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  • 51.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proposal for Non-contact Analysis of Multimodal Inputs to Measure Stress Level in Serious Games2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis, Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 171-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of monitoring user emotions in serious games or human-computer interaction is usually obtrusive. The work-flow is typically based on sensors that are physically attached to the user. Sometimes those sensors completely disturb the user experience, such as finger sensors that prevent the use of keyboard/mouse. This short paper presents techniques used to remotely measure different signals produced by a person, e.g. heart rate, through the use of a camera and computer vision techniques. The analysis of a combination of such signals (multimodal input) can be used in a variety of applications such as emotion assessment and measurement of cognitive stress. We present a research proposal for measurement of player’s stress level based on a non-contact analysis of multimodal user inputs. Our main contribution is a survey of commonly used methods to remotely measure user input signals related to stress assessment.

  • 52.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Variations of Facial Actions While Playing Games with Inducing Boredom and Stress2016In: 2016 8th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experiment aimed at empirically exploring the variations of facial actions (FA) during gaming sessions with induced boredom and stress. Twenty adults with different ages and gaming experiences played three games while being recorded by a video camera and monitored by a heart rate sensor. The games were carefully designed to have a linear progression from a boring to a stressful state. Self-reported answers indicate participants perceived the games as being boring at the beginning and stressful at the end. The 6 hours of recordings of all subjects were manually analyzed and FA were annotated. We annotated FA that appeared in the recordings at least twice; annotations were categorized by the period when they happened (boring/stressful part of the games) and analysed on a group and on an individual level. Group level analysis revealed that FA patterns were related to no more than 25% of the subjects. The individual level analysis revealed particular patterns for 50% of the subjects. More FA annotations were made during the stressful part of the games. We conclude that, for the context of our experiment, FA provide an unclear foundation for detection of boredom/stressful states when observed from a group level perspective, while the individual level perspective might produce more information.

  • 53.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Accuracy Evaluation of Remote Photoplethysmography Estimations of Heart Rate in Gaming Sessions with Natural Behavior2018In: Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami, Teresa Romão, Springer, 2018, 1, p. 508-530Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) can be used to remotely estimate heart rate (HR) of users to infer their emotional state. However natural body movement and facial actions of users significantly impact such techniques, so their reliability within contexts involving natural behavior must be checked. We present an experiment focused on the accuracy evaluation of an established rPPG technique in a gaming context. The technique was applied to estimate the HR of subjects behaving naturally in gaming sessions whose games were carefully designed to be casual-themed, similar to off-the-shelf games and have a difficulty level that linearly progresses from a boring to a stressful state. Estimations presented mean error of 2.99 bpm and Pearson correlationr = 0.43, p < 0.001, however with significant variations among subjects. Our experiment is the first to measure the accuracy of an rPPG techniqueusing boredom/stress-inducing casual games with subjects behaving naturally.

  • 54.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential method for differentiating stress and boredom of players in games2018In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, article id 8734540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facial analysis is a promising approach to detect emotions of players unobtrusively, however approaches are commonly evaluated in contexts not related to games, or facial cues are derived from models not designed for analysis of emotions during interactions with games. We present a method for automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential tool for detecting stress and boredom of players behaving naturally while playing games. Computer vision is used to automatically and unobtrusively extract 7 facial features aimed to detect the activity of a set of facial muscles. Features are mainly based on the Euclidean distance of facial landmarks and do not rely on pre-dened facial expressions, training of a model or the use of facial standards. An empirical evaluation was conducted on video recordings of an experiment involving games as emotion elicitation sources. Results show statistically signicant dierences in the values of facial features during boring and stressful periods of gameplay for 5 of the 7 features. We believe our approach is more user-tailored, convenient and better suited for contexts involving games.

  • 55.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Changes in heart rate and facial actions during a gaming session with provoked boredom and stress2018In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 24, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experiment aimed at exploring the relation between facial actions (FA), heart rate (HR) and emotional states, particularly stress and boredom, during the interaction with games. Subjects played three custom-made games with a linear and constant progression from a boring to a stressful state, without pre-defined levels, modes or stopping conditions. Such configuration gives our experiment a novel approach for the exploration of FA and HR regarding their connection to emotional states, since we can categorize information according to the induced (and theoretically known) emotional states on a user level. The HR data was divided into segments, whose HR mean was calculated and compared in periods (boring/stressful part of the games). Additionally the 6 h of recordings were manually analyzed and FA were annotated and categorized in the same periods. Findings show that variations of HR and FA on a group and on an individual level are different when comparing boring and stressful parts of the gaming sessions. This paper contributes information regarding variations of HR and FA in the context of games, which can potentially be used as input candidates to create user-tailored models for emotion detection with game-based emotion elicitation sources.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-01 00:01
  • 56.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    Computer Science, Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó 89802 112, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Game-Calibrated and User-Tailored Remote Detection of Stress and Boredom in Games2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 13, p. 1-43, article id 2877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotion detection based on computer vision and remote extraction of user signals commonly rely on stimuli where users have a passive role with limited possibilities for interaction or emotional involvement, e.g., images and videos. Predictive models are also trained on a group level, which potentially excludes or dilutes key individualities of users. We present a non-obtrusive, multifactorial, user-tailored emotion detection method based on remotely estimated psychophysiological signals. A neural network learns the emotional profile of a user during the interaction with calibration games, a novel game-based emotion elicitation material designed to induce emotions while accounting for particularities of individuals. We evaluate our method in two experiments (n = 20 and n = 62) with mean classification accuracy of 61.6%, which is statistically significantly better than chance-level classification. Our approach and its evaluation present unique circumstances: our model is trained on one dataset (calibration games) and tested on another (evaluation game), while preserving the natural behavior of subjects and using remote acquisition of signals. Results of this study suggest our method is feasible and an initiative to move away from questionnaires and physical sensors into a non-obtrusive, remote-based solution for detecting emotions in a context involving more naturalistic user behavior and games.

  • 57.
    Ekanayake, Hiran B.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Forum 100, 164 40 Kista, Sweden / University of Colombo, School of Computing, 35 Reid Avenue, 00700 Colombo 7, Western Province, Sri Lanka.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Forum 100, 164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.
    University of Colombo, School of Computing, 35 Reid Avenue, 00700 Colombo 7, Western Province, Sri Lanka.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Comparing expert driving behavior in real world and simulator contexts2013In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, article id 891431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer games are increasingly used for purposes beyond mere entertainment, and current hi-tech simulators can provide quite, naturalistic contexts for purposes such as traffic education. One of the critical concerns in this area is the validity or transferability of acquired skills from a simulator to the real world context. In this paper, we present our work in which we compared driving in the real world with that in the simulator at two levels, that is, by using performance measures alone, and by combining psychophysiological measures with performance measures. For our study, we gathered data using questionnaires as well as by logging vehicle dynamics, environmental conditions, video data, and users' psychophysiological measurements. For the analysis, we used several novel approaches such as scatter plots to visualize driving tasks of different contexts and to obtain vigilance estimators from electroencephalographic (EEG) data in order to obtain important results about the differences between the driving in the two contexts. Our belief is that both experimental procedures and findings of our experiment are very important to the field of serious games concerning how to evaluate the fitness of driving simulators and measure driving performance. © 2013 Hiran B. Ekanayake et al.

  • 58.
    Ekanayake, Hiran B.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Stockholm University, Sweden & Department of Computation and Intelligent Systems, University of Colombo School of Computing, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Fors, Uno
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.
    University of Colombo School of Computing, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Affective Realism of Animated Films in the Development of Simulation-Based Tutoring Systems2013In: International Journal of Distance Education Technologies, ISSN 1539-3100, E-ISSN 1539-3119, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 96-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study focused on comparing real actors based scenarios and animated characters based scenarios with respect to their similarity in evoking psychophysiological activity for certain events by measuring galvanic skin response (GSR). In the experiment, one group (n=11) watched the real actors’ film whereas another group (n=7) watched the animated film, which had the same story and dialogue as the real actors’ film. The results have shown that there is no significant difference in the skin conductance response (SCR) scores between the two groups; however, responses significantly differ when SCR amplitudes are taken into account. Moreover, Pearson’s correlation reported as high as over 80% correlation between the two groups’ SCRs for certain time intervals. The authors believe that this finding is of general importance for the domain of simulation-based tutoring systems in development of and decisions regarding use of animated characters based scenarios.

  • 59.
    Ekanayake, Hiran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden / School of Computing, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath
    School of Computing, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Assessing Performance Competence in Training Games2011In: Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction: Fourth International Conference, ACII 2011, Memphis, TN, USA, October 9–12, 2011, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Sidney D’Mello, Arthur Graesser, Björn Schuller, Jean-Claude Martin, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 518-527Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-process assessment of trainee learners in game-based simulators is a challenging activity. This typically involves human instructor time and cost, and does not scale to the one tutor per learner vision of computer-based learning. Moreover, evaluation from a human instructor is often subjective and comparisons between learners are not accurate. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an automated, formula-driven quantitative evaluation method for assessing performance competence in serious training games. Our proposed method has been empirically validated in a game-based driving simulator using 7 subjects and 13 sessions, and accuracy up to 90.25% has been achieved when compared to an existing qualitative method. We believe that by incorporating quantitative evaluation methods like these future training games could be enriched with more meaningful feedback and adaptive game-play so as to better monitor and support player motivation, engagement and learning performance.

  • 60.
    Ekanayake, Hiran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath
    University of Colombo School of Computing, Sri Lanka.
    Game Interaction State Graphs for Evaluation of User Engagement in Explorative and Experience-based Training Games2010In: 2010 International Conference on Advances in ICT for Emerging Regions (ICTer 2010), IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 40-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest to use computer games for non-traditional education, such as for training purposes. For training education, simulators are considered as offering more realistic learning environments to experience situations that are similar to real world. This type of learning is more beneficial for practicing critical situations which are difficult or impossible in real world training, for instance experience the consequences of unsafe driving. However, the effectiveness of simulation-based learning of this nature is dependent upon the learner’s engagement and explorative behaviour. Most current learner evaluation systems are unable to capture this type of learning. Therefore, in this paper we introduce the concept of game interaction state graphs (GISGs) to capture the engagement in explorative and experience-based training tasks. These graphs are constructed based on rules which capture psychologically significant learner behaviours and situations. Simple variables reflecting game state and learner’s controller actions provide the ingredients to the rules. This approach eliminates the complexity involved with other similar approaches, such as constructing a full-fledged cognitive model for the learner. GISGs, at minimum, can be used to evaluate the explorative behaviour, the training performance and personal preferences of a learner.

  • 61.
    Ekanayake, Hiran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Forum 100, Kista, Sweden / University of Colombo School of Computing.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ramberg, Robert
    Stockholm University, Forum 100, Kista, Sweden.
    Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.
    University of Colombo School of Computing.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator2013In: Interaction Design and Architecture(s) Journal - IxD&A, ISSN 1826-9745, no 19, p. 115-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations

    between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  • 62.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden / Swedish Armed Forces Centre for Defence Medicine, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sterner, Anders
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Swedish School of Library and Information Science, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    The impact of contextualization on immersion in healthcare simulation2016In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The aim of this paper is to explore how contextualization of a healthcare simulation scenarios impacts immersion, by using a novel objective instrument, the Immersion Score Rating Instrument. This instrument consists of 10 triggers that indicate reduced or enhanced immersion among participants in a simulation scenario. Triggers refer to events such as jumps in time or space (sign of reduced immersion) and natural interaction with the manikin (sign of enhanced immersion) and can be used to calculate an immersion score.

    Methods

    An experiment using a randomized controlled crossover design was conducted to compare immersion between two simulation training conditions for prehospital care: one basic and one contextualized. The Immersion Score Rating Instrument was used to compare the total immersion score for the whole scenario, the immersion score for individual mission phases, and to analyze differences in trigger occurrences. A paired t test was used to test for significance.

    Results

    The comparison shows that the overall immersion score for the simulation was higher in the contextualized condition. The average immersion score was 2.17 (sd = 1.67) in the contextualized condition and −0.77 (sd = 2.01) in the basic condition (p < .001). The immersion score was significantly higher in the contextualized condition in five out of six mission phases. Events that might be disruptive for the simulation participants’ immersion, such as interventions of the instructor and illogical jumps in time or space, are present to a higher degree in the basic scenario condition; while events that signal enhanced immersion, such as natural interaction with the manikin, are more frequently observed in the contextualized condition.

    ConclusionsThe results suggest that contextualization of simulation training with respect to increased equipment and environmental fidelity as well as functional task alignment might affect immersion positively and thus contribute to an improved training experience.

  • 63.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Game development from a software and creative product perspective: A quantitative literature review approach2018In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 27, p. 10-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the methodology and initial analysis of a systematic literature review that aims to explore how the craft and processes of game development have been studied in previous research. In particular, the review focuses on how previous research treats the inherent duality of video game development, since it both involves computer software development and creative production. Researchers are often in a position where they need to emphasize game development’s relation to one of these disciplines, and it is not unusual for game development to be treated as a direct offspring of one field with some mild influences from another. Employing a more all-encompassing review approach, that includes research conducted from the perspectives of both com- puter science and the arts and humanities equally, makes the presented study different from previous literature reviews. The results show that there is a tendency that the management of software development has a negative correlation with the management of creativity in the studied material. The heterogenity of the fields and the limited amount of studies that focus on the duality of game development suggest that there is a need for a deeper analysis of the individual components and to synthesize results from disparate fields. 

  • 64.
    Hendrix, Maurice
    et al.
    Coventry University, UK .
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundqvist, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sharing Experiences with Serious Games - the Edugamelab Rating Tool for Parents and Teachers2013In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games 2013), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. CFP1338G-ART-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer games have been recognized for their educational potential for some time now and the number of educational games available has steadily increased in recent years. As the number of educational games available increases, serious games are starting to face a similar dilemma to other types of educational resources: how can educators or parents easily find the most relevant games and share their experiences from using them these games? To this end the EduGameLab project has developed a tool for sharing experiences about educational games among educators and parents in the form of a database of educational games and experiences of individual educators and parents with these games. The development of this database was based on a metadata schema for formally describing serious games and experiences with these games. In this paper we report on the development of this database, revisit and refine the metadata schema based on our experiences and evaluate the usability and usefulness of the database based on feedback gathered at practical workshops with educators.

  • 65.
    Hendrix, Maurice
    et al.
    The University of Northampton, United Kingdom.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Vampula, Boris
    National Education and Teacher Training Agency, Zagreb, Croatia.
    A Rating Tool for Sharing Experiences with Serious Games2014In: International Journal of Games Based Learning, ISSN 2155-6849, E-ISSN 2155-6857, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of Computer Games for non-entertainment purposes, such as education, is well established. A wide variety of games have been developed for the educational market, covering subjects such as mathematics and languages. However, while a growing industry developing educational games exist, the practical uptake in schools is not as high as one would expect, based on current evidence of their effectiveness. The EduGameLab project investigates causes and solutions to the relatively low level of uptake in European schools. This paper describes a rating tool for sharing experiences about educational games among educators and parents, developed in the EduGameLab project. The ambition is that sharing knowledge about how games can be used in practice will stimulate practical use and acceptance. The development of this tool is based on a metadata schema for formally describing serious games and experiences with these games.

  • 66.
    Hendrix, Maurice
    et al.
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Dunwell, Ian
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Lameras, Petros
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Arnab, Sylvester
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Petridis, Panagiotis
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Stewart, Craig
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    De Freitas, Sara
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Liarokapis, Fotis
    Interactive Worlds Applied Research Group, Coventry University, Uk .
    Serious Games and E-Learning-Learning Standards: Towards an Integrated Experience2013In: Journal of Advanced Distributed Learning Technology (JADLeT), ISSN 2285-1070, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 9-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the emergence of e-Learning-Learning systems, researchers have explored methods to increase their efficacy, and support a wider range of pedagogical approaches. Similarly, the concept of using Game Based Learning, taken commonly to refer to the use of digital games for education, has also been the subject of a substantial volume of research into their pedagogical design and impact. The popularisation of Game Based Learning has occurred in parallel with the establishment of E-Learning systems; however, questions remain on both technical and pedagogical levels as to how games can effectively be integrated into e-Learning systems. Games can differ substantially from other educational media when used as learning resources, as they may combine high-fidelity audio and video content and employ experiential, social, or exploratory pedagogies. Observing that games are not commonly designed to be included in E-Learning-Learning systems, and that most E-Learning-Learning standards at present do not specifically include affordances for Game Based Learning, this paper explores recent advances in standardisation of Game Based Learning descriptions, and their integration with ELearning- Learning standards.

  • 67.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information security patterns for web services2006In: Interoperability for enterprise software and applications: Proceedings of the Workshops and the Doctorial Symposium of the Second IFAC/IFIP I-ESA International Conference: EI2N, WSI, IS-TSPQ 2006 / [ed] Hervé Panetto, Nacer Boudjlida, London: ISTE , 2006, p. 133-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web Services (WS), a currently popular subject among application developers, IT architects, and researchers, can be defined as a technology for publishing, identifying and calling services in a network of interacting computer nodes. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the benefits of using patterns as a means of managing knowledge concerning security in the context of Web Services. We draw upon experiences from an industrial project in which a pattern catalogue for Web Services was created. The pattern catalogue consists of 29 patterns, which are generic solutions for service-based development and service-oriented architectures. In particular, Web Services are in focus as the enabling technique.

  • 68. Jeusfeld, Manfred A
    et al.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ralyté, Jolita
    Classifying Interoperability Problems for a Method Chunk Repository2007In: Enterprise Interoperability II: New Challenges and Approaches / [ed] Goncalves, RJ; Muller, JP; Mertins, K; Zelm, M, Springer London, 2007, p. 315-326Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes the structure of a so-called method chunk repository that contains instructions on how to solve interoperability problems between organizations and their information systems. We detail how interoperability problems and their solutions should be tagged in order to match them. The combination of such tagged interoperability problem classifiers forms the language to express meaningful statements about the situation in which certain method chunks are applicable to solve an observed problem.

  • 69.
    Lebram, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Design and Architecture of Sidh - a Cave Based Firefighter Training Game2009In: Design and Use of Serious Games / [ed] Marja Kankaanranta, Pekka Neittaanmäki, Springer Netherlands, 2009, p. 19-31Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the architecture of a game-based training simulator environment developed in collaboration with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency (SRSA). The learning objectives for the game relates to training of firefighters for Breathing Apparatus Entry, and in particular to develop systematic search strategies. The hardware and software system is based on off-the-shelf computer components in combination with tailor made units. The game has been developed as a Half-Life 2 mod - extended to be played in a cave using 5 standard gaming PCs in a local area network. The game environment is a cave where the player is surrounded by four 80" screens giving a 360 degree view of a virtual world. Each screen is projecting a fixed-angle view of the virtual world and the player's orientation in the virtual world corresponds to her orientation in the real world. A novel interaction model has been developed for the game in order for it to be played in the cave. The player navigates and performs game actions using course body movements which are captured through a set of sensors.

  • 70.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    et al.
    PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT, University of Borås.
    Andersson, Henrik
    PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Bergman, Johanna
    PICTA - Prehospital ICT Arena, Göteborg.
    Lundberg, Lars
    PreHospen - Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås.
    Sjöqvist, Bengt Arne
    Biomedical Signals and Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Research challenges in prehospital care: the need for a simulation-based prehospital research laboratory2019In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for improved research in the field of prehospital care. At the same time, there are many barriers in prehospital research due to the complex context, posing unique challenges for research, development, and evaluation. The present paper argues for the potential of simulation for prehospital research, e.g., through the development of an advanced simulation-based prehospital research laboratory. However, the prehospital context is different from other healthcare areas, which implies special requirements for the design of this type of laboratory, in terms of simulation width (including the entire prehospital work process) and depth (level of scenario detail). A set of features pertaining to simulation width, scenario depth, equipment, and personnel and competence are proposed. Close tailoring between these features and the prehospital research problems and context presents great potential to improve and further prehospital research.

  • 71.
    Ralyté, Jolita
    et al.
    Univ Geneva, CUI, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred A
    Tilburg Univ, NL-5037 AB Tilburg, Netherlands.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Kühn, Harald
    BOC Informat Syst GmbH, A-1010 Vienna, Austria.
    Arni-Block, Nicolas
    Univ Geneva, CUI, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
    A knowledge-based approach to manage information systems interoperability2008In: Information Systems, ISSN 0306-4379, E-ISSN 1873-6076, Vol. 33, no 7-8, p. 754-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interoperability is a key property of enterprise applications, which is hard to achieve due to the large number of interoperating components and semantic heterogeneity. The inherent complexity of interoperability problems implies that there exists no silver bullet to solve them. Rather, the knowledge about how to solve wicked interoperability problems is hidden in the application cases that expose those problems. The paper addresses the question of how to organise and use method knowledge to resolve interoperability problems. We propose the structure of a knowledge-based system that can deliver situation-specific solutions, called method chunks. Situational Method Engineering promotes modularisation and formalisation of method knowledge in the form of reusable method chunks, which can be combined to compose a situation-specific method. The method chunks are stored in a method chunk repository. In order to cater for management and retrieval, we introduce an Interoperability Classification Framework, which is used to classify and tag method chunks and to assess the project situation in which they are to be used. The classification framework incorporates technical as well as business and organisational aspects of interoperability. This is an important feature as interoperability problems typically are multifaceted spanning multiple aspects. We have applied the approach to analyse an industry case from the insurance sector to identify and classify a set of method chunks.

  • 72.
    Slijper, Angelique
    et al.
    Rehabilitation Medicine, The Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg / Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde.
    Svensson, Karin E.
    Rehabilitation Medicine, The Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg / Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sunnerhagen, Katharina Stibrant
    Rehabilitation Medicine, The Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Computer game-based upper extremity training in the home environment in stroke persons: a single subject design2014In: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The objective of the present study was to assess whether computer game-based training in the home setting in the late phase after stroke could improve upper extremity motor function.

    METHODS: Twelve subjects with prior stroke were recruited; 11 completed the study.

    DESIGN: The study had a single subject design; there was a baseline test (A1), a during intervention test (B) once a week, a post-test (A2) measured directly after the treatment phase, plus a follow-up (C) 16-18 weeks after the treatment phase. Information on motor function (Fugl-Meyer), grip force (GrippitR) and arm function in activity (ARAT, ABILHAND) was gathered at A1, A2 and C. During B, only Fugl-Meyer and ARAT were measured. The intervention comprised five weeks of game-based computer training in the home environment. All games were designed to be controlled by either the affected arm alone or by both arms. Conventional formulae were used to calculate the mean, median and standard deviations. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used for tests of dependent samples. Continuous data were analyzed by methods for repeated measures and ordinal data were analyzed by methods for ordered multinomial data using cumulative logistic models. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: Six females and five males, participated in the study with an average age of 58 years (range 26-66). FMA-UE A-D (motor function), ARAT, the maximal grip force and the mean grip force on the affected side show significant improvements at post-test and follow-up compared to baseline. No significant correlation was found between the amount of game time and changes in the outcomes investigated in this study.

    CONCLUSION: The results indicate that computer game-based training could be a promising approach to improve upper extremity function in the late phase after stroke, since in this study, changes were achieved in motor function and activity capacity.

  • 73.
    Strand, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A Case of Knowledge Transfer: Problems Contextualized and Guideline Suggested2004In: 27th Conference on Information Systems Research in Scandinavia: IRIS, 2004, p. 71-86Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Strand, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Knowledge Transfer between networking organizations: a case evaluated and lessons learned2005In: Information modelling and knowledge bases XVI / [ed] Yasushi Kiyoki, Benkt Wangler, Hannu Jaakkola, Hannu Kangassalo, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2005, p. 336-343Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Su, Yanhui
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    The Fish Tank Model for Mobile Game Publishing Business Performance Evaluation2019In: Information Systems Development: Information Systems Beyond 2020: ISD2019 Proceedings / [ed] A Siarheyeva, C Barry, M Lang, H Linger, C Schneider, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business intelligence has been applied in the area of game development research for many years. However, few systematic research efforts are focusing on the game publishing side, especially for the mobile game publishing business. We aim to identify and remedy the shortcomings of the existing ARM funnel model for free-to-play mobile game analytics by introducing a new model, the Fish Tank Model, which combines the analysis of players’ behavior with in-game system data to drive the whole process of mobile game publishing. Based on the new model, we also bring and create relevant metrics for effectively measuring the business performance of mobile game publishing. Our main contributions are a survey of business intelligence used in game research and an analysis to reveal the insufficiency of an existing model for game publishing. Finally, we discuss business requirements for mobile game publishing and propose a brand-new model which better suits the free-to-play mobile game publishing business performance evaluation.

  • 76.
    Susi, Tarja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Serious Games: An Overview2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses some issues concerning serious games, that is, (digital) games used for purposes other than mere entertainment. The starting point is the serious games concept itself, and what the actually means. Further, serious games allow learners to experience situations that are impossible in the real world for reasons of safety, cost, time, etc., but they are also claimed to have positive impacts on the players’ development of a number of different skills. Subsequently, some possible positive (and negative) impacts of serious games are discussed. Further, some of the markets such games are used in are considered here, including, military games, government games, educational games, corporate games, and healthcare games. This report also identifies some (mainly academic) actors in the North American and the European serious games market. This report is part of the DISTRICT (Developing Industrial Strategies Through Innovative Cluster and Technologies) project: Serious Games Cluster and Business Network (SER3VG), which is part of the Interreg IIIC Programme.

  • 77.
    Söderström, Eva
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Backlund, PerUniversity of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.Kühn, H
    Proceedings of the Workshop on Web Services and Interoperability2005Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 78.
    Söderström, Eva
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University College of Borås, Sweden.
    Combining work process models to identify training needs in the prehospital care process2014In: Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 13th International Conference, BIR 2014, Lund, Sweden, September 22-24, 2014. Proceedings / [ed] Björn Johansson, Bo Andersson & Nicklas Holmberg, Springer, 2014, p. 375-389Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prehospital process is complex and covers a wide range of locations, healthcare personnel, technologies and competences. Enabling high quality holistic training is hence a challenge. Process models are efficient tools for representing reality, but no single modeling approach can cover the complexity of prehospital care. In our research, we have investigated the possibility to combine various process modeling techniques in order to identify training components and as many perspectives of the prehospital process as possible. Results show that combining different approaches and adapting them based on the need at hand is a successful strategy for enabling an of the prehospital care process from multiple perspectives, including identification of holistic, realistic and engaging training components.  Future work can utilize our results to build training scenarios that can be implemented in training using for example simulation.

  • 79.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Localization from an Indie Game Production Perspective: Why, When and How?2018In: DiGRA '18 - Proceedings of the 2018 DiGRA International Conference: The Game is the Message, Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the process of game localization from an indie development perspective. The global nature of the digitally distributed game industry gives opportunities for game studios of all sizes to develop and distribute games on a global market. This poses a challenge for small independent developers with limited resources in funding and personnel, seeking to get as wide spread of their game as possible. To reach the players in other regions of the world localization needs to be done, taking language and other regional differences in mind. In an AAA or big-budget game production, these questions are handled by separate entities focusing solely on the localization process – but how do small independent game developers handle this? Indie game developers in Sweden, China and India have been interviewed to investigate the research question of how do indie game developers handle localization in the development process. The results points to a widespread use of community- and fan translation, and that only basic localization is done i.e. culturalization aspects are not considered. The results also show that the reason for localizing can be both business decisions but also to spread a specific message using games.

  • 80.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Missing: Understanding the Reception of a Serious Game by Analyzing App Store Data2018In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SERIOUS GAMES, E-ISSN 2384-8766, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is the design and player reception of a serious game called Missing released on Google Play with the intention of spreading awareness of trafficking and its impact on individuals and society. The aim of the paper is to investigate how the game has been received by its players, focusing on its trafficking theme, by analyzing player metrics and app store data available from the Google Play digital distribution system. The paper presents results focusing on three main knowledge contributions: the identification and characterization of the tension between the designer’s intention with a game’s mechanics and how they help to convey the message of the game, the identification of the complexity of finding relevant reviews relating to the serious theme of the game and the identification and characterization of the tension between the star rating and the content of the reviews. One of the conclusions is that even a negative review can mirror a positive result in terms of fulfillment of the purpose.

  • 81.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Global Influences on Regional Industries: Game development in Nordic countries, China and India2016In: Decoding the Academic-Industrial-Gameplay Complex: Digital Game Practice, Research and Study in China, Taiwan and Chinese-Speaking Regions, Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The game development industry has historically been strongly associated with a few particularly dominant actors, namely Japan and the US. As a result, video game development processes and game content that have originated from these actors are often used as a benchmark for what game development is and can be. Discussing the games industry from these perspectives can, however, gloss over important nuances that make other game development regions unique. With this in mind, this paper intends to discuss the ways in which different cultural and regional contexts are reflected in the structure of local game development industries and, to some extent, in produced game content. To inform this discussion, the authors use the foundation and growth of game development practices in three different regions: the Nordic region, India, and China. These three regions serve as specific exemplifying cases of how video game industries and praxis can take different shapes depending on what resources and components they have available. The paper concludes that all regional games industries and game development practices are heavily influenced by the precedent set by historically dominant actors. This results in game content and development practices that often mimics pre-established standards. But, over time, the conditions surrounding the formation of regional industries manifest themselves in more locally unique content and development processes.

  • 82.
    Ye, Xiaozhen
    et al.
    School of Computer and Communication Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ning, Huansheng
    School of Computer and Communication Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China.
    Fidelity in Simulation-based Serious Games2019In: IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, ISSN 1939-1382, E-ISSN 1939-1382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The extensive use of Simulation-based Serious Games (SSGs) has made a revolution in educational techniques. As a potentially significant feature for SSG design and evaluation, the term fidelity (the similarity between an SSG and its real reference) emerges and attracts increasing attention. The study of fidelity not only benefits the design, development, and analysis of an SSG with the consideration of improving the learning effect but also contributes to the investment reduction of an SSG. However, the term fidelity is used inconsistently in current literature. The introduction of new technologies (e.g. virtual reality) and the blend of multiform SSGs also facilitate the extension of fidelity with new connotations. All lead to confusing concepts and vague measure metrics. Besides, the relationship between fidelity and learning effect is still uncertain. A new vision and a comprehensive conceptual framework of fidelity for more general applications are in need. In this paper, further exploration and discussion of these issues in relation to fidelity of SSGs are presented through a systematic review. A general conceptual framework considering both aspects of the SSG system itself and the learners is developed and applied to analyze fidelity in SSGs. Based on that, a discussion on fidelity related issues of SSG design and development is presented.

  • 83.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Wangler, Benkt
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Security Issues in Health Care Process Integration: Research-in-Progress Report2005In: 2nd INTEROP-EMOI Open Workshop on Enterprise Models and Ontologies for Interoperability: INTEROP-EMOI 05, Porto: Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto , 2005, p. 363-366Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to summarize our research and describe our current position in the areas of health care process integration and information security. Security is one of the important non functional aspect of interoperability within the INTEROP NoE. The paper will briefly introduce our work and some findings concerning security issues in process integration within the health care sector.

  • 84.
    Östblad, Per Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Inclusive game design: audio interface in a graphical adventure game2014In: 9th Audio Mostly: A Conference on Interaction With Sound (AM '14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, New York, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lot of video games on the market are inaccessible to players with visual impairments because they rely heavily on use of graphical elements. This paper presents a project aimed at developing a point-and-click adventure game for smart phones and tablets that is equally functional and enjoyable by blind and sighted players. This will be achieved by utilizing audio to give blind players all necessary information and enjoyment without graphics. In addition to creating the game, the aim of the project is to identify design aspects that can be applied to more types of games to include more players. This paper also presents a pilot study that has been conducted on an early version of the game and the preliminary findings are discussed.

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