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  • 1.
    Abas Hashmi, Zaynab
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Pettersson, Wilma
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Structural Brain Correlates of Psychopathy and Violent Crime2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is a frequently reported personality trait among violent offenders, and psychopaths have a higher rate of recidivism than inmates without psychopathic features. This systematic review aimed to investigate whether structural brain differences, measured with magnetic resonance imaging, are observed in violent offenders with psychopathy compared to violent offenders without psychopathy or healthy non-violent controls. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The search utilised the academic databases Web of Science and Medline EBSCO and included original peer-reviewed articles written in English and published between 2013 and 2023. Seven articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected for the review. The findings indicated that there are structural differences between violent psychopaths compared to non-violent psychopaths and healthy controls, such as reduced grey matter volume in the prefrontal cortical areas, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and striatal and limbic regions. Further, the degree of structural brain differences in psychopaths correlated with the degree of psychopathic traits. The structural differences found in the brains of violent psychopaths can provide insight into the neurobiological basis and neural mechanisms of psychopathy and elucidate how changes in brain morphology relate to antisocial behaviour and psychopathic personality traits. In addition, the evidence of structural abnormalities in the brain of psychopaths may help develop targeted treatments that could reduce the risk of psychopathic individuals turning to crime and violence or committing repeated violent crimes. 

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  • 2.
    Abdelhalem, Marwa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Comparison of exosome isolation methods: Size exclusion chromatography versus ultracentrifugation2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Extracellular vesicles are emitted by almost all cell types. They play an important role in cell-to-cell communication by passing biomolecules such as mRNAs to other cells by endocytosis. It is crucial to isolate and purify them from complex body fluids for studying exosomes. Various techniques, including ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, precipitation kits, and immunoprecipitation, are used to isolate exosomes (Bu et al., 2019). Each of these techniques has a significant impact on the properties and purity of the EVs obtained. This project aims to understand the effects of different isolation methods on exosome content by comparing the methods of UC and SEC, with three objectives. The first objective was to compare UC and SEC samples and identify DEGs from native EVs. The second objective was to analyze DEG functional annotation between isolation methods to understand their impact on EV content in biological processes and cellular components. The last objective was to investigate the protein-protien interactions (PPI) between the differentially expressed genes. To investigate the effects of EVs isolation methods at the transcriptional level, RNA-seq data were analyzed from a dataset of three different cell lines, including human lung epithelial cells (HTB-177), umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and cardiac progenitor cells (CPC). RNA-seq analysis used an available transcriptomic dataset of EV samples isolated by UC and SEC methods. It identified 10, 15509, and 8995 DEGs from HTB, HUVEC, and CPC, respectively, and mapped them to pathways using EnrichR software. The study found that isolation methods and cell line sources affect analysis results. EnrichR analysis revealed the isolation method's impact on exosomal RNA content and regulation of biological processes.

  • 3.
    Abdullahi, Fardosa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Investigating possible differential expression level of hsa-miR-708-5p in Neuroblastoma2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is one of the most common extracranial cancers found in children under the age of five. The cause of NB is not well understood, about 2% of the cases have been linked to rare germline mutations in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. However, NB is thought to be mainly caused by genetic mutation at the early stages of development. Clinically, NB can be grouped into three risk groups: low, intermediate and high-risk disease. The survival rate of patients with high-risk NB is less than 50% of the diagnosed cases. Survival rates emphasizes the necessity for future NB diagnostic therapy. One potential study area is miRNA, studies have demonstrated both prognostic and predictive usefulness to therapies. MiRNA is a single-stranded RNA that is 18-24 nucleotides long. Its function is to regulate numerous cellular activities, and to act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Genetic anomalies such as MYCN amplification and 11q deletion cause NB by disrupting the expression patterns of certain miRNAs. In this experiment the miRNA, hsa-miR-708-5p, was examined in three genetically diverse NB cell lines; NB69 without MYCN amplification and 11q deletion, SKNBE with MYCN amplification, and Kelly with a chromosome 11q deletion, the cell lines were used to see if the expression levels of hsa-miR-708-5p differed. The expression level of hsa-miR-708-5p, was assessed using qPCR; variation in gene expression was identified between the cell lines. Therefore, miR-708-5p could be a viable option when looking at gene expression of hsa-miR-708-5p for future diagnostic or prognostic in NB.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neuroplasticity induced by exercise2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As opposed to earlier beliefs, the brain is altering itself throughout an individual’s life. The process of functional or structural alterations is referred to as plasticity, and can be induced by several factors such as experience or physical exercise. In this thesis, the research area of experience-dependent plasticity, with focus on exercise-induced plasticity is examined critically. Evidence from a vast array of studies are reviewed and compared in order to find whether physical exercise can induce neural plasticity in the human brain, how it may be beneficial, and what some of the plausible mediators of exercise-induced plasticity are. The findings demonstrated in this thesis suggest that although there are knowledge gaps and limitations in the literature, physical exercise can indeed result in exhibited plasticity as well as being beneficial for the human brain in several ways.

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  • 5.
    Acar, Kasim
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Schizophrenia and Hallucinogens2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Schizophrenic symptoms and hallucinogenic effects have been thought of as similar for a long time. The aim of this paper is to review the current findings in the research of schizophrenia and hallucinogens; symptoms and effects, brain imaging studies and biochemical studies are compared. Systematic investigations show that the acute symptoms of schizophrenia are particularly similar to the effects of hallucinogens when using psychometric rating scales; APZ, EPI and AMPD, even though dissimilarities have been found. Converging evidence suggests that the acute effects of schizophrenia as well as the effects of hallucinogens act through a common receptor subtype, the 5-HT2A receptor. Brain imaging studies using PET and SPECT indicates that hallucinogenic drugs increase frontal cortical activity, studies have found it to be a result of 5-HT2A receptor stimulation. Interactions between the serotonergic system and other neurotransmitter systems might aid in the understanding of these phenomena.

  • 6.
    Adindu Uzowuru, Cosmas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Inflammasome: Investigating the effect of NEK7 in the activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammation is a biological defence mechanism applied by living organisms against foreign invaders. In the response to DAMPs and PAMPs, organisms use inflammatory multi-protein complexes to fight the attackers. The most studied inflammasome proteins are NLRP3, ASC and Caspase-1. This study is aimed at understanding the role of NEK7 protein in the NLRP3 inflammasome’s activation, using CRISPR/Cas9 system. To determine the effect of CRISPR/Cas9 and transfection, mRNA expression was analyzed. The results obtained suggest that neither the transfection nor the NEK7 protein knockout have sufficiently worked. This study could not experimentally establish that NEK7 triggers NLRP3 inflammasome activation because ELISA was not conducted to verify the levels of cytokines emitted, due to there being no statistical differences between the samples. Above all, the research question in this thesis project was not answered because the instability of the ACTB reference gene negatively influenced the results. However, previous related studies conclude that NEK7 plays a crucial role in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

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  • 7.
    Agnvall, Anne
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Unessi, Reza
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Neural Correlates of Emotional Intelligence: A Systematic Review2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional intelligence (EI) lies at the intersection of emotion and cognition and is seen as beneficial to our relationships and well-being. Yet, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the neural correlates of EI. There are three prevailing models defining the psychological construct of EI, the trait model, the ability model, and the mixed model. According to the ability model, EI consists of two facets - experiential and strategic EI. Experiential EI refers to abilities of perceiving and using emotions to facilitate thoughts, whereas strategic EI refers to abilities of understanding and managing emotions. This systematic review aims to investigate whether, and to what extent, the neural correlates of experiential and strategic EI rely on similar or different neural substrates. Five peer-reviewed studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. All the studies used Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test to measure EI. The brain imaging techniques used included structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. The findings of the review suggest that experiential and strategic EI rely partly on distinct and partly on common neural circuitry. Neural correlates associated primarily with strategic EI were gray matter volumes of ventromedial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior and posterior insula. Both strategic and experiential EI were found to correlate with the rostral anterior cingulate cortex gray matter activation, and the effective connectivity of the anterior prefrontal cortex. Further research and development of measurement methodology are needed to deepen the understanding of strategic and experiential EI and their neural correlates.

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  • 8.
    Ahammu, Sanuja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Quantitative gut microbiome profile of children growing up on farms2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Low rates of allergy are observed in children growing up on a farm, but the factors that contribute to this protective effect are unclear. This study aimed to investigate if living on a farm alters the infant gut microbiota and thereby reduces the risk of developing allergic diseases in later childhood. This study was based on the prospective Farmflora cohort, which included 28 children living on a farm and 35 control children living in a rural area, who were followed from birth to 8 years of age. The gut microbiota was analyzed from 122 fecal samples collected from 48 children during the first 6 months after birth, using quantitative microbiome profiling. This novel method integrates 16S rRNA gene sequencing data with total bacterial load to obtain absolute counts of bacterial abundance. A significant increase in microbial diversity was seen in the gut microbiota of all the infants in the cohort over the first 6 months after birth. Similar alpha and beta diversity levels were observed in the farm and the control children. However, Sutterella, Megasphaera, and Dorea were more abundant in the gut microbiota of farm children. It has previously been observed that the farm environment was associated with low rates of allergy in children at 3 years. Taxa Akkermansia was more abundant in the gut microbiota of infants who were evaluated with allergy at 3 years. In addition, children who were healthy at 8 years had a higher abundance of Bifidobacterium in their gut microbiota at 6 months of age. However, the abundance of Bifidobacterium could not be linked to farm residence in this study. The findings were consistent with previous studies which link the higher abundance of Sutterella, Dorea, and Megasphaera with protection against allergic diseases. In conclusion, the study observed differences in the gut microbiota of children growing up on a farm, who have low rates of allergy, and showed Bifidobacterium may be protective against allergy development.

    The full text will be freely available from 2025-01-01 00:00
  • 9.
    Ahlström, Therese
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Contribution of Sleep for Declarative Memory Consolidation2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep is a complex phenomenon far from fully known, but one important function is to improve memory. Sleep allows the brain to work with memory processes. Sleep consist of different sleep stages divided into two big parts: rapid-eye-movement sleep and non-rapid-eye movement sleep. Memory is an important cognitive function that can be divided into declarative and non-declarative memory. The aim of this thesis will be to investigate the relationship between sleep and declarative memory consolidation. There is compelling evidence that links sleep with better memory consolidation. Consolidation is an active process where the newly encoded information is being transferred to long-term memory, which is stored throughout the neocortex. Hippocampus serves as a temporal memory storage for new memories and is active in transferring to neocortex during sleep. Reactivation and reorganization of encoded information seem to play an essential role in successful consolidation. Memories become more resilient to interference after a reactivation. Different memory systems are supported by different sleep stages, for example, hippocampus-dependent memory is benefitted mostly by slow-wave sleep and rapid-eye-movement sleep for memory not dependent on the hippocampus. Sleep stages are producing different brain-waves patterns with several neurotransmitters that help memories to transfer to long-term memory. Slow oscillations in neocortex are dominant in slow-wave sleep and are beneficial for consolidation. Declarative memory retrieval is enhanced by a period of sleep compared to wakefulness, and this effect is not limited to the day after learning but lasts longer. Intense learning increases sleep spindles, which also is important for consolidation. Not enough sleep disturb memory processes.

  • 10.
    Ahmad, Ansar
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Evaluation of pipelines for analysis of next-generation sequencing data from CRISPR experiments2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 11.
    Ahmed, Suud
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The battle against sepsis: exploring the genotypic diversity of pseudomonas and proteus clinical isolates2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sepsis is a dangerous and potentially fatal condition that has a mysterious origin, underscoring the significance of prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Bacterial whole-genome sequencing, which is widely used in clinical microbiology, stands at the forefront of sequencing technologies, particularly to combat sepsis. The aim of this thesis is to improve sepsis treatment by examining the genetic characteristics and drug resistance patterns of the common sepsis-causing bacteria Pseudomonas and Proteus spp., by analyzing the whole-genome sequencing data of bacterial isolates using an in-house-developed pipeline. The result was compared with a commercial cloud-based platform from 1928 Diagnostic (Gothenburg, Sweden), as well as the results from a clinical laboratory. Using Illumina HiSeq X next-generation sequencing technology, whole-genome data from 88 isolates of Pseudomonas and Proteus spp. was obtained. The isolates were obtained during a prospective observational study of community-onset severe sepsis and septic shock in adults at Skaraborg Hospital in Sweden's western region. The collected isolates were characterized using approved laboratory techniques, such as phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) in accordance with EUCAST guidelines and species identification by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. The species identification result matched the phenotypic method, with the exception of two isolates from Pseudomonas samples and four isolates from Proteus samples. When benchmarking the in-house pipeline and 1928 platform for Pseudomonas spp., predicted 97% of the isolates were resistant to at least one class of the tested antibiotics, of which 94% shows multi-drug resistance. In phenotypes, 88% of the isolates had at least one antibiotic resistance future, of which 68% shows multi-drug resistance. The most prevalent sequence types (STs) identified were ST 3285 and ST111 (9.3%) and ST564 and ST17 (6.98%) each, and both pipelines accurately predicted the number of multilocus types. The in-house pipeline reported 9820 Pseudomonas virulence genes, with PhzB1, a metabolic factor, being the most common gene. It was discovered that there was a significant correlation between the virulence factor gene count and the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (p = 0.00001). With a Simpson's Diversity Index of 0.98, the urine culture specimens showed the greatest ST diversity. Plasmids were detected in twelve samples (20.93%) in total. In general, this study provided a detailed description of the bacterial future for Pseudomonas and Proteus organisms using WGS data. This research shows the applicability of the in-house and 1928 pipelines in the identification of sepsis-causing organisms with accuracy. It also showed the need for an organized and easy-to-use international pipeline to implement and analyze WGS bacterial data and to compare it with laboratory results as needed.

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  • 12.
    Ajaj, Asil
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The ecotoxicity effect of metronidazole on Raphidocelis subcapitata2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata is a sickle-shaped freshwater green microalga that is normally found in unicellular form. It is the best known and most frequently used species of ecotoxicological bioindicator because of its high growth rate and sensitivity to toxicants. Metronidazole (MTZ) is a routinely used nitroimidazole antibiotic that has caused environmental issues owing to incorrect use. A toxicity test was performed in order to understand the relationship between the MTZ concentrations and response at a physiological level. The study found a growth percentage of (0, 4.8571, 4.5714, -15.1429, -37.1429 %) accordingly. The changes on the transcriptomic level were tested by performing a RT-qPCR. Using ∆∆Ct method to compare the treated samples with low and high MTZ concentration against the control sample. The study found that Exposure to MTZ at the low and high concentrations gave rise to 1.45 fold upregulated pcna gene expression that was differentially expressed in control R. subcapitata. The high group of samples in the high group were clearly distinguishable from those in the control and low treatment groups.

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  • 13.
    Al Shobky, Mohamed
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Utilization of cancer-specific genome-scale metabolic models in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas for biomarkers discovery and patient stratification2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas initiates in the exocrine part of the pancreatic tissue and represents over 90% of all the pancreatic cancers. Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas are extremely aggressive and are one of the most lethal malignant neoplasms. The five-year relative survival is currently less than 8% of the patients. The main reason behind such a low survival rate is that most of the cases are diagnosed at a very late stage. Although substantial advancement in pancreatic cancer research has been done, there has not been any remarkable significance in the mortality to incidence ratio. This is mainly a result of the scarce of early diagnostic characteristic symptoms and reliable biomarkers besides the unresponsiveness to the treatments. In this study, transcriptomics and proteomics data were used for the construction of a genome-scale metabolic model that was used in the detection of altered metabolic pathways, genes and metabolites using gene set analysis and reporter metabolites analysis. As a result, altered metabolic pathways in PDAC tumours were detected, including the lipid metabolism-related pathways as well as carbohydrate metabolism, in addition to nucleotide metabolism, which are considered as potential candidates for diagnostic biomarkers. Moreover, classification of the filtered DIRAC tightly regulated network genes, based on their prognostic values from the pathology atlas, detected two groups of PDAC patients that have significantly different survival outcome. The differential expression analysis of the two groups showed that six of the eight genes used in clustering were showing significantly altered expression, which suggests their importance in PDAC patient stratification. As a conclusion, this study shows the valuable outcome of the GEM reconstructions and other systems-level analyses for elucidating the underlying altered metabolic mechanisms of PDAC. Such analyses results should provide more insights into the biomarker discovery and developing of potential treatments.

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  • 14.
    Al-Bayati, Omar
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. Baghdad university.
    Optimizing the Fluorescence In situ hybridization technique for a more rapid inspection of Sepsis causative pathogens by employing DNA probes2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Sepsis is a serious clinical condition that is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a known or suspected infection. The major clinical symptoms involve an abnormal WBC count, elevated body temperature, respiration and pulse rate. Reported cases with high mortality rate range between 13 - 20 million. In order to treat Sepsis, the detection of bacteria in blood culture is extremely crucial. Treating patients with broad spectrum antibiotics is usually related to adverse effects, drug resistance, increased mortality, and high cost. In the past decades, researches had detected that E. coli and S. aureus are the major role players that cause sepsis. These microbes are molecularly tested by methods like MALDI TOF, FISH and Microarrays.  

    In this analysis, DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assessment for the identification of S. aureus, one of the most frequent blood pathogens, was optimized in the labs of Högskolan i Skövde. As a result, the growth of S. aureus was observed very carefully, optimizing the FISH procedure for gram positive bacteria was done and the sensitivity, stability and specificity of the DNA probe were examined under variant conditions like the continuous decrease in the bacteria cells number and utilizing a mixture of different types of bacteria cells. 

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    Omar Al-Bayati thesis project
  • 15.
    Alborgeba, Zainab
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Development and evaluation of a cost-effectiveness analysis model for sepsis diagnosis2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction that is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Sepsis is a substantial health care and economic burden worldwide and is one of the most common reasons for admission to the hospital and intensive care unit. Early diagnosis and targeted treatment of sepsis are the bases to reduce the mortality and morbidity. Conventional blood culturing is the gold standard method for sepsis diagnostics. However, blood culturing is a time consuming method, requiring at least 48 to 72 hours to get the first results with very low sensitivity and specificity. The aim of this study was to determine and assess the direct sepsis-related costs for PCR-based diagnostic strategies (SeptiFast and POC/LAB). A mathematical model was constructed to compare PCR-based diagnostic strategies with the conventional blood culturing. Three case scenarios were investigated based on data from the United Kingdom, Spain and the Czech Republic. It was found that, POC/LAB was the most cost effective strategy in all countries if it could reduce the hospitalization length of stay with at least 3 days in the normal hospital ward and 1 day in the intensive care unit. Reducing the hospitalization length of stay had the greatest impact on the economic outcomes. While, reducing the costs of the diagnostic strategies did not show a remarkable effect on the economic results. In conclusion, the findings suggest that PCR-rapid diagnostic methods could be cost-effective for the diagnosis of patients with sepsis if they could reduce the hospitalization length of stay.

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  • 16.
    Albutihe, Ismael
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Sense of Agency and Automation: A Systematic Review2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technological advancements have resulted in highly automated systems that are featured in many kinds of tools and devices, such as self-driving cars, autopilot in airplanes, and much more. Such systems have enabled tools to plan, decide, and act autonomously. This breakthrough resulted in a new manner of interacting with tools, known as "Human-Robot Joint Action" or "human-AI interaction," in which people and automated tools share control over the tasks that must be performed. However, little is known about the impact of such interactions on people and their sense of agency (SoA) as well as how much autonomy to grant to tools. As a result, the objective of this systematic review is to investigate and understand how automated tools affect human SoA, and if tools with different levels of automation affect our SoA differently. A search in two databases, Scopus, and MEDLINE EBSCO was conducted, and 8 articles were included. The findings suggest that the more automated the tool is, the less SoA participants experience, and that varied levels of automation may impact human SoA depending on the nature of the task. However, this topic is still in its infancy and more research is needed. 

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  • 17.
    Aldosaky, Khatoon Salim Eshaq
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    MANUAL VS MACHINERY SMALL RNA EXTRACTION BY USING A QIACUBE® MACHINE: Two methods. Two volumes.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sepsis is a serious condition caused by a dysregulated immune response of the host triggered by an infection that can potentially lead to malfunction of various organs or even death in severe cases. Some studies have shown that the use of biomarkers could aid in early diagnosis as well as early treatment of sepsis patients. Furthermore, various studies have investigated the idea of using extracellular microRNAs as biomarkers for sepsis diagnosis. This study aimed to see if there were any differences in the quantity and purity of small RNA -which includes microRNA- by performing two different RNA extraction methods (manual and machinery by using a QIAcube) as well as two different volumes by using the ExoRNeasy Serum/Plasma Midi Kit. Blood samples were collected solely from the same self-assessed healthy donor. The plasma samples were frozen and then thawed before the RNA extraction, whether manually or machinery by the QIAcube. The extracted small RNA was then measured for quantity and purity. The quantitative results were analysed by ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey test to show the statistically significant difference in the concentration of small RNA. The QIAcube showed higher concentration values compared to the manual method as well as larger initial plasma volume in comparison to the lower initial plasma volume. Meanwhile, the Kruskal-Wallis test showed no statistically significant difference in the purity values among the different methods and volumes. In conclusion, based on this study, the QIAcube could do what human hands do.

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  • 18.
    Alekseev, Ilia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Exploratory analysis of immunological responses in wild and laboratory mice2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mice as a model organism in biomedical research is widespread due to their similarities with humans in anatomy and physiology. However, the genetic isolation of inbred strains from natural populations raises concerns about the reliability of these models. Studies have shown differences in immune responses between wild and laboratory mice, and the use of exploratory tools for large datasets can help to analyze and interpret these differences. The aim statistical analysis of dataset can provide insights into the differences between variables and individuals and guide further investigations. The results showed that LDA provided clear separation between the different groups, and successfully differentiated between stimulation types and mouse strains, with distinct clustering of data points. The KNN algorithm performed best for smaller values of K. However, the selected gender characteristic did not possess strong discriminatory power in separation and further investigation into alternative features or methodologies may be necessary. In conclusion, the aim of providing comparative immunological analysis of wild and laboratory mice types is achieved. This study underscores the importance of careful statistical analysis, acknowledges the limitations of imputation methods, and highlights the potential of LDA and KNN algorithms in analyzing immune response data. As well, highlighting the need for improved models that are able to capture the complexities of immune responses and their relevance to human immunology.

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  • 19.
    Alex, Dona
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Transcriptomic analysis of stimulated and unstimulated naïve B cells of healthy donors and CVID patients2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immune deficiency present in about 1 in 25,000 people, characterized by recurrent infections, low serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels (IgG, IgA, and sometimes IgM), and reduced vaccine responses. It is genetically a heterogeneous illness that often affects adults or teenagers and requires lifetime clinical care. CVID patients experience recurrent or chronic sinopulmonary tract infections, gastrointestinal disorders, and malignancies. Ig reconstitution administered intravenously or subcutaneously is the main treatment. Although the fundamental causes of CVID are still undefined, studies suggest that a variety of variables, including impaired somatic hypermutation (SHM), B cell maturation, primary B cell dysfunctions, abnormalities in T cells, and antigen-presenting cells are implicated. Understanding the molecular mechanisms driving this disease's genome regulation requires a deep understanding of the gene expression. It is today possible to study both coding and non-coding sections of RNA using next-generation RNA-seq, which allows detecting differentially expressed genes in massive amounts of data, particularly in multifaceted illnesses like CVID. The aim of this study was to identify the differentially expressed genes between unstimulated (ex vivo) and stimulated (in vitro) naïve B cells of CVID patients and healthy donors (HD), and also to identify the underlying biological processes by gene enrichment analysis. The results of this study showed that both in CVID and HD, the stimulated and unstimulated cells were well separated. In the gene set analysis, it was discovered that significantly enriched CVID pathways were mostly involved in immune system-related processes such as adaptive immune response, cytoplasmic translation, granulocyte activation, lymphocyte activation, and lymphocyte differentiation. Therefore, the transcriptomic analysis of this study concluded that the majority of the genes that regulate the immune cell activation process function may have a greater impact on CVID patients than on HD which helps to understand the immunological defects in CVID patients. 

    The full text will be freely available from 2024-06-05 00:01
  • 20.
    Alexander, Suraj Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Study of up-regulated genes in gene clusters during formation of mature hepatocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells to identify transcription factors and mirnas2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The multifunctional purpose of hepatocytes, the functional liver cells within the metabolic, endocrine and secretory functions highlights key importance in emphasizing the research and treatment methods that utilize these cells. Forming 80% of the liver's cells, hepatocytes are involved in many of the primary functions of the liver including the delivery of immune response against pathogens and aiding in the detoxification of drugs. As a result, it provides a valuable basis for medical research. Through the findings of Ghosheh et al. (2017), a method of generating mature hepatocytes was achieved through the human pluripotent stem cells (HPSC), but the generation of hepatocytes in which all the genes are expressed at the right amount through this method proves to be a difficult endeavor. The primary goal of this project is to utilize the established findings to enhance and improve the efficacy of the process that goes behind the generation of mature hepatocytes. The approach towards the current project was initiated with culturing and differentiating three human embryonic stem cell lines and three human-induced pluripotent stem cell lines into mature hepatocytes. In the study mentioned, k-means clustering along with Pearson correlation as the distant measure was run in R to subdivide the top 2000 genes with the highest differential expression into 10 clusters. The cluster data from this paper was used to do the current study, in which the up-regulated and down-regulated gene were first identified for clusters 2, 4 & 6 and 9. The interactions of up-regulated genes in these clusters were further analyzed using Enrichr to identify the different miRNAs for various genes from the clusters. Within cluster 2, a total of 8 genes showed the possibility of being regulated using 4 miRNAs. Transcription factors were also identified for cluster 2 and a combination of HNF1A, EP300, AHR, NFKB1 and HIF1A could repress 8 genes that were not repressed by miRNAs. In cluster 4 & 6, most of the up-regulated genes showcased tumorigenicity and all 20 genes identified could be regulated with the combination of 7 miRNAs. In cluster 9, a combination of 11 miRNAscould be used to regulate 26 out of 27 genes that were analyzed. Ensuring that stem cell products do not turn cancerous is a priority in the medical field. Conducting the analyses of the other clusters aside from 2, 4 & 6 and 9 will prove highly beneficial in reducing the risks pertaining to stem cell mutation due to overexpression of genes.

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  • 21.
    Alghazali, Raghad
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    GSK-3 post-transcriptionally regulates TNF-α biosynthesis in THP-1 macrophages2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Few things are more fascinating than finding new interactions between previously unrelated pathways. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a ubiquitous kinase initially known for its role in regulating glycogen metabolism, has recently been found to be an indispensable regulator of the TLR4-mediated inflammatory response. GSK-3 inhibition exhibits potent anti-inflammatory effects by acting on both arms of the inflammatory response, reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and promoting the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) is among the most important inflammatory cytokines. Aberrant TNF-α expression is associated with various inflammatory conditions, including sepsis and cancer. Thus, understanding the mechanisms regulating TNF-α production could reveal potential therapeutic strategies for TNF-α-associated diseases. Consequently, this study aimed to examine the effect of GSK-3 inhibition on TLR4-induced TNF-a production by THP-1 macrophages. THP-1 macrophages were stimulated with LPS and nigericin in the presence and absence of GSK-3 inhibitor, and TNF-α protein and mRNA levels were evaluated by ELISA and Real-time PCR, respectively. GSK-3 inhibition significantly attenuated TNF-α protein levels in a dose-dependent manner, whereas TNF-α mRNA levels remained unaffected, reflecting a possible post-transcriptional modulation of TNF-α biosynthesis by GSK-3. However, more comprehensive research is needed to elucidate the precise contribution of GSK-3 to TNF-α biosynthesis and to identify novel therapeutic mechanisms to alleviate inflammatory diseases associated with abnormal TNF-α production.

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  • 22.
    Ali, Nada
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Stress response in cancer cell lines2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, the cases of cancer have been on the rise. This has led to increasing research to find a lasting solution to carcinogenesis. The increase in cancer cases can be due to a change in people’s lifestyles, such as diet and exercise routines which have changed for the worse. In most farms, chemicals as pesticides are added to plants to fasten their growth. These chemicals are carcinogenic, contributing to the increased number of cancer cases worldwide.

    The objective of this research was to observe the cell response of brain, pancreatic, and breast cancer cells to different cortisol levels/concentrations. The three cell lines of interest in this research and present in the mentioned types of cancer are T-47D, PANC-1, and T98G. Their dynamics and roles are identified in this study. Cortisol excretion concentrations during stress and cancer growth are also monitored and compared. Additionally, the study solves the unpredictability of the impacts of stress on the three cancer types.

    The three experimental setups in this study were as follows: 1. Breast cancer cells, obtained from a 54 year old woman with metastatic carcinoma. 2. Brain cancer cells, obtained from a 61 year old female with neuroblastoma. 3. Pancreatic cancer cells, obtained from a 56 year old male with metastatic carcinoma. The cells in the above setups were treated with cortisol in order to see what effect this induced stress has on cell growth.

    The findings of the study concluded higher cortisol concentration increased cancer growth and spread within the body. This was that all three cancer cell types saw an increased effect of cortisol at either 24 hours or 48 hours at a specific concentration, which highlights that cortisol has an important role to play in cancer cells viability.

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  • 23.
    Ali, Sihaam
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Genotypic biodiversity of clinical haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with suspected community-onset sepsis, Sweden2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sepsis is defined as a syndrome of life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to an infection. Early detection of sepsis and immediate treatment with antibiotics is critical for patient outcomes. Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) is a gram-negative bacteria known to be a human-adapted pathogen that may cause a variety of communityacquired infections such as sepsis. A rapid increase in beta-lactam resistance in H. influenzae has been noticed and has become a major problem in clinical care. By implementing bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) in the clinical laboratory, it can provide a great amount of information such as species identification, serotype identification, antimicrobial resistance prediction, typing for epidemiologic purposes and tracking infectious disease outbreaks. The aim of this study was to analyze WGS data for clinical H. influenzae isolates using an in-house developed bioinformatic pipeline and an automated 1928 Diagnostics platform to evaluate and compare the predicted results in terms of species identification, prediction of resistance and virulence genes. Furthermore, the predicted genotypic antibiotic resistance genes were compared to the phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing obtained from the clinical laboratory. For the in-house developed pipeline, the analysis of H. influenzae WGS data started with quality control and preprocessing (trimming) of FASTQ files. Following, de novo assembly and quality assessment of assembled contigs and lastly gene annotation tools were performed. For 1928 Diagnostics, the untrimmed FASTQ files were uploaded to the 1928 platform. Species identification resulted in a high agreement of predicted H. influenzae for both phenotypic and genotypic methods except for one sample that may have been contaminated. The analysis of antibiotic resistance genes resulted in both in-house developed pipeline and 1928 Diagnostics having a high agreement regarding the prediction of broad-spectrum beta-lactamase in six clinical isolates, all of which predicted bla TEM-1B. The four most common sequence types found in the MLST analysis from the in-house pipeline were ST159, ST388, ST14 and ST12. The analysis of virulence genes yielded a large number of different virulence genes and each of the identified virulence genes codes a specific function that is crucial to the pathogenesis of H. influenzae. In conclusion, the obtained results provide valuable insights into using WGS-based analysis as a reliable tool for determining the pathogen characteristics in clinical bacterial isolates.

  • 24.
    Aliakbari, Massume
    et al.
    Department of Crop Production and Plant Breeding, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
    Cohen, Stephen P.
    Department of Plant Pathology, The Ohio State University, USA.
    Lindlöf, Angelica
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment.
    Shamloo-Dashtpagerdi, Roohollah
    Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Higher Education Center of Eghlid, Iran.
    Rubisco activase A (RcaA) is a central node in overlapping gene network of drought and salinity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and may contribute to combined stress tolerance2021In: Plant physiology and biochemistry (Paris), ISSN 0981-9428, E-ISSN 1873-2690, Vol. 161, p. 248-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Co-occurrence of abiotic stresses, especially drought and salinity, is a natural phenomenon in field conditions and is worse for crop production than any single stress. Nowadays, rigorous methods of meta-analysis and systems biology have made it possible to perform cross-study comparisons of single stress experiments, which can uncover main overlapping mechanisms underlying tolerance to combined stress. In this study, a meta-analysis of RNA-Seq data was conducted to obtain the overlapping gene network of drought and salinity stresses in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), which identified Rubisco activase A (RcaA) as a hub gene in the dual-stress response. Thereafter, a greenhouse experiment was carried out using two barley genotypes with different abiotic stress tolerance and evaluated several physiochemical properties as well as the expression profile and protein activity of RcaA. Finally, machine learning analysis was applied to uncover relationships among combined stress tolerance and evaluated properties. We identified 441 genes which were differentially expressed under both drought and salinity stress. Results revealed that the photosynthesis pathway and, in particular, the RcaA gene are major components of the dual-stress responsive transcriptome. Comparative physiochemical and molecular evaluations further confirmed that enhanced photosynthesis capability, mainly through regulation of RcaA expression and activity as well as accumulation of proline content, have a significant association with combined drought and salinity stress tolerance in barley. Overall, our results clarify the importance of RcaA in combined stress tolerance and may provide new insights for future investigations. 

  • 25.
    Allgulin, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Psilocybin and LSD in the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatry is in a crisis. Mental health disorders are on the rise worldwide and there are currently not enough efficient treatment methods that would meet the patients’ needs. Hence, the societal and economic costs of mental health problems are enormous, as well as the suffering of individuals afflicted by mental health problems. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin are substances that create an altered state of consciousness characterized by altered sensory perception and on some occasions, ego-dissolution, and mystical experiences. In recent studies, LSD and psilocybin have been shown to carry significant therapeutic potential in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders in conjunction with psychotherapy. The therapeutic effects of LSD and psilocybin have also been shown to persist for between 3-12 months post-treatment. LSD and psilocybin, like other classical hallucinogens, increase serotonin availability, which has been suggested to attenuate symptoms of anxiety and depression. In addition, LSD and psilocybin alter the activity of the default mode network, which has been suggested to be overly active in depressed and anxious patients. This essay is a literature review of the neural mechanisms of LSD and psilocybin, their potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders, and how insights about said neural mechanisms may be useful in understanding the possible application of psychedelics in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. In sum, recent studies have provided converging and convincing evidence on therapeutic potential of LSD and psilocybin. Yet, few conclusions on the exact neural mechanisms of how LSD and psilocybin alleviate depressive and anxiety symptoms can be made. Although the future of this research field looks promising, archaic national- and international regulations continue to be a hindrance to research into psychedelic drugs. Yet, due to the psychiatric crisis and the promising results so far, more studies in this field are warranted.

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  • 26.
    Almgren, Ingrid
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. studingrid@gmail.com.
    Challenging the dual coding theory: Does Affective Information Play a Greater Role in Abstract Compared to Concrete Word Processing?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been held that concrete material has a processing advantage over abstract material, as predicted by Dual Coding Theory (Paivio,1991), although this has been challenged. For example, based on evidence for behavioural and neuroscientific studies, Kousta,, Vigliocco, Vinson, & Del Campo, (2011) proposed that emotional valance had a greater influence in the processing of abstract words, and that under some circumstances there may be no concreteness effect and might even be an abstractness effect. This would not be predicted by DCT. In addition, Isen and Daubman (1984) have claimed that emotional valence, and particularly positive emotion can influence cognitive processing. Specifically, they demonstrated that positive emotion was associated with more inclusive categorization of ambiguous category members. This current study was a 2 x 2 between group design to investigate the effect of positive and negative valence on recognition memory for concrete and abstract words and on categorization. Contrary to what was predicted by Dual Coding Theory, abstract words were generally better recognized than concrete, with there being an additional interaction with valence. A significant interaction between word type and valence on categorization was also found. Results partially support Kousta et al. (2011).

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  • 27.
    Almqvist, Gustaf
    et al.
    University of Stockholm, Stockholm Sweden.
    Andersen, Michael
    Danish Fishermen’s Association, Fredericia, Denmark.
    Willestofte Berg, Casper
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Broadgate, Wendy
    The Fisheries Secretariat (FISH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bryan, Meaghan
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Southeast Fisheries Science Center, Miami, United States.
    Campana, Steven
    Fisheries and Oceans Canada Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Canada.
    Cardinale, Max
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Dierking, Jan
    Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften, Kiel, Germany.
    von Dorrien, Christian
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Eero, Margit
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Efimov, Yuri
    Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries & Oceanography (VNIRO), Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Gasyukov, Pavel
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Department of Inland Fisheries, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Horbowy, Jan
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Hüssy, Karin
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Johansson, Reine
    Baltic Sea Advisory Council, Dyrön, Sweden.
    Jonusas, Stanislovas
    DGMare, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kornelius, George
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment (BIOR) 8 Daugavgrivas Str. Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Köster, Fritz
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Kraak, Sarah
    Thünen Institute, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Krumme, Uwe
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Large, Scott
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Swedish Cod Fishermen’s Producer Organisation, Lycke, Sweden.
    Luzenczyk, Anna
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lövgren, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Maguire, Jean-Jacques
    Godefroy, Quebec, Canada.
    Mosegaard, Henrik
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Anders
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Oeberst, Rainer
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Stepputtis, Daniel
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Stern, Edward
    The Fisheries Secretariat (FISH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Strehlow, Harry Vincent
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Trenkel, Verena
    Ifremer Nantes Centre, Nantes, France.
    Wæver Pedersen, Martin
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Zimmermann, Christopher
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Baltic Cod Stocks (WKBALTCOD)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES Benchmark Workshop on Baltic Cod Stocks (WKBALTCOD), chaired by External Chair Jean-Jacques Maguire, Canada and ICES Chair Marie Storr-Paulsen, Denmark, and attended by two invited external experts Verena Trenkel, France and Meaghan Bryan, USA met in Rostock, Germany, 2–6 March 2015 with 39 participants and six countries represented. The objective of WKBALTCOD was to evaluate the appropriateness of data and methods to determine stock status and investigate meth-ods appropriate to use in the single-stock assessment for the cod stock in SD 22–24 and cod in SD 25–32 in the Baltic. Participants in the workshop were a large group with diverse backgrounds representing the industry, fisheries, NGOs, managers and scientists.The single-stock analytic assessment of the eastern Baltic stock was not accepted by the assessment working group (WGBFAS) in 2014 due to severe problems with the input data. The advice for the eastern Baltic cod was, therefore, based on the ICES approach for data-limited stocks. As an outcome ICES decided to establish a bench-mark for both cod stocks and to scope an integrated assessment for the Baltic cod stocks. The first meeting (WKSIBCA) was therefore meant to introduce the interces-sional work conducted since the assessment working group in April 2014, and to reach some conclusions on how to proceed both in the short term (Benchmark in March 2015) and longer term (2–3 years) and was seen as a data compilation work-shop, there is produced a separate report from this workshop. The WKBALTCOD was the 2nd meeting in the benchmark process and was intended to come up with a final stock assessment method, stock annex and input data for both stocks. As it was not possible to reach conclusive decision on the final model to be used for the east Baltic cod stock during the benchmark meeting and as more work on the preferable models was needed, it was decided by the ACOM leadership to prolong the bench-mark process until the assessment working group meeting in April 2015. This deci-sion has led to a relatively long process partly mixed with the assessment working group WGBFAS.It became clear during the benchmark process that although large effort has been put into explaining the underlying processes leading to the changes in the Baltic ecosys-tem, there is still some lack of understanding of the present situation in the eastern Baltic cod stock. Therefore, it was not possible to reach firm conclusions on the final model to be used and therefore not possible to set reference points. It was decided to continue to explore the most promising models and to continue to improve the input data until the assessment working group started in April.The main challenges still to be solved for the Eastern Baltic cod stock is the quantifi-cation of increased natural mortality and decrease in growth. Through several presentations during the workshop (both WKSIBCA and WKBALTCOD) it became clear that natural mortality very likely has increased in later years, due to decreased condition and increased parasite infection. A decrease in growth also seems plausible duo to a decrease in condition and/or selectivity-induced mortality of the largest in-dividuals. However, as none of these parameters are easily estimated, especially with the severe ageing problems, different model assumptions made the output very shaky.For the western Baltic cod, stock identification issues were examined in area SD 24, the intermediate area: based on otolith characteristics and genetics. Due to the results showing a large proportion of east cod in this area, it was decided to split the catch2 | ICES WKBALTCOD REPORT 2015and survey from SD 24 into either the western or eastern Baltic cod stock. It was pos-sible to derive proportions of eastern and western cod in SD 24 back to the mid-1990s.For the western Baltic cod stock a modelled survey indices was included in the as-sessment covering the western part of SD 24 and Area 22+23 and based on a smoothed ALK.Both cod stocks have in the past used commercial tuning fleet to have a better cov-ered of older age groups. It was decided to abound this time-series duo quality issues such as a limited coverage and problems with technical creeping.WKBALTCOD was not able to explore and define reference points for the Western Baltic cod stock during the meeting due to time constraints, but these were calculated and decided by correspondence after the meeting. The recent protocols on estimation procedures developed by WKMSYREF3 for stocks with a full analytical assessment and for data-limited stocks served as objective guidelines to obtain reference point estimates.

  • 28.
    Aloysius Gomez, Sherin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    CARD8 knockdown alters cholesterol crystal-induced inflammatory cytokine release in endothelial cells2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main components of atherosclerotic plaque is the production and accumulation of cholesterol crystals (CCs), which could serve as a biomarker of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory artery disease that is the root cause of myocardial infarction and stroke. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the main contributors to the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to investigate whether Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) can uptake CCs and to examine CCs-induced inflammatory response in HUVECs. Using molecular and functional techniques, the distinctive characteristic of CC-mediated immune response was discovered in HUVECs. CCs were mostly taken up by HUVECs by macropinocytosis and phagocytosis. CCs were found to induce Signal Transducer of Activators of Transcription (STAT) 3 phosphorylation and Interleukin (IL)-6 release in HUVEC. In addition, Caspase activation and recruitment domain 8 (CARD8) knockdown drastically reduced CCs uptake and CCs induced IL-6 expression in HUVECs. Moreover, the stem cell growth factor (SCGF)-b protein release was downregulated in response to CCs. IL-1A and Colony Stimulating Factor (CSF) 2 were identified as the topmost hub nodes interacting with all other differentially expressed proteins. A significant increase in neutrophil adhesion on HUVECS was found in response to CCs and conditioned medium from CCs-treated HUVECs. In conclusion, the study findings suggest that the CCs induceSTAT3-mediated IL-6 release and neutrophil adhesion, thereby promoting inflammation in HUVECs.

  • 29.
    Alsayed Ahmad, Alaa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Azithromycin effects on R. subcapitata on molecular levels: Ecotoxicological study on the effects of a pollutant on chlorophyll contents, pcna and cyt P450 genes expression2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics are considered a type of antimicrobial that particularly has an impact on bacteria or fungi in humans and animals. The widespread use of common antibiotics, combined with the fact that the majority of active antibiotics and their metabolites are water-soluble, results in persistent pollution in aquatic environments, as well as a potential threat to ecosystems. Moreover, there are inadequate ecotoxicological data on many antibiotics, such as azithromycin, which has been quantified at elevated levels in the aquatic system. Raphidocelis subcapitata is a globally distributed green alga that is commonly used as a model species for evaluating chemical toxicity due to the availability of a sequenced genome and its rapid growth, which allows assessing chemical effects across many generations. the aim of this project is to provide an insight on genotoxicity for R. subcapitata and study the effects of azithromycin antibiotic on algae, on both growth rate and molecular levels by determining gene expression levels, specifically, its effect related to chlorophyll pigments,biosynthesis, and DNA replication levels. In order to do that, toxicity test according to OECD guidelines for 7 days, photosynthetic pigment extraction and qRT-PCR were utilized. In the present study, an EC50 of 24 µg/L was obtained, while low risk in the Swedish water streams was indicated, significant induction in Chlorophyll a and b at high concentrations while no effects on carotenoids were observed, no significant difference in pcna and cyt P450 at LOEC and lower concentrations was obtained. This might suggests testing higher concentrations in upcoming research.

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  • 30.
    Alteryd, Olivia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Think your pain away: The neurochemistry of placebo analgesia2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Placebo treatments are inert but are known to alleviate symptoms across numerous clinical conditions. One of the most studied placebo effects is placebo analgesia, which is a placebo effect limited to pain relief. This thesis aims to introduce the current state of research regarding the neuroscience of placebo analgesia and specifically to present research findings regarding the neurotransmission. Studies have demonstrated that placebo analgesia can be elicited through two separate processes interacting with each other; manipulation of expectations and through conditioning. These processes seem to affect neurotransmission in different ways. Many brain areas have been found to be correlated to placebo analgesia. Besides the pain-processing brain areas, studies point to that the prefrontal cortex can have a vital role in the placebo analgesic effect. Known neurotransmitters that have shown to be involved in placebo analgesia are endogenous opioids, cholecystokinin (CCK), and endocannabinoids. Studies point to that endogenous opioids are involved in the placebo analgesic effect when elicited by expectation or conditioned by an opioid drug. CCK act on placebo analgesia by affecting the release of endogenous opioids and endocannabinoids seem to be involved in placebo analgesia while it occurs due to conditioning with non-opioid drugs. Getting a better understanding of placebo analgesia and find ways to apply this knowledge in the clinical context could powerfully develop the whole medical society.

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  • 31.
    Alvarez Svahn, Rodrigo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The hippocampal dependence of long-term declarative memory2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations into the neural correlates of memory have found the hippocampus to be a crucial structure for long-term declarative memories, but the exact nature of this contribution remains under debate. This paper covers three theories concerned with how the hippocampus is involved in long-term memory, namely the Standard Consolidation Model, the Multiple-Trace Theory, and the Distributed Reinstatement Theory. According to the Standard Consolidation Model, long-term declarative memories (both episodic and semantic) are dependent on the hippocampus for a limited time during which the memories undergo a process of consolidation, after which they become dependent on the neocortex. In contrast, the Multiple-Trace Theory argues that detailed and context-specific episodic (but not semantic) memories remain dependent on the hippocampus indefinitely. While both the aforementioned theories posit that memories are initially dependent on the hippocampus, the Distributed Reinstatement Theory does not. Advocates of this theory propose that several memory systems compete for the encoding of a memory, and that the hippocampus usually is the dominant system. However, it is also suggested that the other (unspecified) memory systems can overcome the hippocampal dominance through extensive and distributed learning sessions. In this paper, findings from both human and rodent studies focusing on the hippocampus are reviewed and used to evaluate the claims made by each theory on a systems level.

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  • 32.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Liiver, Gladi
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The effects of mindfulness on emotion regulation during adolescence: A systematic review2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emotion Regulation refers to the process of controlling our emotions. However, the brain regions which are involved in emotional processes, such as the prefrontal cortices, are the last regions to be developed throughout the human brain. Those who are most affected by this slow development are adolescents especially since they undergo hormonal and neural changes. Previous research has shown mindfulness meditation improves emotional stability and inhibitory control. Since our brain is not fully developed until the age of 25, it is particularly interesting to get knowledge of the effect of mindfulness on emotion regulation in adolescents, which is the aim of this thesis. A total of three studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. The results showed a larger reaction in the amplitude of P2, N2, and late positive potentials on both negative and positive stimuli but not neutral stimuli. Differences were observed in the high vs low mindfulness adolescents in frontal EEG asymmetry during emotion regulation tasks. These findings suggest that even brief mindfulness can have a positive effect on emotion regulation processes by enhancing prefrontal cortices. These findings contribute to the understanding of whether mindfulness affects emotional regulation in a developing brain. However, future research is needed to clarify the effects of mindfulness on emotion regulation in adolescents.

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  • 33.
    Andersson, Carolin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Lokalisering av framtida områden med värdekärnor i barrskog för tretåig hackspett och svartmes: En artjämförelse och landskapsanalys i Götene, Karlsborg och Skövde kommun2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, large population reductions occur for many species due to the lack of habitats. Based on this, it is of great importance to strengthen green infrastructure throughout the landscape and especially in such areas where there is currently a shortage of habitats for various animal and plant species. Value core is the primary indicator for describing qualities in the landscape and can, for example, consist of a key biotope in the forest. The three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) is generally considered a specialist in coniferous forest and the black tit (Periparus ater) is also considered a distinct coniferous forest species. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether there are areas in Götene, Karlsborg and Skövde municipalities that can expand / improve coniferous forest areas with core values. This is done by performing a landscape analysis and comparing the living conditions between the two coniferous forest species, the threetoed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) and the black tit (Periparus ater). The goal is to try to improve areas with core values in the municipalities concerned in the long term in order to increase the occurrence of the species and the probability of survival. Data for core values, deforestation reports and average height of trees have been analyzed in ArcMap for possible threats to the species' habitat and location of potential future habitat areas. Karlsborg municipality has disturbed the area of value cores and at least felling reports. Skövde municipality has a smaller area of value cores and more felling reports compared to Karlsborg. Götene municipality has the least area of value cores and the most felling reports. Skövde municipality has disturbed area of potential future areas with core values for both species. Karlsborg municipality has slightly less than Skövde and Götene municipality has mined area of potential future areas with value cores for both species. The results of this study cannot be considered as more than a first step in the work of trying to locate future areas with value cores for the threetoed woodpecker and the black tit. For future work, it would be of interest to inventory the "potentially future areas" in the field and thus determine whether this working method is something that can be applied in more municipalities and possibly other bird species to find potential future areas with value cores for species.

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  • 34.
    Andersson, Isak
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Brain activity during flow: A systematic review2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The flow state is a subjective experience that most people can relate to. It represents an optimal balance between skills and difficulty and is the state that people often refer to when performing their best, with phrases like: “I was in the zone” or “I was in the bubble”. The flow state has mainly been studied through its psychological and behavioral components; it is not until lately the neuroscientific aspects have been investigated. This review attempts to go through the existing literature and find potential neural signatures of the flow state. The studies indicate that flow is related to activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and putamen, but the findings are too divided to reach a conclusion. 

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  • 35.
    Andersson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Is there a Connection Between the Gut-Microbiota and Major Depression?2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is rapidly growing and one of the most common causes of disability and mortality worldwide. People with MDD often display brain changes such as adisrupted balance in neurotransmitters, impaired neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Traditionally has MDD been treated with medications and talking therapies (psychotherapy). Studies have shown that just around 50 % of people with MDD get improvements from common traditional treatments.Therefore is there a great need for a better understanding of MDD and new treatments. There is now an emerging field of research that indicates that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in disturbing normal brain functioning in MDD. This connection between the gut and the brain is called the gutbrain axis.The thesis aims to investigate if there is a connection between gut microbiota disruption and MDD and if gut microbiota restoration can be a potential effective future treatment for MDD. Key findings of the thesis were, studies show that people with MDD often display gut microbiota disruption and chronic low grade inflammation. Studies also indicate that this inflammation can cause the specific brain change often displayed in people with MDD. One of the most critical findings in the thesis was that gut brain treatments affect tryptophan metabolism, which affects the risk of MDD. The research area of the gut brain axis is still new and many more studies are needed,particularly in humans.

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  • 36.
    Andersson, Loa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Where can the Vendace (Coregonus albula) live during the least favourable period of the summer stratification in Lake Mälaren?2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal stratification in lakes due to high air temperatures and dynamic wind conditions changes the environment for organisms in the depth gradient. For fish that have narrow requirements for temperature and oxygen conditions, stratification can lead to a significant reduction in habitat volume during the summer when surface temperatures are high. In Sweden, temporal stratification occurs between July and October. The vendace (Coregonus albula) is a cold-water fish that is found in several waters around Sweden. In Lake Mälaren, there is targeted commercial fishing for the species, but the total annual catch has drastically decreased in recent decades. Shrinking habitats and longer periods of temporal stratification during the summer could be a partial explanation. Understanding and predicting changes of the vendace populationin Lake Mälaren requires mapping of available habitat during the summer temporal stratification. This study has investigated the worst habitat conditions in terms of habitat thickness for vendace during the years 2017-2022 in Lake Mälaren based on the habitat requirements temperature ≤18 °C and DO concentration ≥2 mg/L. The spatial distribution in two basins where analysed. The results showed that the vendace had limited available habitat in three of seven water bodies investigated (habitat thickness ≤2.5 m). The spatial analysis of the two basins showed that habitat volume represented 41 % and 11 % of the total volume of water in each basin. The available habitat of the vendace during the summer temporal stratification in Lake Mälaren is thus limited in parts of the lake.

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  • 37.
    Andersson, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Psychedelic agents: Changes induced in subjective experience and brain activity2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis combines phenomenological and neuroscientific research to elucidate the effects of psychedelic agents on the human brain, mind and psychological well-being. Psychoactive plants have been used for thousands of years for ceremonial and ritual purposes. Psychedelics are psychoactive substances that affect cognitive processes and alter perception, thoughts, and mood. Illegalization of psychedelics in the 1960s rendered them impossible to study empirically but in the last couple of decades, relaxed legal restrictions regarding research purposes, renewed interest in the effects of psychedelic drugs and new brain imaging techniques have started to reveal the possibilities of these mind-altering substances. Psychedelics mainly affect the serotonin receptor 5-HT2A which in turn affect the functioning of largescale cortical areas by changing cerebral blood flow, alpha oscillations, and functional connectivity. These cortical changes not only induce immediate alterations in perception and cognition but have been shown to have positive effects in therapeutic interventions for depression, anxiety, and addiction, and also positively affect well-being in general. Although the pharmacology and neurobiology of psychedelics are still poorly understood, the potential benefits justify empirical research on psychedelics in humans.

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    Psychedelic agents
  • 38.
    Andersson, Maja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Physiological Effects of Long-term Unemployment2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The stress system is essential for humans and other organisms to survive. However, when stress is prolonged it can have pathological effects on the brain. To experience long-term unemployment is often stressful, for it has been shown to correlate with depression, low self- esteem, learned helplessness and self-destructive behavior. Long-term unemployment also seems to have physiological consequences, for it has been shown to correlate with cortisol dysregulation. The hippocampus is a highly adaptable part of the brain located in the temporal lobe and is long known for its sensitivity to cortisol dysregulation due to stress. The aim of this thesis is to study how long-term unemployment affects physical and psychological well- being, focusing in particular upon finding out whether it affects the hippocampus. The results suggest that that the kind of stress caused by long-term unemployment is similar to the stress affecting the hippocampus. It thus seems to be a reasonably hypothesis that long-term unemployment has a negative influence upon the brain, and the hippocampus in particular.However, there is an additional issue that one needs to take into account. For some studies have shown that people with poor mental health are more likely to be unemployed. If poor mental health is associated with physiological disorders (including a damaged hippocampus), this implies that not only can long-term unemployment (via stress) affect the hippocampus, but a damaged hippocampus (along with other physiological factors) can increase the probability to become unemployed. This means that the relationship between long-term unemployment and a damaged hippocampus need not be a one-way causal relationship.

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  • 39.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Sleep and Its Effects on Synaptic Strength2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Sleep_and_synaptic_strength
  • 40.
    Andersson Szabo, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    A Biological And Psychological Profile of Eudaimonia as High Psychological Well-Being2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aristotle (4th century B.C.E/1925) described eudaimonia as “the good life”, and is today commonly understood as eudaimonic well-being (EWB) within research. Despite the long history, the definitions and operationalizations of EWB are diverse and no coherent description or explanation for the biology of EWB exist. Hence, the present thesis reviews current neuroscientific- and additional biological research on EWB. This review reveals EWB to be most frequently operationalized as psychological well-being (PWB) (Ryff, 2014), and is here used as basis for an attempt to explain the biological and psychological profiles of EWB as high PWB. High PWB was characterized by brain activity linked to the reward circuitry, dorsolateral and left prefrontal cortex (PFC) and grey matter (GM) volume in areas of the brainstem and insular cortex. High PWB was also positively related to lower levels of several harmful biomarkers. The proposed psychological profile of high PWB included the psychological functions goal directed behaviour and emotional control. It is hoped that the proposed profiles will serve as inspiration for further exploration of the biology and psychology of human well-being (WB).

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    A Biological And Psychological Profile of Eudaimonia as High Psychological Well-Being
  • 41.
    Andersérs, Caroline
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Effect that Exercise has on Cognitive Functions: A Review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My aim for this literature review is to present and discuss a possible relationship between physical exercise and different kinds of cognitive functions. With the increasing interest on the topic, more studies have been conducted and the results from the studies have been a little ambiguous. The most part of the studies has been showing that exercise has a positive effect on cognitive functions. The evidence from the studies also says that exercise can help the brain to regulate the production of new neurons and to increase brain volume in the prefrontal and temporal areas. That can be very beneficial for elderly people with dementia, Alzheimer's disease or other cognitive declines. Evidence of exercise combined with the right nutrition can enhance cognitive performance even more but to establish this more research is needed.  

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  • 42.
    Anell, Jesper
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Rubber hand illusion and affective touch: A systematic review2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The feeling of owning a body part is often investigated by conducting and manipulating the rubber hand illusion, a three-way integration of vision, touch, and proprioception. In the last decade, more research on the role of interoception, the sense of the body's’ internal state, in the illusion has been made. One of the studied factors has been the affective touch, a caress-like, gentle, touch that is performed at a slow specific speed (1-10 cm/sec). Affective touch activates the C tactile afferents which send interoceptive signals to the brain, specifically the insula. The present systematic review investigated the role affective touch has on the strength of the rubber hand illusion. A range of electronic databases was searched for papers reporting research findings published in English before March 20, 2020. Twelve different articles were identified, but only five papers met the inclusion criteria. This thesis looked at the results from these five different studies and compared the effect of affective touch and discriminative, regular, touch have on the rubber hand illusion to see whether there is a significant difference. The results could not show a main effect of stroking velocity, site of stimulation, or social touch, which are components of affective touch. The results was based on four different measurements, the subjective experience of the illusion, pleasantness ratings, proprioceptive drift, and temperature difference in the skin. Opposed what was hypothesized, it could not be demonstrated that affective touch would induce a stronger rubber hand illusion than discriminative touch.

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  • 43.
    Anna-Karin, Weivert
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Music and Emotion: The Neural Correlates of Music-Induced Positive Affect2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Listening to music is rated as one of the most pleasurable activities in human life and,in fact, listeners report the emotional impact of music to be one of the main motivatorsas to why they listen to music. This thesis focuses on the positive affective statesexperienced when listening to music and their underlying neural substrates. Despite thefact that research on the neural correlates of music-induced positive affect is arelatively recent undertaking our understanding has significantly improved during thelast decades. The aim of the current thesis is to give an overview of the neuralcorrelates of music-induced positive affect in healthy individuals. As such,psychophysiological, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies are reviewed.Across studies the consistent involvement of brain regions, such as the orbitofrontalcortex, the striatum and the amygdala and left hemisphere frontal regions in response tomusic-induced positive affect has been found. These structures constitute an importantpart of the mesolimbocortical reward circuitry found to be involved in the processing ofa wide range of pleasures. The thesis also discusses conceptual and methodologicallimitations inherent in the studies reviewed. Understanding the nature and underlyingneural basis of music-induced positive affect is important because of the implications itmay have for psychological and physical wellbeing.

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  • 44.
    Annerud Awrohum, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Default Mode Network’s Role in Perceived Social Isolation and Social Connection: A Systematic Review2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Feelings of social connection are important to maintain physical and psychological well-being. Perceived social isolation, or loneliness, is the subjective experience of feeling socially isolated and may be a direct threat to our health. During recent years, an increasing amount of people report high levels of loneliness, potentially brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic and its restrictions. Recent research suggests that the brain’s default mode network (DMN), a neural network active at wakeful rest, is related to these experiences. This paper aimed to systematically review alterations in the DMN in socially connected and lonely individuals. I searched PubMed and Scopus to find studies using self-report measures of social connection or loneliness, and functional or structural neuroimaging methods on healthy adults. Nine studies were included in this review. Generally, core regions of the DMN typically involved in episodic memory and self-referential processing showed increased activity in lonely individuals and decreased activity in socially connected individuals. These findings may reflect how lonely individuals ruminate about past social events while socially connected individuals attend less to the self. However, methodological heterogeneity between studieslimits the conclusions that can be drawn based on these results.

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  • 45.
    Annerud Awrohum, Shabo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Psychedelic oscillations: A systematic review of the electrophysiological correlates of classic psychedelics2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recently there has been a revitalization in research on classic psychedelic substances. This class of drugs has been found to produce intense and profoundly meaningful experiences, and offers a unique opportunity to study the neural correlates of the sense of self. The objective of this research was to systematically review the effects of classic psychedelics on spontaneous brain activity, as measured on three electrophysiological modalities: spectral analysis, signal diversity, and functional connectivity. Method: We searched Pubmed to identify papers in English, published between January 1990 to May 2021, where electrophysiological methods were used to evaluate the effects of classic psychedelics in healthy individuals during non-task resting states. Results: Sixteen papers were included. Classic psychedelic substances generally decrease spectral power in most frequency bands, mainly in the alpha range, increase signal diversity, and decrease the flow of information throughout the brain. Conclusion: Decreases in alpha power, increased signal diversity, and decreases in default mode network activity might be important neural correlates of the psychedelic state. However, inconsistencies in the results and heterogeneity in study design are some of the limitations that have to be considered when interpreting these results.

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  • 46.
    Annett, Judith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Berglund, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Increasing Societal Well-Being Through Enhanced Empathy Using Computer Games2015In: Well-Being in Contemporary Society / [ed] Johnny H. Søraker, Jan-Willem Van der Rijt, Jelle de Boer, Pak-Hang Wong & Philip Brey, Springer, 2015, p. 135-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that the well-being of both individuals and society in general may have a neurobiological basis linked to empathy. This raises the issue of available routes for enhancing empathy (through interventions such as education, training, pharmacology, etc.). One of the most important features of the human brain, especially of the brains of children and teenagers, is its plasticity. Millions of children and teenagers spend many hours every day playing computer games. Many computer games include different forms of violence and aggression and there has been extensive research that indicates that there is a correlation between playing these games, aggression, and reduced disposition to pro-social behaviors. However, much less research has been conducted on the potential effects of pro-social and non-violent computer games. Since there is not yet a comprehensive model of the possible causal relationships between playing such games and neuropsychological function, neuroendocrine function (e.g. oxytocin release), empathy, pro-social behaviors, and individual and societal well-being, we provide a basic theoretical framework for empirical research on these issues. The aim of this framework is ultimately to establish not only correlational evidence, but to allow the development of experimental protocols to meaningfully examine the causal relationships and mechanisms.

  • 47.
    Arif Jahangir, Chowdhury
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Role of BACH1 in regulation of antioxidant mediated metastasis in lung cancer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption of antioxidant supplements is widely popular worldwide mainly because of their supposed anticancer benefits. Though these benefits against cancer are highly advertised by supplement industry and a well stablished perception in general population, there are not enough studies to support those claims. In fact, several studies have pinpointed antioxidants’ role in promoting tumor proliferation and migration in multiple types of cancer. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind how antioxidants are actually mediating these events is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate how antioxidants are affecting lung cancer cells migration and to decipher the involvement of the transcription factor BACH1 in it. In this study, effect of antioxidant supplementation on three human Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines were investigated. Antioxidant administration was found to increase cell migration and BACH1 expression in all of them. Effect of inactivation and over activation of BACH1 confirmed significant relation between antioxidant induced migration and BACH1 expression. Along with increased migration, antioxidants increased glycolysis in the cells in a Bach1 dependent manner. Activation of NRF2, the master regulator of endogenous antioxidant expression had also been found to increase migration through up regulation of BACH1. Overall findings of this study confirm Bach1’s role in antioxidant-induced migration in lung cancer from different directions and provides a broader understanding how redox status of cancer cells influence their metastatic ability.

  • 48.
    Arnesén, Lisa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Vems landskap ska förändras för att öka den biologiska mångfalden?: En studie av skillnaderna i odlingslandskapets konnektivitet med avseende på två skyddsvärda arter med olika preferenser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organisms relevant for nature conservation dont follow administrative borders. Because of this there is a need for a landscape perspective within conservation and planning, and a need for the species of interest to have legal protection. Network analysis adapted for ecological purposes has grown to become a powerful tool for studying and communicating the relationships between species dispersion and access to habitat. In this study the following question is posed: How is the Osmoderma eremita and the Pernis apivorus dispersal possibilities in the small scale cultivated landscape of Borås affected by exploitation in respect to a) dispersal ability, b) habitat quality, c) position of habitat patches in a network? The analysis were based on municipal and regional nature conservation data, which in due to confidentiality is not accounted for in the report by maps, coordinates, etc. Several networks were established for both species to indicate how habitat patches are distributed today and how the species dispersal changes depending on which patches are excluded – this was done to imitate how exploitation can affect the species future survival and dispersion. The results showed that the O.e. is mainly inhibited by its poor dispersal abilities, followed by patch position, while the P.a. is the most affected by degrading habitat quality. The most important conclusions of the study were that the O.e. natural dispersal may be restricted but can be improved by linking small network components together and by maintaining the largest components. As for the P.a. it was concluded that a different type of analysis, focusing on its behaviour and need for different patches for different purposes, would generate more interesting results.

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    Vems landskap ska förändras för att öka den biologiska mångfalden?
  • 49.
    Arntz, Joakim
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Ownership in passive and active movements: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the moving rubber hand illusion2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rubber hand illusion is an experimental paradigm that induces the illusion of ownership over a fake hand. The illusion was originally induced using visuotactile stimulation but can also be induced using movements. Self-produced movements are active movements, and if they are produced by external force, they are passive movements. According to the comparator model, only active movements produce a sense of agency. As both passive and active movements can be used to induce the sense of ownership in the rubber hand illusion, but only active induce a sense of agency, they can be compared to determine the effect agency has on bodily ownership. This meta-analysis included nine studies with a total of 359 participants that compared the induced sense of ownership using active and passive movements in the rubber hand illusion to determine these effects. The results show that agency has a small but significant effect on body ownership.

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  • 50.
    Aronsson, Christopher
    et al.
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jury, Michael
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Naeimipour, Sajjad
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Boroojeni, Fatemeh Rasti
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Christoffersson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Systems Biology Research Environment. Division of Biotechnology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lifwergren, Philip
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Division of Biotechnology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Selegård, Robert
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Aili, Daniel
    Laboratory of Molecular Materials, Division of Biophysics and Bioengineering, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Dynamic peptide-folding mediated biofunctionalization and modulation of hydrogels for 4D bioprinting2020In: Biofabrication, ISSN 1758-5082, E-ISSN 1758-5090, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 035031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogels are used in a wide range of biomedical applications, including three-dimensional (3D) cell culture, cell therapy and bioprinting. To enable processing using advanced additive fabrication techniques and to mimic the dynamic nature of the extracellular matrix (ECM), the properties of the hydrogels must be possible to tailor and change over time with high precision. The design of hydrogels that are both structurally and functionally dynamic, while providing necessary mechanical support is challenging using conventional synthesis techniques. Here, we show a modular and 3D printable hydrogel system that combines a robust but tunable covalent bioorthogonal cross-linking strategy with specific peptide-folding mediated interactions for dynamic modulation of cross-linking and functionalization. The hyaluronan-based hydrogels were covalently cross-linked by strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition using multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol). In addition, a de novo designed helix-loop-helix peptide was conjugated to the hyaluronan backbone to enable specific peptide-folding modulation of cross-linking density and kinetics, and hydrogel functionality. An array of complementary peptides with different functionalities was developed and used as a toolbox for supramolecular tuning of cell-hydrogel interactions and for controlling enzyme-mediated biomineralization processes. The modular peptide system enabled dynamic modifications of the properties of 3D printed structures, demonstrating a novel route for design of more sophisticated bioinks for four-dimensional bioprinting. © 2020 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.

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