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  • 51.
    Chajma, Isbai
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Isuri, Jayasooriya Patabendige
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Vidareutveckling av kylvästar för räddningstjänsten2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet är utfört av två ingenjörsstudenter inom integrerad produktutveckling. Projektet har ett samarbete mellan Räddningstjänsten i Östra Skaraborg och TST Sweden. Syftet var att vidareutveckla en befintlig kylväst som är tillverkad av TST och används av Räddningstjänsten.En förstudie på relevant information kring kylvästen utfördes för att ta fram projektets förutsättningar. En litteraturstudie genomfördes för att samla in information kring brandpersonalens termiska ergonomi och kylvästar. En marknadsundersökning utfördes för att få information om konkurrenternas produkter. Enkät- och observationsresultat bidrog till viktig information om användarnas krav och önskemål. All information som förekom under förstudien sammanställdes i en kravspecifikation, som även uppdaterades under hela projektets gång. Under konceptgenereringen användes olika systematiska och kreativa metoderför att kunna ta fram alternativa koncept. För att ta fram ett slutgiltigt koncept utfördes en konceptsållning och en konceptkombination i samverkan med företaget TST. En prototyp byggdes upp för att kunna förverkliga det slutgiltiga konceptet och ge målgruppen en chans att ge feedback. Resultatet blev ett koncept som motverkar både värme- och arbetsbelastning. De existerande problemen eliminerades genom att storleksanpassa och avlägsna obehag som uppkom vid användning av produkten. Ergonomiska funktioner såsom ett ryggstöd och vadderade axlar har applicerats för att förhindra dålig hållning och underlätta vid tung lyftning. Konceptet har även nya fästen med magnetiska klickspännen som bidrar till bättre justering och en ny funktionellfärg.

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  • 52.
    Chiet, Cheong Wen
    et al.
    Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia.
    Ching, Ng Tan
    Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia.
    Huat, Saw Lip
    Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia.
    Fathi, Masood
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Tzuu, Tan Jaw
    Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia.
    The Integration of Lean and Green Manufacturing for Malaysian Manufacturers: A Literature Review to Explore the Synergies between Lean and Green Model2019Ingår i: International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Green Technology 2018 / [ed] Chong Wen Tong, Wang Chin-Tsan, Bernard Saw Lip Huat, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 268, artikel-id 012066Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, profitability and efficiency have been the main interest for organization. However, the increasing concerns for the environment from government, regulators, customers and other stakeholders has forced companies to seek for alternatives to achieve green objectives. The difficulties faced by organizations are lack of awareness and guideline in implementing green practices in their daily operation. Under constrained resources, employers are reluctant to spend money on something unclear. During the last decade, lean manufacturing seems to be visible trend in most of the manufacturing industries in Malaysia. As lean tends to emphasize on waste reduction, it provides similarity between lean and green. Therefore, it is a better atmosphere to deploy green practices and tools under existing lean manufacturing. The purpose of this paper is to present a review on the synergies between green and lean and identifying the determinants that affecting both lean and green manufacturing for Malaysian manufacturers. The determinant obtained are financial benefit, incentive, legislation, stakeholder, management commitment, technology, environmental awareness and brand image or competitiveness. Besides, the authors identified and suggested future research directions on developing an integrated lean-green model for daily operation. This study aims to assist researchers to identify the opportunities and challenges on lean-green model and this review is useful for manufacturers and government in developing manufacturing policies and guideline.

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  • 53.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Holm, Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Augmented Reality Smart Glasses for Industrial Assembly Operators: A Meta-Analysis and Categorization2019Ingår i: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIII: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 34th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 10–12 September 2019, Queen’s University, Belfast, UK / [ed] Yan Jin, Mark Price, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2019, Vol. 9, s. 173-179Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented reality smart glasses (ARSG) are an emerging technology that has the potential to revolutionize how operators interact with information in cyber-physical systems. However, augmented reality is currently not widespread in industrial assembly. The aim of this paper is to investigate and map ARSG in manufacturing from the perspectives of the operator, of manufacturing engineering, and of its technological maturity. This mapping provides an overview of topics relevant to enabling the implementation of ARSG in a manufacturing system, thus facilitating future exploration of the three perspectives. This investigation was done using a meta-analysis of literature reviews of applications of augmented reality in industrial manufacturing. The meta-analysis categorized previously identified topics within augmented reality in industrial manufacturing and mapped those to the scope of the three perspectives.

  • 54.
    Danielsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. tomasdanielsson@hotmail.com.
    Förslag på flexibel och balanserad monteringslinje: Manuellt monteringsflöde för säsongsberoende efterfrågan2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Volvo GTO Powertrain i Köping står inför införande av tre nya produktvarianter som ska ersätta befintliga produktvarianter. I dagsläget monteras produkterna som ska ersättas av de nya produktvarianterna i tre separata flöden. Införandet av de nya produktvarianterna medför att två av produktvarianterna ska tillverkas i samma monteringsflöde. Syftet med examensarbetet är att ta fram förslag på monteringsflöden som har flexibiliteten att producera två av de nya produktvarianterna i samma monteringsflöde med tillhörande provkörning. Monteringsflödet ska även klara av en säsongsberoende efterfrågan mellan 23 - 40 st produkter per skift, med en differens på ± 2,5 %. För att korrigera antalet som ska produceras beroende på säsong ska ske genom att korrigera antalet montörer i monteringsflödet och antalet operatörer i provkörningen.

    För att skapa en förståelse över de befintliga monteringsflödena har en nulägesanalys av monteringsflödena som ska slås ihop till ett flöde genomförts. Datainsamlingen i nulägesanalysen har genomförts genom intervjuer av produktionsteknisk personal, samt genom studerande av AviX analyserna på de befintliga monteringsflödena. Nulägesanalysen har varit till grund för att skapa en förståelse över hur monteringen fungerar i dagsläget.  

    Volvo har även tagit fram ett förslag på hur dom vill att det framtida monteringsflödet ska se ut. Volvos förslag har varit till grund för att skapa en förståelse över det tänkta framtida monteringsflödet med tillhörande provkörning.

    För att uppnå syftet med arbetet har två simuleringsmodeller skapats för att testa systemet under olika scenarier för att klara av den varierande efterfrågan. Den ena simuleringsmodellen använder sig av Volvos förslag på det framtida systemet och den andra modellen har genom experiment korrigerat cykeltiderna i provkörningen, arbetstempon i monteringsflödet har ombalanserats och tillgänglighet i provkörningen har ökats.

    Resultaten från experimenten är att simuleringsmodellen med korrigerade cykeltider, ombalanserad och ökad tillgänglighet klarar av den varierande efterfrågan på 40 produkter per skift. Det krävdes dock relativt stora korrigeringar från Volvos förslag för att uppnå önskad efterfrågan. För att avgöra antalet montörer och operatörer som krävs beroende på antalet efterfrågade produkter skapades en bemanningstabell.

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  • 55.
    Delfs, Niclas
    et al.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Carlson, Johan S.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Introducing Stability of Forces to the Automatic Creation of Digital Human Postures2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the degree of automation is increasing in manufacturing industries, many assembly operations are performed manually. To avoid injuries and to reach sustainable production of high quality, comfortable environments for the operators are vital. Poor station layouts, poor product designs or badly chosen assembly sequences are common sources leading to unfavorable poses and motions. To keep costs low, preventive actions should be taken early in a project, raising the need for feasibility and ergonomics studies in virtual environments long before physical prototypes are available. Today, in the automotive industries, such studies are conducted to some extent. The full potential, however, is far from reached due to limited software support in terms of capability for realistic pose prediction, motion generation and collision avoidance. As a consequence, ergonomics studies are time consuming and are mostly done for static poses, not for full assembly motions. Furthermore, these ergonomic studies, even though performed by a small group of highly specialized simulation engineers, show low reproducibility within the group.Effective simulation of manual assembly operations considering ergonomic load and clearance demands requires detailed modeling of human body kinematics and motions as well as a fast and robust inverse kinematics solver. In this paper we introduce a stability measure rewarding poses insensitive to variations in contact points and contact forces. Normally this has been neglected and only the balance of moment and forces has been taken into account. The manikin used in this work has 162 degrees of freedom and uses an exterior root. To describe operations and facilitate motion generation, the manikin is equipped with coordinate frames attached to end-effectors like hands and feet. The inverse kinematic problem is to find joint values such that the position and orientation of hands and feet matches certain target frames during an assembly motion. This inverse problem leads to an underdetermined system of equations since the number of joints exceeds the end-effectors’ constraints. Due to this redundancy there exist a set of solutions, allowing us to pick a solution that maximizes a scalar valued comfort function. Many objectives are included in the comfort function, for example in terms of joint angles, joint moments and solid objects’ distance to the manikin. The proposed stability measure complements the earlier balance criterion and is combined into the comfort function. By increasing the importance of this function the digital human model will reposition to a more stable pose. The digital human model will be tested on a set of challenging assembly operations taken from the automotive industry to show the effect of the stability measure.

  • 56.
    Dhanal, Avirat
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Design and Analysis of Material Handling System with Simulation-Based Optimization2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s world, simulation and optimization are playing a vital role in reducing the time, cost and preserving resources. In manufacturing industries, there are ample amount of problems that go on with the expansion of the industry. In such cases, to tackle these problems simulation can be helpful to check whether any change in the current situation makes any effect on the current efficiency of the overall plant. In the presented case study, a solution to the problem of internal and external logistics has been designed by using simulation and optimization to improve part of a material flow of an organization. Basically, the organization whose major production is established in the south of Sweden deals with the manufacturing and assembly of equipment. Before the dispatch, all of them go to the painting section which is the expansion of the present shop floor. However, the design and analysis of the material handling system to feed the new painting line which is going to be established by the organization is the aim of this case study. While achieving this aim the literature regarding the discrete event simulation, Lean and Simulation-Based optimization related to the material handling system has been done. Furthermore, the appropriate material handling systems along with the different scenarios were suggested to reduce the cost and the lead times between the production line and the new painting line. To support this process a methodology combining simulation, optimization and lean production has been implemented under the framework of the design and creation research strategy. In the Kaizen workshop organized at a company with managers and stakeholders, the designed scenarios were presented and after some discussion one of them was chosen and the selected scenario was designed and optimized. Moreover, the Simulation-Based multi-objective optimization has been helpful for the optimization of the designed model proposed as a final solution.

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  • 57.
    Dudas, Catarina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ng, Amos H.C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Pehrsson, Leif
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Boström, Henrik
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Integration of data mining and multi-objective optimisation for decision support in production system development2014Ingår i: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 27, nr 9, s. 824-839Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective optimisation (MOO) is a powerful approach for generating a set of optimal trade-off (Pareto) design alternatives that the decision-maker can evaluate and then choose the most-suitable configuration, based on some high-level strategic information. Nevertheless, in practice, choosing among a large number of solutions on the Pareto front is often a daunting task, if proper analysis and visualisation techniques are not applied. Recent research advancements have shown the advantages of using data mining techniques to automate the post-optimality analysis of Pareto-optimal solutions for engineering design problems. Nonetheless, it is argued that the existing approaches are inadequate for generating high-quality results, when the set of the Pareto solutions is relatively small and the solutions close to the Pareto front have almost the same attributes as the Pareto-optimal solutions, of which both are commonly found in many real-world system problems. The aim of this paper is therefore to propose a distance-based data mining approach for the solution sets generated from simulation-based optimisation, in order to address these issues. Such an integrated data mining and MOO procedure is illustrated with the results of an industrial cost optimisation case study. Particular emphasis is paid to showing how the proposed procedure can be used to assist decision-makers in analysing and visualising the attributes of the design alternatives in different regions of the objective space, so that informed decisions can be made in production systems development.

  • 58.
    Eklind, Sebastian
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Larsson, Michelle
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Samarbetet mellan människa och automation i det avhjälpande underhållet: behovsanalys och krav på framtida utveckling av automationsutrustning2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har utforskat interaktionen mellan människa och automation inom det avhjälpande underhållet på två tillverkande företag. Arbetets syfte är bidra till att människor och automationsutrustningar framgångsrikt kan samarbeta i framtidens fabriker. Studien har undersökt hur interaktionen ser ut i dagsläget, var det idag saknas interaktion, hur interaktionen kan komma att se ut i framtiden samt vilka krav som behöver uppnås för att komma dit. Studien har också haft ett fokus på hållbar utveckling och hur interaktionen kan påverka denna. Projektets resultat är framtaget genom att utföra två deltagande observationer, en på vartdera företaget samt fyra semistrukturerade intervjuer per företag. I dagsläget sker mycket kommunikation genom telefon för att påkalla uppmärksamhet hos personal med information om larm och plats. Felsökning sker genom en panel vid maskinen alternativt via dator som kopplas upp mot maskinen vid djupare felsökning. Det finns i dagsläget även teknik såsom kommunikationsradio, tangentbord och mus som undviks att användas i största möjliga mån eftersom de anses vara svåra att manövrera. Resultaten visar att det finns ett behov av att få mer information i underhållets alla faser och att tekniken som används behöver vara mer mobil än i dagsläget. Författarna ger förslag på att handhållna enheter kan användas i framtidens underhåll och att röstigenkänning, Virtual Reality och Augmented Reality kan användas i dessa. Även smarta klockor rekommenderas att användas för att påkalla uppmärksamhet hos personal och samtidigt ge information om larm. Det finns en förhoppning om att mer information och mer mobil teknik kan effektivisera underhållet och därmed minska tiden för att utföra ett avhjälpande underhåll. Författarna rekommenderar starkt att all teknik som är tänkt att bli implementerad först testas i en realistisk miljö av de personer som ska använda tekniken.

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  • 59.
    Fast-Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorvald, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Palmquist, Adam
    Insert Coin, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Romero, David
    Tecnologico de Monterrey, Mexico.
    Weichhart, Georg
    Profactor, Studgart, Austria.
    Conceptualizing Embodied Automation to Increase Transfer of Tacit knowledge in the Learning Factory2018Ingår i: "Theory, Research and Innovation in Applications": 9th International Conference on Intelligent Systems 2018 (IS’18) / [ed] Ricardo Jardim-Gonçalves, João Pedro Mendonça, Vladimir Jotsov, Maria Marques, João Martins, Robert Bierwolf, IEEE, 2018, s. 358-364, artikel-id 8710482Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will discuss how cooperative agent-based systems, deployed with social skills and embodied automation features, can be used to interact with the operators in order to facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge and its later conversion into explicit knowledge. The proposal is to combine social software robots (softbots) with industrial collaborative robots (co-bots) to create a digital apprentice for experienced operators in human- robot collaboration workstations. This is to address the problem within industry that experienced operators have difficulties in explaining how they perform their tasks and later, how to turn this procedural knowledge (knowhow) into instructions to be shared among other operators. By using social softbots and co-bots, as cooperative agents with embodied automation features, we think we can facilitate the ‘externalization’ of procedural knowledge in human-robot interaction(s). This enabled by the capabilities of social cooperative agents with embodied automation features of continuously learning by looking over the shoulder of the operators, and documenting and collaborating with them in a non-intrusive way as they perform their daily tasks. 

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  • 60.
    Fathi, Masood
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Fontes, Dalila Benedita Machado Martins
    University of Porto, Portugal / INESC TEC, Porto, Portugal.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden / Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Assembly line balancing problem: a comparative evaluation of heuristics and a computational assessment of objectives2018Ingår i: Journal of Modelling in Management, ISSN 1746-5664, E-ISSN 1746-5672, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 455-474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to firstly investigate the efficiency of the most commonly used performance measures for minimizing the Number of Workstations (NWs) in approaches addressing Simple Assembly Line Balancing Problem (SALBP) for both straight and U-shaped line. Secondly, this study aims to provide a comparative evaluation of 20 constructive heuristics to find solutions to the SALBP-1.

    Design/methodology/approach – 200 problems are solved by 20 different constructive heuristics for both straight and U-shaped assembly line. Moreover, several comparisons have been made to evaluate the performance of constructive heuristics.

    Findings – Minimizing the Smoothness Index (SI) is not necessarily equivalent to minimizing the NWs, therefore, it should not be used as the fitness function in approaches addressing the SALBP-1. Line efficiency (LE) and the idle time (IT) are indeed reliable performance measures for minimizing the NWs. The most promising heuristics for straight and U-shaped line configurations for SALBP-1 are also ranked and introduced.

    Practical implications – Results are expected to help scholars and industrial practitioners to better design effective solution methods for having a most balance assembly line. This study will further help with choosing the most proper heuristic with regard to the problem specifications and line configuration.

    Originality/value – There is limited research assessing the efficiency of the common objectives for SALBP-1. This study is among the first to prove that minimizing the workload smoothness is not equivalent to minimizing the NWs in SALBP-1 studies. This work is also one of the first attempts for evaluating the constructive heuristics for both straight and U-shaped line configurations.

  • 61.
    Fathi, Masood
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Nourmohammadi, Amir
    Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Assembly Line Balancing Type-E with Technological Requirement: A Mathematical Model2018Ingår i: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, s. 183-188Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is motivated by a real-world assembly line in an automotive manufacturing company and it addresses the simple assembly line balancing problem type-E (SALBPE). The SALBPE aims to maximize the balance efficiency (BE) through determining the best combinations of cycle time and station number. To cope with the problem, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model is proposed. The MINLP model differs from the existing ALBPE models as it includes the technological requirements of assembly tasks and optimizes the variation of workload beside the BE. The validity of the proposed model is tested by solving the real-world case study and a set of benchmark problems.

  • 62.
    Fathi, Masood
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Nourmohammadi, Amir
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    An optimization model for balancing assembly lines with stochastic task times and zoning constraints2019Ingår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, s. 32537-32550, artikel-id 8663269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to bridge the gap between theory and practice by addressing a real-world assembly line balancing problem (ALBP) where task times are stochastic and there are zoning constraints in addition to the commonly known ALBP constraints. A mixed integer programming (MIP) model is proposed for each of the straight and U-shaped assembly line configurations. The primary objective in both cases is to minimize the number of stations; minimizing the maximum of stations’ mean time and the stations’ time variance are considered secondary objectives. Four different scenarios are discussed for each model, with differences in the objective function. The models are validated by solving a real case taken from an automobile manufacturing company and some standard test problems available in the literature. The results indicate that both models are able to provide optimum solutions for problems of different sizes. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is used to create reliable comparisons of the different scenarios and valid analysis of the results. Finally, some insights regarding the selection of straight and U-shaped layouts are provided.

  • 63.
    Fathi, Masood
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Nourmohammadi, Amir
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Eskandari, Hamidreza
    Faculty of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    An improved genetic algorithm with variable neighborhood search to solve the assembly line balancing problem2020Ingår i: Engineering computations, ISSN 0264-4401, E-ISSN 1758-7077, Vol. 37, nr 2, s. 501-521Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]
    • Purpose – This study aims to propose an efficient optimization algorithm to solve the assembly line balancing problem (ALBP). The ALBP arises in high-volume, lean production systems when decision makers aim to design an efficient assembly line while satisfying a set of constraints.
    • Design/methodology/approach – An improved genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed in this study to deal with ALBP in order to optimize the number of stations and the workload smoothness.
    • Findings – To evaluate the performance of the IGA, it is used to solve a set of well-known benchmark problems and a real-life problem faced by an automobile manufacturer. The solutions obtained are compared against two existing algorithms in the literature and the basic genetic algorithm. The comparisons show the high efficiency and effectiveness of the IGA in dealing with ALBPs.
    • Originality/value – The proposed IGA benefits from a novel generation transfer mechanism that improves the diversification capability of the algorithm by allowing population transfer between different generations. In addition, an effective variable neighborhood search is employed in the IGA to enhance its local search capability.
  • 64.
    Fathi, Masood
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Eskandari, Hamidreza
    Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    An optimization model for material supply scheduling at mixed-model assembly lines2018Ingår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, s. 6s. 1258-1263Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is motivated by a real case study and addresses the material supply problem at assembly lines. The aim of the study is to optimally schedule the delivery of raw material at assembly lines while using the minimum number of vehicles. To cope with the problem an original mixed integer linear programming model has been proposed based on the assumptions and constraints observed in the case study. The validity of the model has been examined by solving several real cases and analysing different scenarios. The results of the study show the efficiency and effectiveness of the model.

  • 65.
    Frantzén, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    A real-time simulation-based optimisation environment for industrial scheduling2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to cope with the challenges in industry today, such as changes in product diversity and production volume, manufacturing companies are forced to react more flexibly and swiftly. Furthermore, in order for them to survive in an ever-changing market, they also need to be highly competitive by achieving near optimal efficiency in their operations. Production scheduling is vital to the success of manufacturing systems in industry today, because the near optimal allocation of resources is essential in remaining highly competitive.

     

    The overall aim of this study is the advancement of research in manufacturing scheduling through the exploration of more effective approaches to address complex, real-world manufacturing flow shop problems. The methodology used in the thesis is in essence a combination of systems engineering, algorithmic design and empirical experiments using real-world scenarios and data. Particularly, it proposes a new, web services-based, industrial scheduling system framework, called OPTIMISE Scheduling System (OSS), for solving real-world complex scheduling problems. OSS, as implemented on top of a generic web services-based simulation-based optimisation (SBO) platform called OPTIMISE, can support near optimal and real-time production scheduling in a distributed and parallel computing environment. Discrete-event simulation (DES) is used to represent and flexibly cope with complex scheduling problems without making unrealistic assumptions which are the major limitations of existing scheduling methods proposed in the literature.  At the same time, the research has gone beyond existing studies of simulation-based scheduling applications, because the OSS has been implemented in a real-world industrial environment at an automotive manufacturer, so that qualitative evaluations and quantitative comparisons of scheduling methods and algorithms can be made with the same framework.

     

    Furthermore, in order to be able to adapt to and handle many different types of real-world scheduling problems, a new hybrid meta-heuristic scheduling algorithm that combines priority dispatching rules and genetic encoding is proposed. This combination is demonstrated to be able to handle a wider range of problems or a current scheduling problem that may change over time, due to the flexibility requirements in the real-world.  The novel hybrid genetic representation has been demonstrated effective through the evaluation in the real-world scheduling problem using real-world data.

  • 66.
    Galindo Aranda, Patricia Cristina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Bottleneck analysis using reverse-score: An experimental study2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 12 poäng / 18 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    There are manufacturing systems all over the world and all of them present dif- ferent characteristics. To get close to those manufacturing systems and aid them to analyze data and improve their efficiency, it arises FACTS Analyzer®. The present project concerns the development of a bottleneck analysis using REVERSE- SCORE (Simulation based COnstraint REmoval), feature included in FACTS Ana- lyzer. It is used Simulation-based Multi-Objective Optimization (SMO) to ana- lyze the different variables of a production line and investigate how to best extend previous application of SMO for bottleneck detection to not only consider im- provements of system parameters but also degradations of them. Degrading some system parameters can have many hidden advantages such as reduce power con- sumption, increase material efficiency or lengthen the useful life of the machines or tools, advantages that can draw near sustainability.

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  • 67.
    Gandhi, Kanika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Machine maintenance decision support system: A systematic literature review2018Ingår i: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11 – 13, 2018, Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, s. 349-354Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing competition market situations have emerged the requirement of the real-time data, understanding data behaviour, and maintenance actions in the manufacturing system. The future decision-making process in manufacturing needs to be more flexible to adapt to various methods for maintenance decision support systems (MDSS). This paper classifies various application areas of MDSS through a systemic literature review. Specifically, it identifies the relationship between the machine maintenance areas and the processes in which it integrates different tools and techniques to develop MDSS. The accumulated information helps in analyzing trends and shortcomings to concentrate the efforts for future research work. The reviewed papers are selected based on the contents, application tool assessments and clustered by their application areas. Furthermore, it proposes a structure outlined based on the functional knowledge as well as the information flow design during the development of MDSS, along with the relationship among application areas.

  • 68.
    Garay, Beñat
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    High-level language design for IMMA-Virtual Driver DHM Research2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing implementation of ergonomics in the automotive sector sets high demands on Digital Human Modelling (DHM) functionalities towards the simulation of more realistic environments and the reduction of physical model dependency. During the current degree project a leading element that smartly assembles DHM usage (implementation of high-level commanding languages) was designed, revolving around the industries’ needs which were gathered and interpreted in order to organize current functions in this language and suggest new complementary functions that would create a language environment suitable for non-expert users. This was achieved by focusing in an intuitive word-function structure, the proposal of defaults and other tools that aid users with different kinds of expertise. The need for realism of simulations was assessed by the language design especially by designing means to coordinate synchronic manikin-actions. 

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    High-level language design for IMMA-Virtual Driver DHM Research
  • 69.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Minab Higher Educational Center, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Azar, Adel
    Department of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Fathi, Masood
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Lean-green manufacturing: the enabling role of information technology resource2018Ingår i: Kybernetes, ISSN 0368-492X, E-ISSN 1758-7883, Vol. 47, nr 9, s. 1752-1777Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the existing knowledge about the relationships between information technology (IT), lean manufacturing (LM), organizational environmental issues and business performance.

    Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect data from 122 elite manufacturers, and the hypothesized relationships were tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Findings – IT competence in LM acts as a lower-order organizational capability, and its business value should be recognized through the intermediate roles of LM effectiveness and environmental management capability. Findings recommend that the net benefits of LM are mainly materialized through waste and pollution reduction and simplified implementation of proactive environmental practices.

    Research limitations/implications – Among other limitations, relying on a rather small sample size and cross-sectional data of this research, and lack of generalizability of findings, tends to have certain limitations. An interesting direction for future research would be to extend this research by assessing interaction of other types of IT resources with LM and organizational environmental issues.

    Practical implications – Both LM and proactive environmental management are information-intensive. Investment in both technological and human aspects of IT resource aimed at increasing the effectiveness of LM activities and proactive environmental practices is imperative for contemporary manufacturers.

    Originality/value – This study introduces the IT capability of IT competence in LM and two organizational capabilities of LM effectiveness and environmental management capability. By doing so, the study highlights the significant role of organizational environmental issues in devising firms’ IT and advanced manufacturing technology investment strategies in LM context.

  • 70.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran / Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
    Fathi, Masood
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Corporate survival in Industry 4.0 era: the enabling role of lean-digitized manufacturing2019Ingår i: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 1-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    purpose– The study demonstrates how small manufacturing firms can leverage their Information Technology (IT) resources to develop the lean-digitized manufacturing system that offers sustained competitiveness in the Industry 4.0 era.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study performs an in-depth 5-years case study of a manufacturing firm, and reports its journey from failure in the implementation of enterprise resource planning to its success in integrating IT-based technology trends of Industry 4.0 with the firm’s core capabilities and competencies while pursuing manufacturing digitization.

    Findings – Industry 4.0 transition requires the organizational integration of many IT-based modern technologies and the digitization of entire value chains. However, Industry 4.0 transition for smaller manufacturers can begin with digitization of certain areas of operations in support of organizational core strategies. Development of leandigitized manufacturing system is a viable business strategy for corporate survivability in the Industry 4.0 setting.

    Research limitations/implications – Although the implementation of lean-digitized manufacturing system is costly and challenging, this manufacturing strategy offers superior corporate competitiveness in the long run. Since this finding is rather limited to the present case study, assessing the business value of lean-digitized manufacturing system in a larger-scale research context would be an interesting avenue for future research.

    Practical implications – Industry 4.0 transition for typical manufacturers should commensurate with their organizational, operational, and technical particularities. Digitization of certain operations and processes, when aligned with the firm’s core strategies, capabilities, and procedures, can offer superior competitiveness even in Industry 4.0 era, meaning that the strategic plan for successful Industry 4.0 transition is idiosyncratic to each particular manufacturer.

    Social implications – Manufacturing digitization can have deep social implications as it alters inter and intra organizational relationships, causes unemployment among low-skilled workforce, and raises data security and privacy concerns. Manufacturers should take responsibility for their digitization process and steer it in a direction that simultaneously safeguards economic, social, and environmental sustainability.

    Originality/value – The strategic roadmap devised and employed by the case company for managing its digitization process can better reveal what manufacturing digitization, mandated by Industry 4.0, might require of typical manufacturers, and further enable them to better facilitate their digital transformation process.

  • 71.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Minab Higher Education Center, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran / Modern Technology Development and Implementation Research Center, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Fathi, Masood
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Modeling the Success of Application-Based Mobile Banking2019Ingår i: Economies, ISSN 2227-7099, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 1-21, artikel-id 114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study addresses the issue of mobile banking customer retention by developing and empirically testing a theoretical model that describes the way mobile banking success is achieved. The data collection process was conducted via a web-based questionnaire survey through which 402 usable responses from users of application-based mobile banking services were collected. The data collected were further analyzed via covariance-based structural equation modeling. Results indicate that application-based mobile banking success can be defined in terms of the favorable attitude toward and repeated use of mobile banking applications. Experienced advantage, user satisfaction, and post-use trust toward mobile banking applications are among the critical enablers of application-based mobile banking success. The findings of this research can enable academicians and practitioners, banks, and financial institutions, in particular, to devise the mechanism through which the success of application-based mobile banking services can be facilitated.

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  • 72.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Minab Higher Educational Center, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Fathi, Masood
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Fontes, Dalila Benedita Machado Martins
    Faculty of Economics, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Ching, Ng Tan
    Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman - Kuala Lumpur Campus, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Modeling lean manufacturing success2018Ingår i: Journal of Modelling in Management, ISSN 1746-5664, E-ISSN 1746-5672, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 908-931Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about the process ofachieving Lean Manufacturing (LM) success.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study uses interpretive structural modeling and captures theopinions of a group of LM experts from a world-class Japanese automobile manufacturer, to map theinterrelationships among potential determinants of LM success. This study further uses the data from asurvey of 122 leading automobile part manufacturers by performing structural equation modeling toempirically test the research model proposed.

    Findings – Management support and commitment, financial resources availability, information technologycompetence for LM, human resources management, production process simplicity, supportive culture andsupply chain-wide integration are the key determinants that directly or indirectly determine the level ofachievement of LMsuccess.

    Research limitations/implications – The determinants of LM success as experienced by Asianautomobile manufacturers might be different from determinants of LM success as experienced byWestern automobile manufacturers. An interesting direction for future research would be to capturethe experts’ inputs from Western automobile manufacturers to complement the findings of thisstudy.

    Practical implications – The practical contribution of this study lays in the development of linkagesamong various LM success determinants. Utility of the proposed interpretive structural modeling andstructural equation modeling methodologies imposing order, direction and significance of therelationships among elements of LM success assumes considerable value to the decision-makers and LMpractitioners.

    Originality/value – Building on opinions of a group of LM experts and a case study of leading auto partmanufacturers, the present study strives to model the success of LM, a topic that has received little attentionto date.

  • 73.
    Goienetxea, Ainhoa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bringing together Lean and simulation: a comprehensive review2020Ingår i: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 87-117Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean is and will still be one of the most popular management philosophies in the Industry 4.0 context and simulation is one of its key technologies. Many authors discuss about the benefits of combining Lean and simulation to better support decision makers in system design and improvement. However, there is a lack of reviews in the domain. Therefore, this paper presents a four-stage comprehensive review and analysis of existing literature on their combination. The aim is to identify the state of the art, existing methods and frameworks for combining Lean and simulation, while also identifying key research perspectives and challenges. The main trends identified are the increased interest in the combination of Lean and simulation in the Industry 4.0 context and in their combination with optimisation, Six Sigma, as well as sustainability. The number of articles in these areas is likely to continue to grow. On the other hand, we highlight six gaps found in the literature regarding the combination of Lean and simulation, which may induce new research opportunities. Existing technical, organisational, as well as people and culture related challenges on the combination of Lean and simulation are also discussed.

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  • 74.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Bringing Together Lean, Simulation and Optimization: Defining a framework to support decision-making in system design and improvement2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    De snabba förändringarna på marknaden såsom globalisering, ökat krav på personliga produkteroch tjänster från kunderna, kortare produktlivscykler, tekniska framsteg med exponentielltillväxt samt demografiska förändringar medför ökat krav på att organisationer effektivtförbättrar och utformar sina system. Detta är det nuvarande paradigmet som karaktäriserarindustri- och tjänstesektorerna. Det är ett scenario som utgör en stor utmaningför beslutsfattare, vilka kommer att behöva ta beslut i än mer komplexa system där det blirsvårare att utforma och förbättra system med bibehållen kvalitet. Lean är en allmänt tilllämpadproduktionsfilosofi med kraftfulla principer, med metoder och verktyg som är statiskatill sin natur vilka har begränsningar när det gäller utformning och förbättring avkomplexa och dynamiska system. En del författare har föreslagit den kombinerade användningenav simulering med Lean för att övervinna dessa begränsningar. Dessutom erbjudersimulering kombinerat med optimering och postoptimeringsverktyg genererandet av kunskapom optimala eller nästan optimala systemkonfigurationer. Även om både Lean-principermed dess metoder och verktyg och simulering syftar till att stödja organisationer vidutformning och förbättring av sina system tar litteraturen upp få fördelar med ett kombinerattillvägagångssätt. Flera studier fokuserar endast på hur specifika verktyg inom Leankan kombineras med simulering men behandlar inte hur Lean som filosofi kan stödja simuleringsprocessen.Syftet med denna forskning är att ta itu med denna kunskapsluckagenom att analysera fördelar med kombinationen Lean, simulering och optimering, samtbeskriva hur dess svagheter var för sig kan överbryggas när de kombineras. Resultatet presenterasi ett ramverk med beskrivning av dess genomförande, vilket syftar till att genereraett bättre beslutsstöd vid utformning och förbättring av komplexa och dynamiska system.Ramverket innefattar ett konceptuellt ramverk som förklarar relationerna mellan Lean-filosofin,dess metoder och verktyg, med simulering och optimering; olika ändamål för kombinationenbeskrivs, samt genomgång av steg för steg processer ges för att uppnå dessaändamål; identifiering av de roller som är inblandade i varje process beskrivs; en mognadsmodellpresenteras som ger riktlinjer för hur man implementerar ramverket; befintligahinder för genomförandet och etiska överväganden att ta hänsyn till lyfts också fram. Slutligenhar en industriell handbok skrivits som förklarar hur man ska implementera ramverket.Forskningen har genomförts i tre faser, bland annat en behovsanalys utifrån litteraturenoch verkliga projekt, definitionen av ramverket, och avslutningsvis utvärderas det genomverkliga projekt och med ämnesexperter. Huvudbidraget för denna forskning är reflektionenöver det extra utbytet med kombinationen Lean, simulering och optimering medXIIdess fördelar, vilket bygger på det framtagna ramverket och dess utvärdering. Där ramverkethar för avsikt att stödja beslutsfattare att fatta kvalitetsbeslut vid utformning och identifieringav förbättringar i sina system även i komplexa scenarier.

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  • 75.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Bringing together Lean, simulation and optimization in a framework for system design and improvement2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, Gothenburg, 9-12 December, 2018 / [ed] M. Rabe, A. A. Juan, N. Mustafee, A. Skoogh, S. Jain, B. Johansson, Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE, 2018, s. 4132-4133Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it beneficial to combine lean, simulation and optimization? And if so, how can they be combined for decision-making support in system design and improvement? This research proposes a framework that sets the basis for achieving beneficial interactions between the lean philosophy, methods and tools, and simulation-based optimization. A framework that gives the users the possibility to get better system understanding, conduct a deeper system analysis, and attain an optimal system design and improvement, and thereby, get better foundation for sustainable long time improvement. The framework has been tested in several realworld case studies. Moreover, surveys have been conducted to evaluate the perception of subject matter experts about its usefulness, as well as its usability and perceived quality by end users and decision makers, all of them reporting very positive results.

  • 76.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Supporting the lean journey with simulation and optimization in the context of Industry 4.02018Ingår i: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, s. 586-593Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The new industrial revolution brings important changes to organizations that will need to adapt their machines, systems and employees’ competences to sustain their business in a highly competitive market. Management philosophies such as lean will also need to adapt to the improvement possibilities that Industry 4.0 brings. This paper presents a review on the role of lean and simulation in the context of Industry 4.0. Additionally, the paper presents a conceptual framework where simulation and optimization will make the lean approach more efficient, speeding up system improvements and reconfiguration, by means of an enhanced decision-making process and supported organizational learning.

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  • 77.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    How can decision makers be supported in the improvement of an emergency department?: A simulation, optimization and data mining approach2017Ingår i: Operations Research for Health Care, ISSN 2211-6923, E-ISSN 2211-6931, Vol. 15, s. 102-122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The improvement of emergency department processes involves the need to take into considerationmultiple variables and objectives in a highly dynamic and unpredictable environment, which makes thedecision-making task extremely challenging. The use of different methodologies and tools to support thedecision-making process is therefore a key issue. This article presents a novel approach in healthcarein which Discrete Event Simulation, Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization and Data Miningtechniques are used in combination. This methodology has been applied for a system improvementanalysis in a Swedish emergency department. As a result of the project, the decision makers were providedwith a range of nearly optimal solutions and design rules which reduce considerably the length of stayand waiting times for emergency department patients. These solutions include the optimal number ofresources and the required level of improvement in key processes. The article presents and discussesthe benefits achieved by applying this methodology, which has proven to be remarkably valuable fordecision-making support, with regard to complex healthcare system design and improvement.

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    Goienetxea et al. 2017
  • 78.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    System design and improvement of an emergency department using Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization2015Ingår i: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 616, nr 1, artikel-id 012015Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is nowadays widely used to support decision makers in system analysis and improvement. However, the use of simulation for improving stochastic logistic processes is not common among healthcare providers. The process of improving healthcare systems involves the necessity to deal with trade-off optimal solutions that take into consideration a multiple number of variables and objectives. Complementing DES with Multi-Objective Optimization (SMO) creates a superior base for finding these solutions and in consequence, facilitates the decision-making process. This paper presents how SMO has been applied for system improvement analysis in a Swedish Emergency Department (ED). A significant number of input variables, constraints and objectives were considered when defining the optimization problem. As a result of the project, the decision makers were provided with a range of optimal solutions which reduces considerably the length of stay and waiting times for the ED patients. SMO has proved to be an appropriate technique to support healthcare system design and improvement processes. A key factor for the success of this project has been the involvement and engagement of the stakeholders during the whole process.

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  • 79.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Sellgren, Tommy
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Uppsala University.
    Introducing simulation and optimization in the Lean continuous improvement standards in an automotive company2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, Gothenburg, December 9-12, 2018 / [ed] M. Rabe, A. A. Juan, N. Mustafee, A. Skoogh, S. Jain, B. Johansson, Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE, 2019, s. 3352-3363Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly competitive automobile market requires automotive companies to become efficient by continuously improving their production systems. This paper presents a case study where simulationbased optimization (SBO) was employed as a step within a Value Stream Mapping event. The aim of the study was to promote the use of SBO to strengthen the continuous improvement work of the company. The paper presents all the key steps performed in the study, including the challenges faced and a reflection on how to introduce SBO as a powerful tool within the lean continuous improvement standards.

  • 80.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Lean, Simulation and Optimization: A Win-Win combination2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal, and M. D. Rossetti, Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, s. 2227-2238Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean and simulation analysis are driven by the same objective, how to better design and improve processes making the companies more competitive. The adoption of lean has been widely spread in companies from public to private sectors and simulation is nowadays becoming more and more popular. Several authors have pointed out the benefits of combining simulation and lean, however, they are still rarely used together in practice. Optimization as an additional technique to this combination is even a more powerful approach especially when designing and improving complex processes with multiple conflicting objectives. This paper presents the mutual benefits that are gained when combining lean, simulation and optimization and how they overcome each other´s limitations. A framework including the three concepts, some of the barriers for its implementation and a real-world industrial example are also described.

  • 81.
    Gudfinnsson, Kristens
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Strand, Mattias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    On transforming into the data-driven decision-making era: current state of practice in manufacturing smes2018Ingår i: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, Vol. 8, s. 337-342Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research lacks details on how SMMEs are able to capitalize on how their IT-solutions supports data-driven decision-making. Such details are important for being able to support further development of SMMEs and assuring their sustainability and competitive edge. Prosperous SMMEs are vital due to their economical and societal importance. To alleviate the lack of details, this paper presents the results of four case studies towards SMMEs partly aimed at investigating their current state of data-driven decision-making. The findings reveal that IT-solutions in some areas are either underdeveloped or unexplored. Instead, the SMMEs tend to focus on traditional manufacturing techniques, continuous improvements in the manufacturing process, and manual support routines and thereby neglects opportunities offered in relation to e.g. incident management, product quality monitoring, and the usage of KPIs not directly linked to manufacturing.

  • 82.
    Gunnarsson Ljungblom, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Larsson, Rikard
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Identifiering av variabler vid framtagning av optimerad stickprovsfrekvens2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet kring mätfrekvenser, alltså hur ofta en producerad detalj ska mätas, inom produktionen på Volvo Cars följer i dagsläget inget standardiserat arbetssätt. Arbetet kring det bygger i stort på tidigare erfarenheter och vad liknande utrustningar har för mätfrekvens. Volvo Cars efterfrågar mer kunskap inom området för att få en mer kostnadseffektiv kvalitetssäkring.

    Arbetets huvudsyfte har innefattats av identifiering gällande vilka variabler som påverkar mätfrekvensen, samt uppbyggnad av en enklare modell där variablerna applicerats. Intervjuer har även genomförts på ett flertal företag, där några av de viktigaste slutsatserna är:

    • Mätfrekvenser arbetas med retroaktivt, snarare än proaktivt.

    • Duglighet är i dagsläget vanligast att använda vid arbete med mätfrekvenser.

    • Arbete med mätfrekvenser sker inte standardiserat.

    • Förbättring av mätfrekvenser jobbas med i låg grad och när det väl görs är det ofta triggat av en mantidsanalys.

    Arbetet har resulterat i identifiering av två huvudvariabler; duglighet och kvalitetskostnader. Även om verkligheten är mer komplicerad, kan dessa två variabler ses som huvudkategorier. Under duglighet och kvalitetskostnader finns sedan underkategorier.

    För duglighet finns verktygsrelaterade egenskaper såsom förslitning och dess material. Även detaljens material och dess termodynamiska egenskaper har inverkan på dugligheten. Slutligen återfinns felintensitet, vibrationer som uppstår och processens stabilitet.

    Gällande kvalitetsbristkostnader finns felkostnader som uppstår inom företagets väggar, interna felkostnader, och de felkostnader som uppstår när produkt levererats till kund, externa felkostnader. Utöver de två finns även kontrollkostnader och förebyggande kostnader.

    Arbetet har dessutom mynnat ut i en enklare modell där erfarenhet från intervjuer och data från Volvo Cars tagits i beaktande. Flera av de data som återfinns i modellen har tagits fram genom analysering av tre veckors produktionsdata från Volvo Cars. Data som används i modellen berörande kvalitet är duglighet och den procentuella fördelningen av den aktuella varianten. De data som har inverkan på kvalitetskostnaderna är hur många operationer flödet har och aktuell operations placering i relation till totala antalet. Även råämnets kostnad, allvarlighetsgraden för kvalitetsbristen hos aktuell egenskap och skrotkostnaden används.

    Modellen har sedan applicerat på en maskinerna som omfattats av arbetet för att kontrollera utfallet. Med data införd baserad på produktionsdata från Volvo Cars har en stickprovsfrekvens på 62 genererats.

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    Stickprovsoptimering_Volvo_Cars
  • 83.
    Gustafsson, Rasmus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Time study and flow-simulation: Current and future analysis2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete-event simulations are increasingly being used to solve problems and to aid in decision making which are proving useful in the manufacturing industry. The main aim for this thesis was to compare the current production line and how implementing changes for a future state as a supporting basis for making the decision.

    The theoretical framework focused on the Lean philosophy merged with simulation-based methods. The simulation model was build using the collected data. A time study was conducted in order to verify the process and setup times since these were only estimated at the time. Two simulation models were built for the current production line and the future state. The future state was based on the current one since no changes in the process and setup times would be made during the two simulation-model. Experiments were then done to compare the different states, one with batch and the other single-piece flow. The parameters were set on equal terms and the compared values were throughput (TH), lead-time (LT) and work in process (WIP). The conclusion drawn from the results is that the future state would be more efficient.

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  • 84.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Scania CV / Chalmers.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Carlson, Johan S
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. Chalmers.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Stefan, Gustafsson
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Keyvani, Ali
    Högskolan Väst / Chalmers.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre / Chalmers.
    IMMA – Intelligently moving manikins in automotive applications2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Hanson_ISHS2014
  • 85.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Carlson, Johan S.
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Spensieri, Domenico
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Björkenstam, Staffan
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nyström, Johan
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ore, Fredrik
    School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Industrial path solutions - intelligently moving manikins2019Ingår i: DHM and Posturography / [ed] Sofia Scataglini, Gunther Paul, London: Academic Press, 2019, s. 115-124Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    IPS IMMA (Industrial Path Solutions - Intelligently Moving Manikins) is a digital human modeling tool developed in close cooperation between academia and industry in Sweden. The academic consortium behind the software consists of expertise within applied mathematics, ergonomics, and engineering. The development of IMMA was initiated from the vehicle industries’ need of an effective, efficient, objective, and user-friendly software for verification of manufacturing ergonomics. The ‘Industrial path solutions - intelligently moving manikins’ chapter consists of two main sections: the first about the commercially available tool, and the second about current or recent research projects developing the software further. Commercial IPS IMMA is presented by describing the biomechanical model and appearance, anthropometrics module, motion prediction, instruction language, and ergonomics evaluation. The research projects focus on dynamic motions simulation, muscle modelling and application areas such as human-robot collaboration, occupant packaging, and layout planning.

  • 86.
    Hellberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Lindberg, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Ställtidsförbättring på Cejn AB: SMED arbete i maskiner som bearbetar rostfritt material2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Företaget Cejn AB har idag svårt att konkurrera prismässigt på marknaden när det gäller vissa rostfria detaljer. Ett led i att minska kostnaderna för att producera artiklarna är önskemålet från företagets sida att se efter om det går att genomföra en ställtidsreducering på maskincellen, se bilaga 5, som tillverkar rostfritt. Företaget har även önskemål om att en checklista ska tas fram för hur ställarbetet ska gå till i cellen, för om möjligt standardisera arbetet. Skiftgången i cellen är idag tvåskift och maskinerna är bemannade med en operatör per maskin och skift. Nulägesanalysen, som gjordes i början av projektet, visar att den genomsnittliga ställtiden idag är på ca 18 % av planerad produktionstid.

    Önskad arbetsmetod från företagets sida var SMED (Singel Minute Exchange of Die), metoden myntades av Shiego Shingo som kom fram till att ett ställ, tiden det tar att byta produktion i en maskin av en produkt till en annan, bör kunna ske på under tio minuter. Metoden bygger på att förvandla inre ställ, arbete som pågår när maskinen står still, till yttre ställ, arbete som pågår när maskinen går. Endast de moment som måste göras när maskinen står still ska vara med i det inre stället. För att mäta den effekt SMED-arbetet medför och för att se hur lång tid som varje moment tar användes en tidsstudie. Valet föll på att använda en kontinuerlig klocka under tidtagningen. Tidsstudiedokumentet som användes för att notera tiderna i var framtaget med ursprung i de inledande observationerna. Då Cejn AB har Lean som produktionsfilosofi har ett antal verktyg inom området använts under arbetet. Övergripande arbetsmetod för arbetet har varit PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act), där varje mindre moment i arbetet har delats ned i mindre PDCA-cykler.

    Utifrån den inledande tidsstudien beräknades ett teoretiskt resultat fram, det visar på att bara genom att förändra den ordning som operatören utför arbetsmomenten i går det att minska ställtiden med ca 20 %. För att verifiera det resultatet och för att testa den checklista som var framtagen gjordes en pilotstudie. Den visar på att förändringen är ca 11 %, vilket beror på att de ställ som observerades var krångligare och svårare än de som den inledande studien mätte. Ovanan med att arbeta utefter det nya arbetssättet för operatörerna är även det en bidragande orsak till att det är en diskrepans mellan teoretiskt och verkligt utfall. Under pilotstudien testades även den ställåda som var framtagen i projektet, vilket mottogs bra av operatörerna. Resultatet från pilotstudien visar att ställådan har effekt på momentet med att montera verktyg. Effekten är att tiden minskar med ca 8 % av att den inre ställtiden på det momentet.

    De av Cejn AB satta målen har uppnåtts då ställtidsreducering kan påvisas och checklistor har tagits fram. Det nya arbetssättet kan standardiseras av företaget.

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  • 87.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Differentiated Supply Chain Strategy - Building Knowledge through Case Studies2008Ingår i: Fourth International Railway Logistics Seminar: Co-operation among Transportation Modes in Northern Europe, Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2008, s. 5-28Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays companies usually offer a wide range of products and services in various types of non-coherent business environments. It is becoming apparent that traditional ‘one-size-fits-all’ supply chain strategies does not support a wide range of products sold in a diversity of markets. Consequently, it becomes increasingly necessary to employ different manufacturing and delivery strategies concurrently in order to develop a differentiated supply chain strategy. This paper employs a descriptive multiple case study approach to illustrate how two companies has develop a differentiated supply chain strategy. Case study findings reveal that one efficient method to develop a differentiated supply chain strategy is to combine different manufacturing and delivery strategies into various supply chain solutions. By combining relatively few strategies it is possible to develop several differentiated supply chain solutions.

  • 88.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Differentiated Supply Chain Strategy - Response to a fragmented and complex market2008Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) aims to synchronize the requirements of customers with the flow of materials from suppliers, in order to satisfy the needs of the customers as costefficiently as possible. This has become a difficult task due to several developments in the market, such as increased competition, increased demand variability, increased product variety, increased amounts of customer-specific products, and shortening product life cycles. These developments, due in part to globalization, provide additional management challenges and new practices in which supply chains are designed and managed, and can eventually make the difference between companies staying competitive or not. The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate how complexity and globalization affect supply chain design and operations. The main emphasis has been on producing descriptive results of the studied phenomenon. This research involves five case studies covering international transportation structures used in SCM, the selection of supply chain strategies in different business environments, and the role of information systems and technology in achieving the objective of SCM. In this thesis it has been concluded that in order to cope with increasingly complex and fragmented markets companies need more differentiated transportation structures, modes, and supply chains. Furthermore, to effectively manage this, information systems and advanced decision support tools are required. In addition, this thesis has shown that current taxonomies for supply chain strategy selection are too simplistic due to three major problems: they mediate that it is a question of choosing one supply chain strategy for the entire company,

    they regard markets as rather homogeneous, and they link each supply chain strategy to a specific business context. Instead, it has been concluded that in order to better satisfy differing customer needs in various markets it is increasingly necessary to develop a differentiated supply chain strategy by utilizing different manufacturing and delivery strategies concurrently. Thus, a need exists for new taxonomies for supply chain strategy selection which recognize that the markets are becoming more fragmented and complex, that customer preferences differ across customer/market segments, and that there is a need to differentiate the supply chain strategy. This thesis also highlights several requirements of a differentiated supply chain strategy. Firstly, extended supply chain collaboration is required, since a differentiated supply chain strategy will involve more supply chain partners than a traditional supply chain strategy. Secondly, there is a need for more transportation mode alternatives, particularly intermodal, both in supply and distribution operations, due to the fact that differentiation requires diversity. In this thesis, intermodal landbridge freight services are highlighted as one interesting avenue, which could potentially facilitate a more differentiated supply chain strategy. Thirdly, more integrated information systems are needed along with decision support tools. This study illustrates that agent based modeling appears to be an interesting method for developing realistic decision support tools in the context of complex supply chains. An interesting aspect for further research is to investigate how different manufacturing and delivery strategies can be used concurrently in international supply chains. Moreover, there are several requirements and opportunities of a differentiated supply chain strategy, and these have to be investigated further

  • 89.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Enterprise Resource Planning Systems in Higher Education2008Ingår i: Fourth International Railway Logistics Seminar: Co-operation among Transportation Modes in Northern Europe / [ed] Olli-Pekka Hilmola, Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2008, s. 167-180Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems and technology are becoming more and more important in the industry. Consequently, it is important to include these in any modern logistics education. This paper describes how ERP-systems are utilized in logistics education programs and courses at University of Skövde (Sweden). The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of information systems and technology in a modern logistics education.

  • 90.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Lorentz, Harri
    Logistics, Turku School of Economics, Turku, Finland.
    Savolainen, Ville-Veikko
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Research Unit, Kouvola, Finland.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Research Unit, Kouvola, Finland.
    Ivanova, Oksana
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Section of Logistics, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Using Eurasian Landbridge in Logistics Operations: Building Knowledge through Case Studies2007Ingår i: World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research (WRITR), ISSN 1749-4729, E-ISSN 1749-4737, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 183-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research concerns about the use of Eurasia as a landbridge for container traffic. We present case study findings concerning European-Asian transportation, and this reveals that the lead time advantage of landbridges (with respect of its costs) would be suitable for a manufacturer, but malfunctioning parts of harbours and railway transports hinder the potential of this alternative. Findings from demanding manufacturing logistics are further verified with a case study concerning a Finnish retailer having increasingly important presence in Russian markets. Retailer used to favour railways (~early part of Eurasian corridor) but has nowadays configured distribution operations to favour road transports.

  • 91.
    Hjelm, Susanna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Utveckling av en användarcentrerad designprocess för utformning av ergonomiska arbetsplatser enligt Lean2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppdraget för detta examensarbete består i att utveckla en användarcentrerad designprocess för utformning av ergonomiska arbetsplatser som följer riktlinjer för Lean. Syftet är att studera hur filosofier och styrningsverktyg för Lean produktion, lagkrav i Arbetsmiljölagen och övriga föreskrifter samt ergonomiriktlinjer på ett framgångsrikt sätt kan integreras i produktutvecklingsprocesser. Utgångspunkten för detta arbete är att genomföra en kvalitativ analys av VPS assessment som är en prototyp av en utvärderingsmodell för Volvo Production System (VPS), utvecklad av sakkunniga inom ergonomiområdet på AB Volvo. Målsättningen är att stödja designarbetet så att riktlinjer för Lean, lagkrav i Arbetsmiljölagen och ergonomisk måluppfyllnad ingår i de typiska faserna av en designprocess; förstudie, formulering av kravspecifikation, generering och utvärdering av lösningar samt detaljkonstruktion. Den kvalitativa analysen som genomfördes resulterade i en integrering av aspekter från VPS assessment in i en generell designprocess. Resultatet från analysen utgör en grund för vidareutveckling av en användarcentrerad designprocess. Slutsatser som dras från arbetet är att aspekterna från VPS assessment som integrerats i en generell designprocess kan bli ett stöd för produktutvecklaren i att utforma ergonomiska arbetsplatser som följer riktlinjer för Lean samt uppfyller lagstadgar och föreskrifter i Arbetsmiljölagen.

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    fulltext
  • 92.
    Hjort af Ornäs, Viktor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Users, emotions and meaningful things2007Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 93.
    Holm, Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Adaptive Decision Support for Shop-floor Operators using Function Blocks2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In manual and semi-automation production systems, flexibility and adaptability are affected by the shop-floor operators’ skills, abilities and knowledge. Such dependencies highlight the vital importance of developing and utilising the knowledge, achievements and abilities of the operators working with production on the shop-floor. Teamwork, including both novice and highly experienced shop-floor operators, in a production environment with a high level of automation, is essential already today and is predicted to increase, when the complexity and demands of future production systems intensify. This trend is confirmed in both the research literature and by specialists within industry.

    The key to future competitiveness and effectiveness of the manufacturing industry is the shop-floor operators who handle the production systems. In addition, the future information intensive working environment, with its increasing complexity and less time available for decision-making, demands adaptive decision support and adaptive control systems that facilitate collaborative work on the shop-floor. It is therefore important to emphasise how decisions are supported in the time-limited working environment of the shop-floor, because this has a large impact on production output and quality and is vital to the success of the company. Consequently, this dissertation presents a framework for an adaptive decision support system that concentrates on shop-floor operators, in order to enhance their development and future contribution to leading edge production systems.

    The overall aim of the research presented is to define a framework for an Adaptive Decision Support System, to address the scope and demands of the future shop-floor, as indicated in the research literature, and confirm its relevance, as well as further elaborate it on the basis of interviews with production managers and HR specialists

    The research presented uses the design science research process. In parallel, decision support systems and the industrial shop-floor have been studied in the research literature and the current state of industrial practice has been assessed. These areas together form the basis for the research on adaptive decision support for shop-floor operators. A framework enabling adaptive decision support and adaptive system control, based on event-driven function block technology and Augmented Reality technology, is formulated.

    The gap of research on decision support for shop-floor operators, indicated in the research literature is addressed by the research preformed.  Adaptive and dynamic decision support and system control able to process vast amounts of information in real time demonstrates utility for shop-floor operators. The research presenting the Adaptive Decision Support System has demonstrated its utility for shop-floor systems and production operatives in two extensive studies using demonstrators based on real-life production environments.

    A methodology, the ‘User group’, has been formulated for research collaboration and bi-directional knowledge transfer between academia and the industrial partners. It provides tools that enable cooperation between the experienced research partner and the novices, despite their different levels of engagement in the same project, without dividing them into separate groups. The ‘user group’ case study presented describes how both the inexperienced and the research mature companies gain new knowledge and engage in ongoing research. By doing so, the industrial project partners have extensively supported the research presented and will subsequently be the expected beneficiaries.

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  • 94.
    Holm, Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    The future shop-floor operators, demands, requirements and interpretations2018Ingår i: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 47, s. 35-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of the manufacturing industry reveals continuous progress and development throughout the years. This evolution not only includes production methodologies and the production equipment, it also includes the working environment of the shop-floor operators. The demands faced by the shop-floor operators have developed from strictly controlled, simple and monotonic tasks to self-controlled team work requiring a holistic approach that aims at continuous improvements and achieving a high degree of flexibility, adaptability and initiative.

    This paper describes the evolution of the shop-floor operator, according to the research literature and interviews with manufacturing managers and human resources specialists. In addition, the paper presents the response of future Swedish shop-floor operators, today’s high-school students, to a description of their possible future work as shop-floor operators. The Swedish manufacturing industry competes, to a large extent, on and responds to the international market. The findings made in this paper are thus also interesting for other industries and countries acting on the international market.

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  • 95.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Adamson, Göran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy of Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, Cornwall, United kingdom.
    Wang, Lihui
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Why I want to be a future Swedish shop-floor operator2016Ingår i: Research and Innovation in Manufacturing: Key Enabling Technologies for the Factories of the Future - Proceedings of the 48th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Roberto Teti, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 41, s. 1101-1106Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When looking in rear view mirrors the Swedish as well as the international production industries can overview several years of progress covering all aspects of production. Production methodologies and machines etc. have changed and evolved, and so has the environment of the shop-floor operator. The demands on the shop-floor operators have grown from simple monotonic tasks with low complexity to pro-active team work requiring flexibility, continuous improvements and a holistic approach. With a base in a study where production and HR-managers at six Swedish manufacturing industries have been interviewed this paper identifies the role of today’s and the future Swedish shop-floor operator. The response to the described role of the future operator is compiled from the ones who will become the future Swedish shop-floor operators – today’s teenagers attending technical high-school. Their views of the environment of the future shop-floor operator are described by accuracy, development, a good working environment and team work. The paper also reveals what the offer should include to make these teenagers say: I want to be a future Swedish shop-floor operator.

  • 96.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Adamson, Göran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy of Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, United Kingdom.
    Framework for an adaptive decision support system for industrial shop-floor operators2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s shop-floor operators’ working tasks often stretches over a broad spectra of jobs; from ordinary production assignments to handling errors and performing maintenance. Demands for enhanced skills and knowledge are constantly raised to limit the consequences of tool breakage, machine down time and other stochastic events negatively affecting the production.

    To be able to meet these increasing demands a framework for a distributed and adaptive decision support system is proposed. It will help the shop-floor operator to distinguish between decision options and minimize time to consider appropriate actions to maximize productivity both during normal production and when facing unexpected or unscheduled events.

    In what ways is it possible to support operators in making decisions for optimal productivity?” was the opening question from the industry partner when beginning this research. Targeting this question a novel framework for an adaptive decision support system (DSS) enabled by event-driven function blocks, based on decision logics is proposed. Its ability to adapt to the actual conditions on the shop-floor is compared to a currently used voice message system in a test case.

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  • 97.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Cordero Garcia, Aimar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Adamson, Göran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adaptive decision support for shop-floor operators in automotive industry2014Ingår i: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 17, s. 440-445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's operators on factory shop-floors are often not stationed, dealing with a single or few tasks but have increasing responsibilities demanding enhanced skills and knowledge in a production environment where any disturbance must be settled with adequate actions without delay to keep optimum output. To be able to respond to these demands, the operators need dynamic, distributed and adaptive decision support in real-Time, helping them to distinguish decision options and maximizing productivity despite incoming stochastic events. The minimum of time and option for operators to consider appropriate action both during normal production and when facing unexpected or unscheduled events point out the need of adaptive decision support for operators. When initiating this research project the question from the industry partner was the following: In what ways is it possible to support operators in making decisions for optimal productivity? By targeting this problem this paper introduces a novel framework for an adaptive decision-support system enabled by event-driven function blocks and based on decision logics. The proposed decision support systems' ability to adapt to the actual conditions on the shop-floor is validated through a case study, and its capability is compared to the voice message system installed on-site.

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  • 98.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Moore, Philip
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Wang, Lihui
    Sustainable Manufacturing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Adaptive instructions to novice shop-floor operators using Augmented Reality2017Ingår i: Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, ISSN 2168-1015, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 362-374Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel system using Augmented Reality and Expert Systems to enhance the quality and efficiency of shop-floor operators. The novel system proposed provides an adaptive tool that facilitates and enhances support on the shop-floor, due to its ability to dynamically customize the instructions displayed, dependent upon the competence of the user. A comparative study has been made between an existing method of quality control instructions at a machining line in an automotive engine plant and this novel system. It has been shown that the new approach outcompetes the existing system, not only in terms of perceived usability but also with respect to two other important shop-floor variables: quality and productivity. Along with previous research, the outcomes of these test cases indicate the value of using Augmented Reality technology to enhance shop-floor operators’ ability to learn and master new tasks.

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  • 99.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Frantzén, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Moore, Philip
    Falmouth University, Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom.
    Wang, Lihui
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A methodology facilitating knowledge transfer to both research experienced companies and to novice SMEs2017Ingår i: International Journal of Enterprise Network Management, ISSN 1748-1252, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 123-140, artikel-id IJENM0080202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, knowledge transfer is defined as a process of disseminating both technological and theoretical understanding as well as enhancing both industrial and academic knowledge through conducted research to project partners collaborating within a research project. To achieve this, a new methodology called 'user groups' is introduced. It facilitates knowledge transfer between project participants in collaborative research programs engaging both experienced and unexperienced partners regardless of level of input. The introduced methodology 'user groups' provides tools for collaborating with several research partners even though their levels of engagement in the project and prior research experience may vary without dividing them into separate groups. It enables all project partners to gain new knowledge and by so doing extending the knowledge society. The case study shows that the eight engaged companies are able to cooperate, achieve their own objectives and, both jointly and individually, contribute to the overall project goals.

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  • 100.
    Hoyos Rodriguez, David
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Realistic Computer aided design: model of an exoskeleton2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The musculoskeletal disorders have significant health care, social and economic consequences in the factories nowadays. One of the most promising possible solutions is the use of exoskeletons in the workstations. Exoskeletons are assistive wearable robotics connected to the body of a person, which aims to give mechanical power or mobility to the user (Wang, Ikuma, Hondzinski, & de Queiroz, 2017).

    The objective of this project is to create a realistic CAD model of a passive exoskeleton which will be used in future research to analyse the behaviour of the workers in a virtual environment with and without the exoskeleton. This model will be a virtual representation of the exoskeleton EKSOVest which has been designed to support these workers who have to realize overhead tasks. This virtual representation will be carried out in PTC CREO and exported to IPS IMMA in order to check the viability of this model. To achieve a realistic model, the exoskeleton should have the same characteristics than the real exoskeleton. The objectives of this project will be defined for these characteristics, which are part creation, mechanisms, forces simulation, and parametrization. The parts and the mechanisms will be created and defined in PTC CREO with the same dimensions and behaviour as the real exoskeleton. Furthermore, this report will be focussed mainly in force simulation and the parametrization.

    The forces of the EKSOVest are generated by two different spring and by a high-pressure spring. To simulate these forces, the equation of these springs will be obtained and introduced in PTC CREO. These equations will be obtained through the regression of a set of points, which will be obtained from the real exoskeleton using a dynamometer. The parametrization will be carried out with the objective to make the virtual model adaptable for every type of mannequins. This parametrization will modify the length of the exoskeleton’s spine bar and the distance between the mechanical arms. These distances will be adapted according to the mannequin’s measures which will be introduced by the user. The measures that have to be introduced by the user are shoulder height, liac spine height, and chest width.

    In conclusion, it can be said that the regression of the springs obtained are an accurate result which can imitate quite well the forces of this exoskeleton. Furthermore, the results of the parametrization allow the exoskeleton adaptable to any type of dimensions that the mannequin could have. The final model obtained has been exported to IPS IMMA and implemented in a mannequin.

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    REALISTIC COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN MODEL OF AN EXOSKELETON
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