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  • 51.
    Karlsson, Doris
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Kan inställningen till en IT-artefakt förändras genom användarmedverkan i designprocessens tidigaste stadium?2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Oppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ansatsen; Deltagande design inom MDI förespråkar att användare är med under hela designprocessen, även under det tidigaste skedet, före det har skissats på någon prototyp över huvudtaget. Medverkan innebär då att användarna får klargöra sina behov, åsikter och önskemål om en produkt. En speciell deltagarteknik har utvecklats för att göra detta möjligt och heter Contextual inquiry. I detta arbete har tekniken tillämpats på hyresgäster inom Skövdebostäder och har gällt produkten elektronisk anslagstavla. Hypotesen har varit att inställningen till en produkt är mer positiv när användare har deltagit i det tidigaste stadiet i designprocessen och skulle då förklaras med hjälp av ett psykologiskt "fenomen" som kallas Hawthorne-effekten. Resultatet från studien kunde inte ge stöd för hypotesen, det fanns med andra ord ingen signifikant skillnad mellan experimentgrupp och kontrollgrupp.

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  • 52.
    Karlsson, Markus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neuroscience of Decision Making: The Importance of Emotional Neural Circuits in Decision Making2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The neuroscience of decision making is laying the puzzle of how the brain computes decisions. It tries to sort out which factors are responsible for causing us to choose one way or the other. This thesis reviews to what extent emotional brain processes and their neural circuits impact decision making. The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) provides a solid dual-system framework for decision making. Dissociating an impulsive system, in which the amygdala is central, and a reflective system mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex(VMPFC). The SMH emphasizes the function of the VMPFC as necessary and crucial formaking favorable long-term decisions. Research on moral decision making also shows that similar systems as used by the SMH has a key role in how we think about moral dilemmas as well. Damage or maldevelopment of these neural circuits can cause myopia for the future and deeply immoral behavior. Abnormalities in emotional neuronal circuits can also be linked to addictive behavior and psychopathy. The findings on decision making and its neuralsubstrates dismantle the common sense notion of free will and moral responsibility. An explanation of how the feeling of free will arises is given using the Interpreter system theoryof consciousness. Moral responsibility without the need for a free will is defended by analternative approach with a framework of a brain in-control versus out-of-control.

  • 53.
    Kastrati, Granit
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Event-related potential correlates of visual consciousness: a review of theories and empirical studies2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Two influential theories of consciousness disagree about if consciousness initially arises along the occipitotemporal cortex to later engage frontoparietal regions and attentional mechanisms, or if it necessarily requires the latter. Consequently, different predictions are made about the temporal emergence of consciousness. The event-related potential (ERP) technique can be used to resolve the issue. It can temporally track neural activity of consciously perceived stimuli relative to stimuli bypassing consciousness. This essay describes the two theories and reviews ERP studies on visual consciousness and its relationship to attention. Three ERP correlates of consciousness have been proposed. The question is if they should be interpreted as supporting the one or the other theory. Most plausibly, visual consciousness arises along occipitotemporal regions and later incorporates frontal areas engaging higher cognitive functions. Importantly it seems that consciousness cannot arise without spatial attention/parietal regions. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 54.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Conceptualizing and measuring occupational social well-being: a validation study2017Inngår i: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 45-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The current conceptualizations and measurements of well-being are inadequate in the context of work. Specifically, well-being research has neglected the social aspects of well-being. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the validity of a multi-dimensional view of occupational social well-being. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in an educational setting, i.e. six different schools in a Swedish municipality. A total of 314 teachers and other categories of school staff (239 females and 75 males) participated in a survey study. Findings: Results provided empirical support for a multi-dimensional view of occupational social well-being. The dimensions were integration, acceptance, contribution, actualization and coherence, and they were differentially correlated with previous measures of well-being. Furthermore, occupational social well-being accounted for additional variance in work tension, overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment over and above the variance accounted for by positive and negative affect and satisfaction with life, indicating the value of taking domain-specific social indicators of well-being into account in explaining various employee outcomes. Practical implications: Occupational social well-being is an umbrella term for describing the well-lived social life in the context of work. As such, this is a crucial part of a holistic view of well-being at work. Thus, effective employee well-being enhancement programs should not only focus on physical and mental health promotion or competence development but must also include measures of relational experience and functioning as discussed in the present study. Originality/value: This is the first study to measure and validate occupational social well-being as an attempt to complement existing measures of subjective and psychological well-being. Measures of social aspects of well-being are crucial to assess as it has been argued in previous research that context-free measures of well-being might render misleading results.

  • 55.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Examining the Interplay of Justice Perceptions, Motivation, and School Achievement among Secondary School Students2016Inngår i: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 103-118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a paucity of empirical research on the social psychology of justice in educational settings. A few previous studies have predominantly focused on distributive and procedural justice concerns, and knowledge about the role of what have been called informational and interpersonal justice for school outcomes is very scarce. In the present study, data from 227 eighth- and ninth-grade students who participated in a survey study were analyzed to examine the interplay between relational justice concerns (decomposed into procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice), motivation to study, and school achievement. A comprehensive theoretically grounded multi-item measure of informational justice was developed and validated. The results showed that informational justice significantly predicts school grades, and that motivation to study fully mediates this effect. Neither procedural nor interpersonal justice was associated with school grades. The implications of these results for research and practice are discussed in detail.

  • 56.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Overtime2015Inngår i: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Economics and Society / [ed] Frederick F. Wherry & Juliet B. Schor, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2015, s. 1235-1236Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 57.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Promotion2015Inngår i: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Economics and Society / [ed] Frederick F. Wherry & Juliet B. Schor, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2015, s. 1336-1337Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 58.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Eek, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Allocation of Public Goods: The Interplay of Self-Interest, Fairness, and Group Goal2016Inngår i: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 214-222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seventy-two undergraduates participating in a step-level asymmetric public good dilemma were requested to distribute the provided public good among the group members to achieve different group goals. In Line with the hypotheses, economic productivity resulted in equitable allocations, harmony in equal allocations, and social concern in need-based allocations. The results also supported the hypotheses that salience of group goal minimizes influences of self-interest on allocations and that perceived fairness accounts for why people pursuing different group goals differ in their preferences for allocation of public goods.

  • 59.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Eek, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Equity, Equal Shares or Equal Final Outcomes?: Group Goal Guides Allocations of Public Goods2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, s. 1-7, artikkel-id 36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experiment we investigate preferences for allocation of a public good among group members who contributed unequally in providing the public good. Inducing the group goal of productivity resulted in preferences for equitable allocations, whereas inducing the group goals of harmony and social concern resulted in preferences for equal final outcomes. The study makes a contribution by simultaneously treating provision and allocation of a public good, thus viewing these as related processes. Another contribution is that a new paradigm is introduced that bears closer resemblance to real life public good dilemmas than previous research paradigms do.

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  • 60.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Variations in user-oriented elderly care: a multilevel approach2017Inngår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 138-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 61.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Pilotstudie om psykisk ohälsa och utanförskap bland unga vuxna: Personliga berättelser och reflektioner kring vägar som bär till förändring2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 62.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Stark Ekman, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Differing attitudes toward health and sickness2014Inngår i: Encyclopedia of human services and diversity / [ed] Linwood H. Cousins, Sage Publications, 2014, s. 616-618Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 63.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 64.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 65.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 66.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 67.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mikula, Gerold
    University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Justice: Social Psychological Perspectives2015Inngår i: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences / [ed] James D. Wright, Oxford: Elsevier, 2015, 2, s. 949-955Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the concept of justice from a social psychological perspective. The authors begin by briefly outlining some theoretical precursors of current social psychological research on justice. Another part is devoted to an overview of theories and empirical research in the areas of distributive and procedural justice. The article furthermore addresses interactional justice, why people care about justice, and reactions to injustice in the context of which individual differences in conceptions of justice are briefly discussed. The article ends by discussing some current trends, social applications, and some future challenges in social psychological inquiries of social justice.

  • 68.
    Klarén, Anton
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Dispositional optimism and attentional bias to happy facial expressions2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that the human attentional system is biased towards emotional events in the environment. This attentional bias is believed to be an adaptive function that can provide survival benefits for the organisms that possess it. Dispositional optimism is a trait defined as a general expectation that good things will happen in the future. This trait has received interest as an adaptive trait that has a multitude of psychological and physical benefits for the individuals who exhibit it. The aim of this study is to examine whether there is a difference in the attentional bias towards happy and angry facial expressions based on level of dispositional optimism using the dot-probe paradigm. Thirty-two psychologically and neurologically healthy females (mean age = 26.5, SD = 5.8) participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire measuring dispositional optimism and performed the dot-probe task in a laboratory setting in the University of Skövde. In the dot- probe task a short exposure (100 ms) of photographs depicting happy, angry and neutral facial expressions was used as emotional cues. A general bias towards happy faces across all participants was detected. Also, a clear trend towards an interaction between DO and AB to emotional faces was found in the group high in DO displaying and AB towards happy facial expressions. This study implies that for the psychologically and neurologically healthy population, a fast operating and automatic AB for positive stimuli exists, moreover, this AB may be modulated by individual differences in DO.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 69.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Grassini, Simone
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Different Electrophysiological Correlates of Visual Awareness for Detection and Identification2017Inngår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 29, nr 9, s. 1621-1631Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting the presence of an object is a different process than identifying the object as a particular object. This difference has not been taken into account in designing experiments on the neural correlates of consciousness. We compared the electrophysiological correlates of conscious detection and identification directly by measuring ERPs while participants performed either a task only requiring the conscious detection of the stimulus or a higher-level task requiring its conscious identification. Behavioral results showed that, even if the stimulus was consciously detected, it was not necessarily identified. A posterior electrophysiological signature 200-300 msec after stimulus onset was sensitive for conscious detection but not for conscious identification, which correlated with a later widespread activity. Thus, we found behavioral and neural evidence for elementary visual experiences, which are not yet enriched with higher-level knowledge. The search for the mechanisms of consciousness should focus on the early elementary phenomenal experiences to avoid the confounding effects of higher-level processes.

  • 70.
    Koukoura, Angeliki
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Is Telling the Truth a New Index for Deception?: An Electrophysiological Approach2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 71.
    Labbé, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Measures of Working Memory, Motivation, and Time Perception2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have indicated a further need to investigate the role of motivation in workingmemory (WM) training and that time perception affects motivation. We addressed whethersubjectively perceived time on task in reference to objective time on task could serve as animplicit measure of motivation, while controlling for individual differences in timeperception. Here, the relationship between different measures of time perception, WM, andmotivation was explored in healthy children. Fifty children in three natural groups (ages: 6-7,8-9, 10-11) at a Swedish school participated. WM scores changed with age as expected.However, the absence of correlations between WM performance and intrinsic motivationwere inconsistent with previous findings, presumably due to the low statistical sensitivity.Nevertheless, time perception accuracy (r=0.318, p=0.043) and state motivation (r=0.434,p=0.005) correlated with performance on task interference, but not WM. With somereservations due to low sensitivity, time perception accuracy appears to be linked tocoordinative capacity required for shifting attention, but to a lesser degree sequential working memory capacity.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Labbe - Measures of Working Memory, Motivation, and Time Perception
  • 72.
    Labbé, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    The Feeling of Anxiety: Phenomenology and neural correlates2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The feeling of anxiety, a conscious experience, is associated with uneasiness, painfulness, or disturbing suspense. The current paper presents the phenomenology of anxiety disorders based on diagnostic criteria and reviews neuroimaging studies on anxiety including dissociation studies. Activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, insula, temporal poles and amygdala suggest neural correlates of anxiety. The relevance of the neural correlates, how the feeling of anxiety differs from fear and worry, and the construct validity of anxiety are addressed. Anxiety and pain correlate with activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, which warrants further studies on the painfulness–anxiety relationship.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 73.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Thill, Serge
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Perception of Agent Properties in Humans and Machines2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 74.
    Lamb, Maurice J.
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, University of Cincinnati, United States.
    Chemero, Anthony P.
    Department of Philosophy and Psychology, University of Cincinnati, United States.
    Interaction-dominant dynamics and extended embodiment2013Inngår i: Constructivist Foundations, ISSN 1782-348X, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 88-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 75.
    Linde, Helene
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Alkoholens effekt på kognitiva funktioner med fokus på minnet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol är den vanligaste och mest accepterade drogen i världen. I västvärlden uppskattas 90 % ha konsumerat alkohol någon gång i livet varav 30 % utvecklar alkoholrelaterade problem. Alkoholkonsumtionen är störst i länder med högt ekonomiskt välstånd samtidigt som antalet nykterister i dessa länder är lågt. Alkohol har en global inhiberingseffekt på hjärnan vilket ofta leder till negativa konskevenser för samhället, enskilda individer samt dess närstående. Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en omfattande överblick om de negativa konsekvenser alkohol har på kognitiva funktioner med fokus på minnet. Alkoholen påverkar främst hippocampus vilket leder till försämringar av minnet. Studier har visat att tillfällig kraftig alkoholkonsumtion stör inkodningen av ny episodisk information vilket leder till uppkomsten av begränsade perioder där minnen delvis eller helt saknas, vilket kallas för minnesluckor. Andra processer relaterade till minnet som long-term potentiation och long-term depression i hippocampus förhindras till viss del eller blockeras helt av alkohol. Studier har även visat att både tillfällig och långvarig alkoholkonsumtion leder till försämringar av kognitiva funktioner som minnet och exekutiva funktioner vilket ofta involverar förändrad neural aktivitet i frontalloben. Alkoholvolymen och alkoholkoncentrationen i blodet är två faktorer som har en avgörande roll för alkoholens effekt på kognitiva funktioner. Risken för uppkomsten av minnesluckor ökar vid tillfällig kraftig alkoholkonsumtion när alkoholvolymen är hög och alkoholkoncentrationen i blodet stiger fort till höga nivåer. Alkoholberoende utvecklas däremot genom att det sker fysiologiska förändringar av signalsubstanserna i hjärnan. Långvarig alkoholkonsumtion kan leda till utvecklandet av Korsakoff syndrom som innefattar amnesi.

  • 76.
    Loukola, Ville
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Kirsilä, Santeri
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Kyyhkynen, Annimaaria
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Lahdenperä, Maron
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Parkkali, Lilja
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Ranta, Emilia
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Malinen, Eveliina
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Vanhanen, Sanni
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Välimaa, Katariina
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Olkoniemi, Henri
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland ; Division of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Oulu, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, the Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Viral simulations in dreams: The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on threatening dream content in a Finnish sample of diary dreams2024Inngår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 119, artikkel-id 103651Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected dreaming negatively. We compared 1132 dreams collected with prospective two-week dream diary during the pandemic to 166 dreams collected before the pandemic. We hypothesized that the pandemic would increase the number of threatening events, threats related to diseases, and the severity of threats. We also hypothesized that dreams that include direct references to the pandemic will include more threatening events, more disease-related threats, and more severe threats. In contradiction with our hypotheses, results showed no differences between pandemic and pre-pandemic samples in the number of threats, threats related to diseases, or severe threats. However, dreams with direct references to the pandemic had more threats, disease-related threats, and severe threats. Our results thus do not suggest a significant overall increase in nightmarish or threatening dream content during the pandemic but show a more profound effect on a minority of dreams. 

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  • 77.
    Lund, Jesper
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    The Effects of Positive Emotions on School Satisfaction Among Adolescents2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between positive emotions and school satisfaction was studied in 19 adolescents aged 13,57 to 15,17 years (M=14,45, SD=0,446), of these 50% were female. The subjects were all Caucasian native Swedish speakers. Schools satisfaction, life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect and gratitude was measured at the beginning of the study and again fourteen days later. During the fourteen days, the subjects were given a task to carry out each day. The control condition was asked to list up to five things that had affected them during the last day. The experimental condition was asked to list up to five things they were grateful for in the last day. The results did not show any relationship between positive affect and school satisfaction. It is suggested that the results might be caused by either too little time for the intervention to cause a significant effect, by the subjects failing to carry out the given task each day or by too few subjects to rule out random effects.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 78.
    Lönn, Josefina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Well-being and Dispositional Optimism in Uganda and Sweden: An empirical and neurobiological investigation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Uganda´s well-being ranks among the worst in the world, while Sweden´s well-being ranks among the best. This thesis investigates if there is a difference in well-being and dispositional optimism in Uganda and Sweden. The neurobiology underlying well-being and optimism is also examined. The neural correlations of well-being and optimism are connected to areas in the limbic system and cerebral cortex. Prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex are two curial regions involved in both well-being and optimism. Amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus are central areas for hedonic well-being, dispositional optimism, and optimism bias. In this thesis 284 Ugandans and 256 Swedes completed a questionnaire based survey. Greater hedonic well-being was found among Swedes, whereas greater eudiamonic well-being was found among Ugandans. Swedes reported greater global life satisfaction than Ugandans, but Ugandans expressed higher satisfaction with their current lives compared with Swedes. In relation to dispositional optimism, Ugandans were found to be both more optimistic and more pessimistic than Swedes. This unexpected dispositional optimism pattern is discussed and future research directions are proposed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 79.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    et al.
    Department of psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding2019Inngår i: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 705-711Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in personality have been shown to be larger in more gender equal countries. We advance this researchby using an extensive personality measure, the IPIP-NEO-120, with large country samples (N > 1000), from 22 countries. Furthermore, to capture the multidimensionality of personality we measure sex differences with a multivariate effect size (Mahalanobis distance D). Results indicate that past research, using univariate measures of effect size, have underestimated the size of between-country sex differences in personality. Confirming past research, there was a strong correlation (r = .69) between a country’s sex differences in personality and their Gender Equality Index. Additional analyses showed that women typically score higher than men on all five trait factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and that these relative differences are larger in more gender equal countries. We speculate that as gender equality increases both men and women gravitate towards their traditional gender roles.

  • 80.
    Marseglia, Anna
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Sweden ; Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Santoni, Giola
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
    Xu, Weili
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Sweden ; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, China.
    Cognitive Trajectories of Older Adults With Prediabetes and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study2018Inngår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 73, nr 3, s. 400-406Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Diabetes has been linked to dementia risk; however, the cognitive trajectories in older adults with diabetes remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of prediabetes and diabetes on cognitive trajectories among cognitively intact older adults in a long-term follow-up study.

    Methods Within the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, 793 cognitively intact older adults aged ≥50 were identified at baseline and followed for up to 23 years. Based on standardized scores from 11 cognitive tests, administered at baseline and up to seven follow-ups, four cognitive domains (verbal abilities, spatial/fluid, memory, perceptual speed) were identified by principal-component analysis. Prediabetes was defined according to blood glucose levels in diabetes-free participants. Diabetes was ascertained based on self-report, hypoglycemic medication use and blood glucose levels. Data were analyzed with linear mixed-effect models adjusting for potential confounders.

    Results At baseline, 68 participants (8.6%) had prediabetes and 45 (5.7%) had diabetes. Compared to diabetes-free individuals, people with diabetes had a steeper decline over time in perceptual speed and verbal abilities. The annual declines in these domains were greater than the annual decline in memory. Prediabetes was associated with lower performance in memory in middle-age, but also associated with a less steep memory decline over the follow-up.

    Conclusions Diabetes is associated with a faster decline in perceptual speed and verbal abilities, while prediabetes is associated with lower memory performance in middle-age. However, the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia seem to not affect memory over time.

  • 81.
    Modigh, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Effekten av längre tids praktiserande av mindfulnessmeditation på hjärnfunktion och struktur – en summering utifrån nyare studier av vipassana- och zenmeditation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Västerländsk mindfulnessmeditation har sina rötter i tusenårig buddhistisk tradition, främst genom vipassana- och zentraditionerna. Senaste tiden har mindfulness ökat i popularitet och blivit en accepterad klinisk metod i former som mindfulness based stress reduction. Möjligheten att undersöka dess effekter genom neurovetenskapliga metoder bidrar med intressant och viktig forskning om mänskligt välbefinnande. Dock har tidigare studier visat på bristande samstämmighet vad gäller resultat och metod. Uppsatsen är en litteraturstudie där det huvudsakliga syftet är att utifrån nyare studier undersöka de tydligaste effekterna på hjärnfunktion och struktur av långvarigt praktiserande av mindfulness utifrån vipassana- och zenmeditation. Uppsatsen syftar även till att redogöra för samstämmigheten i dessa nyare studier. Detta gäller resultat men också metod. Studierna tyder på minskad aktivitet i prefrontala cortex (PFC), posteriora cingulum cortex (PCC) och minskad aktivitet mellan PFC och regioner inom default mode network(DMN) som anteriora cingulum cortex (ACC). Studier visar även ökad aktivitet från parietala-occipitala området. Resultaten tyder på förbättrad kroppsmedvetenhet och ökad sensorisk klarhet, ökad förmåga till uppmärksamhetsreglering och inhibition av automatiska responser samt minskning av och ökad kontroll över det spontana flödet av tankar och en förändrad självuppfattning. Jag finner att resultaten var samstämmiga beträffande minskat involverande av frontala och parietala områden, samt svagare förbindelser mellan dessa (dlPFC-IPL, PFC-dACC). Gemensamt för studierna är också att mindfulnessmeditation tycks påverka DMN och områden kopplade till det självrefererande processandet. Det är dock inte klart hur predispositioner inverkat på resultaten och det är något för framtida forskning att klargöra.

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  • 82.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Herrera, Carlos
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    On Cognition as Dynamical Coupling: An Analysis of Behavioral Attractor Dynamics2008Inngår i: Adaptive Behavior, ISSN 1059-7123, E-ISSN 1741-2633, Vol. 16, nr 2-3, s. 182-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of brain, body, and environment can result incomplex behavior with rich dynamics, even for relatively simpleagents. Such dynamics are, however, often difficult to analyze.In this article, we explore the case of a simple simulated roboticagent, equipped with a reactive neurocontroller and an energylevel, which the agent has been evolved to recharge. A dynamicalsystems analysis shows that a non-neural internal state (energylevel), despite its simplicity, dynamically modulates the behavioralattractors of the agent—environment system, such thatthe robot's behavioral repertoire is continually adapted toits current situation and energy level. What emerges is a dynamic,non-deterministic, and highly self-organized action selectionmechanism, originating from the dynamical coupling of four systems(non-neural internal states, neurocontroller, body, and environment)operating at very different timescales.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 83.
    Määttä, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Moral Cognition and Emotion: A Dual-Process Model of Moral Judgment2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive and emotional processes both seem to contribute in the production of moral judgments, but how they interact is still under investigation. Greene’s dual-process model suggests that these processes constitute dissociable systems in the brain, which are hypothesized to give rise to two qualitatively different ways of moral thinking characterized by two normative moral theories, consequentialism and deontology. Greene indicates that this research undermine deontology as a normative theory. The empirical investigation of moral judgments implies that the dual-process model only seems to accurately predict and explain moral judgments in moral dilemmas involving physical harmful intentions. Regardless of the models empirical support, the empirical findings in the study of moral judgments could have normative and metaethical implications.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Examensarbete_jmäättä
  • 84.
    Nilsson, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Kalckert, Andreas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Region‐of‐interest analysis approaches in neuroimaging studies of body ownership: An activation likelihood estimation meta‐analysis2021Inngår i: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568, Vol. 54, nr 11, s. 7974-7988Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    How do we feel that we own our body? By manipulating the integration of multisensory signals and creating the illusory experience of owning external body parts and entire bodies, researchers have investigated the neurofunctional correlates of body ownership. Recent attempts to synthesize the neuroimaging literature of body ownership through meta-analysis have shown partly inconsistent results. A large proportion of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings on body ownership include analyses based on regions of interest (ROIs). This approach can produce inflated findings when results are synthesized in meta-analyses. We conducted a systematic search of the fMRI literature of ownership of body parts and entire bodies. Three activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses were conducted, testing the impact of including ROI-based findings. When both whole-brain and ROI-based results were included, frontal and posterior parietal multisensory areas were associated with body ownership. When only ROI-based results were included, larger areas of the frontal and posterior parietal cortices and the middle occipital gyrus were associated with body ownership. A whole-brain meta-analysis, excluding ROI-based results, found no significant convergence of activation across the brain. These findings highlight the difficulty of quantitatively synthesizing a neuroimaging field where a large part of the literature is based on findings from ROI-based analyses. We discuss these findings in the light of current practices within this field of research and highlight current problems of meta-analytic approaches of body ownership. We recommend the sharing of unthresholded data as a means to facilitate future meta-analyses of the neuroimaging literature of body ownership.

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  • 85.
    Noreika, Valdas
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom / Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Windt, Jennifer M.
    Department of Philosophy, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.
    Kern, Markus
    Translational Neurotechnology Lab, University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Salonen, Tiina
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finlan.
    Parkkola, Riitta
    Department of Radiology, University and University Hospital of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Karim, Ahmed A.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Germany / Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany / Department of Health Psychology and Neurorehabilitation, SRH Mobile University, Riedlingen, Germany.
    Ball, Tonio
    Translational Neurotechnology Lab, University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Lenggenhager, Bigna
    Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Modulating dream experience: Noninvasive brain stimulation over the sensorimotor cortex reduces dream movement2020Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 6735Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, cortical correlates of specific dream contents have been reported, such as the activation of the sensorimotor cortex during dreamed hand clenching. Yet, despite a close resemblance of such activation patterns to those seen during the corresponding wakeful behaviour, the causal mechanisms underlying specific dream contents remain largely elusive. Here, we aimed to investigate the causal role of the sensorimotor cortex in generating movement and bodily sensations during REM sleep dreaming. Following bihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or sham stimulation, guided by functional mapping of the primary motor cortex, naive participants were awakened from REM sleep and responded to a questionnaire on bodily sensations in dreams. Electromyographic (EMG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were used to quantify physiological changes during the preceding REM period. We found that tDCS, compared to sham stimulation, significantly decreased reports of dream movement, especially of repetitive actions. Other types of bodily experiences, such as tactile or vestibular sensations, were not affected by tDCS, confirming the specificity of stimulation effects to movement sensations. In addition, tDCS reduced EEG interhemispheric coherence in parietal areas and affected the phasic EMG correlation between both arms. These findings show that a complex temporal reorganization of the motor network co-occurred with the reduction of dream movement, revealing a link between central and peripheral motor processes and movement sensations of the dream self. tDCS over the sensorimotor cortex interferes with dream movement during REM sleep, which is consistent with a causal contribution to dream experience and has broader implications for understanding the neural basis of self-experience in dreams. © 2020, The Author(s).

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  • 86.
    Ollila, Hanna M.
    et al.
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Finland ; Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA, United States ; Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
    Sinnott-Armstrong, Nasa
    Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, CA, United States.
    Kantojärvi, Katri
    Population Health, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland ; Department of Psychiatry and SleepWell Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland.
    Broberg, Martin
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Palviainen, Teemu
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Jones, Samuel
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Ripatti, Vili
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Pandit, Anita
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.
    Rong, Robin
    Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States.
    Kristiansson, Kati
    Population Health, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sandman, Nils
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Hublin, Christer
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ripatti, Samuli
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Finland ; Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA, United States.
    Widen, Elisabeth
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Saxena, Richa
    Center for Genomic Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States ; Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA, United States ; Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States ; Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
    Paunio, Tiina
    Population Health, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland ; Department of Psychiatry and SleepWell Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland.
    Nightmares share genetic risk factors with sleep and psychiatric traits2024Inngår i: Translational Psychiatry, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikkel-id 123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nightmares are vivid, extended, and emotionally negative or negative dreams that awaken the dreamer. While sporadic nightmares and bad dreams are common and generally harmless, frequent nightmares often reflect underlying pathologies of emotional regulation. Indeed, insomnia, depression, anxiety, or alcohol use have been associated with nightmares in epidemiological and clinical studies. However, the connection between nightmares and their comorbidities are poorly understood. Our goal was to examine the genetic risk factors for nightmares and estimate correlation or causality between nightmares and comorbidities. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 45,255 individuals using a questionnaire-based assessment on the frequency of nightmares during the past month and genome-wide genotyping data. While the GWAS did not reveal individual risk variants, heritability was estimated at 5%. In addition, the genetic correlation analysis showed a robust correlation (rg > 0.4) of nightmares with anxiety (rg = 0.671, p = 7.507e−06), depressive (rg = 0.562, p = 1.282e−07) and posttraumatic stress disorders (rg = 0.4083, p = 0.0152), and personality trait neuroticism (rg = 0.667, p = 4.516e−07). Furthermore, Mendelian randomization suggested causality from insomnia to nightmares (beta = 0.027, p = 0.0002). Our findings suggest that nightmares share genetic background with psychiatric traits and that insomnia may increase an individual’s liability to experience frequent nightmares. Given the significant correlations with psychiatric and psychological traits, it is essential to grow awareness of how nightmares affect health and disease and systematically collect information about nightmares, especially from clinical samples and larger cohorts. 

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  • 87.
    Persson, Björn N.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Blekinge Center of Competence, Region Blekinge, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Current Directions in Psychiatric Classification: From the DSM to RDoC2019Inngår i: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa, Cham: Springer, 2019, 1, s. 253-268Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 88.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dark and bright values: The Dark Triad and empathy relating to universal values2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an emphasis on self-enhancing values in present-day society. Empathy is shown to be declining and callousness increasing.This two-study research set out to analyze dark personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and brightpersonality traits (emotional and cognitive empathy), and their predictive validity on universal value types. Using a sample ofSwedes and Americans (N = 385), the Dark Triad (SD3) correlated significantly with all value types (Schwartz’s 10 values), forminga sinusoid pattern which aligned with the circumplex value model. Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated withthe self-enhancing values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the self-enhancing valuesHedonism and Power. Using a middle-aged US sample, cognitive and emotional empathy (IRI) were positively related to the selftranscendingvalues of Universalism and Benevolence and negatively with the self-enhancement values of Achievement and Power.In addition, both the dark and bright personality traits explained significant variance over the basic Big Five traits in universal values.Given the complex of values accounted for, we argue that these results account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values” andself-transcending “bright values”. This research highlights that certain universal values of individual and societal relevance can bepredicted by personality traits.

  • 89.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Helsingfors Universitet, Finland.
    Kan medvetandet påverka materia?2021Inngår i: Fri vilja och mänskligt ansvar: Illusion eller verklighet? / [ed] Alf Linderman; Hans Liljenström, Stockholm: Fri tanke , 2021, s. 195-205Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattningsvis är mitt förslag således att medvetandets natur är relaterad till fundamentala teorier inom fysiken, särskilt kvantteorin (jämför Hameroff och Penrose, 2014). Detta innebär inte att medvetandet kan reduceras till kvantteori, men att kvantteori kan spela en viktig roll när vi letar efter en plats för medvetandet i vår naturuppfattning. Annars finns risken att vi får nöja oss med en materialism där medvetandet saknar plats och roll, eller en dualism där medvetandet är ett epifenomen utan några kausala krafter (se Pylkkänen, 2007, 2017).

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  • 90.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum Theories of Consciousness2018Inngår i: The Routledge Handbook of Consciousness / [ed] Rocco J. Gennaro, Taylor & Francis, 2018, 1, s. 216-231Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a brief historical introduction to quantum theory, and shows that the theory opens up some radically new ways of thinking about the place of mind and consciousness in nature. Quantum theory is all about learning, on the basis of scientific experiments, to question the "obvious" truths about the nature of the physical world and to come up with more coherent alternatives. The chapter considers the famous two-slit experiment. It explores what the different interpretations of quantum theory say about situations like the two-slit experiment, and also considers what kind of theories of mind and consciousness some interpretations have inspired. The attempt to explain mind and consciousness in terms of the quantum theory involves heavy speculation. The advances in quantum biology, while not giving direct support to quantum brain theory, perhaps make a biologically grounded quantum theory of consciousness seem less inconceivable.

  • 91.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Dreaming as a model system for consciousness research2010Inngår i: New Horizons in the Neuroscience of Consciousness / [ed] Elaine K. Perry, Daniel Collerton, Fiona E.N. LeBeau, Heather Ashton, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2010, s. 149-154Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on biological realism, that is, the philosophical assumption that con-sciousness is a real natural biological phenomenon in the brain, we argue that dreaming is a pure form of phenomenality, and suggest that the dreaming brain could be used as a model system for consciousness. The dreaming brain offers the most challenging model system that represents all the theoretically and philosophically interesting features of consciousness. Although difficult to study experimentally, the dreaming brain is the model system that fully preserves all the essential features of consciousness, and cannot be ignored by any theory that aims to explain consciousness.

  • 92.
    Rischer, Katharina M.
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, Research Institute of Health and Behaviour, University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Savallampi, Mattias
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine (IKE), Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience (CSAN), Linköping University, Sweden.
    Akwaththage, Anushka
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Salinas Thunell, Nicole
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Lindersson, Carl
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    MacGregor, Oskar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    In context: emotional intent and temporal immediacy of contextual descriptions modulate affective ERP components to facial expressions2020Inngår i: Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, ISSN 1749-5016, E-ISSN 1749-5024, Vol. 15, nr 5, s. 551-560Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explored how contextual information about threat dynamics affected the electrophysiological correlates of face perception. Forty-six healthy native Swedish speakers read verbal descriptions signaling an immediate vs delayed intent to escalate or deescalate an interpersonal conflict. Each verbal description was followed by a face with an angry or neutral expression, for which participants rated valence and arousal. Affective ratings confirmed that the emotional intent expressed in the descriptions modulated emotional reactivity to the facial stimuli in the expected direction. The electrophysiological data showed that compared to neutral faces, angry faces resulted in enhanced early and late event-related potentials (VPP, P300 and LPP). Additionally, emotional intent and temporal immediacy modulated the VPP and P300 similarly across angry and neutral faces, suggesting that they influence early face perception independently of facial affect. By contrast, the LPP amplitude to faces revealed an interaction between facial expression and emotional intent. Deescalating descriptions eliminated the LPP differences between angry and neutral faces. Together, our results suggest that information about a person's intentions modulates the processing of facial expressions. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 93.
    Roos, John Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Veryday, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. University College West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Non-verbal personality assessment with 10 cartoon-like portrayals2015Inngår i: ECPA 13th European Conference on Psychological Assessment, Zurich, July 22-25, 2015: Book of abstracts / [ed] Willibald Ruch, 2015, s. 78-79Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a non-verbal personality assessment that consists of 10 cartoon-like portrayals, one for each factor in the five-factor model of personality and their counterparts (i.e. open-minded, conscientious, extravert, agreeable, and neurotic; versus close-minded, impulsive, introvert, antagonistic, and emotionally stable). The assessment has been constructed in collaboration with graphic designers at an international top-ranking design and innovation agency, Veryday. Unlike existing personality assessments, this assessment is developed for interviews and combines the respondent´s perceived self and ideal self rather than only focusing on the ECPA13 Zurich 79 Paper Sessions respondent´s self-reported perceived self. The aim of the assessment is to provide insight into gaps that reside in incongruity between the respondent´s perceived self and ideal self and thereafter focusing the interview on how to bridge the gap(s). The portrayals have been validated through 156 undergraduate students at Stockholm University. The content validity was verified via tag clouds of top-of-mind words and the criterion validity was verified via the verbal assessment criterion, HP5i. The preliminary analyses are promising in terms of reshaping and adjusting established personality assessments into non-verbal tools for interview settings in therapy and user-studies. However, the assessment need to be further validated and discussed with experts in the field of psychological assessments.

  • 94.
    Roos, John Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. University of Gothenburg, Sweden / University West, Sweden.
    The Personality Map of Sweden2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The majority of research in this field has focused on cross-national comparisons, while less attention has been given to variations in personality traits within countries (Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015).

    More recently, regional personality differences have been mapped in both United States and Great Britain (Rentfrow, Gosling, Jokela, Stillwell, Kosinki & Potter, 2013; Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015). The aim of the present study is to map regional personality differences in Sweden.

    Using a representative sample of Swedish residents (N = 6154), we mapped the geographical distribution of the Big Five Personality traits across eight national areas (e.g. Stockholm, East Middle Sweden, South Småland and the Islands, South Sweden, West Sweden, North Middle Sweden, Middle Norrland and Upper Norrland).

    The result revealed statistically significant associations on national areas and the degree of agreeableness [F (7, 6154) = 4.63, p < .01, partial ƞ² =.005]. Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test, significant differences (p < .01) were found between South Sweden (M = 2.74) and the Upper Norrland (M = 2.93), and between South Sweden and North Middle Sweden (M = 2.88). Descriptive statistics illustrate a stepwise change toward higher degree of agreeableness, from the South of Sweden to the North of Sweden (Figure 1).

    The result revealed statistically significant associations on national areas and the degree of conscientiousness (F (7, 6164) = 2,51, p < .05, partial ƞ² =.003). Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test, significant (p < .05) differences were found only between Stockholm (M = 2.94) and the Upper Norrland (M = 3.06). 

    Insights about regional personality differences within a nation are useful, because such differences are associated with political, economic, social and health outcomes and thereby linked to a regions history, culture and ability to change.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 95.
    Roos, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Mapping the Relationship between Personality and Electronic Commerce in a Representative Swedish sample2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: According to previous research, a high degree of Openness and Neuroticism, and a low degree of Agreeableness are personality determinants of online shopping. This study aims to explore the relationship between the five factor model of personality and online shopping in a Swedish context.

    Methods: 5238 individuals in a representative sample of the Swedish population responded to a survey including measures of the five personality factors (HP5i, 15 items) and online shopping. (3686 individuals were included in the analysis).

    Results: A logistic regression analysis was conducted to test if personality factors (ranging from 1 = completely disagree to 4 = completely agree) predicted online shopping. The dependent variable was buying online at least one time per month. Gender, age and monthly income were control variables. Our findings indicated that online shopping was significantly (p < .05) associated with a high degree of Openness (e.g. open to feelings/emotions) and high degree of Extraversion (e.g. positive emotional experiences).

    Discussion and Conclusion: People high on Openness might like to shop online because online shopping offers them an adventure, variety and new ideas. People high on extraversion might be motivated to purchase online for their need of excitability. The findings propose that online shopping primarily is triggered by emotions and affect rather than reasoning and cognition.

  • 96.
    Rosén, Julia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Towards Understanding Social Robots2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging research field of human-robot interaction (HRI) has grown increasingly popular as social robots are being introduced to the general public with applications such as elderly care, companionship, or therapy. With researchers with multidisciplinary backgrounds from e.g. psychology, cognitive science, computer science, how HRI is chosen to be framed is still discussed. My research aims to gain a deeper knowledge of how humans interpret and understand social robots. When interacting with social robots, humans tend to prescribe more intelligence than what the robot is actually capable of. Due to this expectation from the humans, one may fill in a gap between what humans prescribe in social robots and what they actually can do. People’s expectations of robots and other agents has been previously addressed in different ways, e.g. in research on anthropomorphism, intentional stance, and autonomy. My aim is to address this in social robots and look at the different levels when this occurs. My first approach involves how humans respond to robots on a low level cognitive function, namely anticipatory gaze. Previous research has shown that humans have anticipatory gaze when observing another human move objects with their hands. This ties into the direct-matching hypothesis: human’s understand another human’s action by mapping it to their own motor representation of that action. Preliminary research has shown that this is also possible if the hand performing the action is a social robot. Although the social robot has no agency, humans tend to fill in this intelligence in the robot and thus eliciting anticipatory gaze. Another more explicit way of deepening the knowledge of this topic, is how human’s describe and react to an interaction with social robots. Because social robots are such a new artefact, most humans are not used to interacting with them and yet they tend to have preconceived notions of what they are capable of. I ask, how are humans actually interacting with robots and how are they influenced by these preconceived notions? Furthermore, what responsibility to we have a researchers towards participants when exposing them to social robots? Are we deceiving participants when we are not transparent with what the robot is actually capable of? There is a need to understand this further in HRI in order to continue with the important research that is being done in this field.

  • 97.
    Saari, Pauli
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Intrinsic Motivation: Psychological and Neuroscientific Perspectives2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to give an overview of the topic of intrinsic motivation based on psychological an neuroimaging research. More specifically, the objective is to give an overview of the various benefits of intrinsic motivation, discuss its relationship to extrinsic rewards, and review the existing neuroimaging research that has explicitly explored intrinsic motivatoin. A positive relationship betweeen intrinsic motivation and persistence, conceptual learning, creativity, and both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being has been demonstrated. A wealth of studies has shown that extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation, while the validity of these findings has been debated. Initial neuroimaging studies concerning the neural basis of intrinsic motivation have been conducted, showing unique activations in the intrinsic motivation conditions in e.g. the anterior precuneus and the right insular cortex. Conceptual and methodological problems have been discussed, and it is suggested that the neuroscientific findings mentioned above can be interpreted in terms of the neural distinction between wanting and liking, rather than in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and that psychological research can draw on neuroscientific findings in order to make its research more precise.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Intrinsic Motivation: Psychological and Neuroscientific Perspectives
  • 98.
    Sandman, Nils
    et al.
    Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Psychology and Speech Language Pathology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Merikanto, Ilona
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Määttänen, Hanna
    Department of Psychology and Speech Language Pathology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech Language Pathology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kronholm, Erkki
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland / Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland / Hospital District of North Karelia, Joensuu, Finland .
    Partonen, Timo
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Paunio, Tiina
    Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Winter is coming: nightmares and sleep problems during seasonal affective disorder2016Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 612-619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep problems, especially nightmares and insomnia, often accompany depression. This study investigated how nightmares, symptoms of insomnia, chronotype and sleep duration associate with seasonal affective disorder, a special form of depression. Additionally, it was noted how latitude, a proxy for photoperiod, and characteristics of the place of residence affect the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder and sleep problems. To study these questions, data from FINRISK 2012 study were used. FINRISK 2012 consists of a random population sample of Finnish adults aged 25–74 years (n = 4905) collected during winter from Finnish urban and rural areas spanning the latitudes of 60°N to 66°N. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire was used to assess symptoms of seasonal affective disorder. Participants with symptoms of seasonal affective disorder had significantly increased odds of experiencing frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, and they were more often evening chronotypes. Associations between latitude, population size and urbanicity with seasonal affective disorder symptoms and sleep disturbances were generally not significant, although participants living in areas bordering urban centres had less sleep problems than participants from other regions. These data show that the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder was not affected by latitude. 

  • 99.
    Sandman, Nils
    et al.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland / University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Kronholm, Erkki
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, Finland.
    Ollila, Hanna M.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, Finland / University of Eastern Finland, Institute for Public Health and Clinical Nutrition.
    Paunio, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland / Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-20072013Inngår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 36, nr 7, s. 1041-1050Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Design: Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P < 0.0001 for sex difference), but the prevalence was affected by the age of participants and the year of the survey. Nightmare prevalence increased with age, particularly among the men. The number of people reporting occasional nightmares increased roughly by 20% for both sexes from 1972 to 2007 (P < 0.0001). Participants with war experiences reported more frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety than participants without such experiences (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Prevalence of nightmares was affected by the sex and age of the participants, and occasional nightmares have become more common in Finland. Exposure to war elevates nightmare prevalence as well as insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms even decades after the war; large numbers of war veterans can affect nightmare prevalence on population level.

  • 100.
    Sandman, Nils
    et al.
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland / Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Kronholm, Erkki
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland.
    Vartiainen, Erkki
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland / Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland / Hospital District of North Karelia, Finland.
    Paunio, Tiina
    Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland / Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland.
    Nightmares as predictors of suicide: an extension study including war veterans2017Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikkel-id 44756Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nightmares are intensive dreams with negative emotional tone. Frequent nightmares can pose a serious clinical problem and in 2001, Tanskanen et al. found that nightmares increase the risk of suicide. However, the dataset used by these authors included war veterans in whom nightmare frequency -and possibly also suicide risk -is elevated. Therefore, re-examination of the association between nightmares and suicide in these data is warranted. We investigated the relationship between nightmares and suicide both in the general population and war veterans in Finnish National FINRISK Study from the years 1972 to 2012, a dataset overlapping with the one used in the study by Tanskanen et al. Our data comprise 71,068 participants of whom 3139 are war veterans. Participants were followed from their survey participation until the end of 2014 or death. Suicides (N = 398) were identified from the National Causes of Death Register. Frequent nightmares increase the risk of suicide: The result of Tanskanen et al. holds even when war experiences are controlled for. Actually nightmares are not significantly associated with suicides among war veterans. These results support the role of nightmares as an independent risk factor for suicide instead of just being proxy for history of traumatic experiences.

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