktorer och faciliteter samt antal parker/grönområden och deras areal. Diskussion: Faktorer som lättillgänglighet till cykel- och gångvägar, litet avstånd till grönområden och parker samt faciliteter i den byggda miljön visade sig främja rörelse. Även antal parker/grönområden och deras areal gynnade fysisk aktivitet hos vuxna kvinnor och män. Några resultat visade dock andra utgångar där avståndet till gröna ytor samt att antalet parker inte var av signifikant betydelse för fysisk aktivitet. 

  • 15.
    Aghaei, Mary
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skrivutveckling hos andraspråkselever på gymnasiet: En kvalitativ studie om hur lärare i gymnasieskolor arbetar med skrivutveckling hos elever som har svenska som andraspråk2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Agorastos, Marika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Friman, Veronica
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av en förändrad kropp i samband med en mastektomi: En kvalitativ litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breast cancer is a common cancer among women. Women undergo several different treatments and mastectomy is one of them. The removal of the entire breast/breasts causes several changes which affect womanhood, sexuality and the body as well and the women´s entire world of being. The nurse has a task too support women with breast cancer through the diagnosis and treatments in connection with nursing. Aim: The aim of this literature study was to illuminate women´s experiences around a mastectomy. Methods: Literature review based on ten qualitative articles that were analyzed. Results: Women felt that mastectomy affected their way of looking at themselves. Mastectomy led to avoided behavior and they had a hard time accepting the new body. The changed body affected women in the intimate relations and in social relations which resulted in a suffering. The women felt that the body had failed them, and they had difficulties to both see and touch themselves. Femininity was changed and women had to learn to accept their new changed body. Conclusion: Mastectomy affected more than just the woman’s body physically, it also affected the woman mentally. The feeling of being a woman was reduced when they undergo mastectomy. The woman´s entire world of being was affected in connection with the mastectomy an resulted in lifelong suffering.

  • 17.
    Ahlandsberg, Sanne
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Millner, Emmy
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    När hjärtat plötsligt slutar slå: En kvalitativ litteraturöversikt av patienters upplevelse av att överleva ett hjärtstopp utanför sjukhus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Ett plötsligt hjärtstopp är en av de vanligaste dödsorsakerna i Sverige och cirka 5 000 människor drabbas årligen av ett hjärtstopp utanför sjukhus. Att överleva ett hjärtstopp kan väcka många existentiella frågor och känslor som påverkar både livskvalitet och livsvärld. Sjuksköterskan kan möta patienter som överlevt ett hjärtstopp inom vilken klinisk specialitet som helst. Syfte: Syftet med studien är att beskriva patienters upplevelser av att överleva ett hjärtstopp som skett utanför sjukhuset. Metod: Studien använde sig av en kvalitativ litteraturöversikt som innefattar både kvalitativ och kvantitativ forskning. Resultat: Patienterna upplevde mycket ångest, oro och rädsla efter att de överlevt ett hjärtstopp. Patienterna upplevde att det var nödvändigt med nya rutiner för att kunna gå vidare. Det emotionella och sociala stödet var en viktig del i återhämtningen efter hjärtstoppet. Patienterna upplevde att det var viktigt för dem att få information kring hjärtstoppet och vägen tillbaka till ett sunt liv. Konklusion: Studien kom fram till att patienterna hade ett stort behov av information kring den nya vardagen. Det var viktigt för patienterna att bearbeta sina existentiella frågor och få stöd från sjukvården, familj och vänner. Patienterna önskade att sjuksköterskan hade mer konkret information om patientens tillstånd och vad deras kropp klarade av rent fysiskt.

  • 18.
    Ahlin, Amanda
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av sexuella ofredanden på arbetsplatsen: Litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A registered nurse is a caregiver with an academic degree. In their profession, nurses have close encounters with other individuals; including colleagues with other professions as well as patients and their relatives. A nurse is also an individual with own sense of integrity and health, and with a need for a safe work enviroment. The majority of nurses are women. Women are more likely to be victims of sexual harassment than men.

    Purpose: The aim was to describe nurses experience of sexual harassment in their workplace.

    Method: Literature review containing twelve articles with qualitative and quantitative method.

    Result: The perpetrator in sexual harassment against nurses is either a patient or its family or a colleague, often a male. Patient whom suffers from cognitive impairment are difficult to assess if they are aware of their actions if they sexual harass a nurse. Nurses whom have been sexual harassed react in different ways, both in the on-going incident and afterwards. Being sexual harassed may lead to different kinds of negative influence in the nurse’s professional role as well in their own health.

    Conclusion: More research is necessary, this study describes that nurses have different experiences of sexual harassment, strategies for management is non-existing or not efficient enough.

  • 19.
    Ahlin, Elin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Simon, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av att stödja patienter med hypertoni till livsstilsförändringar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hypertension is a public health problem and a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. The basis for the nursing care is lifestyle changes. District nurses´ role includes to advise, motivate and support life style changes, as well as to promote patient participation and autonomy, through an equal and mutual communication.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to illuminate experiences of district nurses supporting patients with hypertension to make lifestyle changes.

    Method: The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. Eight district nurses responsible for hypertensive patients were interviewed.

    Results: Three categories emerged from the data analysis: Initiates cooperation; Confirms the individual and Adapts nursing for the patient, with six subcategories.

    Conclusion: The district nurses perceived their role as central, important, and responsible when providing advice and instruction. They also considered themselves as an important link between the patient and other actors. Responsiveness of the patient's life context, as well as using a communication strategy when giving counseling on lifestyle changes were considered important to promote patient participation and autonomy. To motivate lifestyle changes individually was described as a difficulty and district nurses expressed frustration with the lack of time for follow-up.

  • 20.
    Ahmadi, Nasser S.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bennet, Louise
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Family Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Larsson, Charlotte A.
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden / Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Andersson, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Månsson, Jörgen
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, SwedenDepartment of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Clinical characteristics of asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and its association with self-rated health and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide: a cross-sectional study2016In: ESC Heart Failure, E-ISSN 2055-5822, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 205-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimsLeft ventricular hypertrophy, obesity, hypertension, and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) predict left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function (DD-PSF). Self-rated health (SRH) is shown to be associated with chronic diseases, but the association of SRH with DD-PSF is unclear. In light of the clinical implications of DD-PSF, the following goals are of considerable importance: (1) to determine the role of SRH in patients with DD-PSF in the general population and (2) to study the association between Nt-proBNP and DD-PSF.

    Methods and resultsThe current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on a random sampling of a rural population. Individuals 30–75 years of age were consecutively subjected to conventional echocardiography and tissue velocity imaging. Data were collected on 500 (48%) men and 538 (52%) women (n = 1038). DD-PSF was the main outcome, and SRH and Nt-proBNP were the primary indicators. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity were accounted for as major confounders of the association with SRH. DD-PSF was identified in 137 individuals, namely, 79 men (15.8%) and 58 women (10.8%). In a multivariate regression model, SRH (OR 2.95; 95% CI 1.02–8.57) and Nt-proBNP (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 OR 4.23; 95% CI 1.74–10.26) were both independently associated with DD-PSF.

    ConclusionsSRH, evaluated based on a descriptive question on general health, should be included in the diagnostic process of DD-PSF. In agreement with previous studies, our study confirms that Nt-proBNP is a major indicator of DD-PSF.

  • 21.
    Ahumada, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Uppfattningar om barnfetma och om myndigheternas åtgärder bland invånarna i Viña del Mar - Chile2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Obesity development is one of the most obvious - and at the same time, one of the most neglected - public health problems (WHO, 2018). Objective: The primary purpose was to investigate the understanding of the factors behind childhood obesity in a limited group of participants living in three areas in Viña del Mar, Chile; Reñaca Alto, Santa Inés and Center. The secondary purpose of the study was to elucidate the perception of the authorities' health-promoting efforts among participants in different socio-economic groups in these areas. The two main research questions were: What are the views of the residents of Viña del Mar about the factors behind childhood obesity? What are the opinions of residents of Viña del Mar about measures to counteract the problem? Method: The study is a cross-sectional survey (n = 63) and the data were collected and analysed using SPSS statistical program and an Excel program. The results are presented through descriptive statistics, in the form of tables. Results: The survey was answered by 63 persons, representing 63 families, consisting of a total of 231 persons, divided into 156 adults and 75 children. The results show that 15% of the participants do not know the severity of child obesity. Furthermore, 88% of the participants perceive that the household economy is the main significant risk factor for child obesity, followed by a high consumption of sugar and sugar-containing products. In addition, participants perceive that it is possible to influence the childhood obesity epidemic and 84% of participants feel that the family can have a positive influence on childhood obesity, but more tools are needed in the form of knowledge and support. The results show that only 10% of the participants think that the authorities are making a considerable effort, while 49% (n = 25) think that they are not doing enough. Behaviour-changing measures show a better result in population groups with a high SEP (Socio Economic Position) than in those with a low, since the former are more influenced by the information. However, a multidisciplinary holistic perspective is needed on health promotion work. If the SES gap (Socio Economic Status) is reduced and SEP equated, more people can get advice and be given the opportunity to have a healthy lifestyle. Socioeconomic factors affect the risk of childhood obesity in particular in economic transition processes. If SEP and SES, both individually and socially, change from poor to rich, child obesity in society increases and Chile is an example of this phenomenon. The health promotion efforts in the country are multifaceted and innovative in many ways and there are many actors working with these. However, the question is how effective the efforts are when the work is done in many different forms and often without being anchored to one another. Finally, prevention efforts should be developed and implemented in collaboration with the target groups.

  • 22.
    Akl, Ziad
    et al.
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden / Youth Association for Social Awareness- YASA, Lebanon.
    Akl, Mona
    Youth Association for Social Awareness- YASA, Lebanon.
    Eriksson, Charli
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Gifford, Mervyn
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Higher School of Public Health, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    Evaluating seat belt use in Lebanon (1997-2017)2019In: Open Public Health Journal, ISSN 1874-9445, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The use of seat belts has made a significant contribution to the reduction of road traffic casualties, and the risk inherent with not wearing seat belts in all seats of a vehicle is now well-known worldwide. The use of seat belts has a major role in reducing fatal and nonfatal injuries in all types of motor-vehicles crashes. Aim: The aim of this study is to understand the reasons behind the variation in seat belt use over the past two decades in Lebanon. It analyzes the situation and suggests recommendations to improve seat belt use in Lebanon. Design: Nine observational studies had been conducted in Lebanon during the last two decades between 1997 and 2017, and one qualitative study was performed in 2017. Results: The results show a significant variation in the use of the seat belt. When enforcement efforts are in progress, seat belt use increases. While when there are no checkpoints and the enforcement of seat belt use is almost absent, a significant fall was noticed. Discussion: The results of this study proved the failure of the Lebanese government in saving hundreds of lives just by a simple measure of enforcing seat belt law. Although experiences from various countries prove that such laws usually have a long-lasting effect on seat belt use, Lebanon failed to pursue the successful implementation of this law due to security and political problems. Conclusion: During the past two decades, Lebanon witnessed continuous fluctuations in seat belt use. Outside few short enforcement campaigns, our observations showed lack in seat belt use. Our observations of seat belt use among drivers and front seat passengers showed a significant correlation between seat belt use and the enforcement of seat belt law. The greatest national benefits from seat belt use are obtained when wearing rates are very high. This can be achieved only through a sustained enforcement campaign alongside other seat belt wearing interventions such as publicity and education. © 2019 Open Public Health Journal. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Albertsson, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Bergström, Matilda
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Copingstrategier hos patienter med KOL: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: COPD is a disease that affects the airways and the lungs. The disease is characterized by the patient having a limited airflow and the most common risk factor for COPD is tobacco smoke. COPD affects the entire lifeworld of the patient as the disease has both physical and mental impact and the patient is often in need of support. To handle stress-causing factors, people use different coping strategies, and these may vary depending on the situation, experience, and support available around the person. Aim: To describe coping strategies in patients with COPD and thereby create an understanding of these patients need for support. Method: The study is a literature review where nine articles with a qualitative approach and one article with a quantitative approach have been analyzed. Result: The result is presented with the categories Coping strategies for managing emotions and thoughts and Coping strategies that focus on change. In these categories different coping strategies of COPD patients are described in ten subcategories. Conclusion: Which coping strategies COPD-patients use depends on their lifeworld and what social and professional support is available around them. The coping strategies that focus on change are especially those who promote health, but other coping strategies are also common since the disease is associated with shame and guilt. The nurse must pay attention to the patients' coping strategies and provide them with support in implementing coping strategies that promote health. 

  • 24.
    Alemayehu, Samrawit
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Tranchell, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors upplevelser efter en gastric bypass operation: Är gräset alltid grönare på andra sidan?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The worldwide prevalence of obesity has doubled in the last twenty years and is therefore classified as a global epidemic and is therefore a major health problem. This has initiated the gastric bypass surgery to increase. It is therefore important that nurses and people considering this operation have a better understanding and knowledge the life after the surgery. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe women's experiences after a gastric bypass surgery. Method: This study used qualitative method to study the blogs written by women who have gone through gastric bypass surgery. It contains 14 analysed blogs. Results/ Discussion: The result shows that women have a better quality of life when it´s easier for them to move around and don’t feel the discomfort when they are participating in social activities. However, there is a downside to the surgery. They find it difficult to adjust to the new lifestyle, in order to avoid the complications. Some of these women are also experiencing identity crisis. Conclusion: It is therefore significant for patients who have gone through gastric bypass surgery to get the support they need with attitudes and information about diet to have a healthy and permanent weight loss and lifestyle. Further research on how women experience the psychological health before and after the surgery needs to be done since obesity is increasing and more people are choosing this method for weight loss.

  • 25.
    Alexandersson, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Pettersson, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelser av telefonrådgivning inom primärvården i samtal med människor av annan etnisk bakgrund: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Telephone advice nursing is a big part of the assignment as a district nurse in primary care. The district nurse must have the ability to assess the urgency and health care need of the patients matter as well as provide information and self-care advice by telephone. As immigration is increasing in Sweden the calls to primary care from people with different ethnical background are most likely to increase along with it. Difficulties in communication and lack of visual contact might lead to misunderstanding and miscalculation regarding the patients matter. It is important that the district nurse can extract relevant information about the patient in order to assess the health care need.       Aim: The aim of the study was to illuminate the district nurses' experiences of telephone advice nursing in primary care regarding calls with people of different ethnic background. Method: A qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach was used in the study. The data was collected through interviews with seven district nurses. Results: The analysis revealed four themes; A threat to patient safety, Different points of view that collides, A challenge that require resources, Shifting emotions in telephone advice nursing.                                                                                                                                                     Conclusion: This study made it visible that there are difficulties in telephone advice nursing regarding calls with people who have different ethnic background, which could be a threat to patient safety. The result can provide increased awareness to this problem, and that telephone advice nursing to this group of people needs to be improved and adjusted.

     

  • 26.
    Alfredsson, Ellen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Johansson, Evelina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av telefonrådgivning: En litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Telephone counseling exists worldwide and it’s a easy way for the patient to come in contact with care.  The assessment process is made more difficult because the nurse can’t see the patient, which requires a broad knowledge. Telephone counseling is making it possible for the nurse to perform the nursing work without physically meet the patient. Aim: To describe the nurse's experience of telephone counseling. Method: A literature review based on 11 articles with qualitative approach. Results: Three categories emerged from the analysis; The sense of work, Meeting the patient in the telephone counseling and Doing your own assessments. The categories is supported a total of seven subcategories. Discussion: Nurses experience the work in telephone counseling as stressful, which can affect the caring relationship with the patient. In the assessment over the telephone the nurse ask more questions than at a physical meeting to create an understanding of the patient's life-world. This can lead to a more individualized care for the patient. Conclusion: The nurse feels that the work in telephone counseling is stimulating and rewarding. The caring relationship is crucial to how the nurses feel about their work. The nurse is experiencing some difficulties, one of these is to make decisions and an assessment without seeing patient.                

  • 27.
    Alfredsson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Johansson, Amanda
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    I väntan på ett nytt hjärta.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden the primary reason for heart transplants is severe heart failure. Heart transplants are performed both at Sahlgrenska University hospital and at Skånes University hospital. Patient undergoing several extensive investigations before he or she will be considered for the waiting list. Primary factor for receiving a heart is first of all the patient who is in the greatest need of a new heart and the patient most suited to receive the donated heart. Previous studies show that patients feel the waiting time to be unpredictable. Aim: To describe patients’ experiences of the time before a heart transplant. Method: Qualitative content analysis was used as the analysis method and seven blogs were applied. Results: Life is seen from a new and different perspective. A common factor for patients with heart failure was the physical limitation they felt. Life stopped for a while, and a waiting to regain “life” grew strong. Family and nursing staff was thought to play an important role. To maintain a positive attitude was thought to be a criterion to manage the anticipations. Conclusion: A patient waiting for a heart transplant experiences a change in their life world. To allow proper care it is important that the nurse recognizes this change and acknowledge it.

  • 28.
    Alfredsson, Marina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Eklöf, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Andersson Nielsen, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Flickor leker med dockor och pojkar leker med bilar, eller?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigated girls and boys choices of games and choice of materials as well as different patterns of communication between the sexes. We have observed the children’s choice of play materials and games in preschool. Girls ' and boys' communication between each other were observed in three environments. These three environments comprised a typical girl playroom which included kitchen supplies, dolls and dress up clothes, a typical boy playroom which included building supplies, cars, and toy tools and a neutral room. Based on personal experience, girls often play in the girls’ playroom while boys often choose to play in the construction area. By observing in different environments, we could examine the importance of the environment for girls and boys of communication between each other. The study is based on the social learning theory which argues that children do as we do. That is children have role models and through them learn quickly the meaning of what is considered to be a girl or boy. This result shows that the pre various gender codes of the children's choice of games and materials, and in communication. I could see that the girls and boys often chose to play the same kind of games and play with the same material at the preschool. The boys were playing, however, more violent and played many racing and war games. The girls played more gently and quietly and played more care and beauty games. Despite the fact that both sexes used the same materials you could see clear gender patterns in their behavior. An example of this would be that the girls often shaped clay as pastries and food while the boys often shaped this as balls and old men. The girls also used the very pink, yellow, white and purple colors in their creations while the boys' choice of colors dominated by blue, green, brown and red. One could also see clear patterns of communication between girlsand boys. This is when the children on some occasions discussed the male and female characteristics and behaviors with each other. We have discussed the importance of the environment in children's creation of gender in preschool. Children talk about what's around them and it is important to create an environment where children can get a broader view of masculinity and femininity.

  • 29.
    Alfredsson, Pontus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hildorzon, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att främja fysisk aktivitet hos gravida kvinnor2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a gradual percentage increase in pregnant women who are overweight or obese in the west hemisphere. In Sweden, nearly 40 percent of those women are overweight and 10 percent are obese. One third of them are physically inactive which makes the research within public health highly relevant. Aim: To promote physical activity amongst pregnant women. Method: Ten research articles on the topic were reviewed to achieve a deeper understanding. By summarizing the most important and relevant points brought up in each article, a conclusion was formed. Those points where then categorized into three themes, which turned the study into a type of literature. Results: There are many factors that impact the pregnant women’s physical activity. These factors can be triggered by the actual pregnancy, such as symptoms causing the body to change. Location and environment is seen as important to help the promotion, such as social support and access to activities close to home. Effective interventions are diet and exercise consultations and measurable goals by using pedometers. Conclusion: The conclusion of this study was that several factors promoting pregnant women’s physical activity. Pregnant women are likely to follow the prenatal cares advice and therefore can interventions designed with the promoting factors integrated to prenatal care to achieve goals of public health.

  • 30.
    Algar, Natalie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skolsköterskors erfarenhet av möten med flickor som har ett självskadebeteende2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows that mental disorders in children and adolescent is increasing, especially when it comes to teenage girls. This may increase anxiety in some girls, which they might handle by developing self-harm behavior. School nurses are able to pay attention to these girls through daily health promotion nursing work.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the school nurse’s experience of meeting girls with self-harm behavior.

    Method: A qualitative method was used in the study and the result was analyzed according to meaning analysis. Six school nurse were interviewed by email interviews.

    Result: The study resulted in three meaning subjects; the girls are noted differently, experience of cooperation and create good relationships.

    Conclusion: The study showed that the school nurses meet girl with self-harm behavior, either through health interviews or by the environment warning that the girls feel bad. The study also shows that school nurses are experiencing frustration when cooperation with external actors such as children and adolescent psychiatry does not work and much of the responsibility is left with the school nurses. The study also showed that cooperation with parents is important when working with these girls. 

  • 31.
    Ali, Awaz
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    I språkverktyget ingår också digitala verktyg: En kvalitativ studie om digitala verktyg som stöd i läs- och skrivutveckling i förskolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, based on a socio-cultural perspective on learning, children’s use of different digital tools in the work with their development with reading and writing will be studied. The purpose of this research is to increase the capability to improve the reading and writing education in kindergarten with the help of different digital tools. The ambition is to, with the help of literature studies and practical work, be able to indicate that the children’s progress in the ability to read and write can be improved by introducing digital tools in the practical work in kindergarten. The overall aim of the study is to contribute to changing the children’s as well as the teachers’ approaches towards digital tools in the work with reading and writing development in kindergarten. A qualitative approach has been used with the help of inspiration from hermeneutics and phenomenography. In this research, nine children are interviewed, and thirty-three participatory observations are conducted during the period of one month. The result shows that every child who takes part in the research uses different kinds of digital tools in the work with reading and writing development. The result also shows that the use of digital tools is useful. Some of the opportunities that can be distinguished with the use of these tools are; language development, reading and writing development, development of motor skills, social skills and analytical skills as well as the development of digital skills. The discussion emphasizes the importance of conscious planning based on curricula, where digital tools are being used to complement the traditional education in kindergarten.

  • 32.
    Ali, Sajeda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kindbom Höydhal, Emilia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Psykisk ohälsa bland studenter: En kvalitativ litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every other student experience mental health problems in relation to the studies they are in involved in and this requires adjustment in lifestyle. Students avoid seeking help due to the stigmatization regarding mental illness. There is a lack of resources in student healthcare to identify mental health issues in early stages, which results infliction of suffering and deterioration of health, leaving conditions untreated and resulting in increased risk of suicide. There is a lack of knowledge on the topic and failure to correctly educate nurses which creates uncertainty in how they could and should respond. Aim: The purpose of this study illuminate students' experiences of mental illness. Method: There were thirteen scientific articles chosen and also examined. A literature review was used to analyse the data. Result: Three areas are identified, Difficulties living up to expectations and demands, not having control of their everyday lives. The experience of social stigma. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of paying attention to mental illness as there is a need to reduce stigma and to reach out to students with mental illness. Students and nurses are in need of support and guidance.

  • 33.
    Alke Nilsson, Karin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Darius, Hanna-Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors levda erfarenheter efter viktminskningskirurgi: Ett nytt kapitel i livet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity is a growing problem worldwide, more and more surgical procedures are conducted every year to reduce obesity among the population. Complications resulting from obesity can adversely affect women's fertility, giving them a greater reason to undergo bariatric surgery. When the benefits of a surgical procedure outweigh health risks, an alternative solution to the problem may be bariatric surgery. Being responsible for nursing care the nurse has an important function in the process following bariatric surgery. Therefore, it is important to consider the experiences that these patients have in order to increase knowledge and understanding. Aim: Describe women's lived experiences after bariatric surgery. Method: Analysis of seven narratives in the form of blogs to study women's lived experiences. Result / Discussion: The result is presented in two main themes and three subthemes. The main themes are presented in a body of change and a change in everyday life. Subthemes are presented in other prerequisites in a lighter and healthier body, difficulties afterwards and adapting to a new everyday life. Conclusion: It is important that patients undergoing bariatric surgery to receive the right information and support to achieve lasting results and increased quality of life. Further research on how the nurse can develop the care of these patients is necessary as more and more people undergo bariatric surgery.

  • 34.
    Allard, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ögnelod, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Triage på en akutmottagningen ur sjuksköterskors perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Almersved, Karin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Bergmanson, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder för att lindra smärta hos äldre i hemsjukvården: Litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Our life expectancy is increasing, we are getting older. In home healthcare nurses meet older people living with pain. Pain that emanates from the muscles, skeletal and joints and prevents the elderly from living a good life. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe what nursing care measures can be used by nurses in home health care to relieve the pain. Method: Literature review was chosen as method. Five qualitative and three quantitative scientific articles were included. Findings: Three main categories emerged: Physical activity, Pharmacological treatment and Cognitive method. From these were discerned nine sub-categories: movement/rest, utilities, heating/cooling, massage, medication, knowledge, communication, continuity, diversion. Conclusion: In nursing pain includes several different parts. A combination of measures are required to alleviate pain. The nurse has an important role in the choice of measures.

  • 36.
    Almquist, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Svensson, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Långvarig ogiltig frånvaro i gymnasieskolan: Hur upplever gymnasieelever med långvarig ogiltig frånvaro sin skolsituation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The occurrence of school absenteeism in Sweden is high among high school students. School absenteeism is a complex phenomenon with several causes and can lead to non-approved grades, unemployment, alienation and mental health issues.

    Purpose: The purpose is to describe how high school students with long-term invalid absence experience their school situation.

    Method: A qualitative method was used and the result was analyzed according to meaning analysis. Five informants participated in the study.

    Result: The study resulted in four meaning subjects which described the informants’ experiences: To experience victimization and injustice, to experience familiar and everyday relationship problems, to experience inadequate school adaption and to experience the needs of school improvements/changes.

    Conclusion: The study showed how important it is to adapt school to every unique student, both in an educational way and when it comes to efforts which make the student more involved and respected. School needs to address issues which involve the idea that no student should be exposed to bullying, victimization or harassments. The cause of the school absenteeism is in most cases related to the school activities. Students in this study experience that school has many areas which could be subject to improvements to avoid situations leading to chronic, invalid absenteeism. They don’t associate school with something positive and motivational, but something with a negative impact on their health.

  • 37.
    Almsand, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Duell, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ”Hinner jag få ett nytt hjärta i tid?”: - Unga kvinnors bloggar kring upplevelser av att vänta på en hjärttransplantation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of performed heart transplants in Sweden is increasing and is now about fifty transplants per year. The primary reason for a heart transplant is severe heart failure. To suffer from heart failure as young is rare and trying. If heart transplantation becomes necessary the patient is placed on a waiting list where the median waiting time is three months. Previous research shows that nurses have an important role in the patient's experience during this time. Aim: The study aims to analyze and describe the experiences of young women facing a heart transplant.  Method: Qualitative content analysis is used as analytical method. Data consists of five blogs published on the Internet. Results: Young women waiting for a heart transplant experience physical limitations in daily life. Relatives, professionals and the environment are important to provide support and act as motivation in the situation. The uncertain waiting is incused by anxiety and fear of their own death. The waiting means that young women will have a new outlook on life. Conclusion: The lifeworld of young women drastically changed awaiting heart transplantation and it´s important for the nurse to recognize this change and frame the care thereafter.

  • 38.
    Alnelind, Gunilla
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Handledarens roll i arbetsplatsförlagt lärande2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Alonso Lavén, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sandberg, Kristin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ungdomars upplevelse av sex- och samlevnadsundervisning i skolan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sexuality education in school reaches out to all adolescents. Good knowledge about sex and relationship issues will strengthen their self-esteem and promote sexual health.

     

    Aim: The aim was to describe adolescents experiences of sexuality education in school.

     

    Method: The study was conducted with a qualitative approach. It is based on interviews with adolescents between 16-19 years old and the material was analyzed by using a qualitative meaning analysis.

     

    Results: The analysis revealed three categories: To experience a comfortable or uncomfortable teaching, the experience of getting needs and expectations satisfied, to experience the topic based on their own level of maturity.

     

    Conclusion:  Adolescents experiences of sexuality education varied depending on the person who was teaching and its approach to the subject. The educator's own feelings about the topic could lead to a sense of embarrassment, insecurity, or inspire greater interest and enjoyment of the subject. The expectations and needs were not satisfied, adolescents missed discussions about feelings, more detailed information about different sexual activities and more detailed information about the opposite sex. Adolescents would prefer to ask questions and show concerns about the subject towards professionals with secrecy, rather than talk openly in front of their classmates.

  • 40.
    Alpsten, Elisabet
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ljungberg, Hanna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Förskollärares uppfattningar av musiksamlingens roll i förskolan: En fenomenografisk studie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Alvvinter, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Gustafsson, Ida
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ”Mitt KUB grumlade hela graviditeten”: Kvinnors upplevelser relaterat till genomfört KUB2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The demand on prenatal diagnosis increases among expecting parents. CUB is the most common method for the matter but doesn’t provide any diagnosis. CUB only calculates the probability of a fetus with trisomy 13, 18 or 21. Women aren’t always aware of this. Hence, careful preparations and information are necessary. This study was performed to enhance knowledge in women’s experiences in relation to have undergone CUB. Aim: To describe women’s experiences related to having undergone CUB. Method: A qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach was used. Internet was used for data collection. This collection resulted in 10 threads from bulletin board Familjeliv.se and 12 blogs which became the base for data analysis. Result: The analysis resulted in one theme: CUB is seen as an opportunity to confirm the pregnancy but leads to mixed feelings which the midwives need to support in a trustful way. Anxiety and fear are the most common emotions mentioned among women who have undergone CUB. Women felt that midwives didn’t always provide enough information or the requested information. The encounters with midwives during CUB were described as stressful and even unpleasant. Conclusion: CUB is seen as an early way to confirm the pregnancy. To reduce the anxiety, midwives need to give individualised information. Anxiety tends to obscure the pregnancy and remain a long time.

  • 42.
    Amal, Al-Otaibi
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. amal.se@hotmail.com.
    Faktorer som kan påverka psykisk hälsa hos flyktingar: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The number of refugees has increased in recent years in Europe and mainly in countries such as Germany, Sweden and Norway. Sweden received 54605 refugees in 2016 and 2017. It also has been reported that refugees flying in to European countries have an increased symptoms of psychological disease. Purpose: The purpose of the literature study is to demonstrate different factors that are important in a migration process in western countries.There may be a connection with refugees who flee to and live in European countries that they may run an increased risk of psychological disease. Method: To obtain an overall picture of various factors for psychological symptoms in adult refugees living in western countries based on a literature review. Results: The result identifies four factors for psychological disease mental illness among refugees who move to Western countries. It can be deduced that factors such as trauma experiences, social capital and access to hospital care, language and culture have an influence on the individual's psychological attitude.

  • 43.
    Améen, Sophie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    The effect of DLG knockout, vitamin D and probiotic treatment on Drosophila gene expression2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers today. Dlg is a tumor suppressor gene commonly silenced in cancer cells. Many colorectal cancer patients are subject to vitamin D3 deficiency and/ or an altered microbiome. Treatment using vitamin D3 or probiotics shown decreased cellular proliferation, invasiveness and induction of apoptosis. This study aimed to knockdown Dlg and map genetic interactions coupled to Dlg downregulation using a Drosophila model. Vitamin D3 and probiotic treatments were performed to investigate mechanism of action and capacity for Dlg rescue.

    Result and discussion: After vitamin D3 treatment, PGRP-SB1 (p<0.0001) and Drsl2 (p<0.0003) expression was significantly increased. These genes are part of the immune related Toll pathway suggesting its activation. Dlg and Veli (p=0.0042) upregulation could tentatively be through vitamin D receptor regulation of Wnt-signaling pathway, or direct VDR interaction. Traf6 and MPK2 (p38α) (p=0.0049) expression increased after vitamin D3 treatment suggesting MPK2 activation through Traf6. Pro-apoptotic pathways through Fas or Bax and decreased survival through inhibition of Pi3K/Akt and Ras/Raf pathways are also possible outcomes of MPK2 activation. Probiotic treatment increased PGRP-SB1 (p<0.0001) without enhanced Drsl2 expression, possibly activating the Imd pathway. JNK-induced apoptosis through Erg (p<0.0001) induction was speculated and increased Dlg (p=0.0113) expression was seen after probiotic treatment.

    Conclusion: Vitamin D3 and probiotic treatments increased Dlg expression. Genes linked to polarity, growth and apoptosis were also enhanced suggesting various mechanisms of action. Further studies concerning knockdown and treatments are needed to fully understand the true mechanisms of action and interactions.

  • 44.
    Anders, Gianluca
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Analysis of the effects of LIN7A and LIN7C upregulation and knockdown in neuroblastoma cells2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: LIN7 are a group of proteins that play a pivotal role in membrane protein localization and are thus important for cell adhesion and polarity. LIN7 proteins are shown to be important in neuroblastoma outcome, possibly through interactions with Disc-Large proteins (DLG). DLG2 has been shown to directly affect the regulation of LIN7A. Previous studies into the role of LIN7 have given conflicting results as to its nature.

    Methods: In this study we transfected LIN7A and LIN7C in SK-N-AS cells through the use of plasmids for upregulation and siRNA for knockdown of these genes. We also evaluated the expression levels of specific genes related to pathways such as PI3K, autophagy/lysosomal activity, AKT, etc., both independently and related to LIN7 expression through the R2 platform. Genes of interest were selected and then analyzed through qPCR.

    Results: Many of the genes that were significantly correlated when compared to LIN7A/C through R2 showed no significant expression correlation after experimentation. Some more functionally close genes to LIN7 were affected in a more predictable way such as CASK being upregulated after LIN7 knockdown, PTEN being downregulated upon LIN7 plasmid transfection while others such as FOXO3 also showed significant alterations.

    Conclusion: Many of the pathways discussed in this study are better studied through protein analysis due to the nature of the function of LIN7 proteins, however some downstream transcript changes were analyzed. Unexpectedly, the knockdown of both LIN7A and LIN7C displayed similar behavior to upregulation of LIN7A or LIN7C, possibly meaning that extreme expression differences have similar regulatory outcomes for some affected genes.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Alina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Larsson, Lisa
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Patienterns upplevelser av behandlingar vid hematologisk cancer: En kvalitativ studie av bloggar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To go through treatment against haematological cancer means a big change in the daily life. Symptoms and side effects makes a big impact on both body and soul. Haematological cancer includes, in this study, three different types of cancer: leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma. The treatments given for haematological cancer involves stem cell transplant, radiation therapy and chemo therapy. Purpose: The purpose with this study was to describe patients’ experiences during treatments for haematological cancer. Method: The data was analyzed through a qualitative analysis of the context. Data were collected from six blogs. Result: Three categories emerged from the analysis; the new situation of the patients everyday life, the emotional rollercoaster and continuously comply with the body's limitations, with seven sub-categories. Conclusion: The result of this study has contributed with further knowledge about persons living with haematological cancer. This knowledge can help nurses give these patients a good, patient-centered care and raise their well-being.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Aronsson, Aina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Upplevelser av att leva med bipolär sjukdom: En självbiografisk studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bipolar disorder is a chronic disease that entails suffering for the individual. The disease characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes. It affects the individual's lifeworld and his or her's health experience. The nurse has a significant role to support these patients.

    Aim: The aim is to describe patients' experiences of living with bipolar disorder.

    Method: A qualitative method was used and was based on six autobiographies analyzed with meaning analysis.

    Results: The results showed five themes. These are: the experience of living in the pitch-black darkness and the clearest light, the experience of shame, the experience of losing control of their life, the experience of fear and the sense of safty and support to reduce loneliness.

    Discussion: People with bipolar disorder experience both health and illness, depending on their current state of disease. The family and society have an impact on how the individual experience their existence. With support from a nurse the person can achieve control of the disease. Their reality is constantly changing and support from a nurse is important.

    Conclusion: People with bipolar disorder experience strong emotions that affect their lives. For people to feel seen and recognized the nurse must show candidness to the individual's unique lifeworld.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    100-tals sidor som Är mer intressanta än det läraren talar om: Några elevers tankar om elevdatorer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate students' perception of how computers are used in teaching. The question was to see if there are benefits, drawbacks, and if there are areas of change to use computers in teaching. Data Usage is increasing in today's society and in most schools, students get a private student computer use in education. Studies show that data usage will need to be individualized to better help the individual student. The wording of their school says that students should learn IT for their future profession and to better discuss with their consumers / patients. The method used is interviews. Six students in grades three to Health and care program in high school were interviewed. Four interviews were conducted in the study, three individual interviews and group interviews. The results indicate student computer means access to the student when it facilitates the ability to take notes. The computer prevents students in the teaching when it is watched on social media during class, making it difficult to focus on the teacher during the lesson. The computer makes it easier for students to organize their student records in a better way. The possibilities for change focused on improving their notes.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Annica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjöberg, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att möta och upptäcka elever med suicidtankar- Skolsköterskors upplevelser2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicide attempts among adolescents is increasing rapidly. School nurses need to use communication skills that reflect compassion by creating trusting relationships, see and meet the student in their life-world and give hope.

     

    Purpose: To describe the school nurses' experiences of encountering and discovering students with suicidal thoughts.

     

    Method: The study is based on a qualitative meaning analysis where eight school nurses by email wrote stories about their experiences to answer the purpose.

     

    Results: School nurses experiences of discovering students with suicidal thoughts is to have knowledge about the different symptoms that can be displayed by the student. The school nurses experiences of these symptoms where: Destructive behaviours, depressive symptoms, psychosomatic symptoms and problematic home situations. In the meeting with students who have suicidal thoughts, school nurses emphasize the importance of asking about suicidal thoughts, remain, listen and give hope.

     

    Conclusion: School nurses experience many risk factors that leads to that they can better detect and meet students with suicidal thoughts. To identify those risk factors are a big part of the school nurses work. This study results provide a greater knowledge and more experience for health professionals to encounter students with suicidal thoughts.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Åkesson, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av sin sexualitet under och efter avslutad bröstcancerbehandling: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Treatment against breast cancer can cause women various side effects, including dry mucous membranes, itching, as well as deformation of one or both breasts. All in all these side effects can affect women´s experience of their sexuality and create a suffering for them. More knowledge is needed about women´s experience of their sexuality, so the nurses can provide good care and strengthen the sexual health of women. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe women´s experience of their sexuality during and after treatment of breast cancer. Method: A literature review based on three quantitative and six qualitative studies. Result: Change in body image and sexuality during or after breast cancer treatment, were a common experience among women. Anxiety and depression was common related to weight gain. However, there were women who experienced change in a positive direction after breast cancer. Concern about being insufficient in their sexual relationships with their partner was found. Women experienced lack of information about treatments and their side effects. Discussion: Both physical and mental disorders were experienced by women with breast cancer. Women needed more information before, during, and after treatment for breast cancer. In order to provide personalized care, nurse´s need to see the whole woman and meet her individual needs of caring. Conclusion: Communication both between nurses, women and their partners could strengthen women in their sexual health.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Haage, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hur patienter med stomi upplever sin förändrade kropp: En litteraturlöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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