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  • 951.
    Badekar, Karishma
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Cloning of two arsenic reponsive arsB and arsC genes from Lysinibacillus sphaericus and construction of binary vectors for T-DNA mediated transformation of tobacco plants.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic is classified to be a heavy metal that severely contaminates human foods, drinking water and the environment in many regions of the world. Long term exposure to arsenic can create chronic poisoning of human health leading to many life threatening and lethal diseases such as cancer, keratosis, gangrene, damage of lung, kidney and liver and also many other neuro vascular disorders.

    To cope with this problem, the researchers of the Biotechnology Research group at the University of Skövde has previously identified and isolated a bacterial strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus sp. B1-CDA from arsenic contaminated soil. These strains are resistant to arsenic, can uptake arsenic from the contaminated source and store it inside the cells thus reducing the arsenic content in the contaminated source. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed that the bacterium harbors several arsenic responsive genes. The research group has also performed several in silico studies on these genes to determine their molecular functions. Two of these genes arsB and arsC were predicted to be involved in uptake and storage of arsenics inside the cells. In this thesis work the arsB and arsC genes were cloned from the genomic DNA of bacterium by PCR using database sequences as primers. These genes were then transferred into two cloning vectors pMAN1080 and pMAN0385, respectively. The pCAMBIA1301 vector was utilized to construct the binary vectors for transferring these genes to tobacco plants by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA mediated gene transfer. Two binary vectors each harboring the respective arsenic responsive genes arsB and arsC were successfully constructed. Transgenic calli derived from leaf disk transformation were successfully selected. Transgenic shoots were generated but with a very low transformation frequency (<6%).

  • 952.
    Badh, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Johansson, Carolina
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Vem är jag?: - En kvantitativ studie om tonårstjejers identitet och kroppsuppfattning.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka sambandet mellan tonårsflickans identitet och kroppsuppfattningen. Även roller i kompisgruppen kommer att tas upp och då framförallt rollen som den tyste i gruppen. Genom en enkätstudie undersöktes 37 elever från högstadiet och 68 elever från gymnasiet. Sambandet mellan positiv personlig identitet och en normal kroppsuppfattning undersöktes. Resultatet visade att personer med positiv (M=1,20, SD=0,41) eller neutral (M=1,15,SD=0,36) personlig identitet hade en bra kroppsuppfattning medanpersoner med negativ (M=1,55, SD=0,51) personlig identitet hade en mindre bra kroppsuppfattning. Undersökningen visade ingen signifikant skillnad mellan högstadiet och gymnasiet i fråga om identitet och kroppsuppfattning. Vi antar att skillnader i identitet och kroppsuppfattning beror mer på individuella skillnader än vilken åldersgrupp man tillhör.

  • 953.
    Badia, J. D.
    et al.
    a Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), València, Spain / Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Spain.
    Kittikorn, T.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
    Strömberg, E.
    KTH/ School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm.
    Santonja-Blasco, L.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain / Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, United States.
    Martínez-Felipe, A.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain / Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, Spain.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Spain.
    Ek, M.
    Departament d’Enginyeria Química, Escola Tècnica Superior d’Enginyeria, Universitat de València, Burjassot, Spain.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    University of Skövde. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Fibre and Polymer Technology, Stockholm.
    Water absorption and hydrothermal performance of PHBV/sisal biocomposites2014In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 108, p. 166-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of biocomposites of poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) (PHBV) and sisal fibre subjected to hydrothermal tests at different temperatures above the glass transition of PHBV (T-H = 26, 36 and 46 degrees C) was evaluated in this study. The influences of both the fibre content and presence of coupling agent were focused. The water absorption capability and water diffusion rate were considered for a statistical factorial analysis. Afterwards, the physico-chemical properties of water-saturated biocomposites were assessed by Fourier-Transform Infrared Analysis, Size Exclusion Chromatography, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Scanning Electron Microscopy. It was found that the water diffusion rate increased with both temperature and percentage of fibre, whereas the amount of absorbed water was only influenced by fibre content. The use of coupling agent was only relevant at the initial stages of the hydrothermal test, giving an increase in the diffusion rate. Although the chemical structure and thermal properties of water-saturated biocomposites remained practically intact, the physical performance was considerably affected, due to the swelling of fibres, which internally blew-up the PHBV matrix, provoking cracks and fibre detachment. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 954.
    Badidi, Elarbi
    et al.
    United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
    Atif, Yacine
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sheng, Michael Z.
    Macquarie University, New South Wales, Australia .
    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru
    McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    On Personalized Cloud Service Provisioning for Mobile Users Using Adaptive and Context-Aware Service Composition2018In: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 101, no 4, p. 291-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud service providers typically compose their services from a number of elementary services, which are developed in- house or built by third-party providers. Personalization of composite services in mobile environments is an interesting and challenging issue to address, given the opportunity to factor-in diverse user preferences and the plethora of mobile devices at use in multiple contexts. This work proposes a framework to address personalization in mobile cloud-service provisioning. Service personalization and adaptation may be considered at different levels, including the user profile, the mobile device in use, the context of the user and the composition specification. The user’s mobile device and external services are typical sources of context information, used in our proposed algorithm to elicit context-aware services. The selection process is guided by quality-of-context (QoC) criteria that combine cloud-service provider requirements and user preferences. Hence, the paper proposes an integrated framework for enhancing personalized mobile cloud-services, based on a composition approach that adapts context information using a common model of service metadata specification.

  • 955.
    Badier, Damien
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Rousset, Carole
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Strategies adopted in the International Market: The case of IKEA in France2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor degree thesis deals with the strategies that IKEA has adopted in France since its establishment up to now. It is essentially based on interview with the person responsible for the public relations of IKEA France. But, other sources were used concerning our empirical findings: IKEA’s brochures, surveys from researchers… The purpose of the thesis is to explain and illustrate how a company succeeded to establish abroad, by applying a domestic concept. This issue is of importance because it provides information for the reader who would like to know how a company can be export all over the world by adapting its policy to the local specificities. It identifies and gives explanations about the marketing strategies implemented to export the IKEA concept to the French market.

  • 956.
    Badylak, Sebastian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Independent Game Developers' Initiative: Utvecklingen av användarprofilen till en webbaserad mötesplats för dataspelsutvecklare2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet behandlar utvecklingen av ett grundläggande element till en framtida webbaserad community för dataspelsutvecklare. Grundelementet är en användarprofil som inom communityn kommer att åskådliggöras i ett grafiskt webbgränssnitt för alla registrerade användare. Användarprofilens syfte är att presentera användaren på ett attraktivt sätt för såväl spelindustrin som andra spelutvecklare som söker samarbete och bekantskap. Gränssnittet utvecklas ur ett användarcentrerat perspektiv genom den metodologi som McCracken och Wolfe (2004) presenterar. Utvecklingsprocessen inleds med att kartlägga marknaden, de tänkta slutanvändarna och deras behov samt den svenska spelindustrins intresse av en sådan community. Därefter utvecklas en tidig prototyp som genomgår tester där dataspelsstudenter från Högskolan i Skövde får tillfälle att påverka såväl utformning som innehåll. Processen leder till en uppdaterad version av prototypen men kan betraktas som en första iteration av utvecklingen och det ligger i framtida arbete att genom fler liknande iterationer färdigställa produkten.

  • 957.
    Badía, J. D.
    et al.
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Moriana, Rosana
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Santonja-Blasco, L.
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Ribes-Greus, A.
    Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    A thermogravimetric approach to study the influence of a biodegradation in soil test to a Poly(lactic acid)2008In: Macromolecular Symposia, ISSN 1022-1360, E-ISSN 1521-3900, Vol. 272, no 1, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An amorphous grade Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) was selected for an accelerated burial in soil test during 450 days. Thermogravimetric analyses were carried out to study the effects of degradation in soil on the thermal stability and the thermal decomposition kinetics. A single stage decomposition process is observed for all degradation times. It is shown that the thermal stability of PLA is slightly affected by degradation in soil. Concerning the study of the thermal decomposition kinetics, Criado master curves were plotted from experimental data to focus the study of the thermodegradation kinetic model.The kinetic methods proposed by Broido and Chang were used to calculate the apparent activation energies (Ea) of the degradation mechanism. These results were compared to the Ea values obtained by the method developed by Coats and Redfern in order to prove the applicability of the former methods to the kinetic study. As expected, non-linear tendency is found out for Ea variation along the degradation times, which can be explained as an evolution by stages. Copyright © 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  • 958.
    Badía, José David
    et al.
    Instituto de Investigación en Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Santonja-Blasco, Laura
    Instituto de Investigación en Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Moriana, Rosana
    Instituto de Investigación en Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Ribes-Greus, Amparo
    Instituto de Investigación en Tecnología de Materiales, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain.
    Thermal analysis applied to the characterization of degradation in soil of polylactide: II. on the thermal stability and thermal decomposition kinetics2010In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 95, no 11, p. 2192-2199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The disposal stage of polylactide (PLA) was assessed by burying it in active soil following an international standard. Degradation in soil promotes physical and chemical changes in the polylactide properties. The characterization of the extent of degradation underwent by PLA was carried out by using Thermal Analysis techniques. In this paper, studies on the thermal stability and the thermal decomposition kinetics were performed in order to assess the degradation process of a commercial PLA submitted to an accelerated soil burial test by means of multi-linear-non-isothermal thermogravimetric analyses. Results have been correlated to changes in molecular weight, showing the same evolution as that described by the parameters of thermal stability temperatures and apparent activation energies. The decomposition reactions can be described by two competitive different mechanisms: Nucleation model (A2) and Reaction Contracting Volume model (R3). The changes in the kinetic parameters and kinetic models are in agreement with the calorimetric and dynamic-mechanical-thermal results, presented in the Part I of the study [1]. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 959.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Visual Data Analysis2019In: Data science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 133-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data Science offers a set of powerful approaches for making new discoveries from large and complex data sets. It combines aspects of mathematics, statistics, machine learning, etc. to turn vast amounts of data into new insights and knowledge. However, the sole use of automatic data science techniques for large amounts of complex data limits the human user’s possibilities in the discovery process, since the user is estranged from the process of data exploration. This chapter describes the importance of Information Visualization (InfoVis) and visual analytics (VA) within data science and how interactive visualization can be used to support analysis and decision-making, empowering and complementing data science methods. Moreover, we review perceptual and cognitive aspects, together with design and evaluation methodologies for InfoVis and VA.

  • 960.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Havsol, Jesper
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karpefors, Martin
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mathiason, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Short Text Topic Modeling to Identify Trends on Wearable Bio-sensors in Different Media Types2019In: Proceedings - 6th International Symposium on Computational and Business Intelligence, ISCBI 2018, IEEE Computer Society, 2019, p. 89-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology and techniques for bio-sensors are rapidly evolving. Accordingly, there is significant business interest to identify upcoming technologies and new targets for the near future. Text information from internet reflects much of the recent information and public interests that help to understand the trend of a certain field. Thus, we utilize Dirichlet process topic modeling on different media sources containing short text (e.g., blogs, news) which is able to self-adapt the learned topic space to the data. We share the observations from the domain experts on the results derived from topic modeling on wearable biosensors from multiple media sources over more than eight years. We analyze the topics on wearable devices, forecast and market analysis, and bio-sensing techniques found from our method. 

  • 961.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde .
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde.
    Identifying Root Cause and Derived Effects in Causal Relationships2017In: Human Interface and the Management of Information: Information, Knowledge and Interaction Design: 19th International Conference, HCI International 2017, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 9–14, 2017, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Sakae Yamamoto, Springer, 2017, p. 22-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on identifying factors that influence the process of finding a root cause and a derived effect in causal node-link graphs with associated strength and significance depictions. We discuss in detail the factors that seem to be involved in identifying a global cause and effect based on the analysis of the results of an online user study with 44 participants, who used both sequential and non-sequential graph layouts. In summary, the results show that participants show geodesic-path tendencies when selecting causes and derived effects, and that context matters, i.e., participant’s own beliefs, experiences and knowledge might influence graph interpretation.

  • 962.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Understanding Indirect Causal Relationships in Node-Link Graphs2017In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 411-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To find correlations and cause and effect relationships in multivariate data sets is central in many data analysis problems. A common way of representing causal relations among variables is to use node-link diagrams, where nodes depict variables and edges show relationships between them. When performing a causal analysis, analysts may be biased by the position of collected evidences, especially when they are at the top of a list. This is of crucial importance since finding a root cause or a derived effect, and searching for causal chains of inferences are essential analytic tasks when investigating causal relationships. In this paper, we examine whether sequential ordering influences understanding of indirect causal relationships and whether it improves readability of multi-attribute causal diagrams. Moreover, we see how people reason to identify a root cause or a derived effect. The results of our design study show that sequential ordering does not play a crucial role when analyzing causal relationships, but many connections from/to a variable and higher strength/certainty values may influence the process of finding a root cause and a derived effect.

  • 963.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mellin, Jonas
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Ståhl, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Complex Data Analysis2019In: Data science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 157-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data science applications often need to deal with data that does not fit into the standard entity-attribute-value model. In this chapter we discuss three of these other types of data. We discuss texts, images and graphs. The importance of social media is one of the reason for the interest on graphs as they are a way to represent social networks and, in general, any type of interaction between people. In this chapter we present examples of tools that can be used to extract information and, thus, analyze these three types of data. In particular, we discuss topic modeling using a hierarchical statistical model as a way to extract relevant topics from texts, image analysis using convolutional neural networks, and measures and visual methods to summarize information from graphs.

  • 964.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ventocilla, Elio
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Evaluating Multi-Attributes on Cause and Effect Relationship Visualization2017In: Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP 2017): Volumne 3: IVAPP / [ed] Alexandru Telea, Jose Braz, Lars Linsen, SciTePress, 2017, p. 64-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings about visual representations of cause and effect relationship's direction, strength, and uncertainty based on an online user study. While previous researches focus on accuracy and few attributes, our empirical user study examines accuracy and the subjective ratings on three different attributes of a cause and effect relationship edge. The cause and effect direction was depicted by arrows and tapered lines; causal strength by hue, width, and a numeric value; and certainty by granularity, brightness, fuzziness, and a numeric value. Our findings point out that both arrows and tapered cues work well to represent causal direction. Depictions with width showed higher conjunct accuracy and were more preferred than that with hue. Depictions with brightness and fuzziness showed higher accuracy and were marked more understandable than granularity. In general, depictions with hue and granularity performed less accurately and were not preferred compared to the ones with numbers or with width and brightness.

  • 965.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ventocilla, Elio
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On the Visualization of Discrete Non-additive Measures2018In: Aggregation Functions in Theory and in Practice AGOP 2017 / [ed] Torra V, Mesiar R, Baets B, Springer, 2018, p. 200-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-additive measures generalize additive measures, and have been utilized in several applications. They are used to represent different types of uncertainty and also to represent importance in data aggregation. As non-additive measures are set functions, the number of values to be considered grows exponentially. This makes difficult their definition but also their interpretation and understanding. In order to support understability, this paper explores the topic of visualizing discrete non-additive measures using node-link diagram representations.

  • 966.
    Bagewitz, Astrid
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skolsköterskors erfarenhet av att förebygga kränkningar i skolor och på nätet: En kvalitativ studie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows a strong connection between pupils exposed to harassment and to physical and mental illness. Harassment occurring on the internet are perceived by teens as extra harmful to their mental health. School nurses have the opportunity to prevent harassment and to promote health on three different levels; individual,- interpersonal,- and system level.

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to investigate the school nurses’ experiences in preventing harassment in schools and on the internet. 

    Method: A qualitative methodology was used in the study and the results were analyzed by content analysis. Seven school nurses in Sweden have been interviewed by email. 

    Result: Three categories appeared in the result: to be available to pupils and their guardians, to talk with pupils and to cooperate. 

    Conclusion: The study shows that school nurses demonstrate broad experiences in preventing harassment. These experiences occur primarily in the individual-oriented and interpersonal work level. Experiences at the system level are less occuring. It appears there were varied experiences of norm-critical perspective as a working method.

  • 967.
    Bagge, Elin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Hederdal, Iza
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Mellanchefers upplevelser av kommunikation med medarbetare i organisationsförändringar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This academic essay is built on a qualitative study about middle managers experience of the communication and the involvement of employees in the process of change. Nine middle managers within Swedish primary care have been interviewed with the purpose of researching different middle managers different and similar views on the communication in the process of change. In the essay, our collected empiricism is set against theories like Kurt Lewin's (1951) model of change and the model of communication created by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver (1963). A mutual view on the communication that emerged in our research was that the early involvement of employees in the process of change is highly substantial. This has been done in different ways and with partially different outcomes, which appears in our research. The employees participated in an early stage so that they could get a better understanding of the change and be a part of it and affect the outcome. We also learned that several middle managers saw the informal information as crucial in the process of change. Seven out of the nine respondents tried their ideas of change with employees during coffee breaks or in the corridors in an informal way to get their crew onboard on the change early in the process. The ones who went about the informal way were successful to a greater extent to get their employees to participate in the change.

     

  • 968.
    Bagland, Véronique
    et al.
    Laboratoire de Mathématiques, Université Blaise Pascal, Campus Universitaire des Cézeaux, 63177 Aubière Cedex, France.
    Wennberg, Bengt
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden / Department of Mathematical Sciences, Göteborg University, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wondmagegne, Yosief
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Stationary states for the noncutoff Kac equation with a Gaussian thermostat2007In: Nonlinearity, ISSN 0951-7715, E-ISSN 1361-6544, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 583-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the stationary states of a Kac equation with a Gaussian thermostat in the case of a noncutoff cross section. We investigate the existence, smoothness and uniqueness of the stationary states. The theoretical results are illustrated by some numerical simulations.

  • 969.
    Bagler, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Normbrytande form på spelrollen Tank: Kan en spelkaraktär med de spelmekaniska egenskaperna hos rollen Tank upplevas annorlunda om den har en kroppstyp som inte normalt är associerad med den rollen?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker om personer med erfarenhet av hjältebaserade spel kan kategorisera en karaktär som rollen Tank, när karaktären har en kroppstyp som inte normalt är associerad med rollen. De fem deltagarna i undersökningen fick se två karaktärer, en med bred kroppsform och en med smal kroppsform. Båda karaktärerna finns i två versioner, en spetsig och en rund, och deltagarna fick sedan gissa deras roll i ett hypotetiskt spel.    

    Resultatet visar att en karaktär med smal kroppsform har svårare att få deltagarna att uppfatta den som Tank än en bred karaktär. Överlag var svaren att karaktärsrollen inte var Tank.     

  • 970.
    Bahadi, Nour
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Enhancing iron bioavailability and accessibility by analyzing the effect of micro-milling and hydrothermal processing on iron release and uptake in wheat flour2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the UK cereals products (mostly wheat) are considered to be the main source of iron as they contribute to 39-50% of iron intake. Iron from cereals has low availability due to presence of anti-nutrients and the resistance to digest plants cell wall in the human GI tract. However, they are still considred main dietry source due to the high consumption rate. Aleurone which is the layer found between the starch endosperm and the outer bran is rich in iron. However, aleurone is removed during white flour production leading to iron loss. Therefore, white flour in the UK is fortified with elemental iron which has low solubility. Adding aleurone back to white flour might have a greater bioavailability compared to wholegrain and white with elemental iron flour.

    The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of hydrothermal processing and micro-milling on iron release, bioavailability, and phytic acid content which is the main iron bioavailability inhibitor. After in vitro digestion (gastric and intestinal), total iron release from baked and boiled bread made with different types of flour was determined using ICP-OES. Iron uptake by Caco-2 cells was measured using ICP-MS. Phytic acid levels in the bread samples was measured using K-PHYT kit (Megazyme, Inc, Bray, Ireland). All the obtained data was then analyzed applying two-way and three-way ANOVA.

    Neither micro-milling nor hydrothermal processing had a significant difference on iron release and uptake. However, iron release from stand and micro-milled wholegrain and white flour enriched with aleurone in gastric phase was significantly increased compared to intestinal phase irrespective of cooking method. Phytic acid content which is found in wheat grain and is abundant in aleurone layer was significantly decreased in cooked wholegrain and aleurone flour compared to raw flour. Together with all the findings of this study, using aleurone as a fortificate for bioavailable iron can be possible. However, a human study which will take place soon can establish whether aleurone has the potential to be used as food fortificant for iron as well as other micronutrients.

  • 971.
    Bahrd, Phillie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Blacked Out Brain: Neural Mechanisms of Unconsciousness in General Anesthesia and Disorders of Consciousness2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finding the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness is a pursuit with significance to both the scientific study of consciousness as well as for the improvement of clinical diagnosis of patients with severe structural brain damage that has resulted in disorders of consciousness (DOC), such as coma or vegetative state . This literature review gives an account for what consciousness studies have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness, focusing on experiments using anesthetic agents to investigate the loss and return of consciousness. Mechanisms that frequently correlate with the loss of consciousness are modulation of the brainstem, the thalamus, and the cortex, but different anesthetic drugs act on different areas. According to a bottom-up approach unconsciousness can be induced by sleep-circuits in the brainstem, and according to a top-down approach unconsciousness can be induced by cortical and thalamocortical disruption. But the mechanisms involved during loss of consciousness are not the same as for return of consciousness, and this paper includes evidence for the mechanisms involved during the return being closer to what research should be further investigating. The mechanisms involved in return from anesthesia-induced unconsciousness resemble those mechanisms involved in recovery from DOC. Studying mechanisms of unconsciousness can further our understanding of consciousness, as well as improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DOC.

  • 972.
    Baiao, Manuel Mazanga
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Open Source Verktyg Stöd för Centrala Egenskaper hos Business Process Management (BPM) System2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In a world of developing complex information technologies, companies and organizations need flexible and updated business systems that and match these technological developments. For this reason, commercial BPMS (Business Process Management System) tools have become popular because of their high ability to quickly integrate with business systems in new work environments. An alternative to commercial BPMS tools are the OSS-based (Open Source Software) open source BPMS tools that are available for the public to develop. Since the OSS-based BPMS tools are often new on the market and need further development, the purpose of this paper was to conduct an analysis of open source-based BPMS tools with respect to their various features. Such an analysis increases the understanding of the tools’ functionality and therefore facilitates further development of them. Based on an established analysis model by Delgado et al. (2015), a thematic option for some companies, depending on the characteristics and functionalities that are prioritized within the company. Content analysis was conducted to compare the characteristics of these tools. More specifically, collected documents were analyzed describing the properties of BPMS tools. That way, 6 different BPMS tools were compared based on 13 properties. The analysis showed that Bonitasoft, jBPM and JBPM5 were the most well-developed BPMS tools that supported most of the features. In addition, the analysis demonstrated that tools with fewer features could still be a good option for some companies, depending on the characteristics and functionalities that are prioritized within the company.

  • 973.
    Baiao, Manuel Mazanga
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Open source verktygs stöd för centrala egenskaper hos Business Process Management (BPM) system2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world of developing complex information technologies, companies and organizations need flexible and updated business systems that and match these technological developments. For this reason, commercial BPMS (Business Process Management System) tools have become popular because of their high ability to quickly integrate with business systems in new work environments. An alternative to commercial BPMS tools are the OSS-based (Open Source Software) open source BPMS tools that are available for the public to develop. Since the OSS-based BPMS tools are often new on the market and need further development, the purpose of this paper was to conduct an analysis of open source-based BPMS tools with respect to their various features. Such an analysis increases the understanding of the tools’ functionality and therefore facilitates further development of them. Based on an established analysis model by Delgado et al. (2015), a thematic option for some companies, depending on the characteristics and functionalities that are prioritized within the company. Content analysis was conducted to compare the characteristics of these tools. More specifically, collected documents were analyzed describing the properties of BPMS tools. That way, 6 different BPMS tools were compared based on 13 properties. The analysis showed that Bonitasoft, jBPM and JBPM5 were the most well-developed BPMS tools that supported most of the features. In addition, the analysis demonstrated that tools with fewer features could still be a good option for some companies, depending on the characteristics and functionalities that are prioritized within the company.

  • 974.
    Baker, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Evaluating the Necessity of Third-Party Antivirus Software2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Some may assume that it is essential to purchase and install antivirus software to protect the underlying layers of an IT infrastructure. However, nowadays the Windows 10 operating system is shipped with a built-in antivirus feature by default. With Microsoft being a large contender in the antivirus market it raises the question if it is necessary to use third-party antivirus software in a Windows 10 environment.

     

    The aim of this research is to determine the necessity of third-party antivirus software by examining the detection capabilities and measuring the performance impact caused by third-party antivirus software, in comparison with the antivirus service that is integrated with the Windows 10 operating system. This was done by measuring the response time of certain user activities to determine how the user-experience is affected differently by using third-party antivirus software. In addition to the effect on performance, the documentation of the tested products was studied to determine if there is value in using non-integrated antivirus software.

     

    The results of the performance benchmarks showed that overall there was a significant performance increase when using third-party antivirus. Additionally, the study showed that some third-party antivirus software offers more ways to detect malicious activities than Windows Defender Antivirus. These two facts put together suggests that using third-party antivirus software in a Windows 10 environment is necessary if there is a desire to increase the efficiency of performing certain user activities and if there is a desire to have more detection capabilities available.

  • 975.
    Balaj, Elvidana
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Haxhija, Ardijana
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Utvecklingssamtal: En dialog mellan chef och anställd2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att beskriva och analysera hur såväl medarbetare som coach (chef) upplever utvecklingssamtal. Syftet har avgränsats till tre frågeområden: Vilken typ av frågor/problem tas upp? Finns det här någon skillnad mellan vad chef och anställd prioriterar? Vilka är fördelarna och nackdelarna med utvecklingssamtal? För att få svar på våra frågor har vi intervjuat anställda vid ett företag som under en längre tid använt sig av återkommande utvecklingssamtal. Resultaten har därefter analyserats utifrån ett symboliskt interaktionisk perspektiv där vi sökt lyfta fram den betydelse som samtalet tillskrivs i det aktuella företaget samt hur man här sökt hantera de förväntningar olika positioner är förknippade med. Resultaten visar att såväl anställda som chefer är nöjda med de samtal som hålls på företaget trots att vi kan se en skillnad i vad man prioriterar för frågor. En av förklaringarna är att båda parterna ges möjlighet till förberedelse och att man har för avsikt att behandla alla frågor som upplevs som viktiga. En annan förklaring är den status företaget tilldelar individens roll i företaget och att utvecklingssamtalet är något som bör prioriteras. Trots kritiska röster ser vi här en stor potential för utvecklingssamtalet som en plattform att skapa en gemensam förståelse och förtroende mellan parterna, som kan ses som en förutsättning för att interaktionen mellan parterna ska bli så optimal som möjligt.

  • 976.
    Baldursdottir, Birna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Taehtinen, Richard E.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland / ICSRA (Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis), Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland / ICSRA (Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis), Reykjavik University, Iceland / Department of Health & Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland / Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    Impact of a physical activity intervention on adolescents' subjective sleep quality: a pilot study2017In: Global Health Promotion, ISSN 1757-9759, E-ISSN 1757-9767, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 14-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this pilot study was to examine the impact of a brief physical activity intervention on adolescents' subjective sleep quality. Cross-sectional studies indicate that physically active adolescents have better subjective sleep quality than those with more sedentary habits. However, less is known about the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in improving adolescents' subjective sleep quality.

    METHODS: In a three-week physical activity intervention, four Icelandic upper secondary schools were randomized to either an intervention group with pedometers and step diaries or a control group without pedometers and diaries. Out of 84, a total of 53 students, aged 15-16 years, provided complete data or a minimum of two days step data (out of three possible) as well as sleep quality measures at baseline and follow-up. Subjective sleep quality, the primary outcome in this study, was assessed with four individual items: sleep onset latency, nightly awakenings, general sleep quality, and sleep sufficiency. Daily steps were assessed with Yamax CW-701 pedometers.

    RESULTS: The intervention group (n = 26) had significantly higher average step-count (p = 0.03, partial η(2) = 0.093) compared to the control group (n = 27) at follow-up. Subjective sleep quality improved (p = 0.02, partial η(2) = 0.203) over time in the intervention group but not in the control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Brief physical activity interventions based on pedometers and step diaries may be effective in improving adolescents' subjective sleep quality. This has important public health relevance as the intervention can easily be disseminated and incorporated into school curricula.

  • 977.
    Baldursdottir, Birna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland / Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Gylfason, Haukur Freyr
    School of Business, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland / ICSRA (Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis), Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland / Department of Health & Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, USA .
    Age-related differences in physical activity and depressive symptoms among 10-19-year-old adolescents: A population based study2017In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 28, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine age- and gender-related patterns of PA and depressive symptoms among students through their adolescent years. Design: Data from three population-based surveys were analysed to determine levels of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), participation in organized sports and depressive symptoms among 10-19-year-old adolescents. Method: Questionnaires assessing PA and depressive symptoms were administered to 32 860 students in compulsory and upper-secondary schools in Iceland. Results: As age increased, depressive symptoms increased and PA decreased with over half of the adolescents in upper-secondary schools not achieving recommended daily PA. There were gender differences in PA and depressive symptoms with girls being less active and reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms than boys. MVPA was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms among both genders while organized sports had more impact on depressive symptoms among girls. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to simultaneously examine patterns of PA and depressive symptoms among students through their adolescent years. Our findings show that the decrease in PA and increase in depressive symptoms is most pronounced around the transition from compulsory to upper-secondary school, or around the age of 15-16. Thus the findings provide important information about when to tailor public health efforts to reduce the burden of depressive symptoms among adolescents, for example by employing PA interventions. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 978.
    Bammann, K.
    et al.
    Univ Bremen, Fac Human & Hlth Sci, Inst Publ Hlth & Nursing Res, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Gwozdz, W.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Lanfer, A.
    BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Barba, G.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Avellino, Italy.
    De Henauw, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fernandez-Alvira, J. M.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Kovacs, E.
    Univ Pecs, Dept Pediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Lissner, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Pigeot, I.
    BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight in Europe: results from the multi-centre IDEFICS study2013In: Pediatric Obesity, ISSN 2047-6302, E-ISSN 2047-6310, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is already known about this subject Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient. Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi-centre study with highly standardized study protoco. The strength of association between SES and overweight and obesity varies across European regions. In our study, the SES gradient is correlated with the regional mean income and the country-specific Human development index indicating a strong influence not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11?994 children (50.9% boys, 49.1% girls) and their parents were included in the analyses. Results In five of the eight investigated regions (in Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Spain and Sweden), the prevalence of childhood overweight followed an inverse SES gradient. In the other three regions (in Cyprus, Hungary and Italy), no association between SES and childhood overweight was found. The SES-overweight association in a region was best explained by the country-specific human development index and the centre-specific mean income. For the investigated association between other socioeconomic factors and overweight, no clear pattern could be found in the different regions. Conclusion The association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight was shown to be heterogeneous across different European regions. Further research on nationwide European data is needed to confirm the results and to identify target groups for prevention.

  • 979.
    Bammann, K.
    et al.
    Univ Bremen, Inst Publ Hlth & Nursing Res ipp, Fac Human & Hlth Sci, FB 11,Grazer Str 2a, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Gwozdz, W.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Pischke, C.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fernandez-Alvira, J. M.
    Univ Zaragoza, Dept Phys Med & Nursing, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    De Henauw, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Ghent, Belgium.
    Lissner, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Dept Phys Med & Nursing, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Pitsiladis, Y.
    Univ Brighton, Ctr Sport & Exercise Sci & Med SESAME, Eastbourne, England.
    Reisch, L.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Pigeot, I.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Fac Math & Comp Sci, Inst Stat, Bremen, Germany.
    The impact of familial, behavioural and psychosocial factors on the SES gradient for childhood overweight in Europe. A longitudinal study2017In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In highly developed countries, childhood overweight and many overweight-related risk factors are negatively associated with socioeconomic status (SES). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the longitudinal association between parental SES and childhood overweight, and to clarify whether familial, psychosocial or behavioural factors can explain any SES gradient. METHODS: The baseline and follow-up surveys of the identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study are used to investigate the longitudinal association between SES, familial, psychosocial and behavioural factors, and the prevalence of childhood overweight. A total of 5819 children (50.5% boys and 49.5% girls) were included. RESULTS: The risk for being overweight after 2 years at follow-up in children who were non-overweight at baseline increases with a lower SES. For children who were initially overweight, a lower parental SES carries a lower probability for a non-overweight weight status at follow-up. The effect of parental SES is only moderately attenuated by single familial, psychosocial or behavioural factors; however, it can be fully explained by their combined effect. Most influential of the investigated risk factors were feeding/eating practices, parental body mass index, physical activity behaviour and proportion of sedentary activity. CONCLUSION: Prevention strategies for childhood overweight should focus on actual behaviours, whereas acknowledging that these behaviours are more prevalent in lower SES families.

  • 980.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Andersson, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Metamodel-based prediction of performance metrics for bilevel parameter tuning in MOEAs2016In: 2016 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), New York: IEEE, 2016, p. 1909-1916Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a bilevel parameter tuning problem where the goal is to maximize the performance of a given multi-objective evolutionary optimizer on a given problem. The search for optimal algorithmic parameters requires the assessment of several sets of parameters, through multiple optimization runs, in order to mitigate the effect of noise that is inherent to evolutionary algorithms. This task is computationally expensive and therefore, in this paper, we propose to use sampling and metamodeling to approximate the performance of the optimizer as a function of its parameters. While such an approach is not unheard of, the choice of the metamodel to be used still remains unclear. The aim of this paper is to empirically compare 11 different metamodeling techniques with respect to their accuracy and training times in predicting two popular multi-objective performance metrics, namely, the hypervolume and the inverted generational distance. For the experiments in this pilot study, NSGA-II is used as the multi-objective optimizer for solving ZDT problems, 1 through 4.

  • 981.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
    Generalized higher-level automated innovization with application to inventory management2015In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860, Vol. 243, no 2, p. 480-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper generalizes the automated innovization framework using genetic programming in the context of higher-level innovization. Automated innovization is an unsupervised machine learning technique that can automatically extract significant mathematical relationships from Pareto-optimal solution sets. These resulting relationships describe the conditions for Pareto-optimality for the multi-objective problem under consideration and can be used by scientists and practitioners as thumb rules to understand the problem better and to innovate new problem solving techniques; hence the name innovization (innovation through optimization). Higher-level innovization involves performing automated innovization on multiple Pareto-optimal solution sets obtained by varying one or more problem parameters. The automated innovization framework was recently updated using genetic programming. We extend this generalization to perform higher-level automated innovization and demonstrate the methodology on a standard two-bar bi-objective truss design problem. The procedure is then applied to a classic case of inventory management with multi-objective optimization performed at both system and process levels. The applicability of automated innovization to this area should motivate its use in other avenues of operational research.

  • 982.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, USA.
    Metaheuristic Techniques2017In: Decision Sciences: Theory and Practice / [ed] Raghu Nandan Sengupta, Aparna Gupta, Joydeep Dutta, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2017, p. 693-750Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 983.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    Michigan State University, USA.
    Temporal Innovization: Evolution of Design Principles Using Multi-objective Optimization2015In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization (EMO 2015), Springer, 2015, Vol. 9018, p. 79-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective optimization yields multiple solutions each of which is no better or worse than the others when the objectives are conflicting. These solutions lie on the Pareto-optimal front which is a lower-dimensional slice of the objective space. Together, the solutions may possess special properties that make them optimal over other feasible solutions. Innovization is the process of extracting such special properties (or design principles) from a trade-off dataset in the form of mathematical relationships between the variables and objective functions. In this paper, we deal with a closely related concept called temporal innovization. While innovization concerns the design principles obtained from the trade-off front, temporal innovization refers to the evolution of these design principles during the optimization process. Our study indicates that not only do different design principles evolve at different rates, but that they start evolving at different times. We illustrate temporal innovization using several examples.

  • 984.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Gaur, Abhinav
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, USA.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, USA.
    Khare, Vineet
    Amazon Development Centre (India) Pvt. Ltd., Bengaluru, India.
    Chougule, Rahul
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli, India.
    Bandyopadhyay, Pulak
    General Motors R&D Center, Warren, USA.
    Development, analysis and applications of a quantitative methodology for assessing customer satisfaction using evolutionary optimization2015In: Applied Soft Computing, ISSN 1568-4946, E-ISSN 1872-9681, Vol. 30, p. 265-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer-oriented companies are getting increasingly more sensitive about customer's perception of their products, not only to get a feedback on their popularity, but also to improve the quality and service through a better understanding of design issues for further development. However, a consumer's perception is often qualitative and is achieved through third party surveys or the company's recording of after-sale feedback through explicit surveys or warranty based commitments. In this paper, we consider an automobile company's warranty records for different vehicle models and suggest a data mining procedure to assign a customer satisfaction index (CSI) to each vehicle model based on the perceived notion of the level of satisfaction of customers. Based on the developed CSI function, customers are then divided into satisfied and dissatisfied customer groups. The warranty data are then clustered separately for each group and analyzed to find possible causes (field failures) and their relative effects on customer's satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) for a vehicle model. Finally, speculative introspection has been made to identify the amount of improvement in CSI that can be achieved by the reduction of some critical field failures through better design practices. Thus, this paper shows how warranty data from customers can be utilized to have a better perception of ranking of a product compared to its competitors in the market and also to identify possible causes for making some customers dissatisfied and eventually to help percolate these issues at the design level. This closes the design cycle loop in which after a design is converted into a product, its perceived level of satisfaction by customers can also provide valuable information to help make the design better in an iterative manner. The proposed methodology is generic and novel, and can be applied to other consumer products as well.

  • 985.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA.
    On the Performance of Classification Algorithms for Learning Pareto-Dominance Relations2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), IEEE Press, 2014, p. 1139-1146Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs)are often criticized for their high-computational costs. Thisbecomes especially relevant in simulation-based optimizationwhere the objectives lack a closed form and are expensive toevaluate. Over the years, meta-modeling or surrogate modelingtechniques have been used to build inexpensive approximationsof the objective functions which reduce the overall number offunction evaluations (simulations). Some recent studies however,have pointed out that accurate models of the objective functionsmay not be required at all since evolutionary algorithms onlyrely on the relative ranking of candidate solutions. Extendingthis notion to MOEAs, algorithms which can ‘learn’ Paretodominancerelations can be used to compare candidate solutionsunder multiple objectives. With this goal in mind, in thispaper, we study the performance of ten different off-the-shelfclassification algorithms for learning Pareto-dominance relationsin the ZDT test suite of benchmark problems. We considerprediction accuracy and training time as performance measureswith respect to dimensionality and skewness of the training data.Being a preliminary study, this paper does not include results ofintegrating the classifiers into the search process of MOEAs.

  • 986.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    An empirical comparison of metamodeling strategies in noisy environments2018In: Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2018) / [ed] Hernan Aguirre, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 817-824, article id 3205509Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metamodeling plays an important role in simulation-based optimization by providing computationally inexpensive approximations for the objective and constraint functions. Additionally metamodeling can also serve to filter noise, which is inherent in many simulation problems causing optimization algorithms to be mislead. In this paper, we conduct a thorough statistical comparison of four popular metamodeling methods with respect to their approximation accuracy at various levels of noise. We use six scalable benchmark problems from the optimization literature as our test suite. The problems have been chosen to represent different types of fitness landscapes, namely, bowl-shaped, valley-shaped, steep ridges and multi-modal, all of which can significantly influence the impact of noise. Each metamodeling technique is used in combination with four different noise handling techniques that are commonly employed by practitioners in the field of simulation-based optimization. The goal is to identify the metamodeling strategy, i.e. a combination of metamodeling and noise handling, that performs significantly better than others on the fitness landscapes under consideration. We also demonstrate how these results carry over to a simulation-based optimization problem concerning a scalable discrete event model of a simple but realistic production line.

  • 987.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    On the scalability of meta-models in simulation-based optimization of production systems2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal, and M. D. Rossetti, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 3644-3655Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization of production systems often involves numerous simulations of computationally expensive discrete-event models. When derivative-free optimization is sought, one usually resorts to evolutionary and other population-based meta-heuristics. These algorithms typically demand a large number of objective function evaluations, which in turn, drastically increases the computational cost of simulations. To counteract this, meta-models are used to replace expensive simulations with inexpensive approximations. Despite their widespread use, a thorough evaluation of meta-modeling methods has not been carried out yet to the authors' knowledge. In this paper, we analyze 10 different meta-models with respect to their accuracy and training time as a function of the number of training samples and the problem dimension. For our experiments, we choose a standard discrete-event model of an unpaced flow line with scalable number of machines and buffers. The best performing meta-model is then used with an evolutionary algorithm to perform multi-objective optimization of the production model.

  • 988.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Trend Mining: A Visualization Technique to Discover Variable Trends in the Objective Space2019In: Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 10th International Conference, EMO 2019, East Lansing, MI, USA, March 10-13, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Kalyanmoy Deb, Erik Goodman, Carlos A. Coello Coello, Kathrin Klamroth, Kaisa Miettinen, Sanaz Mostaghim, Patrick Reed, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, Vol. 11411, p. 605-617Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Practical multi-objective optimization problems often involve several decision variables that influence the objective space in different ways. All variables may not be equally important in determining the trade-offs of the problem. Decision makers, who are usually only concerned with the objective space, have a hard time identifying such important variables and understanding how the variables impact their decisions and vice versa. Several graphical methods exist in the MCDM literature that can aid decision makers in visualizing and navigating high-dimensional objective spaces. However, visualization methods that can specifically reveal the relationship between decision and objective space have not been developed so far. We address this issue through a novel visualization technique called trend mining that enables a decision maker to quickly comprehend the effect of variables on the structure of the objective space and easily discover interesting variable trends. The method uses moving averages with different windows to calculate an interestingness score for each variable along predefined reference directions. These scores are presented to the user in the form of an interactive heatmap. We demonstrate the working of the method and its usefulness through a benchmark and two engineering problems.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-03 00:00
  • 989.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, USA.
    Data mining methods for knowledge discovery in multi-objective optimization: Part A - Survey2017In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 70, p. 139-159Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-world optimization problems typically involve multiple objectives to be optimized simultaneously under multiple constraints and with respect to several variables. While multi-objective optimization itself can be a challenging task, equally difficult is the ability to make sense of the obtained solutions. In this two-part paper, we deal with data mining methods that can be applied to extract knowledge about multi-objective optimization problems from the solutions generated during optimization. This knowledge is expected to provide deeper insights about the problem to the decision maker, in addition to assisting the optimization process in future design iterations through an expert system. The current paper surveys several existing data mining methods and classifies them by methodology and type of knowledge discovered. Most of these methods come from the domain of exploratory data analysis and can be applied to any multivariate data. We specifically look at methods that can generate explicit knowledge in a machine-usable form. A framework for knowledge-driven optimization is proposed, which involves both online and offline elements of knowledge discovery. One of the conclusions of this survey is that while there are a number of data mining methods that can deal with data involving continuous variables, only a few ad hoc methods exist that can provide explicit knowledge when the variables involved are of a discrete nature. Part B of this paper proposes new techniques that can be used with such datasets and applies them to discrete variable multi-objective problems related to production systems. 

  • 990.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, USA.
    Data mining methods for knowledge discovery in multi-objective optimization: Part B - New developments and applications2017In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 70, p. 119-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of this paper served as a comprehensive survey of data mining methods that have been used to extract knowledge from solutions generated during multi-objective optimization. The current paper addresses three major shortcomings of existing methods, namely, lack of interactiveness in the objective space, inability to handle discrete variables and inability to generate explicit knowledge. Four data mining methods are developed that can discover knowledge in the decision space and visualize it in the objective space. These methods are (i) sequential pattern mining, (ii) clustering-based classification trees, (iii) hybrid learning, and (iv) flexible pattern mining. Each method uses a unique learning strategy to generate explicit knowledge in the form of patterns, decision rules and unsupervised rules. The methods are also capable of taking the decision maker's preferences into account to generate knowledge unique to preferred regions of the objective space. Three realistic production systems involving different types of discrete variables are chosen as application studies. A multi-objective optimization problem is formulated for each system and solved using NSGA-II to generate the optimization datasets. Next, all four methods are applied to each dataset. In each application, the methods discover similar knowledge for specified regions of the objective space. Overall, the unsupervised rules generated by flexible pattern mining are found to be the most consistent, whereas the supervised rules from classification trees are the most sensitive to user-preferences. 

  • 991.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Smedberg, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    A parameterless performance metric for reference-point based multi-objective evolutionary algorithms2019In: GECCO '19: Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference / [ed] Manuel López-Ibáñez, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2019, p. 499-506Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most preference-based multi-objective evolutionary algorithms use reference points to articulate the decision maker's preferences. Since these algorithms typically converge to a sub-region of the Pareto-optimal front, the use of conventional performance measures (such as hypervolume and inverted generational distance) may lead to misleading results. Therefore, experimental studies in preference-based optimization often resort to using graphical methods to compare various algorithms. Though a few ad-hoc measures have been proposed in the literature, they either fail to generalize or involve parameters that are non-intuitive for a decision maker. In this paper, we propose a performance metric that is simple to implement, inexpensive to compute, and most importantly, does not involve any parameters. The so called expanding hypercube metric has been designed to extend the concepts of convergence and diversity to preference optimization. We demonstrate its effectiveness through constructed preference solution sets in two and three objectives. The proposed metric is then used to compare two popular reference-point based evolutionary algorithms on benchmark optimization problems up to 20 objectives.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-08-01 00:00
  • 992.
    Bander, Zerina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Gac Allamand, Gabriel
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Vänskap och kultur: En kvalitativ  studie om immigranters upplevelse av deras ackulturationsprocess med fokus på etniska vänskapsrelationer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to obtain a deeper understanding for how immigrants who migrated from Chile and Bosnia and Herzegovina and are residing in Sweden, experience their acculturation process in relation to their friendship relations’ ethnical background. The research focuses on immigrants’ subjective experience of their own acculturation process which is then analyzed with social psychological theories including Social exchange theory, Acculturation and Symbolic interactionism, together with concepts belonging to these theories. Through semi structured interviews, a result emerged which shows that the experienced acculturation has an influence on whom one chooses to establish a friendship relation with. The result shows that immigrants whos acculturation indicates towards integration in the host country tend to develop friendship ties with people of the ethnical majority population. Acculturation made clear in a feeling of separation and marginalization results in that the immigrant solely turns to friends belonging of the own ethnical country of birth. Furthermore, the result shows that language is the most contributory factor for integration, followed by work and schooling in the host country as other important contributory factors.

  • 993.
    Banik, Kallol
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Investigation of Methods for Testing Aspect Oriented Software2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aspect-oriented programming is a comparatively new programming paradigm which intends to overcome some limitations that approaches such as procedural programming and object-oriented programming have. Traditional approaches are unable to properly capture some design decisions. Aspect-oriented programming introduces some new properties that we don’t find in the structural programming or object-oriented programming. New design patterns of aspect-oriented software introduce new fault types and new challenges for testing. Testing is an important part in the software development to produce quality software. Research on testing aspect-oriented software has been going on for several years but it still remains to invent testing approaches that cover all features of aspect-oriented software. This dissertation surveys test methods for aspect-oriented software and presents a comparison among the testing methods which reveals the strengths and weaknesses of current methods for testing of aspect-oriented software. This comparative overview of proposed test methods can be helpful for testers who intend to test aspect-oriented software. The conclusion presents the research contribution of this dissertation and proposes future work.

  • 994.
    Banila, Beatrice
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, medication and substance abuse2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, (ADHD), is an established childhood psychiatric disorder, and it is the present diagnosis for children with major difficulties in the core symptoms; impulsiveness, attention and hyperactivity. The disorder is known to persist into adulthood and create major problems in coping with everyday life. With ADHD follows a vast variety of other conditions, which burdens the ADHD individuals even more. The major cause for the disorder is in heritage but also other possible explanations will be discussed. The main treatment for ADHD is psycho stimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine. ADHD is associated with substance abuse and several articles in this essay will provide support for that. Is substance abuse in ADHD individuals a form of self-medication in order to ameliorate the symptoms or is the increased risk for substance abuse due to the stimulant medications? In this essay, I will describe what ADHD is, present what are its known causes, summarize the treatments available for ADHD, and discuss the relationships between ADHD and substance abuse.

  • 995.
    Banjac Vujic , Gordana
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hellmark , Britt
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    När vårdcentralens läkartider inte räcker till: Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av telefonrådgivning när denvårdsökande inte kan beredas tid trots ett medicinskt behov2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decades the telephone has become an important tool in the healthcare system when people seek help and advice for medical problems. Telephone lines to all healthcare centres in Sweden were established in the 1970´s. A large part of nurses´ work at a healthcare centre consists of giving telephone advice. The callers´ medical needs are assessed and the callers are referred to the proper level of care. The aim of this study is to find out what nurses experience when the caller cannot be given an appointment, despite a medical need for one, because there are insufficient medical appointments available due to a shortage of general practitioners. Ten nurses working with telephone advice at healthcare centre were interviewed. The study was done with a qualitative method using a phenomenological approach. Results indicate that the informants have several different emotional experiences. The informants experience that they cannot always live up to the care guarantee, but that the problem is organizational and beyond their control. Sometimes telephone work feels heavy, and thoughts of how things go for the caller can continue when the work-day is finished. Experience and knowledge are considered important in order to be able to handle the situation better and to make a correct assessment. Support from colleagues is pointed out as meaningful. It is considered important to carefully document the advice given during the telephone call and which measures are planned.

  • 996.
    Bankler, Jon Victor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    A chinese view on indie: How is ‘indie’ defined by professionals within the Chinese indie game industry?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore which philosophies and opinions professionals within the Chinese indie game industry hold in relation to the indie concept. Indie is a short form of the word "independence”, and is used to describe certain products and creative practices within media such as video games. The term’s exact definition is however subject to discussion. This study aims to include Chinese game professionals in this discussion.

    The study was carried out in China through Game Hub Scandinavia (Game Hub Scandinavia, 2018) and in cooperation with Indienova. The participants that were interviewed in this study were all professionals within the Chinese game industry. The research tools developed for these interviews were two playable demos and a survey. The answers provided constituted as basis for the study’s concluding analysis.

    The data indicated that the Chinese indie developers define indie as a creative endeavour which products and underlying ambitions contrasts the commercially motivated game industry in China.

  • 997.
    Banks, H. T.
    et al.
    Center for Research in Scientific Computation North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Banks, J. E.
    Undergraduate Research Opportunities Center (UROC) California State University, Monterey Bay Seaside, CA, USA.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
    Curtsdotter, Alva
    Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
    Laubmeier, A. N.
    Center for Research in Scientific Computation North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Parameter estimation for an allometric food web model2017In: International journal of pure and applied mathematics, ISSN 1311-8080, E-ISSN 1314-3395, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 143-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of mechanistic models to natural systems is of interest to ecological researchers. We use the mechanistic Allometric Trophic Network (ATN) model, whichis well-studied for controlled and theoretical systems, to describe the dynamics of the aphidRhopalosiphum padi in an agricultural field. We diagnose problems that arise in a first attemptat a least squares parameter estimation on this system, including formulation of the modelfor the inverse problem and information content present in the data. We seek to establishwhether the field data, as it is currently collected, can support parameter estimation for theATN model.

  • 998.
    Bannert, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Botinis, Antonis
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Gawronska, Barbara
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hollenstein, Gerd
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Anforderungen an eine Lernumgebung für computergestütztes Fremdsprachenlernen2004In: Norden und Süden: Festschrift für Kjell-Åke Forsgren zum 65. Geburtstag / [ed] Mareike Jendis, Anita Malmqvist & Ingela Valfridsson, Umeå Universitet , 2004Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 999.
    Barenfeld, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hur kan en attraktiv och trivsam offentlig miljö skapas i en centralt belägen galleria i en medelstor stad?2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi utgick från att ställa oss frågan hur den offentliga miljön i en galleria blir attraktiv och trivsam för besökare. Vi hade tidigare uppmärksammat att gallerian i vår studiestad inte lämnade ett minnesvärt intryck och ville därför gå på djupet i detta ämne. Vi har i vår uppsats observerat fyra gallerior i syd- och mellansverige för att hitta framgångsreceptet för att en centralt belägen galleria ska bli attraktiv och trivsam. Vi ställde oss då frågan: hur kan en attraktiv och trivsam offentlig miljö skapas i en centralt belägen galleria i en medelstor stad? Syftet var att finna de faktorer som gör en galleria attraktiv för besökarna, när det gäller de offentliga ytorna. Vi har undersökt vilka faktorer som är viktiga i den offentliga miljön i en galleria. Slutligen syftar denna studie till att kunna ge ett antal rekommendationer om den offentliga miljön till centralt belägna gallerior i medelstora städer.

    Vår undersökning för uppsatsen har genomförts genom en kvalitativ metod då vi har intervjuat två arkitekter och två centrumledare, observerat fyra gallerior och genomfört två fokusgruppsintervjuer. Detta har vi gjort för att se hur gallerior utformas idag och hur utformningen går till. Vi genomförde en jämförelse mellan fokusgruppsintervjuerna och våra intervjuer med arkitekter och centrumledare. Dessa svar styrktes sedan med den teori vi presenterat gällande den exteriöra, interiöra och psykosociala miljön, om hur en attraktiv och trivsam miljö skapas i centralt belägna gallerior.

    Resultaten från undersökningen visar att många gallerior uppfyller ett stort antal av de krav som finns för att en galleria ska ses som attraktiv och trivsam. Dock finns åtskilliga faktorer att ta hänsyn till vid utformandet av den offentliga miljön i en galleria för att den ska lämna en minnesvärd upplevelse hos besökaren. En slutsats vi kan dra av vår undersökning är att gallerior gärna ska vara något unikt utformande och centrumledare och ansvarig för galleriorna måste kontinuerligt arbeta med att underhålla gallerian. De gallerior vi observerat håller en jämn och hög standard men vi har avslutat uppsatsen med ge rekommendationer i samband med framtida utveckling.

  • 1000.
    Bari, M. A.
    et al.
    University of Rajshahi.
    Islam, W.
    University of Rajshahi.
    Khan, A. R.
    University of Rajshahi.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Solanum torvum (Solanaceae)2010In: International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, ISSN 1560-8530, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 386-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaves, stem, roots and inflorescence of Solanum torvum Sw. were extracted in two different organic solvents (chloroform & methanol). Antibacterial and antifungal effects of the extracts were tested on fifteen (six Gram positive & nine Gram negative) human  pathogenic  bacteria  and  on  eight  pathogenic  fungi.  Methanolic  extracts  of  roots  of  S.  torvum  exhibited  promising antibacterial  and  antifungal  effects  on  all  organisms  tested  in  comparison  with  that  observed  in  the  leaves,  stems  and inflorescence extracts. The toxicity of the extracts was in the following order; root>stem>inflorescence>leaf. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of methanolic extract of roots of S. torvum were in the range between 64-128 µg mL -1 . Chloroform  extracts  of  roots  were  more  toxic  (LC 50  35.4629  ppm)  than  other  extracts  analyzed  in  Brine  shrimp  test.  In conclusion, S. torvum appears to be an attractive material for the development of antimicrobial drugs and environment friendly biopesticides.

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