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  • 951.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Sjödén, Björn
    Lund University.
    Designing for self-efficacy in a game based simulator: An experimental study and its implications for serious games design2008In: Proceedings International Conference Visualisation VIS 2008: Visualisation in Built and Rural Environments / [ed] Mark Bannatyne, John Counsell, Andrew J. Cowell, Mohamad Dastbaz, Ming Hou, Farzad Khosrowshahi, Richard Laing, Vittorio Scarano, Gui Yun Tian, Anna Ursyn & Jian J. Zhang, IEEE Computer Society, 2008, p. 106-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on designing for self-efficacy in a game based driving simulator. Self-efficacy refers to how people´s beliefs in their capabilities affect their actions. The results show that the design of the feedback system can be used to increae self-efficacy measures thus affecting performance in a driving simulator environment. Self-efficacy has consequences not only for the performance of the particular task, but also for what activities he/she chooses to engage in and the persistence invested in them. Hence we find the results from this study relevant to various aspects of serious games design.

  • 952.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, HenrikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.Liarokapis, FotisMasaryk University, Czech Republic.
    VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 953.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hallenborg, Christina
    Ericsson AB, Centre for Radio Network Control, Datalinjen 3, SE-583 30 Linköping, SWEDEN.
    Hallgrimsson, Guðmundur
    Radar Agency, ISSF, Building 131, Keflavíkurflugvöllur, 108 Reykjavik, ICELAND.
    Transfer of Development Process Knowledge through Method Adaptation and Implementation2003In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2003), Association for Information Systems, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge transfer is one of the key problem areas in knowledge management. This paper focuses on the transfer of knowledge about the software development process. There is an aim to improve process knowledge and one way of doing it is to introduce commercial development methods. However, doing this is not an easy task. We present a study of how such an introduction of a widespread method was carried out in two large software development organisations. We conclude that a new method has to be adapted and implemented in the organisation in order to make it a part of the organisation specific knowledge base. The new method has to become an integrated part of the existing development process knowledge of the organisation, meaning that it has to be adapted to fit with other organisation specific processes. The ability to do so is the absorptive capacity: the capability to identify and recognise the value of new external knowledge, assimilate it, and apply it.

  • 954.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Heldal, Ilona
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Collaboration Patterns in Mixed Reality Environments for a New Emergency Training Center2013In: Proceedings UKSim-AMSS Seventh European Modelling Symposium on Computer Modelling and Simulation EMS2013, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 483-488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training actors from public safety agencies (PSA), e.g. emergency medical services, fire departments, police departments involves different technologies and communication and collaboration activities. New technologies promise better support, not only for training, but also for logging relevant information for future analysis and learning. However, choosing the right technologies, defining proper set-ups for the training activities, and identifying premises for long-term use of technical facilities is both difficult and time consuming. Applying earlier lessons from evaluating work in Virtual Environments (VEs) [1], our aim is to develop a better understanding of the impact of new technologies by identifying collaboration patterns influencing training. Collaboration is examined via social, technical, and task related interaction, distinguishable in the different phases of training, from starting an alarm to ending the emergency activities. Our main results illustrate the benefits of (1) building scenarios, and training whole activity chains for certain rescue or other emergency activities, (2) using simulations for better understanding physical places, the task, and (3) distinguishing technical, social and task focused characteristics for factors influencing emergency focused collaboration. Moreover, the results also contribute to understanding the benefits of considering specific simulation technologies when training for emergency and rescue activities.

  • 955.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Hendrix, Maurice
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Educational Games: Are They Worth the Effort?2013In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games 2013), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. CFP1338G-ART-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade educational games have become more and more popular. There are many games specifically designed as educational games, as well as a number of entertainment games that have been successfully used for educational purposes. The EduGameLab project aims to stimulate the use of games in the classroom. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of game-based learning and focuses specifically on empirical evidence on the effectiveness of using games in education in the last decade. Moreover, the study focuses on usage in formalized school contexts, i.e. pre-school, elementary school, secondary school, high school and higher education. As secondary aims we also assess whether there are any clear methodological trends and whether a link could be found between the outcome of empirical studies and the evaluator being a stakeholder in the game development.

  • 956.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Jonasson, Ingi
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Patterns as a means for managing knowledge in the information systems engineering process2002In: Proceedings of the Baltic Conference, BalticDB&IS 2002, Institute of Cybernetics at Tallin Technical University , 2002, p. 15-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 957.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Combining Project Management Methods: a Case Study of Distributed Work Practices2006In: Advances in Information Systems Development: Bridging the Gap between Academia and Industry / [ed] Anders G. Nilsson, Remigijus Gustas, Wita Wojtkowski, W. Gregory Wojtkowski, Stanisław Wrycza, Jože Zupančič, Springer, 2006, p. 253-264Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution is a multifaceted concept and one aspect concerns the adoption of ideas from a combination of methods for project management. Such distribution imposes new demands on project management and coordination since the project management aspect is an integral part of information systems development methods. This paper reports from a case study of coordinating project management practices in a commercial development method and an in-house method for project management. In order to conduct the study of how methods are combined and utilized, one of the researchers followed a development project for six months. The general aim of the project under study is to replace the numerous system registers in use with one general register, which will aid in making system maintenance more efficient. The project also has two organisational goals: to give the team members an opportunity to use RUP in a real project setting; and to introduce new technology and a new development tool. The study highlights the importance of taking a start in current work practice as opposed to focusing on the new method as such. In summary, we stress the importance of taking a start in the work practice in terms of a method in use as opposed to method proponents’ push for new methods. Any long term change in work practices has to be internalised by the stakeholders in the practical context of method use. Hence, the case study presented here adds to the body of knowledge which distinguishes between the method as used and the method as prescribed by its proponents.

  • 958.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Emerging work Practices in a Systems Development Project: Observations On a Distributed Development Project2006In: Proceedings of AIS SIGSAND European Symposium on Systems Analysis and Design: Practice and Research / [ed] Michael Lang, Briony J. Oates, Keng Siau, Galway: Centre for Innovation and Structural Change (CISC), J. E. Cairnes Graduate School of Business & Public Policy, National University of Ireland , 2006, p. 15-27Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 959.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Scacchi, Walt
    Workshop – Open Source Software for Computer Games and Virtual Worlds: Practice and Future2010In: Open Source Software: New Horizons, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 419-420Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 960.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Scacchi, Walt
    Workshop – Serious Games and Open Source: Practice and Futures2009In: Open Source Ecosystems: Diverse Communities Interacting, Springer, 2009, p. 361-362Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 961.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance2018In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 642-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Simulation based training with full-size mannequins is a prominent means of training within the healthcare sector. Prehospital missions include all parts of the healthcare process which take place before a patient is handed over to the receiving hospital. This implies that the context for prehospital care is varied and potentially challenging or dangerous in several ways. In this article we present a study which explores immersion and performance by emergency medical services (EMS) professionals in in a training situation which takes the specifics of prehospital interventions into account.

    Methods. The study was carried out as a field experiment at an ambulance unit. The experiment was designed to compare the differences between two types of medical scenarios: basic and contextualized. We analyzed the levels of immersion throughout the scenarios and then team performance was evaluated by independent experts. Both analyses were made by observing video recordings from multiple camera angles with a custom made analysis tool.

    Results. Our results show that the contextualization of a medical scenario increases both immersion as measured by the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI) and team performance as measured by the Global Rating Scale (GRS). The overall ISRI score was higher in the contextualized condition as compared to the basic condition, with an average team wise difference of 2.94 (sd = 1.45). This difference is significant using a paired, two-tailed t-test (p<.001). The GRS score was higher for overall clinical performance in the contextualized scenario with an average team wise difference of 0.83 (sd = 0.83, p=.005).

    Conclusions. Full-size mannequin simulation based training for EMS professionals may be enhanced by contextualizing the medical scenarios. The main benefits are that the contextualized scenarios better take prehospital medical challenges into account and allow participants to perform better.

  • 962.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ralyté, Jolita
    Jeusfeld, Manfred A
    Kühn, Harald
    Arni-Bloch, Nicolas
    Goossenaerts, Jan B M
    Lillehagen, Frank
    An Interoperability Classification Framework for Method Chunk Repositories2007In: Advances in Information Systems Development, Springer, 2007, p. 153-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The competitiveness and efficiency of an enterprise is dependent on its ability to interact with other enterprises and organisations. In this context interoperability is defined as the ability of business processes as well as enterprise software and applications to interact. Interoperability remains a problem and there are numerous issues to be resolved in different situations. We propose method engineering as an approach to organise interoperability knowledge in a method chunk repository. In order to organise the knowledge repository we need an interoperability classification framework associated to it. In this paper we propose a generic architecture for a method chunk repository, elaborate on a classification framework and associate it to some existing bodies of knowledge. We also show how the proposed framework can be applied in a working example.

  • 963.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Wangler, Benkt
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Toms, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ontology driven business processes integration – a position paper2004In: Proceedings of the CAiSE*04 workshops: Enterprise Modelling and Ontologies for Interoperability, 2004, p. 280-283Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 964.
    Backlöf, Kalle
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    GROWTH CONDITIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR BACTERIAL GROWTH AND THE FADING OF PHENOLPHTHALEIN IN ALKALINE SOLUTION2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The whole project consisted of two different parts. The first subproject were running optical density measurements to assist in finding optimal growth conditions and experimental setup for use of E.coli BL21 (DE3) bacteria with the PYCARD gene transformed into them. The transformed bacteria will be used for generating data for modeling. Previous laboratory attempts had problems with timing of the exponential phase when several tests were performed simultaneously. The optimizations of a method for displaying growth include trying out using different medium but also different inoculation ratios between culture and medium to see the effects on growth rate. Results have shown that lysogeny broth together with an inoculation ratio of 1:25 results in rapid absorbance increase in the bacterial growth curves.The second part of the thesis project was to study the kinetics of fading of phenolphthalein in sodium hydroxide solution in order to provide a basis for experiments illustrating this in laboratory environment. Phenolphthalein is used in many different applications such as an active ingredient in some laxatives but the perhaps most common use is as an acid-base indicator of pH. The experiments were performed by mixing alkaline solutions of varying sodium hydroxide concentration together with sodium chloride, then after addition of phenolphthalein to study absorbance variations over time to illustrate the rate law which correlates the rate of color fade to sodium hydroxide concentration. The results have proven that they correspond directly so that increasing the concentration of sodium hydroxide raised the color fading rate just as much in percent.

  • 965.
    Backman, Arvid
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Effektivitet hos navigering av autonoma agenter: En jämförelse mellan flödesfält och vägföljning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete undersöks två styrbeteenden som kan användas för att navigera grupper av agenter genom olika spelmiljöer. Teknikerna som arbetet har som syfte att utvärdera är vägföljnings- och flödesfältsbeteende. Arbetets undersökning har som avsikt att jämföra dessa tekniker med avseende på tids- och minneseffektivitet och utvärdera hur dessa tekniker presterar på dessa aspekter i olika gruppstorlekar och miljötyper.

    Resultaten från arbetets utförda tester visade att vägföljningsbeteendet klart är den mest minneseffektiva tekniken medan flödesfältsbeteendet var något mer tidseffektiv. I en slutgiltig diskussion presenteras arbetet ur en samhällelig och etisk synpunkt och även en diskussion över hur framtida forskning inom området kan se ut.

  • 966.
    Backman, Malin
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Browall, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Carl Johan
    Department of Physiology & Pharmacology and Unit for Bioentrepreneurship, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden / Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experiencing health - Physical activity during adjuvant chemotherapy treatment for women with breast cancer2016In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 21, p. 160-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore how women with breast cancer experience physical activity (PA) during adjuvant chemotherapy treatment.

    METHODS: This study included sixteen women diagnosed with breast cancer who had participated in a supervised 16-week PA intervention during adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. The qualitative approach included semi-structured individual and focus group interviews. Data were analyzed inductively with content analysis.

    RESULT: The content analysis resulted in a description of experiencing health during chemotherapy treatment covered by five categories: Solidarity with others and being good to oneself; Experiencing functional improvement and social support; Empowerment and motivation to focus on health; Barriers to adherence to PA during illness and treatment; and Enabling health and independence. A core category was identified; PA a tool for maintenance and recovery of physical, mental and social health. The women reported that PA had a positive impact on both physical function and mental wellbeing. Participating in the PA intervention also increased their feeling of social support, which was reported to be important to motivate adherence to PA when the side effects became more severe. Symptom burden, time and lack of motivation were reported as barriers to continue PA during treatment.

    CONCLUSION: The women in this study reported that PA had a positive impact on their perceived health and that it was possible to exercise despite increasing symptom burden from treatment. PA was perceived as a tool that supported health processes and gave the women a feeling of getting respite from the illness.

  • 967.
    Backman, Mikaela
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Revisorernas inflytande: Komponentmetoden, en rättvisande bild och den institutionella teorins förklaring av mindre fastighetsföretags val av principbaserad redovisning.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 968.
    Backsell, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Larsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Skyltfönstret: Vägen till konsumenten2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Large retail chains use visual merchandising to create their windows displays. They based their studies on research and conceptual literature that establish the rules and guidelines for how a storefront should be designed in an attractive and effective way to attract attention and convey the store's image. This report examines the importance and use of this type of literature and theories of the smaller privately owned stores. The guidelines for this report are based on the question: In what way is the design of the windows display regarding smaller stores different from the theory?

    The repeating pattern of the authors of the literature is about color, light, clustering, minds, and shop window primary attributes. These theories are focusing on creating a well structured and well planned exposure for contributing to store profitability in the best way.

    From the scientific and relevant literature has the material to the interviews being created. The interviews were conducted with selected respondents for the subject, four in number, which participated on a voluntary basis. The result shows that there are many differences between theory and practice of the smaller stores. The smaller stores use their own taste and liking, and find their inspiration from sources other than the used literature.

    In addition to the differences between theory and practice is the report aiming to find the characteristics of smaller stores designing windows compared with retail chains. Knowledge and awareness is a relevant question regarding the staff and shopowner to the smaller stores, which this repport also is aiming to investigate.

  • 969.
    Backstrom, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Physiol Unit, Biomed Ctr BMC, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden / Uppsala Univ, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden .
    Pettersson, Andreas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Food Sci, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Viktoria
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Physiol Unit, Biomed Ctr BMC, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden .
    CRF and urotensin I effects on aggression and anxiety-like behavior in rainbow trout2011In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 214, no 6, p. 907-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is central in the stress response but also modulates several behaviors including anxiety-related behaviors and aggression. In this study, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were tested for competitive ability, determined during dyadic fights for dominance, after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of CRF, urotensin I (UI), the non-specific CRF antagonist alpha-helical RF(9-41) (ahCRF) or the CRF receptor subtype 1-specific antagonist antalarmin, when paired with a mass-matched con-specific injected with saline. In addition, isolated fish received the same substances. Plasma cortisol and brain monoamines were monitored in all fish. Most fish receiving CRF showed a conspicuous behavior consisting of flaring the opercula, opening the mouth and violent shaking of the head from side to side. When this occurred, the fish immediately forfeited the fight. Similar behavior was observed in most fish receiving UI but no effect on outcome of dyadic fights was noted. This behavior seems similar to non-ambulatory motor activity seen in rats and could be anxiety related. Furthermore, fish receiving CRF at a dose of 1000. ng became subordinate, whereas all other treatments had no effects on the outcome of dyadic fights. In addition, isolated fish receiving ahCRF had lower brain stem concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, serotonin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dopamine. In conclusion, CRF seems to attenuate competitive ability, and both CRF and UI seem to induce anxiety-like behavior.

  • 970.
    Backström, Linus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Establishing a biopsychosocial model for conspiracy theory ideation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide the grounds for a biopsychosocial understanding of the underpinnings of conspiracy theorist ideation by studying research articles from different scientific disciplines. Cross-disciplinary concurring results are presented and discussed, as well as some examples of how conspiracy theories have been used during the 20th century. Also discussed is how this is used in political discourse in the populist climate of today, with the rise of radical right-wing movements, the justification of “alternative facts” from higher governmental ranks, and religious fundamentalism, making it a societal issue of possible big magnitude. Neurological similarities was found between religiousness and proneness to conspiracy theory ideation, and the articles concerning neural correlates therefore stem from research on religious individuals due to the lack of neuro-biopsychological research on actual conspiracy theorists. Since conspiracy theory ideation has shown the ability to cause negative consequences it is also advised that governmental agencies and society as a whole revise its stance on populism and the spread of flawed information, in order to maintain an open society. Also presented are a few ideas on how to begin countering the rise of populism.

  • 971.
    Badekar, Karishma
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Cloning of two arsenic reponsive arsB and arsC genes from Lysinibacillus sphaericus and construction of binary vectors for T-DNA mediated transformation of tobacco plants.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic is classified to be a heavy metal that severely contaminates human foods, drinking water and the environment in many regions of the world. Long term exposure to arsenic can create chronic poisoning of human health leading to many life threatening and lethal diseases such as cancer, keratosis, gangrene, damage of lung, kidney and liver and also many other neuro vascular disorders.

    To cope with this problem, the researchers of the Biotechnology Research group at the University of Skövde has previously identified and isolated a bacterial strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus sp. B1-CDA from arsenic contaminated soil. These strains are resistant to arsenic, can uptake arsenic from the contaminated source and store it inside the cells thus reducing the arsenic content in the contaminated source. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed that the bacterium harbors several arsenic responsive genes. The research group has also performed several in silico studies on these genes to determine their molecular functions. Two of these genes arsB and arsC were predicted to be involved in uptake and storage of arsenics inside the cells. In this thesis work the arsB and arsC genes were cloned from the genomic DNA of bacterium by PCR using database sequences as primers. These genes were then transferred into two cloning vectors pMAN1080 and pMAN0385, respectively. The pCAMBIA1301 vector was utilized to construct the binary vectors for transferring these genes to tobacco plants by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA mediated gene transfer. Two binary vectors each harboring the respective arsenic responsive genes arsB and arsC were successfully constructed. Transgenic calli derived from leaf disk transformation were successfully selected. Transgenic shoots were generated but with a very low transformation frequency (<6%).

  • 972.
    Badh, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Johansson, Carolina
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Vem är jag?: - En kvantitativ studie om tonårstjejers identitet och kroppsuppfattning.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka sambandet mellan tonårsflickans identitet och kroppsuppfattningen. Även roller i kompisgruppen kommer att tas upp och då framförallt rollen som den tyste i gruppen. Genom en enkätstudie undersöktes 37 elever från högstadiet och 68 elever från gymnasiet. Sambandet mellan positiv personlig identitet och en normal kroppsuppfattning undersöktes. Resultatet visade att personer med positiv (M=1,20, SD=0,41) eller neutral (M=1,15,SD=0,36) personlig identitet hade en bra kroppsuppfattning medanpersoner med negativ (M=1,55, SD=0,51) personlig identitet hade en mindre bra kroppsuppfattning. Undersökningen visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan högstadiet och gymnasiet i fråga om identitet och kroppsuppfattning. Vi antar att skillnader i identitet och kroppsuppfattning beror mer på individuella skillnader än vilken åldersgrupp man tillhör.

  • 973.
    Badia, J. D.
    et al.
    a Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), València, Spain / Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Spain.
    Kittikorn, T.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Strömberg, E.
    KTH/ School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm.
    Santonja-Blasco, L.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain / Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, United States.
    Martínez-Felipe, A.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain / Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, Spain.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain.
    Ek, M.
    Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Spain.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    University of Skövde. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm.
    Water absorption and hydrothermal performance of PHBV/sisal biocomposites2014In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 108, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of biocomposites of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) (PHBV) and sisal fibre subjected to hydrothermal tests at different temperatures above the glass transition of PHBV (T-H = 26, 36 and 46 degrees C) was evaluated in this study. The influences of both the fibre content and presence of coupling agent were focused. The water absorption capability and water diffusion rate were considered for a statistical factorial analysis. Afterwards, the physico-chemical properties of water-saturated biocomposites were assessed by Fourier-Transform Infrared Analysis, Size Exclusion Chromatography, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Scanning Electron Microscopy. It was found that the water diffusion rate increased with both temperature and percentage of fibre, whereas the amount of absorbed water was only influenced by fibre content. The use of coupling agent was only relevant at the initial stages of the hydrothermal test, giving an increase in the diffusion rate. Although the chemical structure and thermal properties of water-saturated biocomposites remained practically intact, the physical performance was considerably affected, due to the swelling of fibres, which internally blew-up the PHBV matrix, provoking cracks and fibre detachment. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 974.
    Badidi, Elarbi
    et al.
    United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
    Atif, Yacine
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sheng, Michael Z.
    Macquarie University, New South Wales, Australia .
    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru
    McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    On Personalized Cloud Service Provisioning for Mobile Users Using Adaptive and Context-Aware Service Composition2018In: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 101, no 4, p. 291-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud service providers typically compose their services from a number of elementary services, which are developed in- house or built by third-party providers. Personalization of composite services in mobile environments is an interesting and challenging issue to address, given the opportunity to factor-in diverse user preferences and the plethora of mobile devices at use in multiple contexts. This work proposes a framework to address personalization in mobile cloud-service provisioning. Service personalization and adaptation may be considered at different levels, including the user profile, the mobile device in use, the context of the user and the composition specification. The user’s mobile device and external services are typical sources of context information, used in our proposed algorithm to elicit context-aware services. The selection process is guided by quality-of-context (QoC) criteria that combine cloud-service provider requirements and user preferences. Hence, the paper proposes an integrated framework for enhancing personalized mobile cloud-services, based on a composition approach that adapts context information using a common model of service metadata specification.

  • 975.
    Badier, Damien
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Rousset, Carole
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Strategies adopted in the International Market: The case of IKEA in France2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor degree thesis deals with the strategies that IKEA has adopted in France since its establishment up to now. It is essentially based on interview with the person responsible for the public relations of IKEA France. But, other sources were used concerning our empirical findings: IKEA’s brochures, surveys from researchers… The purpose of the thesis is to explain and illustrate how a company succeeded to establish abroad, by applying a domestic concept. This issue is of importance because it provides information for the reader who would like to know how a company can be export all over the world by adapting its policy to the local specificities. It identifies and gives explanations about the marketing strategies implemented to export the IKEA concept to the French market.

  • 976.
    Badylak, Sebastian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Independent Game Developers' Initiative: Utvecklingen av användarprofilen till en webbaserad mötesplats för dataspelsutvecklare2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet behandlar utvecklingen av ett grundläggande element till en framtida webbaserad community för dataspelsutvecklare. Grundelementet är en användarprofil som inom communityn kommer att åskådliggöras i ett grafiskt webbgränssnitt för alla registrerade användare. Användarprofilens syfte är att presentera användaren på ett attraktivt sätt för såväl spelindustrin som andra spelutvecklare som söker samarbete och bekantskap. Gränssnittet utvecklas ur ett användarcentrerat perspektiv genom den metodologi som McCracken och Wolfe (2004) presenterar. Utvecklingsprocessen inleds med att kartlägga marknaden, de tänkta slutanvändarna och deras behov samt den svenska spelindustrins intresse av en sådan community. Därefter utvecklas en tidig prototyp som genomgår tester där dataspelsstudenter från Högskolan i Skövde får tillfälle att påverka såväl utformning som innehåll. Processen leder till en uppdaterad version av prototypen men kan betraktas som en första iteration av utvecklingen och det ligger i framtida arbete att genom fler liknande iterationer färdigställa produkten.

  • 977.
    Badía, J. D.
    et al.
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Moriana, Rosana
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Santonja-Blasco, L.
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    A thermogravimetric approach to study the influence of a biodegradation in soil test to a Poly(lactic acid)2008In: Macromolecular Symposia, ISSN 1022-1360, E-ISSN 1521-3900, Vol. 272, no 1, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An amorphous grade Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) was selected for an accelerated burial in soil test during 450 days. Thermogravimetric analyses were carried out to study the effects of degradation in soil on the thermal stability and the thermal decomposition kinetics. A single stage decomposition process is observed for all degradation times. It is shown that the thermal stability of PLA is slightly affected by degradation in soil. Concerning the study of the thermal decomposition kinetics, Criado master curves were plotted from experimental data to focus the study of the thermodegradation kinetic model.The kinetic methods proposed by Broido and Chang were used to calculate the apparent activation energies (Ea) of the degradation mechanism. These results were compared to the Ea values obtained by the method developed by Coats and Redfern in order to prove the applicability of the former methods to the kinetic study. As expected, non-linear tendency is found out for Ea variation along the degradation times, which can be explained as an evolution by stages. Copyright © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  • 978.
    Badía, José David
    et al.
    Instituto de Investigación en Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Santonja-Blasco, Laura
    Instituto de Investigación en Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Moriana, Rosana
    Instituto de Investigación en Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Ribes-Greus, Amparo
    Instituto de Investigación en Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Thermal analysis applied to the characterization of degradation in soil of polylactide: II. on the thermal stability and thermal decomposition kinetics2010In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 95, no 11, p. 2192-2199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The disposal stage of polylactide (PLA) was assessed by burying it in active soil following an international standard. Degradation in soil promotes physical and chemical changes in the polylactide properties. The characterization of the extent of degradation underwent by PLA was carried out by using Thermal Analysis techniques. In this paper, studies on the thermal stability and the thermal decomposition kinetics were performed in order to assess the degradation process of a commercial PLA submitted to an accelerated soil burial test by means of multi-linear-non-isothermal thermogravimetric analyses. Results have been correlated to changes in molecular weight, showing the same evolution as that described by the parameters of thermal stability temperatures and apparent activation energies. The decomposition reactions can be described by two competitive different mechanisms: Nucleation model (A2) and Reaction Contracting Volume model (R3). The changes in the kinetic parameters and kinetic models are in agreement with the calorimetric and dynamic-mechanical-thermal results, presented in the Part I of the study [1]. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 979.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Visual Data Analysis2019In: Data science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 133-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data Science offers a set of powerful approaches for making new discoveries from large and complex data sets. It combines aspects of mathematics, statistics, machine learning, etc. to turn vast amounts of data into new insights and knowledge. However, the sole use of automatic data science techniques for large amounts of complex data limits the human user’s possibilities in the discovery process, since the user is estranged from the process of data exploration. This chapter describes the importance of Information Visualization (InfoVis) and visual analytics (VA) within data science and how interactive visualization can be used to support analysis and decision-making, empowering and complementing data science methods. Moreover, we review perceptual and cognitive aspects, together with design and evaluation methodologies for InfoVis and VA.

  • 980.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Havsol, Jesper
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karpefors, Martin
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mathiason, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Short Text Topic Modeling to Identify Trends on Wearable Bio-sensors in Different Media Types2019In: Proceedings - 6th International Symposium on Computational and Business Intelligence, ISCBI 2018, IEEE Computer Society, 2019, p. 89-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology and techniques for bio-sensors are rapidly evolving. Accordingly, there is significant business interest to identify upcoming technologies and new targets for the near future. Text information from internet reflects much of the recent information and public interests that help to understand the trend of a certain field. Thus, we utilize Dirichlet process topic modeling on different media sources containing short text (e.g., blogs, news) which is able to self-adapt the learned topic space to the data. We share the observations from the domain experts on the results derived from topic modeling on wearable biosensors from multiple media sources over more than eight years. We analyze the topics on wearable devices, forecast and market analysis, and bio-sensing techniques found from our method. 

  • 981.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde .
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde.
    Identifying Root Cause and Derived Effects in Causal Relationships2017In: Human Interface and the Management of Information: Information, Knowledge and Interaction Design: 19th International Conference, HCI International 2017, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 9–14, 2017, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Sakae Yamamoto, Springer, 2017, p. 22-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on identifying factors that influence the process of finding a root cause and a derived effect in causal node-link graphs with associated strength and significance depictions. We discuss in detail the factors that seem to be involved in identifying a global cause and effect based on the analysis of the results of an online user study with 44 participants, who used both sequential and non-sequential graph layouts. In summary, the results show that participants show geodesic-path tendencies when selecting causes and derived effects, and that context matters, i.e., participant’s own beliefs, experiences and knowledge might influence graph interpretation.

  • 982.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Understanding Indirect Causal Relationships in Node-Link Graphs2017In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 411-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To find correlations and cause and effect relationships in multivariate data sets is central in many data analysis problems. A common way of representing causal relations among variables is to use node-link diagrams, where nodes depict variables and edges show relationships between them. When performing a causal analysis, analysts may be biased by the position of collected evidences, especially when they are at the top of a list. This is of crucial importance since finding a root cause or a derived effect, and searching for causal chains of inferences are essential analytic tasks when investigating causal relationships. In this paper, we examine whether sequential ordering influences understanding of indirect causal relationships and whether it improves readability of multi-attribute causal diagrams. Moreover, we see how people reason to identify a root cause or a derived effect. The results of our design study show that sequential ordering does not play a crucial role when analyzing causal relationships, but many connections from/to a variable and higher strength/certainty values may influence the process of finding a root cause and a derived effect.

  • 983.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mellin, Jonas
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Ståhl, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Complex Data Analysis2019In: Data science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 157-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data science applications often need to deal with data that does not fit into the standard entity-attribute-value model. In this chapter we discuss three of these other types of data. We discuss texts, images and graphs. The importance of social media is one of the reason for the interest on graphs as they are a way to represent social networks and, in general, any type of interaction between people. In this chapter we present examples of tools that can be used to extract information and, thus, analyze these three types of data. In particular, we discuss topic modeling using a hierarchical statistical model as a way to extract relevant topics from texts, image analysis using convolutional neural networks, and measures and visual methods to summarize information from graphs.

  • 984.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ventocilla, Elio
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Evaluating Multi-Attributes on Cause and Effect Relationship Visualization2017In: Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP 2017): Volumne 3: IVAPP / [ed] Alexandru Telea, Jose Braz, Lars Linsen, SciTePress, 2017, p. 64-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings about visual representations of cause and effect relationship's direction, strength, and uncertainty based on an online user study. While previous researches focus on accuracy and few attributes, our empirical user study examines accuracy and the subjective ratings on three different attributes of a cause and effect relationship edge. The cause and effect direction was depicted by arrows and tapered lines; causal strength by hue, width, and a numeric value; and certainty by granularity, brightness, fuzziness, and a numeric value. Our findings point out that both arrows and tapered cues work well to represent causal direction. Depictions with width showed higher conjunct accuracy and were more preferred than that with hue. Depictions with brightness and fuzziness showed higher accuracy and were marked more understandable than granularity. In general, depictions with hue and granularity performed less accurately and were not preferred compared to the ones with numbers or with width and brightness.

  • 985.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ventocilla, Elio
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On the Visualization of Discrete Non-additive Measures2018In: Aggregation Functions in Theory and in Practice AGOP 2017 / [ed] Torra V, Mesiar R, Baets B, Springer, 2018, p. 200-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-additive measures generalize additive measures, and have been utilized in several applications. They are used to represent different types of uncertainty and also to represent importance in data aggregation. As non-additive measures are set functions, the number of values to be considered grows exponentially. This makes difficult their definition but also their interpretation and understanding. In order to support understability, this paper explores the topic of visualizing discrete non-additive measures using node-link diagram representations.

  • 986.
    Bagewitz, Astrid
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skolsköterskors erfarenhet av att förebygga kränkningar i skolor och på nätet: En kvalitativ studie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows a strong connection between pupils exposed to harassment and to physical and mental illness. Harassment occurring on the internet are perceived by teens as extra harmful to their mental health. School nurses have the opportunity to prevent harassment and to promote health on three different levels; individual,- interpersonal,- and system level.

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to investigate the school nurses’ experiences in preventing harassment in schools and on the internet. 

    Method: A qualitative methodology was used in the study and the results were analyzed by content analysis. Seven school nurses in Sweden have been interviewed by email. 

    Result: Three categories appeared in the result: to be available to pupils and their guardians, to talk with pupils and to cooperate. 

    Conclusion: The study shows that school nurses demonstrate broad experiences in preventing harassment. These experiences occur primarily in the individual-oriented and interpersonal work level. Experiences at the system level are less occuring. It appears there were varied experiences of norm-critical perspective as a working method.

  • 987.
    Bagge, Elin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Hederdal, Iza
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Mellanchefers upplevelser av kommunikation med medarbetare i organisationsförändringar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This academic essay is built on a qualitative study about middle managers experience of the communication and the involvement of employees in the process of change. Nine middle managers within Swedish primary care have been interviewed with the purpose of researching different middle managers different and similar views on the communication in the process of change. In the essay, our collected empiricism is set against theories like Kurt Lewin's (1951) model of change and the model of communication created by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver (1963). A mutual view on the communication that emerged in our research was that the early involvement of employees in the process of change is highly substantial. This has been done in different ways and with partially different outcomes, which appears in our research. The employees participated in an early stage so that they could get a better understanding of the change and be a part of it and affect the outcome. We also learned that several middle managers saw the informal information as crucial in the process of change. Seven out of the nine respondents tried their ideas of change with employees during coffee breaks or in the corridors in an informal way to get their crew onboard on the change early in the process. The ones who went about the informal way were successful to a greater extent to get their employees to participate in the change.

     

  • 988.
    Bagland, Véronique
    et al.
    Laboratoire de Mathématiques, Université Blaise Pascal, Campus Universitaire des Cézeaux, 63177 Aubière Cedex, France.
    Wennberg, Bengt
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden / Department of Mathematical Sciences, Göteborg University, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wondmagegne, Yosief
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Stationary states for the noncutoff Kac equation with a Gaussian thermostat2007In: Nonlinearity, ISSN 0951-7715, E-ISSN 1361-6544, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 583-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the stationary states of a Kac equation with a Gaussian thermostat in the case of a noncutoff cross section. We investigate the existence, smoothness and uniqueness of the stationary states. The theoretical results are illustrated by some numerical simulations.

  • 989.
    Bagler, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Normbrytande form på spelrollen Tank: Kan en spelkaraktär med de spelmekaniska egenskaperna hos rollen Tank upplevas annorlunda om den har en kroppstyp som inte normalt är associerad med den rollen?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker om personer med erfarenhet av hjältebaserade spel kan kategorisera en karaktär som rollen Tank, när karaktären har en kroppstyp som inte normalt är associerad med rollen. De fem deltagarna i undersökningen fick se två karaktärer, en med bred kroppsform och en med smal kroppsform. Båda karaktärerna finns i två versioner, en spetsig och en rund, och deltagarna fick sedan gissa deras roll i ett hypotetiskt spel.    

    Resultatet visar att en karaktär med smal kroppsform har svårare att få deltagarna att uppfatta den som Tank än en bred karaktär. Överlag var svaren att karaktärsrollen inte var Tank.     

  • 990.
    Bahadi, Nour
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Enhancing iron bioavailability and accessibility by analyzing the effect of micro-milling and hydrothermal processing on iron release and uptake in wheat flour2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the UK cereals products (mostly wheat) are considered to be the main source of iron as they contribute to 39-50% of iron intake. Iron from cereals has low availability due to presence of anti-nutrients and the resistance to digest plants cell wall in the human GI tract. However, they are still considred main dietry source due to the high consumption rate. Aleurone which is the layer found between the starch endosperm and the outer bran is rich in iron. However, aleurone is removed during white flour production leading to iron loss. Therefore, white flour in the UK is fortified with elemental iron which has low solubility. Adding aleurone back to white flour might have a greater bioavailability compared to wholegrain and white with elemental iron flour.

    The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of hydrothermal processing and micro-milling on iron release, bioavailability, and phytic acid content which is the main iron bioavailability inhibitor. After in vitro digestion (gastric and intestinal), total iron release from baked and boiled bread made with different types of flour was determined using ICP-OES. Iron uptake by Caco-2 cells was measured using ICP-MS. Phytic acid levels in the bread samples was measured using K-PHYT kit (Megazyme, Inc, Bray, Ireland). All the obtained data was then analyzed applying two-way and three-way ANOVA.

    Neither micro-milling nor hydrothermal processing had a significant difference on iron release and uptake. However, iron release from stand and micro-milled wholegrain and white flour enriched with aleurone in gastric phase was significantly increased compared to intestinal phase irrespective of cooking method. Phytic acid content which is found in wheat grain and is abundant in aleurone layer was significantly decreased in cooked wholegrain and aleurone flour compared to raw flour. Together with all the findings of this study, using aleurone as a fortificate for bioavailable iron can be possible. However, a human study which will take place soon can establish whether aleurone has the potential to be used as food fortificant for iron as well as other micronutrients.

  • 991.
    Bahrd, Phillie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Blacked Out Brain: Neural Mechanisms of Unconsciousness in General Anesthesia and Disorders of Consciousness2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finding the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness is a pursuit with significance to both the scientific study of consciousness as well as for the improvement of clinical diagnosis of patients with severe structural brain damage that has resulted in disorders of consciousness (DOC), such as coma or vegetative state . This literature review gives an account for what consciousness studies have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness, focusing on experiments using anesthetic agents to investigate the loss and return of consciousness. Mechanisms that frequently correlate with the loss of consciousness are modulation of the brainstem, the thalamus, and the cortex, but different anesthetic drugs act on different areas. According to a bottom-up approach unconsciousness can be induced by sleep-circuits in the brainstem, and according to a top-down approach unconsciousness can be induced by cortical and thalamocortical disruption. But the mechanisms involved during loss of consciousness are not the same as for return of consciousness, and this paper includes evidence for the mechanisms involved during the return being closer to what research should be further investigating. The mechanisms involved in return from anesthesia-induced unconsciousness resemble those mechanisms involved in recovery from DOC. Studying mechanisms of unconsciousness can further our understanding of consciousness, as well as improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DOC.

  • 992.
    Baiao, Manuel Mazanga
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Open Source Verktyg Stöd för Centrala Egenskaper hos Business Process Management (BPM) System2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In a world of developing complex information technologies, companies and organizations need flexible and updated business systems that and match these technological developments. For this reason, commercial BPMS (Business Process Management System) tools have become popular because of their high ability to quickly integrate with business systems in new work environments. An alternative to commercial BPMS tools are the OSS-based (Open Source Software) open source BPMS tools that are available for the public to develop. Since the OSS-based BPMS tools are often new on the market and need further development, the purpose of this paper was to conduct an analysis of open source-based BPMS tools with respect to their various features. Such an analysis increases the understanding of the tools’ functionality and therefore facilitates further development of them. Based on an established analysis model by Delgado et al. (2015), a thematic option for some companies, depending on the characteristics and functionalities that are prioritized within the company. Content analysis was conducted to compare the characteristics of these tools. More specifically, collected documents were analyzed describing the properties of BPMS tools. That way, 6 different BPMS tools were compared based on 13 properties. The analysis showed that Bonitasoft, jBPM and JBPM5 were the most well-developed BPMS tools that supported most of the features. In addition, the analysis demonstrated that tools with fewer features could still be a good option for some companies, depending on the characteristics and functionalities that are prioritized within the company.

  • 993.
    Baiao, Manuel Mazanga
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Open source verktygs stöd för centrala egenskaper hos Business Process Management (BPM) system2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world of developing complex information technologies, companies and organizations need flexible and updated business systems that and match these technological developments. For this reason, commercial BPMS (Business Process Management System) tools have become popular because of their high ability to quickly integrate with business systems in new work environments. An alternative to commercial BPMS tools are the OSS-based (Open Source Software) open source BPMS tools that are available for the public to develop. Since the OSS-based BPMS tools are often new on the market and need further development, the purpose of this paper was to conduct an analysis of open source-based BPMS tools with respect to their various features. Such an analysis increases the understanding of the tools’ functionality and therefore facilitates further development of them. Based on an established analysis model by Delgado et al. (2015), a thematic option for some companies, depending on the characteristics and functionalities that are prioritized within the company. Content analysis was conducted to compare the characteristics of these tools. More specifically, collected documents were analyzed describing the properties of BPMS tools. That way, 6 different BPMS tools were compared based on 13 properties. The analysis showed that Bonitasoft, jBPM and JBPM5 were the most well-developed BPMS tools that supported most of the features. In addition, the analysis demonstrated that tools with fewer features could still be a good option for some companies, depending on the characteristics and functionalities that are prioritized within the company.

  • 994.
    Baker, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Evaluating the Necessity of Third-Party Antivirus Software2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Some may assume that it is essential to purchase and install antivirus software to protect the underlying layers of an IT infrastructure. However, nowadays the Windows 10 operating system is shipped with a built-in antivirus feature by default. With Microsoft being a large contender in the antivirus market it raises the question if it is necessary to use third-party antivirus software in a Windows 10 environment.

     

    The aim of this research is to determine the necessity of third-party antivirus software by examining the detection capabilities and measuring the performance impact caused by third-party antivirus software, in comparison with the antivirus service that is integrated with the Windows 10 operating system. This was done by measuring the response time of certain user activities to determine how the user-experience is affected differently by using third-party antivirus software. In addition to the effect on performance, the documentation of the tested products was studied to determine if there is value in using non-integrated antivirus software.

     

    The results of the performance benchmarks showed that overall there was a significant performance increase when using third-party antivirus. Additionally, the study showed that some third-party antivirus software offers more ways to detect malicious activities than Windows Defender Antivirus. These two facts put together suggests that using third-party antivirus software in a Windows 10 environment is necessary if there is a desire to increase the efficiency of performing certain user activities and if there is a desire to have more detection capabilities available.

  • 995.
    Balaj, Elvidana
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Haxhija, Ardijana
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Utvecklingssamtal: En dialog mellan chef och anställd2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att beskriva och analysera hur såväl medarbetare som coach (chef) upplever utvecklingssamtal. Syftet har avgränsats till tre frågeområden: Vilken typ av frågor/problem tas upp? Finns det här någon skillnad mellan vad chef och anställd prioriterar? Vilka är fördelarna och nackdelarna med utvecklingssamtal? För att få svar på våra frågor har vi intervjuat anställda vid ett företag som under en längre tid använt sig av återkommande utvecklingssamtal. Resultaten har därefter analyserats utifrån ett symboliskt interaktionisk perspektiv där vi sökt lyfta fram den betydelse som samtalet tillskrivs i det aktuella företaget samt hur man här sökt hantera de förväntningar olika positioner är förknippade med. Resultaten visar att såväl anställda som chefer är nöjda med de samtal som hålls på företaget trots att vi kan se en skillnad i vad man prioriterar för frågor. En av förklaringarna är att båda parterna ges möjlighet till förberedelse och att man har för avsikt att behandla alla frågor som upplevs som viktiga. En annan förklaring är den status företaget tilldelar individens roll i företaget och att utvecklingssamtalet är något som bör prioriteras. Trots kritiska röster ser vi här en stor potential för utvecklingssamtalet som en plattform att skapa en gemensam förståelse och förtroende mellan parterna, som kan ses som en förutsättning för att interaktionen mellan parterna ska bli så optimal som möjligt.

  • 996.
    Baldursdottir, Birna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Taehtinen, Richard E.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland / ICSRA (Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis), Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland / ICSRA (Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis), Reykjavik University, Iceland / Department of Health & Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland / Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    Impact of a physical activity intervention on adolescents' subjective sleep quality: a pilot study2017In: Global Health Promotion, ISSN 1757-9759, E-ISSN 1757-9767, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 14-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this pilot study was to examine the impact of a brief physical activity intervention on adolescents' subjective sleep quality. Cross-sectional studies indicate that physically active adolescents have better subjective sleep quality than those with more sedentary habits. However, less is known about the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in improving adolescents' subjective sleep quality.

    METHODS: In a three-week physical activity intervention, four Icelandic upper secondary schools were randomized to either an intervention group with pedometers and step diaries or a control group without pedometers and diaries. Out of 84, a total of 53 students, aged 15-16 years, provided complete data or a minimum of two days step data (out of three possible) as well as sleep quality measures at baseline and follow-up. Subjective sleep quality, the primary outcome in this study, was assessed with four individual items: sleep onset latency, nightly awakenings, general sleep quality, and sleep sufficiency. Daily steps were assessed with Yamax CW-701 pedometers.

    RESULTS: The intervention group (n = 26) had significantly higher average step-count (p = 0.03, partial η(2) = 0.093) compared to the control group (n = 27) at follow-up. Subjective sleep quality improved (p = 0.02, partial η(2) = 0.203) over time in the intervention group but not in the control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Brief physical activity interventions based on pedometers and step diaries may be effective in improving adolescents' subjective sleep quality. This has important public health relevance as the intervention can easily be disseminated and incorporated into school curricula.

  • 997.
    Baldursdottir, Birna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland / Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Gylfason, Haukur Freyr
    School of Business, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland / ICSRA (Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis), Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland / Department of Health & Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, USA .
    Age-related differences in physical activity and depressive symptoms among 10-19-year-old adolescents: A population based study2017In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 28, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine age- and gender-related patterns of PA and depressive symptoms among students through their adolescent years. Design: Data from three population-based surveys were analysed to determine levels of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), participation in organized sports and depressive symptoms among 10-19-year-old adolescents. Method: Questionnaires assessing PA and depressive symptoms were administered to 32 860 students in compulsory and upper-secondary schools in Iceland. Results: As age increased, depressive symptoms increased and PA decreased with over half of the adolescents in upper-secondary schools not achieving recommended daily PA. There were gender differences in PA and depressive symptoms with girls being less active and reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms than boys. MVPA was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms among both genders while organized sports had more impact on depressive symptoms among girls. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to simultaneously examine patterns of PA and depressive symptoms among students through their adolescent years. Our findings show that the decrease in PA and increase in depressive symptoms is most pronounced around the transition from compulsory to upper-secondary school, or around the age of 15-16. Thus the findings provide important information about when to tailor public health efforts to reduce the burden of depressive symptoms among adolescents, for example by employing PA interventions. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 998.
    Bammann, K.
    et al.
    Univ Bremen, Fac Human & Hlth Sci, Inst Publ Hlth & Nursing Res, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Gwozdz, W.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Lanfer, A.
    BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Barba, G.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Avellino, Italy.
    De Henauw, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fernandez-Alvira, J. M.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Kovacs, E.
    Univ Pecs, Dept Pediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Lissner, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Pigeot, I.
    BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight in Europe: results from the multi-centre IDEFICS study2013In: Pediatric Obesity, ISSN 2047-6302, E-ISSN 2047-6310, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is already known about this subject Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient. Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi-centre study with highly standardized study protoco. The strength of association between SES and overweight and obesity varies across European regions. In our study, the SES gradient is correlated with the regional mean income and the country-specific Human development index indicating a strong influence not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11?994 children (50.9% boys, 49.1% girls) and their parents were included in the analyses. Results In five of the eight investigated regions (in Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Spain and Sweden), the prevalence of childhood overweight followed an inverse SES gradient. In the other three regions (in Cyprus, Hungary and Italy), no association between SES and childhood overweight was found. The SES-overweight association in a region was best explained by the country-specific human development index and the centre-specific mean income. For the investigated association between other socioeconomic factors and overweight, no clear pattern could be found in the different regions. Conclusion The association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight was shown to be heterogeneous across different European regions. Further research on nationwide European data is needed to confirm the results and to identify target groups for prevention.

  • 999.
    Bammann, K.
    et al.
    Univ Bremen, Inst Publ Hlth & Nursing Res ipp, Fac Human & Hlth Sci, FB 11,Grazer Str 2a, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Gwozdz, W.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Pischke, C.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fernandez-Alvira, J. M.
    Univ Zaragoza, Dept Phys Med & Nursing, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    De Henauw, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Ghent, Belgium.
    Lissner, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Dept Phys Med & Nursing, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Pitsiladis, Y.
    Univ Brighton, Ctr Sport & Exercise Sci & Med SESAME, Eastbourne, England.
    Reisch, L.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Pigeot, I.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Fac Math & Comp Sci, Inst Stat, Bremen, Germany.
    The impact of familial, behavioural and psychosocial factors on the SES gradient for childhood overweight in Europe. A longitudinal study2017In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In highly developed countries, childhood overweight and many overweight-related risk factors are negatively associated with socioeconomic status (SES). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the longitudinal association between parental SES and childhood overweight, and to clarify whether familial, psychosocial or behavioural factors can explain any SES gradient. METHODS: The baseline and follow-up surveys of the identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study are used to investigate the longitudinal association between SES, familial, psychosocial and behavioural factors, and the prevalence of childhood overweight. A total of 5819 children (50.5% boys and 49.5% girls) were included. RESULTS: The risk for being overweight after 2 years at follow-up in children who were non-overweight at baseline increases with a lower SES. For children who were initially overweight, a lower parental SES carries a lower probability for a non-overweight weight status at follow-up. The effect of parental SES is only moderately attenuated by single familial, psychosocial or behavioural factors; however, it can be fully explained by their combined effect. Most influential of the investigated risk factors were feeding/eating practices, parental body mass index, physical activity behaviour and proportion of sedentary activity. CONCLUSION: Prevention strategies for childhood overweight should focus on actual behaviours, whereas acknowledging that these behaviours are more prevalent in lower SES families.

  • 1000.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Andersson, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Metamodel-based prediction of performance metrics for bilevel parameter tuning in MOEAs2016In: 2016 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), New York: IEEE, 2016, p. 1909-1916Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a bilevel parameter tuning problem where the goal is to maximize the performance of a given multi-objective evolutionary optimizer on a given problem. The search for optimal algorithmic parameters requires the assessment of several sets of parameters, through multiple optimization runs, in order to mitigate the effect of noise that is inherent to evolutionary algorithms. This task is computationally expensive and therefore, in this paper, we propose to use sampling and metamodeling to approximate the performance of the optimizer as a function of its parameters. While such an approach is not unheard of, the choice of the metamodel to be used still remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to empirically compare 11 different metamodeling techniques with respect to their accuracy and training times in predicting two popular multi-objective performance metrics, namely, the hypervolume and the inverted generational distance. For the experiments in this pilot study, NSGA-II is used as the multi-objective optimizer for solving ZDT problems, 1 through 4.

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