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  • 9901.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Being Local in a Global Industry: Indie Game Development in a Global Context2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main goal of this PhD project is to study how small and independent game development studios are handling the global nature of the game industry of today from a game development and localization perspective. To understand this, the PhD work will integrate theories and views from three main areas; Indie game development, Game localization and Distribution models.

  • 9902.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Serious achievements: Design guidelines for a game based feedback system in serious games2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will propose a system for feedback and after action review in serious games. The proposed system, called serious achievements, is built on common scoring systems in commercial games for entertainment. A number of games for training is evaluated to give an overview of how feedback is carried out in existing products and a literature review is made to gather background material to motivate and explain the serious achievement system.

    Guidelines are thereafter formed focusing on how to create serious achievements for a serious game for education by using the course goals from the course’s curriculum. A case where the game On Scene Commander is equipped with serious achievements from the course goals of the course Incident Commander Basic Level is made and evaluated by rescue training instructors.

    Conclusions are that the course goals often needs to be more specific and the easiest course goals to implement as serious achievements are the ones that is easily measurable.

  • 9903.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Localization from an Indie Game Production Perspective: Why, When and How?2018In: DiGRA '18 - Proceedings of the 2018 DiGRA International Conference: The Game is the Message, Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the process of game localization from an indie development perspective. The global nature of the digitally distributed game industry gives opportunities for game studios of all sizes to develop and distribute games on a global market. This poses a challenge for small independent developers with limited resources in funding and personnel, seeking to get as wide spread of their game as possible. To reach the players in other regions of the world localization needs to be done, taking language and other regional differences in mind. In an AAA or big-budget game production, these questions are handled by separate entities focusing solely on the localization process – but how do small independent game developers handle this? Indie game developers in Sweden, China and India have been interviewed to investigate the research question of how do indie game developers handle localization in the development process. The results points to a widespread use of community- and fan translation, and that only basic localization is done i.e. culturalization aspects are not considered. The results also show that the reason for localizing can be both business decisions but also to spread a specific message using games.

  • 9904.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Missing: Understanding the Reception of a Serious Game by Analyzing App Store Data2018In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERIOUS GAMES, E-ISSN 2384-8766, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is the design and player reception of a serious game called Missing released on Google Play with the intention of spreading awareness of trafficking and its impact on individuals and society. The aim of the paper is to investigate how the game has been received by its players, focusing on its trafficking theme, by analyzing player metrics and app store data available from the Google Play digital distribution system. The paper presents results focusing on three main knowledge contributions: the identification and characterization of the tension between the designer’s intention with a game’s mechanics and how they help to convey the message of the game, the identification of the complexity of finding relevant reviews relating to the serious theme of the game and the identification and characterization of the tension between the star rating and the content of the reviews. One of the conclusions is that even a negative review can mirror a positive result in terms of fulfillment of the purpose.

  • 9905.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Global Influences on Regional Industries: Game development in Nordic countries, China and India2016In: Decoding the Academic-Industrial-Gameplay Complex: Digital Game Practice, Research and Study in China, Taiwan and Chinese-Speaking Regions, Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The game development industry has historically been strongly associated with a few particularly dominant actors, namely Japan and the US. As a result, video game development processes and game content that have originated from these actors are often used as a benchmark for what game development is and can be. Discussing the games industry from these perspectives can, however, gloss over important nuances that make other game development regions unique. With this in mind, this paper intends to discuss the ways in which different cultural and regional contexts are reflected in the structure of local game development industries and, to some extent, in produced game content. To inform this discussion, the authors use the foundation and growth of game development practices in three different regions: the Nordic region, India, and China. These three regions serve as specific exemplifying cases of how video game industries and praxis can take different shapes depending on what resources and components they have available. The paper concludes that all regional games industries and game development practices are heavily influenced by the precedent set by historically dominant actors. This results in game content and development practices that often mimics pre-established standards. But, over time, the conditions surrounding the formation of regional industries manifest themselves in more locally unique content and development processes.

  • 9906.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Taxonomy of Game Engines and the Tools that Drive the Industry2019In: DiGRA '19 - Proceedings of the 2019 DiGRA International Conference: Game, Play and the Emerging Ludo-Mix / [ed] Akinori Nakamura, Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game engines are a vital part of a game production pipeline, but there is a vagueness of definitions regarding the boundaries of components in a game engine and the rest of the production tools used in a game development pipeline. The aim of this paper is to nuance the use of the term game engine and to put it into the context of a game development pipeline. Based on data from the current state of game production, a proposed taxonomy for tools in game development is presented. A distinction is made between user facing tools and product facing tools. A defining characteristic of the production pipeline and game engines is their plasticity. One of the conclusions is that a “game engine” as a single entity containing the whole game production pipeline is not desirable due to the large number of competences and needs involved in a game development project.

  • 9907.
    Tofthagen, Randi
    et al.
    Lovisenberg Diaconal University College, Oslo.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Clarifying self-harm through evolutionary concept analysis2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 610-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clarification of the concept self-harm is needed in order to enable research and theory development and facilitate the development and evaluation of medical interventions and nursing care for individuals who self-harm. This study presents such a conceptual analysis. Articles from 1997 to 2007 were sought from the Medline, PubMed, Cinahl, and PsychINFO search engines by entering the search words ‘self-harm’, ‘self-harming’, and ‘psychiatric care’. 25 medicine and 23 nursing science articles were chosen for inclusion and analysed. Rodgers’ evolutionary concept analysis process was used to delineate and clarify the concept’s context, surrogate terms, antecedents, attributes, and consequences, as well as to determine implications for further research. Attributes of self-harm may include repetitive injury of mouth or exterior body, that is to say the infliction of physical pain to alleviate mental pain, and time spent self-harming. Antecedents may be gender, mental pain, substance abuse and relational problems. Consequences often include the need for medication and help with altering coping behaviour. Some self-harm patients met with negative attitudes from nurses. Individualized care and treatment is recommended. Accordingly, inter-professional collaboration and postgraduate education is needed in order to provide better care and treatment for self-harm patients. Furthermore, better understanding is needed to help enable health care personnel understand why individuals self-harm. The conceptual analysis presented in this study may be helpful as regards theory development within this still rather unexplored field.

  • 9908.
    Tognon, Gianluca
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rothenberg, Elisabet
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Clin Nutr, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundh, Valter
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Winkvist, Anna
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Clin Nutr, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Does the Mediterranean diet predict longevity in the elderly?: A Swedish perspective2011In: Age (Omaha), ISSN 0161-9152, E-ISSN 1574-4647, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 439-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary pattern analysis represents a useful improvement in the investigation of diet and health relationships. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet pattern has been associated with reduced mortality risk in several studies involving both younger and elderly population groups. In this research, relationships between dietary macronutrient composition, as well as the Mediterranean diet, and total mortality were assessed in 1,037 seventy-year-old subjects (540 females) information. Diet macronutrient composition was not associated with mortality, while a refined version of the modified Mediterranean diet index showed a significant inverse association (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.89; 0.98). As expected, inactive subjects, smokers and those with a higher waist circumference had a higher mortality, while a reduced risk characterized married and more educated people. Sensitivity analyses (which confirmed our results) consisted of: exclusion of one food group at a time in the Mediterranean diet index, exclusion of early deaths, censoring at fixed follow-up time, adjusting for activities of daily living and main cardiovascular risk factors including weight/waist circumference changes at follow up. In conclusion, we can reasonably state that a higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern, especially by consuming wholegrain cereals, foods rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a limited amount of alcohol, predicts increased longevity in the elderly.

  • 9909.
    Toivonen, Jan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ljunglöf, Gustaf
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Utveckling av småskaligt vindkraftverk med vertikal rotor2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When more and more people open their eyes for the climate situation of today, the interest increases for renewable energy. Today there are many highly developed wind turbines with a horizontal axis while the vertically rotating type still is under basic development. Most of the wind turbines today are very big and not adapted for private usage. Through research, idea generation and calculations three new types of vertical axis wind turbines have been developed to compete with the wind turbines for private usage on the market.

  • 9910.
    Tokarieva, Anastasiia V.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Prydniprovska State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Dnipro, Ukraine.
    Volkova, Nataliia P.
    Alfred Nobel University, Dnipro, Ukraine.
    Harkusha, Inesa V.
    Alfred Nobel University, Dnipro, Ukraine.
    Soloviev, Vladimir N.
    Kryvyi Rih State Pedagogical University, Ukraine.
    Educational digital games: Models and implementation2019In: Cloud Technologies in Education: Proceedings of the 6th Workshop, CTE 2018 / [ed] Arnold E. Kiv, Vladimir N. Soloviev, CEUR-WS , 2019, Vol. 2433, p. 74-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, social media, ICT, mobile technologies and applications are increasingly used as tools for communication, interaction, building up social skills and unique learning environments. One of the latest trends observed in education is an attempt to streamline the learning process by applying educational digital games. Despite numerous research data, that confirms the positive effects of digital games, their integration into formal educational contexts is still relatively low. The purpose of this article is to analyze, discuss and conclude what is necessary to start using games as an instructional tool in formal education. In order to achieve this aim, a complex of qualitative research methods, including semi-structured expert interviews was applied. As the result, the potential of educational digital games to give a unique and safe learning environment with a wide spectrum of build-in assistive features, be efficient in specific training contexts, help memorize studied material and incorporate different learning styles, as well as to be individually adaptable, was determined. At the same time, the need for complex approach affecting the administration, IT departments, educators, students, parents, a strong skill set and a wide spectrum of different roles and tasks a teacher carries out in a digital game-based learning class were outlined. In conclusion and as a vector for further research, the organization of Education Design Laboratory as an integral part of a contemporary educational institution was proposed. 

  • 9911.
    Tollstern, Christoffer
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Tillämpning av Component Object Model vid utveckling av webbapplikationer med Active Server Pages2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker om, och i så fall hur, utvecklingen av webbapplikationer med ASP kan förbättras genom tillämpning av COM-objekt. För att göra detta används fyra jämförelsekriterier som tagits fram utifrån fördelar och nackdelar med ASP respektive COM-objekt. Dessa kriterier avser att jämföra ASP och COM-objekt i exekveringstid av scriptkod, återanvändning av funktionalitet, inkapsling av databasrelaterad kod och prototyputveckling. Det resultat som erhållits av genomförandet visar att utvecklingen av webbapplikationer med ASP kan i olika situationer tillämpa COM-objekt för att: förbättra exekveringstiden av scriptkod, förenkla återanvändningen av funktionalitet och göra ASP-koden mer strukturerad genom att kapsla in databasrelaterad kod. Vad gäller prototyputveckling anses dock ASP vara bättre anpassat, då COM-objekt kräver noggrann planering av gränssnittet och dessutom är beroende av ett testprogram för att kunna testa prototypen.

  • 9912.
    Tolonen, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Karlsson, Josephine
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnor i Försvarsmakten: En kvalitativ studie om hur kvinnor påverkas inom ett mansdominerat yrke2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att ge en djupare förståelse för hur kvinnor påverkas och svarar upp på förväntningar som förekommer vid en mansdominerad arbetsplats. Trots den svenska framgången inom jämställdhet finns det än idag arbetsplatser som fortfarande är mansdominerade där kvinnorna kan ha svårt att finna sin roll vilket bidrar till fortsatt ojämställd arbetsmarknad. Forskarna har valt en kvalitativ ansats med symbolisk interaktionism och rollidentitet som utgångspunkt. Studien genomfördes med semistrukturerade intervjuer med kvinnor som arbetar inom den svenska Försvarsmakten. Resultatet av studien visade att kvinnorna upplever förväntningar från andra både på fysisk prestation och kunskap vilket leder till höga förväntningar på sig själv. Kvinnorna svarade upp på dessa förväntningar genom att anpassa sig till den mansdominerade kulturen genom att skala av feminint beteende i sin yrkesidentitet. Detta påverkade i sin tur kvinnornas välbefinnande då de upplevde stress, ångest och besvikelse när de inte nådde upp till de förväntningarna.

  • 9913.
    Tomenius, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, SE-17182 Solna, Sweden / Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Jonas, Kristina
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, SE-17182 Solna, Sweden / Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Georgellis, Dimitris
    Departamento de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Fisiologia Celular, Universidad National Autónoma de México, 04510 México D.F, Mexico.
    Möllby, Roland
    Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Normark, Staffan
    Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Melefors, Öjar
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, SE-17182 Solna, Sweden / Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Escherichia coli BarA-UvrY two-component system is a virulence determinant in the urinary tract2006In: BMC Microbiology, ISSN 1471-2180, E-ISSN 1471-2180, Vol. 6, p. 27-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Salmonella enterica BarA-SirA, the Erwinia carotovora ExpS-ExpA, the Vibrio cholerae BarA-VarA and the Pseudomonas spp GacS-GacA all belong to the same orthologous family of two-component systems as the Escherichia coli BarA-UvrY. In the first four species it has been demonstrated that disruption of this two-component system leads to a clear reduction in virulence of the bacteria. Our aim was to determine if the Escherichia coli BarA-UvrY two-component system is connected with virulence using a monkey cystitis model. Results: Cystitis was generated in Macaque fascularis monkeys by infecting the bladder with a 1: 1 mixture of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolate DS17 and a derivative where the uvrY gene had been disrupted with a kanamycin resistance gene. Urine was collected through bladder punctuation at subsequent time intervals and the relative amount of uvrY mutant was determined. This showed that inactivation of the UvrY response regulator leads to a reduced fitness. In similar competitions in culture flasks with Luria Broth (LB) the uvrY mutant rather had a higher fitness than the wild type. When the competitions were done in flasks with human urine the uvrY mutant initially had a lower fitness. This was followed by a fluctuation in the level of mutant in the long-term culture, with a pattern that was specific for the individual urines that were tested. Addition of LB to the different urine competition cultures however clearly led to a consistently higher fitness of the uvrY mutant. Conclusion: This paper demonstrates that the BarA-UvrY two-component system is a determinant for virulence in a monkey cystitis model. The observed competition profiles strengthen our previous hypothesis that disruption of the BarA-UvrY two-component system impairs the ability of the bacteria to switch between different carbon sources. The urine in the bladder contains several different carbon sources and its composition changes over time. Inability to efficiently switch between the carbon sources may thus provide an explanation to the reduced fitness of the uvrY mutant in the cystitis model.

  • 9914.
    Tomenius, Henrik
    et al.
    Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden / Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, SE-17182 Solna, Sweden.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Méndez-Catalá, Claudia F.
    Departamento de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Fisiologia Celular, Universidad National Autónoma de México, 04510 México D.F., Mexico.
    Georgellis, Dimitris
    Departamento de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Fisiologia Celular, Universidad National Autónoma de México, 04510 México D.F., Mexico.
    Normark, Staffan
    Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Melefors, Öjar
    Microbiology and Tumorbiology Center, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden / Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, SE-17182 Solna, Sweden.
    Genetic and functional characterization of the Escherichia coli BarA-UvrY two-component system: point mutations in the HAMP linker of the BarA sensor give a dominant-negative phenotype2005In: Journal of Bacteriology, ISSN 0021-9193, E-ISSN 1098-5530, Vol. 187, no 21, p. 7317-7324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The BarA-UvrY two-component system family is strongly associated with virulence but is poorly understood at the molecular level. During our attempts to complement a barA deletion mutant, we consistently generated various mutated BarA proteins. We reasoned that characterization of the mutants would help us to better understand the signal transduction mechanism in tripartite sensors. This was aided by the demonstrated ability to activate the UvrY regulator with acetyl phosphate independently of the BarA sensor. Many of the mutated BarA proteins had poor complementation activity but could counteract the activity of the wild-type sensor in a dominant-negative fashion. These proteins carried point mutations in or near the recently identified HAMP linker, previously implicated in signal transduction between the periplasm and cytoplasm. This created sensor proteins with an impaired kinase activity and a net dephosphorylating activity. Using further site-directed mutagenesis of a HAMP linker-mutated protein, we could demonstrate that the phosphoaccepting aspartate 718 and histidine 861 are crucial for the dephosphorylating activity. Additional analysis of the HAMP linker-mutated BarA sensors demonstrated that a dephosphorylating activity can operate via phosphotransfer within a tripartite sensor dimer in vivo. This also means that a tripartite sensor can be arranged as a dimer even in the dephosphorylating mode.

  • 9915.
    Tomi, Vivian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Zohooryan Izadpanah, Hanieh
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    UTVECKLING AV BESLAGSSYSTEM FÖR SANDWICHPANEL: Ett designprojekt i samarbete med Paroc Panel System AB ®2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En av Parocs produkter är sandwichpanel som är ett byggmaterial som kan variera i storlek och tjocklek och är funktionellt och smidigt. Uppdraget var att designa ett beslag för panelsystem som minst 50% av Paroc Panel Systems kunder skulle föredra framför de gamla, främst med avseende på estetiken, men även baserat på lätthet att montera och kostnad av beslaget. Projektet skedde i samverkan med företaget Paroc Panel System AB och ur förundersökningen framkom att utseende, monteringsmöjligheter, egenskaper såsom materials livslängd och hållfasthet och totalkostnad var viktiga krav som ställdes på produkten. Lösningsförslag med fokus på flera viktiga aspekter togs fram och kombinerades till olika koncept med hjälp av en så kallad morfologisk tabell. En konceptutvecklingsfas ingick där hållfasthetsberäkningar och materialval var avgörande. Metoder som DFMA (Design For Manufacturing and Assembly) och LCA (Livscykelanalys) har tagits i beaktande under projektets gång. Detta resulterade i ett nytt beslagssystem med en enkel profil och färre monteringsmoment, något som var viktigt för Paroc Panel System AB. Det nya beslaget hade en gångjärns-liknande fastsättning, vilket innebar att det blev lättare att montera och blev därmed en potentiell konkurrent till dagens beslagssystem.

  • 9916.
    Toms, Anders
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Information Security when Integrating Actors in Health Care Processes2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest within organisations today to focus on the core processes, i.e. the processes that create value for the intended customer, in order to stay compatible within the ever-fiercer competition. To have full control of the key processes may be a great step forward towards a more lean and effective organisation, not only for profit seeking companies but also for public welfare institutions like health care. Software aimed at supporting a process focus is continuously being developed and one such family of programs is commonly referred to as process managers.

    A process manager lets the people in an organisation who have complete knowledge of the processes model these without requiring them to have expert knowledge of computers and programming. Once a process has been defined graphically according to a predefined modelling language, it can be deployed and monitored. The process manager software takes care of the routing of messages between actors, both human as well as non-human (e.g. other applications), and it drives the individual errand forward according to how the process flow has been defined in the model. However, applying a process manager approach in health care processes requires a certain amount of caution. Messages sent between actors in health care organisations are often of a delicate nature since they may contain sensitive information, such as illness, mental state, family situation and similar, that is related to an identifiable individual. There are also other aspects of security that need to be addressed besides the confidentiality aspect. For example, it must be guaranteed that the information is correct and not altered during transfer, the information must be available when needed and it should be possible to trace a message to its sender, among other things.

    This work identifies a set of security requirements from the literature that need to be fulfilled in health care organisations when applying a process manager approach. With these requirements as a basis, a process manager system is evaluated with regards to security and the conclusion is that future versions need improvement on some points. Future work is also suggested that could help to explore the area further.

  • 9917.
    Toms, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Threats, Challenges and Emerging Standards in Web Services Security2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the hottest trends today within distributed computing is Web Services. Basically, a Web Service can be described as an XML-based interface that can be used by a client application to invoke a computing service distributed in a network via standard Internet protocols. In order for Web Services to become a ubiquitous technique for program to program communication, however, there need to be a solid framework in place for how Web Services that utilizes the public Internet for transport can be properly protected and secured. As the situation appears today, most services are not publicly exposed but are often deployed inside a corporate, private network. This hampers the vision of Web Services that can be publicly published in directories which potential consumers can search in order to find a suitable service to satisfy their need. This paper describes what the general threats and challenges are in deploying secure Web Services over publicly available and insecure networks, as they are explained in the literature. It then continues to give an overview of some of the more known security standards that are beginning to emerge on the scene.

  • 9918.
    Toms, Anders
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Utredning av integrationsaspekter vid Rule Based Engineering (RBE)2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid produktutveckling inom industriföretag finns idag luckor vad gäller IT-stöd i arbetets olika faser. Införandet av s.k. RBE-system (Rule Based Engineering) är ett steg på vägen mot att försöka fylla dessa luckor. Meningen med ett RBE-system kan sägas vara att ersätta traditionella konstruktionshandböcker med motsvarande konstruktionsanvisningar i digital form. Detta ger möjligheter till automatisering av processer som är tidskrävande, monotona och ofta förekommande, t.ex. olika former av komponentval, dimensioneringsprocesser etc. En av utgångspunkterna vid utvecklingen av RBE-system är att utgå från existerande programvaror. Detta kan ställa stora krav på utvecklarna. En fördel är om det finns en solid grund i form av fakta om vilka attribut hos ett program som är viktiga att ta hänsyn till för att underlätta valet av programvaror som lämpar sig integrationstekniskt för att koppla ihop med andra. Detta arbete syftar till att utreda dessa integrationstekniska aspekter.

  • 9919.
    Torberger, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    MIND-WANDERING – A Human Condition2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mind-wandering was until recently not a mainstream topic of research. The aim of this literature review is to present current views on the definition of mind-wandering and how the phenomenon is experienced. Furthermore, it gives an account of the implications of mind-wandering on cognitive performance, as well as its neurological correlates. In addition, the methods used to study mind-wandering are reviewed.The study of mind-wandering reveals a highly frequent phenomenon with practical consequences on a broad scale, both disruptive and supportive to goal-related behaviour and wellbeing in general. Originating from the default network, and its regions related to representations of self, memory, Theory of Mind, empathy and creativity, mind-wandering is hypothesized to be a function for planning one’s future life. Suggested further research concerns how mind-wandering can be countered, detected from the outside and whether it alters the physical feature of the brain.

  • 9920.
    Tordelöv, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Könskodade animationer till spelbara karaktärer: Vikten av att animation förmedlar samma budskap som karaktärens utseende2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka hur viktigt det är för spelare att avatarens animationer är anpassade för dess utseende. Undersökningen fokuserar på rörelseskillnader mellan manlig och kvinnlig gångstil som baseras på tidigare forskning runt detta. Forskningen pekar ut flera skillnader mellan hur män och kvinnor går och påpekar att trots att skillnaderna är små, kan personer lätt uppfatta dem.

    I arbetet animerades tre gångcykler som applicerades på två karaktärer (en kvinnlig och en manlig). Animationerna visualiserade en feminin, en maskulin och en neutral gångcykel. Den neutrala gångcykeln skapades först och användes sedan som bas för de andra. Gångcyklerna skapades utifrån tidigare forskning runt gångskillnader mellan män och kvinnors gångstilar. Även den neutrala gångcykeln baserades på denna forskning med då användes den för att hjälpa till att motverka de rörelser som var könskodande.

  • 9921.
    Torgersson, Olof
    et al.
    Department of Computing Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Using text generation to access clinical data in a variety of contexts2002In: Health Data in the Information Society: Proceedings of MIE2002, IOS Press, 2002, p. 460-465Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9922.
    Torkelsson, Olle
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Dauksz, Markus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    DFMA: A Methodology Study and Method Development2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Cars Corporation (VCC) is devoted to Lean and Six Sigma, and has lately considered an imple-mentation of Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) with the purpose of improving their product design process and production. The goal for this project work is therefore to investigate if DFMA is a beneficial method for VCC to use, how DFMA can be used and suggest a DFMA method.

    A literature study is performed as a starting point to understand DFMA methods and its possibilities. Scientific articles, technical books and online sources is used during the study in order to gather in-formation regarding DFMA implementations, application areas, approaches and potential risks that need to be eliminated for a successful implementation.

    In order to map the product development and manufacturing processes of VCC interviews are per-formed. The interviews also gathered information regarding what VCC employees thinks of DFMA and how they wish to use it. This information is compiled into a demand specification where the de-mands are weighted after importance by the interviewees.

    After the pre-study, three idea generation sessions is performed with three different focus groups. The generated ideas are then evaluated and classified. The remaining ideas are classified with the purpose of enabling the possibility to use a morphological chart to build whole concepts from the single ideas.

    Three concepts are chosen amongst the generated concepts. These concepts are then evaluated against the weighted demand specification. The concept considered most suitable is further devel-oped which resulted in a proposed DFMA method for VCC. A case study on a product is performed in order to communicate, test and evaluate the final DFMA method.

    The project is rounded off with discussions regarding DFMA and the suggested method from sustain-ability point of view and how to motivate usage. All results and discussions from the project are handed over to the company, enabling further research on a possible implementation of DFMA in the organization.

  • 9923.
    Tornblad, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Fäldt, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    EQ-aktiviteter på förskolans dagordning: En studie om förskollärares uppfattningar av förändringar i det socioemotionella samspelet efter ett målinriktat arbete med EQ-aktiviteter på förskolan2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har vi undersökt tre förskollärares uppfattning av förändringar i detsocioemotionella samspelet efter ett målinriktat arbete med EQ-aktiviteter på förskolan.Vi har i studien särskilt inriktat oss på följande aspekter av barnens socioemotionellaintelligens och kompetens; empati, prosociala färdigheter, relationsfärdigheter,kommunikationsfärdigheter, samarbetsfärdigheter, problemlösningsfärdigheter, självhävdelseoch självkontroll. De teoretiska begrepp som analyseras i studien är sociokulturellteori, Honneths erkännandeteori, socioemotionell intelligens och kompetens,prosocialt beteende, och socialt samspel. Datainsamlingsmetoden är kvalitativ ochbestår av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Resultatet visar att de intervjuade förskollärarnaanser att arbetet med EQ-aktiviteter på förskolan har förändrat det sociala klimatet ibarngruppen i en positiv riktning samt att barnens socioemotionella intelligens ochförmåga har utvecklats. Denna utveckling visar sig främst genom att barnen i högreutsträckning än tidigare visar benägenhet att agera på ett mer genomtänkt ochprosocialt sätt gentemot varandra i olika sociala sammanhang. I diskussionen behandlarvi kritisk reflektion, den verbala förmågans betydelse för den socioemotionellautvecklingen, samt förutsättningar för, och aspekter av ett målinriktat arbete med EQ–verksamhet på förskolan.

  • 9924.
    Tornell, Christoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Ljud och flow: En studie på hur ljud kan påverka flow i spel2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien fokuserade på begreppet flow och hur detta tillstånd påverkas av två olika sorters ljudläggnigar. Flow är i studiens sammanhang en kondition som spelaren befinner sig i när den är bekant med spelets mekaniker och är medveten om dess mål och hinder. Genom att ta in information med hjälp av olika medel som exempelvis ljudeffekter och animationer kan spelaren göra snabba och reaktiva beslut. Tidigare forskning visade hur många audivitva källor av immersion påverkar flow negativt, som exempelvis ambienser. Samtidigt visade forskning hur en spelare som befinner sig i ett tillstånd av immersion lättare kommer in i ett ’flow’-tillstånd. För att förstå denna relation mellan flow och immersion, samt hur ljud kan påverka dessa tillstånd skapades ett enkelt ’first-person shooter’ spel med två olika ljudläggningar. Genom insamlad data kunde man se hur ljudläggningarna påverkade spelarens flow mycket annorlunda.

  • 9925.
    Tornqvist, Cecilia
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Representation av färginformation hos färgblinda1997Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Var tionde person har en defekt som gör att de inte upplever färger som andra. Denna defekt kallas för färgblindhet. Forskningen om färgblindhet har främst fokuserats kring de fysiologiska aspekterna av färgblindheten samt vilka våglängder av ljus (färger) som färgblinda förväxlar. Hur färgblinda upplever färger har sällan, eller aldrig, studerats särskilt ingående.

    Denna studie fokuseras på hur färgblinda upplever färger, genom att b l a undersöka hur färgblinda kategoriserar färger och använder färgbegrepp. Studien har genomförts utifrån olika teorier om människans upplevelser, begreppsvärld och sätt att kategorisera olika typer av information (här färginformation). Studien belyser ett kognitionsvetenskapligt perspektiv av hur en färgdefekt påverkar individens sätt att uppleva färger.

    Metoden som använts för att studera de färgblindas upplevelser har varit en blandning av en kvalitativ intervju och kvantitativa färguppgifter. Materialet har sedan bearbetats kvalitativt.

    Resultaten visar att färgblinda inte upplever färger på det sätt som tidigare antagits och att andra faktorer än själva färgen påverkar vilken upplevelse den färgblinde får av ett färgstimuli. Resultaten belyser även hur en defekt som färgblindhet påverkar individens sätt att mentalt representera färg och bearbeta färginformation. Färgblindheten påverkar starkt färgblindas sätt att kategorisera färger. Undersökningen visar också att färgblindas mentala representationer av rött och grönt inte skiljer sig från normalseende man tidigare antagit. Färgblindas prototyper för färgerna rött, grönt, gult och blått skiljer sig inte från normalseendes. Vidare framkom att färgblinda är lika beroende av färger som ledtrådar i omgivningen som normalseende. Resultaten kan säga mycket om hur färger bör användas och inte användas.

  • 9926.
    Torosian, Rojé
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Elmehag, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Life Cycle Assessment of an Ocean Energy Power Plant: Evaluation and Analysis of the Energy Payback Time with Comparison Between Sweden and Tanzania2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy is an essential asset in the present society. It is needed for transportation, electricity and heating. Fossil fuels, being a limited reserve, are presently the dominating resource from which energy is being used. As indus-tries and consumers around the world use more energy for each passing day it becomes vital to shed some light on how important it is to decrease the global energy demand. Fossil fuels are needed to be replaced by renewa-ble energy sources, such as solar and wind power, in order to obtain a more sustainable development.When a new product is being developed it is usually important to analyze the potential environmental impact, suggestively by conducting a life cycle analysis, prior to manufacturing. Deep Green, being a tidal energy device for generation of electricity, is a product in its initial developing stage. In this thesis a lifecycle assessment has been conducted of the complete product with the purpose of achieving an analysis of how different choices of materials affect the energy usage, CO2 footprint and the energy payback time. Identifications by comparison have been taken into account to determine which component of Deep Green that contributes mostly to the energy usage and CO2 footprint. In addition to the Life Cycle Assessment, LCA, a digital model, created in an Excel workbook, has been developed to simplify calculations of the energy usage, CO2 footprint and energy payback time. The digital model, namely ENCO©, provides the possibility to interchange choice of materials for each component in order to evaluate the potential environmental impact and the energy payback time. Deep Green consist of 34 different components which are included in the LCA but an initial analysis shows that only twelve specific parts contribute largely to the energy usage and the CO2 footprint. The foundation and the wing structure account for 78 % and 15 % respectively of the energy usage along with ten other parts which together stand for an additional 6 %. Remaining 27 parts share the final percentile. Given the materials provided by the company of Minesto the total energy usage and CO2 footprint for the complete product corresponds to approx-imately 4500 GJ and 342 tonne respectively. The foundation is the part of Deep Green that contributes most to the total environmental impact.Depending on the defined materials for each component the energy payback time varies between 220 to 260 days which is to say that a production of Deep Green would be profitable. Nevertheless the conducted LCA has several delimitations which should be reflected upon prior a final decision is made.The resulted Energy Payback time, EP, should be carefully used and presented with the system boundaries, since they affect the EP very much. The outcome of energy consumption and CO2 footprint, depend highly on the choice of end of life management. Based on the result it is recommended that the foundation is left on the sea-bed at the end of its lifecycle to obtain the best EP.An investigation of whether it is possible to position the complete supply-chain within the boundaries of a de-veloping country, namely Tanzania, has also been conducted along with the LCA. It is believed that most of the raw materials, which are necessary for the manufacturing of Deep Green, are mined in Tanzania. It is however possible to import those materials which are not available within the country. When considering Tanzania, as a point of implementation for Deep Green, the energy payback time will become higher compared to Sweden or England since more components need to be imported which in turn generates an increase of transportation.It is recommended that a new calculation of the EP and the carbon footprint are done when Deep Green is fully developed. ENCO© can advantageously be used for this. It is also recommended that the distribution cables and the installation are included.

  • 9927.
    Torra, Vicenc
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On the Analysis of Utility and Risk for Masked Data in Big Data: A Small Data Analysis2018In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications: Artificial Intelligence Research and Development / [ed] Zoe Falomir, Karina Gibert, Enric Plaza, IOS Press , 2018, Vol. 308, p. 200-209Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data privacy studies methods to ensure that disclosure of sensitive information does not take place. Masking methods are applied to databases prior to their release so that intruders cannot access sensitive information. Masking methods modify the data reducing its quality. Information loss measures have been defined to evaluate in what extent data is still useful for particular analysis. In the case of big data, masking data and evaluating its utility is a complex problem. In this paper we focus on information loss measurement and we explore if we can estimate or give bounds of information loss for large data sets using only random subsets of the whole data set.

  • 9928.
    Torra, Vicenc
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Some properties of Choquet integral based probability functions2015In: Acta et Commentationes Universitatis Tartuensis de Mathematica, ISSN 1406-2283, E-ISSN 2228-4699, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Choquet integral permits us to integrate a function with respect to a non-additive measure. When the measure is additive it corresponds to the Lebesgue integral. This integral was used recently to define families of probability-density functions. They are the exponential family of Choquet integral (CI) based class-conditional probability-density functions, and the exponential family of Choquet– Mahalanobis integral (CMI) based class-conditional probability-density functions. The latter being a generalization of the former, and also a generalization of the normal distribution.

    In this paper we study some properties of these distributions, and study the application of a few normality tests.

  • 9929.
    Torra, Vicenc
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Transparency and Disclosure Risk in Data Privacy2015In: Proceedings of the Workshops of the EDBT/ICDT 2015 Joint Conference (EDBT/ICDT) / [ed] Peter M. Fischer, Gustavo Alonso, Marcelo Arenas, Floris Geerts, 2015, p. 246-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    k-Anonymity and differential privacy can be considered examples of Boolean definitions of disclosure risk. In contrast, record linkage and uniqueness are examples of quantitative measures of risk. Record linkage is a powerful approach because it can model different types of scenarios in which an adversary attacks a protected database with some information and background knowledge. Transparency holds in data privacy when data is published together with details on their processing. This includes the data protection method used and its parameters. Intruders can use this information to improve their attacks. Specific record linkage algorithms can be defined to take into account this information, and to define more accurate disclosure risk measures. Machine learning and optimization techniques also permits us to increase the  effectiveness of record linkage algorithms. This talk will be focused on disclosure risk measures based on record linkage. We will describe how we can improve the performance of the algorithms under the transparency principle, as well as using machine learning and optimization techniques.

  • 9930.
    Torra, Vicenc
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Transparency and microaggregation2015In: UNECE SDC 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency has an important effect on disclosure risk. In general, masking methods have to be evaluated taking into account that intruders can use all available information to attack the data. When the masking method as well as their parameters are disclosed, this information can also be used by an intruder. In this talk we will review results on the effects of transparency in disclosure risk assessment for microdata giving special emphasis to microaggregation.

  • 9931.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A fuzzy microaggregation algorithm using fuzzy c-means2015In: Artificial Intelligence Research and Development / [ed] Eva Armengol, Dionís Boixader, Francisco Grimaldo, IOS Press, 2015, p. 214-223Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Masking methods are used in data privacy to avoid the disclosure of sensitive information. Microaggregation is a perturbative masking method that has been proven effective. Data masked using microaggregation can be attacked when the intruder has information of the masking method and the parameters used. Publishing this information is usual under the transparency principle. Fuzzy microaggregation was introduced a few years ago to avoid this type of transparency attacks. In this paper we propose a new simpler method for microaggregation based on fuzzy c-means. We discuss the effectiveness of the approach. One of the advantages of this approach is its computational complexity.

  • 9932.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Choquet integral: distributions and decisions2016In: 83rd meeting of the European Working Group on Multicriteria Decision Aiding! / [ed] Núria Agell, Barcelona: ESADE, Ramon Llull University , 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Choquet integrals integrate functions with respect to fuzzy measures. From a mathematical point of view these integrals generalize the Lebesgue integrals when the measures are additive. From a point of view of aggregation functions, one of the relevant aspects is that they generalize the weighted mean and the OWA. Choquet integrals have been successfully used in decision making problems when there are interactions between criteria. In this setting we can learn or identify the measures from a set of decisions. This fact seems to indicate that we can consider data as generated from distributions based on the Choquet integral. We will present some results on these types of distributions and on their generalizations.  

  • 9933.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Data Privacy: Foundations, New Developments and the Big Data Challenge2017Book (Other academic)
  • 9934.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Derivation of Priorities and Weights for Set-Valued Matrices Using the Geometric Mean Approach2015In: Applied Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 0883-9514, E-ISSN 1087-6545, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 500-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Priorities are essential in the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Several approaches have been proposed to derive priorities in the framework of the AHP. Priorities correspond to the weights in the weighted mean as well as in other aggregation operators as the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operators, and the quasi-arithmetic means.

    Derivation of priorities for the AHP typically starts by eliciting a preference matrix from an expert and then using this matrix to obtain the vector priorities. For consistent matrices, the vector of priorities is unique. Nevertheless, it is usual that the matrix is not consistent. In this case, different methods exist for extracting this vector from the matrix.

    This article introduces a method for this purpose when the cells of the matrix are not a single value but a set of values. That is, we have a set-valued preference matrix. We discuss the relation of this type of matrices and hesitant fuzzy preference relations.

  • 9935.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Entropy for non-additive measures in continuous domains2017In: Fuzzy sets and systems (Print), ISSN 0165-0114, E-ISSN 1872-6801, Vol. 324, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper we introduced a definition of f-divergence for non-additive measures. In this paper we use this result to give a definition of entropy for non-additive measures in a continuous setting. It is based on the KL divergence for this type of measures. We prove some properties and show that we can use it to find a measure satisfying the principle of minimum discrimination.

  • 9936.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Fuzzy microaggregation for the transparency principle2017In: Journal of Applied Logic, ISSN 1570-8683, E-ISSN 1570-8691, Vol. 23, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microaggregation has been proven to be an effective method for data protection in the areas of Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM) and Statistical Disclosure Control (SDC). This method consists of applying a clustering method to the data set to be protected, and then replacing each of the data by the cluster representative. In this paper we propose a new method for microaggregation based on fuzzy clustering. This new approach has been defined with the main goal of being nondeterministic on the assignment of cluster centers to the original data, and at the same time being simple in its definition. Being nondeterministic permits us to overcome some of the attacks standard microaggregation suffers. 

  • 9937.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On fuzzy c-means and membership based clustering2015In: Advances in Computational Intelligence: 13th International Work-Conference on Artificial Neural Networks, IWANN 2015, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, June 10-12, 2015: Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Ignacio Rojas, Gonzalo Joya & Andreu Catala, Springer, 2015, p. 597-607Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuzzyc" role="presentation">c-means is one of the most well known fuzzy clustering algorithms. It is usually solved using an iterative algorithm. This algorithm does not ensure that the solution is the global optimum. In this paper we study the distribution of values of the objective function of fuzzyc" role="presentation">c

    -means.

    We also propose a new fuzzy clustering method related to fuzzy c-means. The method presumes that the shape of the membership function is known and can be calculated from the cluster centers, which are the only results of the clustering algorihm.

  • 9938.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On the selection of m for Fuzzy c-Means2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 Conference of the International Fuzzy Systems Association and the European Society for Fuzzy Logic and Technology / [ed] José M. Alonso, Humberto Bustince & Marek Reformat, Paris: Atlantis Press , 2015, p. 1571-1577Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuzzy c-means is a well known fuzzy clustering algorithm. It is an unsupervised clustering algorithmthat permits us to build a fuzzy partition from data. The algorithm depends on a parameter m whichcorresponds to the degree of fuzziness of the solution. Large values of m will blur the classes andall elements tend to belong to all clusters. The solutionsof the optimization problem depend on theparameter m. That is, different selections of m willtypically lead to different partitions. In this paper we study and compare the effect ofthe selection of m obtained from the fuzzy c-means.

  • 9939.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Hamilton Institute, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland.
    Random dictatorship for privacy-preserving social choice2019In: International Journal of Information Security, ISSN 1615-5262, E-ISSN 1615-5270, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social choice provides methods for collective decisions. They include methods for voting and for aggregating rankings. These methods are used in multiagent systems for similar purposes when decisions are to be made by agents. Votes and rankings are sensitive information. Because of that, privacy mechanisms are needed to avoid the disclosure of sensitive information. Cryptographic techniques can be applied in centralized environments to avoid the disclosure of sensitive information. A trusted third party can then compute the outcome. In distributed environments, we can use a secure multiparty computation approach for implementing a collective decision method. Other privacy models exist. Differential privacy and k-anonymity are two of them. They provide privacy guarantees that are complementary to multiparty computation approaches, and solutions that can be combined with the cryptographic ones, thus providing additional privacy guarantees, e.g., a differentially private multiparty computation model. In this paper, we propose the use of probabilistic social choice methods to achieve differential privacy. We use the method called random dictatorship and prove that under some circumstances differential privacy is satisfied and propose a variation that is always compliant with this privacy model. Our approach can be implemented using a centralized approach and also a decentralized approach. We briefly discuss these implementations.

  • 9940.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Scala: from a functional programming perspective: An Introduction to the Programming Language2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book gives an introduction to the programming language Scala. It presents it from a functional programming perspective. The book explains with detail functional programming and recursivity, and includes chapters on lazy and eager evaluation, streams, higher-order functions (including map, fold, reduce, and aggregate), and algebraic data types. The book also describes the object-oriented aspects of Scala, as they are a fundamental part of the language. In addition, the book includes a chapter on parallelism in Scala, giving an overview of the actor model.

  • 9941.
    Torra, Vicenç
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Aliahmadipour, Laya
    Departement of Computer Science Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Fuzzy, I-fuzzy, and H-fuzzy partitions to describe clusters2016In: Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE), 2016 IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE), IEEE, 2016, p. 524-530Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss how three types of fuzzy partitions can be used to describe the results of three types of cluster structures. Standard fuzzy partitions are suitable for centroid based clusters, and I-fuzzy partitions for clusters represented by segments or lines (e.g., c-varieties). In this paper, we introduce hesitant fuzzy partitions. They are suitable for clusters defined by sets of centroids. Because of that, we show that they are useful for hierarchical clustering. We also establish the relationship between hesitant fuzzy partitions and I-fuzzy partitions.

  • 9942.
    Torra, Vicenç
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Guillen, Montserrat
    Department of Econometrics, Riskcenter-IREA, University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Santolino, Miguel
    Department of Econometrics, Riskcenter-IREA, University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Continuous m-dimensional distorted probabilities2018In: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 44, p. 97-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9943.
    Torra, Vicenç
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Navarro‐Arribas, Guillermo
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain / Center for Cybersecurity Research of Catalonia (CYBERCAT), Spain.
    Salas, Julián
    Center for Cybersecurity Research of Catalonia (CYBERCAT), Spain / Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Synthetic generation of spatial graphs2018In: International Journal of Intelligent Systems, ISSN 0884-8173, E-ISSN 1098-111X, Vol. 32, no 12, p. 2364-2378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphs can be used to model many different types of interaction networks, for example, online social networks or animal transport networks. Several algorithms have thus been introduced to build graphs according to some predefined conditions. In this paper, we present an algorithm that generates spatial graphs with a given degree sequence. In spatial graphs, nodes are located in a space equiped with a metric. Our goal is to define a graph in such a way that the nodes and edges are positioned according to an underlying metric. More particularly, we have constructed a greedy algorithm that generates nodes proportional to an underlying probability distribution from the spatial structure, and then generates edges inversely proportional to the Euclidean distance between nodes. The algorithm first generates a graph that can be a multigraph, and then corrects multiedges. Our motivation is in data privacy for social networks, where a key problem is the ability to build synthetic graphs. These graphs need to satisfy a set of required properties (e.g., the degrees of the nodes) but also be realistic, and thus, nodes (individuals) should be located according to a spatial structure and connections should be added taking into account nearness.

  • 9944.
    Torra, Vicenç
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Steinhauer, H. Joe
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berglund, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Artificial Intelligence2019In: Data Science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 9-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives a brief introduction to what artificial intelligence is. We begin discussing some of the alternative definitions for artificial intelligence and introduce the four major areas of the field. Then, in subsequent sections we present these areas. They are problem solving and search, knowledge representation and knowledge-based systems, machine learning, and distributed artificial intelligence. The chapter follows with a discussion on some ethical dilemma we find in relation to artificial intelligence. A summary closes this chapter.

  • 9945.
    Torra, Vicenç
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Narukawa, Yasuo
    Distances on non-additive measures using the numerical Choquet integrale2015In: The 12th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: CD-ROM Proceedings, MDAI - HiS , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9946.
    Torra, Vicenç
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Narukawa, YasuoToho Gakuen, Tokyo, Japan.
    Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 12th International Conference, MDAI 2015, Skövde, Sweden, September 21-23, 2015, Proceedings2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 9947.
    Torra, Vicenç
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Narukawa, Yasuo
    Toho Gakuen, Naka, Kunitachi, Tokyo, Japan.
    Numerical integration for the Choquet integral2016In: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 31, p. 137-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choquet integrals with respect to non-additive (or fuzzy measures) have been used in a large number of applications because they permit us to integrate information from different sources when there are interactions. Successful applications use a discrete reference set. In the case of measures on a continuous reference set, as e.g. the real line, few results have been obtained that permit us to have an analytical expression of the integral. However, in most of the cases there is no such analytical expression. In this paper we describe how to perform the numerical integration of a Choquet integral with respect to a non-additive measure.

  • 9948.
    Torra, Vicenç
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Hamilton Institute, Maynooth University, Ireland.
    Narukawa, Yasuo
    Department of Management Science, Tamagawa University, Japan.
    On network analysis using non-additive integrals: extending the game-theoretic network centrality2019In: Soft Computing - A Fusion of Foundations, Methodologies and Applications, ISSN 1432-7643, E-ISSN 1433-7479, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 2321-2329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are large amounts of information that can be represented in terms of graphs. This includes social networks and internet. We can represent people and their interactions by means of graphs. Similarly, we can represent web pages (and sites) as well as links between pages by means of graphs. In order to study the properties of graphs, several indices have been defined. They include degree centrality, betweenness, and closeness. In this paper, we propose the use of Choquet and Sugeno integrals with respect to non-additive measures for network analysis. This is a natural extension of the use of game theory for network analysis. Recall that monotonic games in game theory are non-additive measures. We discuss the expected force, a centrality measure, in the light of non-additive integral network analysis. We also show that some results by Godo et al. can be used to compute network indices when the information associated with a graph is qualitative.

  • 9949.
    Torra, Vicenç
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Narukawa, Yasuo
    Toho Gakuen, Naka, Kunitachi, Tokyo, Japan / Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Japan.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On this book: Clustering, multisets, rough sets and fuzzy sets2017In: Fuzzy sets, rough sets, multisets and clustering / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Anders Dahlbom & Yasuo Narukawa, Springer, 2017, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives an overview of the content of this book, and links them with the work of Prof. Sadaaki Miyamoto, to whom this book is dedicated.

  • 9950.
    Torra, Vicenç
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Narukawa, YasuoDahlbom, AndersUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The 12th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: CD-ROM Proceedings2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
196197198199200201202 9901 - 9950 of 10815
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