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  • 51.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Industrial Development, Scania CV.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Chalmers Science Park.
    Carlsson, Johan S.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Chalmers Science Park.
    IMMA - Intelligently Moving Manikins: Project Status 20112011Ingår i: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Digital Human Modeling, Lyon, France, June, Université Claude Bernard Lyon , 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall rationale and assumption for the research project presented in this paper is that a fast, easy to use, and reliable procedure to predict and validate manual assembly tasks is of major importance in product and production development processes to ensure high and robust product quality and process performance. A basic condition for the research is the belief that tools with such functionality are currently not available for companies to utilise in their development process. Hence more research and development is needed in the area. This paper describes the status of the project IMMA - Intelligently Moving Manikins and discusses coming initiatives. The project status is portrayed by a conceivable simulation task of a digital test assembly of a centre console.

  • 52.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Scania CV / Chalmers.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Carlson, Johan S
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Chalmers.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Stefan, Gustafsson
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Keyvani, Ali
    Högskolan Väst / Chalmers.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre / Chalmers.
    IMMA – Intelligently moving manikins in automotive applications2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 53.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Carlson, Johan S.
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Spensieri, Domenico
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Björkenstam, Staffan
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nyström, Johan
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ore, Fredrik
    School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Industrial path solutions - intelligently moving manikins2019Ingår i: DHM and Posturography / [ed] Sofia Scataglini, Gunther Paul, London: Academic Press, 2019, s. 115-124Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    IPS IMMA (Industrial Path Solutions - Intelligently Moving Manikins) is a digital human modeling tool developed in close cooperation between academia and industry in Sweden. The academic consortium behind the software consists of expertise within applied mathematics, ergonomics, and engineering. The development of IMMA was initiated from the vehicle industries’ need of an effective, efficient, objective, and user-friendly software for verification of manufacturing ergonomics. The ‘Industrial path solutions - intelligently moving manikins’ chapter consists of two main sections: the first about the commercially available tool, and the second about current or recent research projects developing the software further. Commercial IPS IMMA is presented by describing the biomechanical model and appearance, anthropometrics module, motion prediction, instruction language, and ergonomics evaluation. The research projects focus on dynamic motions simulation, muscle modelling and application areas such as human-robot collaboration, occupant packaging, and layout planning.

  • 54.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Lundström, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Wårell, Maria
    ArjoHuntleigh R&D Center, Lund.
    Application of Human Modelling in Health Care Industry2009Ingår i: Digital Human Modeling: Second International Conference, ICDHM 2009 Held as Part of HCI International 2009 San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009 Proceedings / [ed] Vincent G. Duffy, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, s. 521-530Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital human modelling (DHM) is commonly utilised for vehicle and workplace design in the automotive industry. More rarely are the tools applied in the health care industry, albeit having similar objectives for cost-efficiency and user-centred design processes. The paper illustrates how a DHM tool is modified and utilised to evaluate a bathing system design from caretakers' and caregivers' ergonomics point of view. Anthropometry, joint range of motion, description and appearance of the manikin was customised to meet the requirements in a health care setting. Furthermore, a preferred bathing posture was defined. A suggested DHM working process scenario illustrates that DHM tools can be customised, applied and useful in health care product design. Except technical customisations of the DHM tool, the development of a working process and work organisation around the tool is proposed for an effective and efficient use of digital human modelling.

  • 55.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Industrial Development, Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden / Wingquist Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Söderholm, M.
    Industrial Development, Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Digital test assembly of truck parts with the IMMA-tool - an illustrative case2012Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Suppl 1, s. 2248-2252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several digital human modelling (DHM) tools have been developed for simulation and visualisation of human postures and motions. In 2010 the DHM tool IMMA (Intelligently Moving Manikins) was introduced as a DHM tool that uses advanced path planning techniques to generate collision free and biomechanically acceptable motions for digital human models (as well as parts) in complex assembly situations. The aim of the paper is to illustrate how the IPS/IMMA tool is used at Scania CV AB in a digital test assembly process, and to compare the tool with other DHM tools on the market. The illustrated case of using the IMMA tool, here combined with the path planner tool IPS, indicates that the tool is promising. The major strengths of the tool are its user friendly interface, the motion generation algorithms, the batch simulation of manikins and the ergonomics assessment methods that consider time.

  • 56.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Datorn testar konstruktionerna2006Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 57.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Digital human modelling for user-centred vehicle design and anthropometric analysis2009Ingår i: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 51, nr 3/4, s. 306-323Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital human modelling (DHM) is discussed as a design tool in the context of user-centred design, with a focus on DHM usage for anthropometric analysis in occupant packaging tasks in the vehicle interior design process. References are made to concepts of inclusive design, user-centred design, design cognition and design methodology. Examples are presented to illustrate how DHM can be of great use to the vehicle designer, but also to show some of the difficulties involved. This includes the complexity in considering anthropometric variation of the targeted product users in multivariate design problems, such as the design of vehicle interiors and suggestions on how to deal with this difficulty in an industrial design setting. Overall, the paper takes a designer's view of DHM tools and illustrates how the tool can be of value in the design process, but also considers what implications this has on the functionality and usability of the tools.

  • 58.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Ergonomics Integration and User Diversity in Product2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Concideration of products' ergonomic qualitys is one important component for  successful product developement. Product designers engaged in the core activity of product developement need methods that support the consideration of ergonomics along with other product requirements. this thesis aims to adress these needs.

    The first part of the thesis investigates how people working within product developement organisations communicate with and about users of their products. The general need for methods to support communication of user aspects in product development is indentified trough formal interviews whith product developers and a review of the management, ergonomics and design litterature.

    The second part of the thesis studies the factors wich affect th integration of ergonomics in product design. Supportive methods, including User Characters, for evoking user concideration among designers together with Overlapping methods fos scheduling ergonomics evaluation in product design processes are introduced and argued.

    The third part of the thesis reviews an discusses computer aided ergonomics as a mens for integration of ergonomics in product design. A web-based support system for effective employment of human  simulation tools is developed using a participativa approach and evaluated based on the system's usability.

    The objective of the fourt part of the thesis is to study how human simulation tool can aid designers' consideration of human diversity  to accomodate users of diverse anthropometric characteristics in multivariate design problems such as automobile cockpits. The work involves the evaluation off different approaches for th egeneration of specific manikin families wich can be used as test groups for fitting trials in the virtual design process.

    The research demonstrates enchantments in design methodology knowledge to support integration of ergonomics in design product processes with a focus on anthopometric diversity in vehicledesign.

  • 59.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Use of characters and scenarios in gear shift design2003Ingår i: Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces, Pittsburgh, 2003, s. 140-141Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The employment of the design methods of characters and scenarios in the conceptual design of a gearshift system for future automobiles is presented. The main objective for the project was to provide design suggestions for a gearshift system that people will appreciate in future cars in view of market trends, technology developments and environmental demands. The methods were tested for concept evaluation at a Swedish car component manufacturer. The methods gave rough, but important, indications of possible appreciation and acceptance of design proposals, and assisted consideration of user diversity. This low-cost approach is sufficient for evaluation purposes at early design stages, but may be complemented with more thorough studies if time and money permits.

  • 60.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Use of finite element method in trailer deck design2001Ingår i: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 117, nr 1-2, s. 238-243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The employment of the finite element (FE) method in conceptual and detail design of a secondary deck platform for trailer bodies is presented. The main objective of the project is to design a versatile, light and cheap secondary deck. To assist the designer with sufficient means for the concept generation and evaluation process, the FE method is used in order to gain fair structural analysis data. Assistance from the computer software stimulates creativity, reduces the time required in the design process, and eventually increases probability to gain customer satisfaction. This approach is precise enough for comparison purposes at this stage of the design process. The structural data gained is compared mainly with weight and access criteria.

  • 61.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, L.
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    A pragmatic approach to define anthropometric boundary manikins for multiple populations2012Ingår i: NES2012 Proceedings, Saltsjöbaden, Sweden, August 19-22, 2012: Ergonomics for sustainability and growth / [ed] Ann-Beth Antonsson & Göran M. Hägg, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the call for methods that can assist designers to consider anthropometric diversity when designing products or workstations, and hence formulate more sustainable design solutions. A basic method for the definition of boundary manikins for bivariate design problems and combined populations is described, exemplified and evaluated. The method can be used for defining virtual test groups when using digital human modelling tools for evaluating anthropometry related aspects of human-product interfaces at early design phases. It can also be used to indentify persons with certain anthropometry to build up test groups for performing physical tests.

  • 62.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    A basic step towards increased accommodation level accuracy when using DHM tools2011Ingår i: Proceedings of DHM, First International Symposium on Digital Human Modeling, Université Claude Bernard Lyon , 2011, s. 1-6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the need to consider anthropometric diversity in design and suggests a basic approach for the simultaneous consideration of variance in two key dimensions. This as a basic step from the common, but in many cases poor, approach to use univariate percentile data in design. The bivariate method described can be applied when utilising DHM tools for design in that key dimension values for extreme but likely anthropometric measurement combinations are calculated and entered as input data when representative manikins are defined. The mathematical procedure is described and the outcome of the method is compared to a typical percentile based approach, indicating more accurate accommodation levels being reached by the proposed method. The method is to be seen as a simple method to be used for basic design problems where variance in few anthropometric dimensions are to be considered simultaneously, and not as an alternative for more advanced multivariate methods. The paper takes a pragmatic standpoint, directing its message towards practitioners using DHM tools for design purposes.

  • 63.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Blomé, Mikael
    Dukic, Tania
    Hansson, Lars
    Computer-based protocol for human simulation report2003Ingår i: the XVth Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, 2003Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 64.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Blomé, Mikael
    Dukic, Tania
    Hansson, Lars
    Simulation of human-vehicle interaction in vehicle design at Saab Automobile: present and future2003Ingår i: Digital Human Modeling for Design and Engineering (DHM) SAE-conference, 2003Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 65.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Accommodation levels for ellipsoid versus cuboid defined boundary cases2015Ingår i: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, s. 3702-3708Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The boundary case method is established for the representation and consideration of anthropometric diversity in design tasks with certain characteristics. Sometime boundary cases are defined separately for two distributions, e.g. for females and males, which may lead to a situation where some boundary cases will be redundant in that they are located within the joint distribution rather than on the joint boundary. This paper describes and illustrates a method for automatic identification of redundant boundary cases that are located within two three-dimensional overlapping distributions.

    Practitioner Summary: The paper describes a pragmatic way to focus the design work on users with specific limiting body measurement combinations that can be used to obtain design data or be used to describe appropriate test persons or digital human models for design problems where the boundary case method is suitable.

  • 66.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Accommodation levels for ellipsoid versus cuboid defined boundary cases2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015), AHFE , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The definition and use of boundary cases is a common approach when aiming to anthropometrically accommodate a desired percentage of the targeted population by a design. The cases are defined based on anthropometric data that represents the targeted population. Approaches that define cases based on the variation within just one body measurement are poor for most design problems in representing anthropometric diversity. Hence, the consideration of variation within several body measurements is preferred. However, an approach that is based on performing several separate studies of the variation within a number of measurements leads to undesired reduction of accommodation due to the lack of consideration of the effects of correlations between measurements. This paper compares theoretical accommodation levels when using an ellipsoid versus a cuboid based approach for defining boundary cases to represent anthropometric variation within three body measurements. The ellipsoid approach considers correlations between body measurements whereas the cuboid approach does not consider correlations between body measurements. The paper suggests the application of the ellipsoid method for defining boundary cases for better reaching desired accommodation levels in boundary case based design problems. These cases can be used to define computer manikins when using digital human modelling tools. The method is also applicable when wishing to select extreme but representative real people to be involved in physical fitting trials.

  • 67.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Basic Method for Handling Trivariate Normal Distributions in Case Definition for Design and Human Simulation2014Ingår i: Advances in Applied Digital Human Modeling, AHFE Conference , 2014, s. 27-40Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 68.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Industrial Development, Scania CV.
    Concept of Formalized Test Procedure for Proactive Assessment of Ergonomic Value by Digital Human Modelling Tools in Lean Product Development2018Ingår i: Advances in Human Factors in Simulation and Modeling: Proceedings of the AHFE 2017 International Conference on Human Factors in Simulation and Modeling / [ed] Cassenti, Daniel N., Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, Vol. 591, s. 425-436Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A concept of a formalized test procedure for proactive assessment of ergonomic value by digital human modelling (DHM) tools in lean product development (LPD) is proposed and described. The objective of the formalized procedure is to integrate the utilization of DHM tools in LPD and to support the delivery of ergonomic value and reduce waste in product and production development processes. A design process model is illustrated and described, and examples are given of how to specify and work with ergonomic value in the process.

  • 69.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Chalmers University of Technology / Scania CV.
    Identification of redundant boundary cases2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association / [ed] Lindgaard, G. and Moore, D. (Eds.), Zürich, Switzerland: The International Ergonomics Association , 2015, s. 1-5Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The boundary case method is established for the representation and consideration of anthropometric diversity in design tasks with certain characteristics. Sometime boundary cases are defined separately for two distributions, e.g. for females and males, which may lead to a situation where some boundary cases will be redundant in that they are located within the joint distribution rather than on the joint boundary. This paper describes and illustrates a method for automatic identification of redundant boundary cases that are located within two three-dimensional overlapping distributions.

    Practitioner Summary: The paper describes a pragmatic way to focus the design work on users with specific limiting body measurement combinations that can be used to obtain design data or be used to describe appropriate test persons or digital human models for design problems where the boundary case method is suitable.

  • 70.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Limkull, Dan
    De Vin, Leo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Hansson, Lars
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Towards Dynamic Ergonomics Analysis of Work Sequences inVirtual Environments2007Ingår i: the 17th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM 2007, 2007, s. 581-588Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 71.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    Department of Research and Development, Volvo Powertrain AB, Skövde SE-541 87, Sweden.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg SE-405 31, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars
    Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund SE-221 00, Sweden.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg SE-412 96, Sweden.
    Industrial customisation of digital human modelling tools2008Ingår i: International Journal of Services and Operations, ISSN 1741-539X, E-ISSN 1741-5403, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 53-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer aided visualisation and simulation enables earlyevaluation of important design parameters of future products and productionsystems. Typically, humans affect the system performance, and in order toachieve the expected system efficiency ergonomics needs to be considered inthe design process in addition to the more technical or logistical matters.Hence, there is a call for ergonomics to be a natural part of the product andproduction development process, also at virtual stages. Three examples of thedevelopment of Digital Human Modelling-(DHM)-based company-specific

  • 72.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Manikin Characters: User Characters in Human Computer Modelling2006Ingår i: Contemporary Ergonomics, Taylor & Francis, 2006, s. 499-503Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 73.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Predefined manikins to support consideration of anthropometric diversity by product designers2007Ingår i: Digital Human Modeling, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, s. 110-119Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the complexity involved in considering targeted product users’ anthropometric variation in multivariate design problems, such as the design of workplaces or vehicle interiors. The authors argue for the advantages of offering designers a number of predefined digital human models to incorporate in the CAD product models. A study has been carried out in order to illustrate the use of predefined digital human models in vehicle interior design by using the Digital Human Modelling (DHM) tool RAMSIS. The paper takes a designer’s view of digital human modelling and illustrates how DHM can be of great value in the design process, but also considers what implications this has on the functionality and usability of DHM tools.

  • 74.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Case, Keith
    Loughborough University.
    Supporting 'Design for All' in Automotive Ergonomics2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry faces increasingly tough competition in a global market. One key for competitiveness is product differentiation, in order to attract clearly defined market segments. However, designing cars for specific customer groups incorporates the risk that a car appeals to only a small number of potential buyers. Another issue is that the actual customer group in many cases differs fromthe initially targeted customer group. The use of the ‘design for all’ (DfAll) concept may very well enlarge a car manufacturer’s market and improve the vehicles by making them suit larger populations. This paper discusses the aims of a research project that seeks to identify areas where both the main targeted customer group andothers can gain from a ‘design for all’ approach. Other objectives are to suggest working methods that enable ‘design for all’ in the automotive development process and the identification of computer tools, such as virtual manikins, that can support these objectives early in a virtual design process.

  • 75.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Case, Keith
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    The impact of manikin family configuration on accommodation2005Ingår i: Ergonomics as a tool in future development and value creation : proceedings: NES2005 in Oslo - Norway, Nordic Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Conference, 10-12 October 2005 / [ed] Bo Veiersted, Knut Inge Fostervold, Kristian S. Gould, Oslo: Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2005, s. 91-95Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 76.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Case, Keith
    Loughborough University.
    De Vin, Leo J
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Overlapping Ergonomic Evaluation in the Automotive Design Process2002Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomic evaluation typically comes late in the automotive design process, often not performed until physical mock-ups are produced. This may lead to expensive and cumbersome iterations, or to reductions of the final product quality due to low priority of meeting set ergonomic requirements. Computer aided design (CAD) is intensively used for design in the automotive industry. Performance and usability of computers and software are improving at a rapid pace, which enables CAD to be employed even more intensively. This encourages a digital design process where expensive, inflexible and time consuming physical mock-ups are only built at the end of the design process. This incorporates the risk that ergonomic evaluation will be put back even further. A way to address this problem is to enable ergonomics to be evaluated in the digital design process - in a virtual product. However, in many cases, evaluation made in a physical prototype is unbeatable in establishing ergonomic conditions. This paper discusses possible advantages of moving ergonomic evaluation earlier in the automotive design process by implementing planned overlapping strategies. It also shows initial results from a project at a car company, which aims at improving ergonomics integration in the automotive design process, e.g. by looking at task overlapping. These strategies are believed to be applicable both for evaluations made in a virtual environment and evaluations performed in the real world.

  • 77.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre.
    Carlson, Johan S.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre.
    Creating and shaping the DHM tool IMMA for ergonomic product and production design2016Ingår i: International Journal of the Digital Human, ISSN 2046-3375, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 132-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The history, status and outlook of the research and development actions associated with the creation of the digital human modelling tool intelligently moving manikins (IMMA) are described. The underlying fundamental concepts are described and research and development results so far are illustrated or referred to. Two case studies illustrating use of IMMA on industry-based problems are described. The paper also covers reflections on conceptions for prospective DHM tool developments from a general perspective, relating to areas of ergonomics and design methodology, as well as describing some of the plans for further developments and applications of the IMMA tool. These may be of assistance when identifying challenges for future research and development of DHM tools that are used in product and production design processes in industry.

  • 78.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Hanson, Lars
    Case, K
    Computer manikin family usage for human accomodation2003Ingår i: Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference: "Mind and Body in a Technological World", 2003, s. 184-188Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 79.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, LarsDepartment of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology.Case, KeithMechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University.
    International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, Special issue on Application of Digital Human Modelling Tools in User Centred Design Processes2010Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 80.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Case, Keith
    Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University.
    Preface2010Ingår i: International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, ISSN 1742-5549, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 353-355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 81.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Hanson, Lars
    Department of Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lundström, Daniel
    Semcon Caran AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Maria
    ArjoHuntleigh R&D Center, Lund, Sweden.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Volvo Car Corporation, Manufacturing Engineering, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Representing the elderly in digital human modelling2008Ingår i: Ergonomics is a lifestyle = Vinnuvistfræði er lífstíll: NES 2008 : abstracts, Kópavogur: Vinnuvistfræðifélag Íslands , 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital human modelling (DHM) tools have been introduced in industry, mainly in automotive, aerospace and industrial engineering, to facilitate a proactive and efficient consideration of ergonomics in the design process. The employment of DHM tools in the health care sector calls for customisation work to be carried out in order to make the tools fit the design activities. The human model, i.e. the computer manikin, needs to be modified since it has the characteristics and appearance of an able healthy young or middle-aged human, but the resident or patient is frequently an elderly person with impairments of some kind. This paper suggests concepts and structures for assigning the computer manikins characteristics of the elderly. These changes are made by the modification of anthropometric and joint range of motion data in the DHM tool, and by assigning narrative descriptions to the manikins and more age-corresponding appearances. The objective is to define a manageable number of representative manikins that will support a proactive and user-centred design process in the health care industry, and in other types of design processes for the elderly, or in an inclusive design context.

  • 82.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Hanson, Lars
    Lund University.
    Nåbo, Arne
    SAAB Automobile.
    Digital Human Modeling in Automotive Product Applications2008Ingår i: Handbook of Digital Human Modeling: Research for Applied Ergonomics and Human Factors Engineering, CRC Press , 2008, s. 40-1-40-16Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 83.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Lundström, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Hanson, Lars
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wårell, Maria
    ArjoHuntleigh R&D Center, Lund, Sweden.
    Increasing Functionality of DHM Software by Industry Specific Program Features2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates how Digital Human Modeling (DHM) tool functionality can be increased through the development of industry specific features. The features are based on a design tool, the Mobility Gallery, established by the cooperating health care company. Each resident in the Mobility Gallery has different levels of functional mobility and is described with different personal characteristics as well as background details. The integration of the resident descriptions in a commercial DHM tool is presented and discussed. The rationale for this approach is that the synthesis of DHM tool functionality and the Mobility Gallery descriptions will render a DHM tool with features offering augmented applicability for product design in a health care setting.

  • 84.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ruiz Castro, Pamela
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre, Gothenburg.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre, Gothenburg.
    Nurbo, Pernilla
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg.
    Fragoso, Paulo
    Scania CV, Södertälje.
    Andersson, Lina
    Volvo Trucks, Gothenburg.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    DHM Based Test Procedure Concept for Proactive Ergonomics Assessments in the Vehicle Interior Design Process2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume V: Human Simulation and Virtual Environments / [ed] Sebastiano BagnaraRiccardo TartagliaSara AlbolinoThomas AlexanderYushi Fujita, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, Vol. 822, s. 314-323Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a digital human modelling (DHM) based test procedure concept for the assessment of physical ergonomics conditions in virtual phases of the vehicle interior design process is illustrated and discussed. The objective of the test procedure is to be a valuable tool for ergonomic evaluations and decision support along the design process, so that ergonomic issues can be dealt with in an efficient, objective and proactive manner. The test procedure is devised to support companies in having stable and objective processes, in accordance with lean product development (LPD) philosophies. The overall structure and fundamental functionality of the test procedure concept is explained by a simplified use case, utilizing the DHM tool IPS IMMA to: define manikin families and manikin tasks; predict manikin motions; and visualize simulations and ergonomics evaluation outcomes.

  • 85.
    Iriondo Pascual, Aitor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ruiz Castro, Pamela
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Mahdavian, Nafise
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Scania CV, Södertalje, Sweden.
    Proposal of an Intuitive Interface Structure for Ergonomics Evaluation Software2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VIII: Ergonomics and Human Factors in Manufacturing, Agriculture, Building and Construction, Sustainable Development and Mining / [ed] Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander, Yushi Fujita, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 825, s. 289-300Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, different technologies and software for ergonomics evaluations are gaining greater relevance in the field of ergonomics and production development. The tools allow users such as ergonomists and engineers to perform assessments of ergonomic conditions of work, both related to work simulated in digital human modelling (DHM) tools or based on recordings of work performed by real operators. Regardless of approach, there are many dimensions of data that needs to be processed and presented to the users.

    The users may have a range of different expectations and purposes from reading the data. Examples of situations are to: judge and compare different design solutions; analyse data in relation to anthropometric differences among subjects; investigate different body regions; assess data based on different time perspectives; and to perform assessments according to different types of ergonomics evaluation methods. The range of different expectations and purposes from reading the data increases the complexity of creating an interface that considers all the necessary tools and functions that the users require, while at the same time offer high usability.

    This paper focuses on the structural design of a flexible and intuitive interface for an ergonomics evaluation software that possesses the required tools and functions to analyse work situations from different perspectives, where the data input can be either from DHM tools or from real operators while performing work. 

  • 86.
    Iriondo Pascual, Aitor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Application of Multi-objective Optimization on Ergonomics in Production: A Case Study2020Ingår i: Advances in Additive Manufacturing, Modeling Systems and 3D Prototyping: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Additive Manufacturing, Modeling Systems and 3D Prototyping, July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA / [ed] Massimo Di Nicolantonio, Emilio Rossi, Thomas Alexander, Springer, 2020, s. 584-594Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking a holistic perspective is central in production development, aiming to optimize ergonomics and overall production system performance. Hence, there is a need for tools and methods that can support production companies to identify the production system alternatives that are optimal regarding both ergonomics and production efficiency. The paper presents a devised case study where multi-objective optimization is applied, as a step to towards the development of such an optimization tool. The overall objective in the case study is to find the best order in which an operator performs manual tasks during a workday, considering ergonomics and production system efficiency simultaneously. More specifically, reducing the risk of injury from lifting tasks and improving the throughput are selected as the two optimization objectives. An optimization tool is developed, which communicates with a digital human modelling tool to simulate work tasks and assess ergonomics. 

  • 87.
    Janhager, Jenny
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Machine Design, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Product Developers’ Relations to Their Users: An Interview Study2004Ingår i: DS 49: Proceedings of NordDesign 2004 Conference, Tampere, Finland, 18.-20.08.2004 / [ed] Timo Lehtonen, Antti Pulkkinen, Asko Riitahuhta, Design Society , 2004, s. 278-288Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 88.
    Keyvani, Ali
    et al.
    Product and Production Development Dep., Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Virtual Methods & IT, Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Research Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Product and Production Development Dep., Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ergonomic Risk Assessment of a Manikin’s Wrist Movements - a Test Study in Manual Assembly2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of digital human modeling (DHM) tools enables early assessment of ergonomic risks in the production development process. This early risk assessment can indicate needs for preventive actions in order to decrease risks for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. A method for the assessment of physical workload has been developed, for the analysis of wrist joint data produced by a DHM tool. The method is tested in a simulation model of an actual manual assembly station in industry where it is assumed that physical workload problems exist. The results show that the method can be successfully applied on an industrial case. In addition, presumptive risks and possible diagnoses are predicted based on the similarity of the simulated task’s motions with motions from other known work class profiles stored in a database based on epidemiological research.

  • 89.
    Li, Cai
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Bredies, Katharina
    Department of Design, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lund, Anja
    Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Hemeren, Paul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    k-Nearest-Neighbour based Numerical Hand Posture Recognition using a Smart Textile Glove2015Ingår i: AMBIENT 2015: The Fifth International Conference on Ambient Computing, Applications, Services and Technologies / [ed] MaartenWeyn, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2015, s. 36-41Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors present an interdisciplinary project that illustrates the potential and challenges in dealing with electronic textiles as sensing devices. An interactive system consisting of a knitted sensor glove and electronic circuit and a numeric hand posture recognition algorithm based on k-nearestneighbour (kNN) is introduced. The design of the sensor glove itself is described, considering two sensitive fiber materials – piezoresistive and piezoelectric fibers – and the construction using an industrial knitting machine as well as the electronic setup is sketched out. Based on the characteristics of the textile sensors, a kNN technique based on a condensed dataset has been chosen to recognize hand postures indicating numbers from one to five from the sensor data. The authors describe two types of data condensation techniques (Reduced Nearest Neighbours and Fast Condensed Nearest Neighbours) in order to improve the data quality used by kNN, which are compared in terms of run time, condensation rate and recognition accuracy. Finally, the article gives an outlook on potential application scenarios for sensor gloves in pervasive computing.

  • 90.
    Lind, Carl Mikael
    et al.
    Unit of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Division of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Sweden / Design & Human Factors, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mahdavian, Nafise
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Olivares, Jozé Antonio Diaz
    Division of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yang, Liyun
    Unit of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Division of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Unit of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Division of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Prevention of Work: Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Using Smart Workwear – The Smart Workwear Consortium2019Ingår i: Human Systems Engineering and Design: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Human Systems Engineering and Design (IHSED2018): Future Trends and Applications, October 25-27, 2018, CHU-Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France / [ed] Tareq Ahram, Waldemar Karwowski, Redha Taiar, Springer, 2019, Vol. 876, s. 477-483Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse work-related physical exposures such as repetitive movements and awkward postures have negative health effects and lead to large financial costs. To address these problems, a multi-disciplinary consortium was formed with the aim of developing an ambulatory system for recording and analyzing risks for musculoskeletal disorders utilizing textile integrated sensors as part of the regular workwear. This paper presents the consortium, the Smart Workwear System, and a case study illustrating its potential to decrease adverse biomechanical exposure by promoting improved work technique. 

  • 91.
    Lundström, Daniel
    et al.
    Loughborough University.
    Case, Keith
    Loughborough University.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Anthropometric rigging for variable manikin appearance2010Ingår i: Advances in manufacturing technology - XXIV: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Manufacturing Research (ICMR2010), 14th-16th September 2010 / [ed] V. I. Vitanov, D. Harrison, School of Engineering and Computing Sciences ; Glasgow Caledonian University , 2010, s. 250-255Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    DHM  (Digital  Human  Modeling)  tools  have  increasingly  become  a  contributor  to  human  factors  engineering and user-centered design. Sources report however that little attention has been paid to the appearance of DHM virtual human models, i.e. manikins. Aspects of visual appearance have considerable impact on conveying beliefs and attitudes, something often used in industrial design to motivate solutions. This work aims to fuse the need of correct anthropometric representation in DHM with the artistic freedom available in visual art industries and  address the need of more humanlike appearances of manikins.

  • 92.
    Lundström, Daniel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Nevaranta, Tuomas
    Valtra Inc., Suolahti, Finland.
    Hanson, Lars
    Ergonomics, Department of Design Sciences , Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Sundin, Anders
    Semcon Caran AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Visualization of Comfort and Reach in Cab Environment2008Ingår i: Ergonomics is a lifestyle = Vinnuvistfræði er lífstíll: NES 2008 : abstracts, Kópavogur: Vinnuvistfræðifélag Íslands , 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to respond to shortcomings in tractor cab layout design by deriving a working process for the creation of visual guidelines of comfort and comfortable reach, i.e. comfort and reach envelopes. This working process was the result of an illustrative case, where reach and comfort envelopes were created with the help of digital human modeling programs as well as CAD software for the tractor developer and manufacturer Valtra Inc. The conclusion of the study is that better target group accommodative comfort and reach envelopes can improve cab layout design related to comfort and work safety. Moreover, a general working method allows for optimization of ergonomic requirements for the specific design by permitting full control of each work step.

  • 93.
    Mahdavian, Nafise
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Lind, Carl Mikael
    Unit of Occupational medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Division of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Diaz Olivares, Jose Antonio
    Division of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Iriondo Pascual, Aitor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Yang, Liyun
    Unit of Occupational medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Division of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Unit of Occupational medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Division of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Effect of Giving Feedback on Postural Working Techniques2018Ingår i: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press, 2018, s. 247-252Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Working postures and movements affect work efficiency and musculoskeletal health. To reduce the biomechanical exposure in physically demanding settings, working techniques may be improved by giving instant ergonomic feedback to the operator. This study investigates if feedback can be used to decrease adverse postures and movements in assembly work. A prototype solution of a smart textile workwear was used on a trainee assembly line. Posture and movement signals of 24 trainee operators were sampled via the workwear, transferred to a tablet for analyses and used to provide feedback suggesting improvements of work technique. Two modes of feedback were tested. Every participant’s work technique was measured before and after receiving the feedback and the results were compared. For upper arm elevation angle ≥60, behaviour change is indicated, supporting a positive work technique change, and indicated a future usefulness of technical automatic feedback for operators.

  • 94.
    Mahdavian, Nafise
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ruiz Castro, Pamela
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Industrial Development, Scania, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Digital human modelling in a virtual environment of CAD parts and a point cloud2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 5th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium / [ed] Sascha Wischniewski & Thomas Alexander, Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health , 2017, s. 283-291Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Manual assembly is a time and cost consuming phase of production. It is crucial to design the assembly process so that overall system efficiency, quality output and human well-being meet desired levels. Since manual assembly involve humans, one support in the production design process is to use digital human modelling (DHM) tools to model and assess different design scenarios prior to the actual production process. In the traditional way, various CAD tools are used by engineers to model the production layout and the workstations. Then, these models typically are imported into a DHM tool to simulate human work, and to apply ergonomic evaluation methods on the simulated work tasks. This work, supported by CAD and DHM, can be a time consuming and iterative process as precise information and measurements of the actual assembly environment are needed, e.g. related to actual geometries of factory premises or of facilities surrounding the workstations. However, introducing point cloud scanning technology can provide the user with a more correct and realistic virtual representation of the environment, which allows for a faster and more precise design process.The aim of this paper is to present the developments and capabilities of the DHM tool IPS IMMA (Intelligently Moving Manikins) in an assembly process and in a virtual environment provided by point cloud scanning.

  • 95.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    et al.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlson, Johan S.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Industrial Development, Scania CV, Sweden.
    Using a formal high-level language and an automated manikin to automatically generate assembly instructions2014Ingår i: International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, ISSN 1742-5549, Vol. 4, nr 3/4, s. 233-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach to automatically generate predetermined motion time system (PMTS) based assembly instruction lists from simulations within digital human modelling (DHM) software. A formal high-level instruction language is used to instruct an automated manikin to perform assembly operations. The manikin, the language and the assembled objects are composed into a discrete model. In a post-computational step, the model is used to construct PMTS instruction lists by mapping the manikin motions, assembled objects and the language instructions onto a set of PMTS keywords. The described approach is implemented in the DHM software IMMA and tested on industrial cases of manual assembly in the automotive industry.

  • 96.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    et al.
    Frauhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics.
    Carlson, Johan S.
    Frauhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Frauhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics.
    Hanson, Lars
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Using Ergonomic Criteria to Adaptively Define Test Manikins for Design Problems2012Ingår i: Advances in Applied Human Modeling and Simulation / [ed] Vincent G. Duffy, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2012, s. 265-274Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital manikins give a powerful aid in evaluating assembly station ergonomics. A proper verification of an assembly station can avoid costly changes that might occur later on due to injuries and discomfort among the workers.

    However, how to select relevant test manikins for an evaluation is a non-trivial task, since the work of identifying which anthropometric variables that are critical is a tedious and time consuming process.

    Usually only a few variables are selected as a base for building the test manikins. Even if there exist Digital Human Modeling (DHM) software which allow the user to evaluate batches of manikins, the designer still have to select the anthropometric variables of those batches. When several dimensions are considered, the designer have to either use a set of predefined manikins, or determine which anthropometric variables to test and generate manikins based on the confidence intervals of these variables.

    When considering more complex assembly tasks, is it then true that these predetermined test manikins cover all the cases, or does there exist manikins that suffer from bad ergonomics even though all the test manikins turned out well?

    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for automatically building a set of test manikins. The set is iteratively constructed from the ergonomics results obtained by simulating the assembly operation. Different manikins perform the assembly operation and the ergonomics is evaluated. The anthropometric variables which affect the ergonomics are identified and used to iteratively build up the next manikin. In this way the test manikins are always selected throughout the whole set instead of only considering the boundary manikins, or assuming that the same set of predetermined manikins represents the entire set in every assembly operation.

    The algorithm has been compared with a boundary method, and the results shows that the algorithm can find manikins with worse ergonomics than those tested by the boundary method.

  • 97.
    Nilsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Johansson, Hans
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Arén, Björn
    Örebro universitet.
    Söderström, Eva
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Chibba, Aron
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Distribuerad case-metodik i ingenjörsutbildningen2009Ingår i: Den 2:a Utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Genombrottet , 2009, s. 71-73Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a project in which an academic developer worked as a critical friend for a group of engineering in order to stimulate their collaboration and their reflection on their own teaching and learning as a way of developing their scholarship of teaching. The project was built on collaboration between three different universities, Halmstad, Örebro and Skövde and reports on how teachers, as well as the students collaborative learning experiences.

  • 98.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Gyllensvärd, Dan
    Halmstad University.
    Hanson, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Time dependent exposure analysis and risk assessment of a manikin's wrist movements2011Ingår i: Proceedings of DHM, First International Symposium on Digital Human Modeling, Université Claude Bernard Lyon , 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased computerisation of design and engineering work has led to the development of software such as digital human modeling (DHM) tools. These tools can be used to simulate and visualise human work and for evaluating ergonomic conditions. Observational-based ergonomics methods, such as RULA and OWAS, may be used for characterizing workload and are typically integrated in DHM tools. However, using observational-based methods usually means that ergonomics evaluations are based on assessing static postures, i.e. not taking time-related aspects into account. This is usually also the case when industrial companies choose to customize the DHM software and integrate their own company specific ergonomics methods. Since time-sensitive aspects, such as frequency and angular velocity, are of importance in the ergonomics evaluation, it is necessary to be able to predict these variables also in an early stage of the design process. As observation methods are poor in terms of sensitivity they give rough estimations of ergonomic conditions. Consequently, researchers aim to develop dynamic evaluation methods where also time-dependent aspects, such as repetitiveness, velocity and duration in exposed positions, are considered. The objective of this study is to focus on the assessment of the wrist since a large amount of work related disorders is caused by this joint and also due to the fact that this is a relatively uncomplicated joint to explore from a biomechanical perspective. This paper displays initial findings from the literature for how to adequately and quantitatively assess wrist movements, appropriate evaluation criteria and for how to calculate cumulative load. Moreover, the paper illustrates how time significant wrist exposure data obtained from a DHM may be used for ergonomics assessment. This involves a proposed time consideration concept, based on a combination of modified and established evaluation methods, including suggestions for how to identify fundamental cycles.

  • 99.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Hanson, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology / Industrial Development Scania CV.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Dynamic wrist exposure analysis of a digital human model2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, CRC Press, 2012, s. 3944-3953Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation and visualisation software such as digital human modelling (DHM) tools have been designed to predict and evaluate ergonomics within a virtual environment. Today’s DHM tools typically include observation-based evaluation methods, initially designed for visual observation. Direct measurement techniques enable assessment of quantitative data similar to the information derived from the DHM. Such technique allows detailed and time-dependent risk aspects to be considered in the ergonomics evaluation. No methods in commercial DHM software calculate time-dependent information, which is shown as an important risk factor in the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD). This paper presents and discusses an ergonomics assessment approach based on the theory of a dose-response relationship between exposure and the risk of arising injury. The focus of the approach presented is on the wrist-joint.

  • 100.
    Rhén, Ida-Märta
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Forsman, Mikael
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Keyvani, Ali
    Robotics and Automation, Virtual Manufacturing AB, Göteborg.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Global Strategy and Process Development, Volvo Car Corporation, Manufacturing Engineering, Göteborg.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje / Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ergonomic risk assessment in DHM tools employing motion data: Exposure calculation and comparison to epidemiological reference data2018Ingår i: International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, ISSN 1742-5549, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 31-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital human modelling (DHM) allows ergonomic risk assessment to be performed at early stages of design and development. Such assessment is typically based on observational methods, which do not take advantage of the potential of DHM tools to provide precise posture and motion data. This paper describes and illustrates an alternative assessment approach employing DHM tools, inspired by risk assessment based on direct measurements. A literature survey established a reference database of epidemiological associations between exposure and wrist-related disorders. This approach is illustrated by a DHM simulation of a car assembly task. Wrist posture and motion were simulated and compared to the database, predicting the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders on the basis of direct measurements.

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