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  • 51.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The feeling of action tendencies: on the emotional regulation of goal-directed behavior2011In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 2, no Dec, p. Article 346-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we review the nature of the functional and causal relationship between neurophysiologically/psychologically generated states of emotional feeling and action tendencies and extrapolate a novel perspective. Emotion theory, over the past century and beyond, has tended to regard feeling and action tendency as independent phenomena: attempts to outline the functional and causal relationship that exists between them have been framed therein. Classically, such relationships have been viewed as unidirectional, but an argument for bidirectionality rooted in a dynamic systems perspective has gained strength in recent years whereby the feeling-action tendency relationship is viewed as a composite whole. On the basis of our review of somatic-visceral theories of feelings, we argue that feelings are grounded upon neural-dynamic representations (elevated and stable activation patterns) of action tendency. Such representations amount to predictions updated by cognitive and bodily feedback. Specifically, we view emotional feelings as minimalist predictions of the action tendency (what the agent is physiologically and cognitively primed to do) in a given situation. The essence of this point is captured by our exposition of action tendency prediction-feedback loops with we consider, above all, in the context of emotion regulation, and in particular, of emotional regulation of goal-directed behavior. The perspective outlined may be of use to emotion theorists, computational modelers, and roboticists.

  • 52.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The role of reinforcement in affective computation2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence for Creativity and Affective Computing, CICAC 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 17-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Towards a cognitive robotics methodology for reward-based decision-making: dynamical systems modelling of the Iowa Gambling Task2010In: Connection science (Print), ISSN 0954-0091, E-ISSN 1360-0494, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 247-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) posits that the role of emotions and mental states in decision-making manifests through bodily responses to stimuli of import to the organism’s welfare. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), proposed by Bechara and Damasio in the mid-1990s, has provided the major source of empirical validation to the role of somatic markers in the service of flexible and cost-effective decision-making in humans. In recent years the IGT has been the subject of much criticism concerning: (1) whether measures of somatic markers reveal that they are important for decision-making as opposed to behaviour preparation; (2) the underlying neural substrate posited as critical to decision-making of the type relevant to the task; and (3) aspects of the methodological approach used, particularly on the canonical version of the task. In this paper, a cognitive robotics methodology is proposed to explore a dynamical systems approach as it applies to the neural computation of reward-based learning and issues concerning embodiment. This approach is particularly relevant in light of a strongly emerging alternative hypothesis to the SMH, the reversal learning hypothesis, which links, behaviourally and neurocomputationally, a number of more or less complex reward-based decision-making tasks, including the ‘A-not-B’ task – already subject to dynamical systems investigations with a focus on neural activation dynamics. It is also suggested that the cognitive robotics methodology may be used to extend systematically the IGT benchmark to more naturalised, but nevertheless controlled, settings that might better explore the extent to which the SMH, and somatic states per se, impact on complex decision-making.

  • 54.
    Löfström, Tuve
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    König, Richard
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johansson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Benefits of Relating the Retail Domain to Information Fusion2006In: 9th International Conference on Information Fusion: IEEE ISIF, IEEE conference proceedings, 2006, p. Article number 4085930-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Herrera, Carlos
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    An Analysis of Behavioral Attractor Dynamics2007In: 9th European Conference, ECAL 2007: Advances in Artificial Life, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, p. 213-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of brain, body and environment can result in complex behavior with rich dynamics even for relatively simple agents. Such dynamics are, however, often notoriously difficult to analyze. In this paper we explore the case of a simple simulated robotic agent, equipped with a reactive neurocontroller and an energy level, that the agent has been evolved to re-charge. A dynamical systems analysis, shows that a non-neural internal state (energy level), despite its simplicity, dynamically modulates the agent-environment system’s behavioral attractors, such that the robot’s behavioral repertoire is continually adapted to its current situation and energy level.

  • 56.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Herrera, Carlos
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On Cognition as Dynamical Coupling: An Analysis of Behavioral Attractor Dynamics2008In: Adaptive Behavior, ISSN 1059-7123, E-ISSN 1741-2633, Vol. 16, no 2-3, p. 182-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of brain, body, and environment can result incomplex behavior with rich dynamics, even for relatively simpleagents. Such dynamics are, however, often difficult to analyze.In this article, we explore the case of a simple simulated roboticagent, equipped with a reactive neurocontroller and an energylevel, which the agent has been evolved to recharge. A dynamicalsystems analysis shows that a non-neural internal state (energylevel), despite its simplicity, dynamically modulates the behavioralattractors of the agent—environment system, such thatthe robot's behavioral repertoire is continually adapted toits current situation and energy level. What emerges is a dynamic,non-deterministic, and highly self-organized action selectionmechanism, originating from the dynamical coupling of four systems(non-neural internal states, neurocontroller, body, and environment)operating at very different timescales.

  • 57.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ieropoulos, Ioannis
    Bristol Robotics Laboratory, University of Bristol and University of the West of England, UK.
    Melhuish, Chris
    Bristol Robotics Laboratory, University of Bristol and University of the West of England, UK.
    Greenman, John
    Microbiology Research Lab, University of the West of England, UK.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Microbial fuel cell driven behavioural dynamics in robot simulations2010In: Artificial Life XII: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems / [ed] Harold Fellermann, Mark Dörr, Martin Hanczyc, Lone Ladegaard Laursen, Sarah Maurer, Daniel Merkle, Pierre-Alain Monnard, Kasper Støy, Steen Rasmussen, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2010, p. 749-756Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the present study we report the first application of a recently proposed model for realistic microbial fuel cells (MFCs) energy generation dynamics, suitable for robotic simulations with minimal and extremely limited computational overhead. A simulated agent was adapted in order to engage in a viable interaction with its environment. It achieved energy autonomy by maintaining viable levels of the critical variables of MFCs, namely cathodic hydration and anodic substrate biochemical energy. After unsupervised adaptation by genetic algorithm, these crucial variables modulate the behavioral dynamics expressed by viable robots in their interaction with the environment. The analysis of this physically rooted and self-organized dynamic action selection mechanism constitutes a novel practical contribution of this work. We also compare two different viable strategies, a self-organized continuous and a pulsed behavior, in order to foresee the possible cognitive implications of such biologicalmechatronics hybrid symbionts in a novel scenario of ecologically grounded energy and motivational autonomy.

  • 58.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Embodied anticipation for swift re-adaptation in neurocomputational cognitive architectures for robotic agents2009In: Proceedings of the 31th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society / [ed] Niels Taatgen & Hedderik van Rijn, Austin: Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2009, p. 3082-3087Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between a body (in an extended sense that encompasses both neural and non-neural dynamics) and its environment is here conceived as a critical substrate for cognition. We propose and discuss the plan for a neurocomputational cognitive architecture for robotic agents, so far implemented in its minimalist form for supporting the behavior of a simple simulated agent. A non-neural internal bodily mechanism (crucially characterized by a time scale much slower than the normal sensory-motor interactions of the robot with its environment) extends the cognitive potential of a system composed of purely reactive parts with a dynamic action selection mechanism and the capacity to integrate information over time. The same non-neural mechanism is the foundation for a novel, minimalist anticipatory architecture, capable of swift re-adaptation to related yet novel tasks.

  • 59.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Embodied anticipation in neurocomputational cognitive architectures for robotic agents2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between a body (in an extended sense that encompasses both neural and non-neural dynamics) and its environment is here conceived as a critical substrate for cognition. We propose and discuss the plan for a neurocomputational cognitive architecture for robotic agents, so far implemented in its minimal form for supporting the behavior of a simple simulated robotic agent. A non-neural internal bodily mechanism (crucially characterized by a time scale much slower than the normal sensory-motor interactions of the robot with its environment) extends the cognitive potential of a system composed of purely reactive parts with a dynamic action selection mechanism and the capacity to integrate information over time. The same non-neural mechanism is the foundation for a novel, minimalist anticipatory architecture, implementing our bodily-anticipation hypothesis and capable of swift readaptation to related yet novel tasks.1

  • 60.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Energy Constraints and Behavioral Complexity: The Case of a Robot with a Living Core2011In: Complex Adaptive Systems: Energy, Information, and Intelligence: Papers from the AAAI Fall Symposium / [ed] Mirsad Hadžikadić, Ted Carmichael, Palo Alto, Calif.: AAAI Press, 2011, p. 109-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new scenarios of contemporary adaptive robotics seem to suggest a transformation of the traditional methods. In the search for new approaches to the control of adaptive autonomous systems, the mind becomes a fundamental source of inspiration. In this paper we anticipate, through the use of simulation, the cognitive and behavioral properties that emerge from a recent prototype robotic platform, EcoBot, a family of bio-mechatronic symbionts provided with an 'artificial metabolism', that has been under physical development during recent years. Its energy reliance on a biological component and the consequent limitation of its supplied energy determine a special kind of dynamic coupling between the robot and its environment. Rather than just an obstacle, energetic constraints become the opportunity for the development of a rich set of behavioral and cognitive properties.

  • 61.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    More from the Body: Embodied anticipation for swift re-adaptation in neurocomputational cognitive architectures for robotic agents2010In: Advances in Cognitive Systems / [ed] Nefti-Meziani, Samia, Stevenage: Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2010, p. 249-270Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between a body (in an extended sense that encompasses  both neural and non-neural dynamics) and its environment is here conceived as a critical substrate for cognition. We propose and discuss the plan for a neurocomputational cognitive architecture for robotic agents, so far implemented in its minimal form for supporting the behavior of a simple simulated robotic agent. A non-neural internal bodily mechanism (crucially characterized by a time scale much slower than the normal sensory-motor interactions of the robot with its environment) extends the cognitive potential of a system composed of purely reactive parts with a dynamic action selection mechanism and the capacity to integrate information over time. The same non-neural mechanism is the foundation for a novel, minimalist anticipatory architecture, implementing our bodily-anticipation hypothesis and capable of swift re-adaptation to related yet novel tasks.

  • 62.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Cognitive Body: From Dynamic Modulation to Anticipation2009In: Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems, ABiALS 2008: From Psychological Theories to Artificial Cognitive Systems / [ed] Giovanni Pezzulo, Martin V. Butz, Olivier Sigaud, Gianluca Baldassarre, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 132-151Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from the situated and embodied perspective on the study of cognition as a source of inspiration, this paper programmatically outlines a path towards an experimental exploration of the role of the body in a minimal anticipatory cognitive architecture. Cognition is here conceived and synthetically analyzed as a broadly extended and distributed dynamic process emerging from the interplay between a body, a nervous system and their environment. Firstly, we show how a non-neural internal state, crucially characterized by slowly changing dynamics, can modulate the activity of a simple neurocontroller. The result, emergent from the use of a standard evolutionary robotic simulation, is a selforganized, dynamic action selection mechanism, effectively operating in a context dependent way. Secondly, we show how these characteristics can be exploited by a novel minimalist anticipatory cognitive architecture. Rather than a direct causal connection between the anticipationprocess and the selection of the appropriate behavior, it implements a model for dynamic anticipation that operates via bodily mediation (bodily-anticipation hypothesis). This allows the system to swiftly scale up to more complex tasks never experienced before, achieving flexible and robust behavior with minimal adaptive cost.

  • 63.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, Aalto University, Finland.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toward Metabolic Robotics: Insights from Modeling Embodied Cognition in a Biomechatronic Symbiont2013In: Artificial Life, ISSN 1064-5462, E-ISSN 1530-9185, Vol. 19, no 3-4, p. 299-315Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Morrison, India
    et al.
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, University of Wales Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2AS, United Kingdom.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Empathy with Computer Game Characters: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective2005In: AISB’05 Convention Social Intelligence and Interaction in Animals, Robots and Agents: 12-15 April 2005  University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK: Proceedings of the Joint Symposium on Virtual Social Agents: Social Presence Cues for Virtual Humanoids Empathic Interaction with Synthetic Characters Mind Minding Agents, the Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence , 2005, p. 73-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses recent findings concerning the brain mechanisms underlying visuomotor, visuotactile, and visuo-affective mappings and their relevance to understanding how human players relate to computer game characters. In particular visuo-affective mappings, which are regarded as the foundation for the subjective, emotional elements of empathy, come into play especially during social interactions, when we transform visual information about someone else’s emotional state into similar emotional dispositions of our own. Understanding these processes may provide basic preconditions for game character identification and empathy in three main cases discussed in this paper: (1) when the game character is controlled from a first-person perspective; (2) when the character is controlled from a third-person perspective; and (3) when the character is seen from a thirdperson perspective but not controlled by the player. Given that human cognition springs from neural processes ultimately subserving bioregulation, self-preservation, navigation in a subjective space, and social relationships, we argue that acknowledging this legacy - and perhaps even regarding it as a path through design space - can contribute to effective human-computer interface design.

  • 65.
    Morse, Anthony F.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Herrera, Carlos
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Clowes, Robert
    Center for Research in Cognitive Science, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The role of robotic modelling in cognitive science2011In: New ideas in psychology, ISSN 0732-118X, E-ISSN 1873-3522, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 312-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the perspective of cognitive robotics, this paper presents a modern interpretation of Newell’s (1973) reasoning and suggestions for why and how cognitive psychologists should develop models of cognitive phenomena. We argue that the shortcomings of current cognitive modelling approaches are due in significant part to a lack of exactly the kind of integration required for the development of embodied autonomous robotics. Moreover we suggest that considerations of embodiment, situatedness, and autonomy, intrinsic to cognitive robotics, provide an appropriate basis for the integration and theoretic cumulation that Newell argued was necessary for psychology to mature. From this perspective we analyse the role of embodiment and modes of situatedness in terms of integration, cognition, emotion, and autonomy. Four complementary perspectives on embodied and situated cognitive science are considered in terms of their potential to contribute to cognitive robotics, cognitive science, and psychological theorizing: minimal cognition and organization, enactive perception and sensorimotor contingency, homeostasis and emotion, and social embedding. In combination these perspectives provide a framework for cognitive robotics, not only wholly compatible with the original aims of cognitive modelling, but as a more appropriate methodology than those currently in common use within psychology.

  • 66.
    Morse, Anthony F.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Neurocomputational Model of Anticipation and Sustained Inattentional Blindness in Hierarchies2009In: Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning systems, ABiALS 2008 / [ed] Giovanni Pezzulo, Martin V. Butz, Olivier Sigaud, Gianluca Baldassarre, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 152-169Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anticipation and prediction have been identified as key functions of many brain areas facilitating recognition, perception, and planning. In this chapter we present a hierarchical neurocomputational model in which feedback, effectively predicting or anticipating task-relevant features, leads to sustained inattentional blindness. A psychological experiment on sustained inattentional blindness in human subjects is simulated to provide visual input to a hierarchy of Echo State Networks. Other parts of the model receive input relevant to tracking the attended object and also detecting the unexpected object, feedback from which is then used to simulate engagement in the task and compared to results obtained without feedback, simulating passive observation. We find a significant effect of anticipation enhancing performance at the task and simultaneously degrading detection of unexpected features, thereby modelling the sustained inattentional blindness effect. We therefore suggest that anticipatory /predictive mechanisms are responsible for sustained inattentional blindness.

  • 67.
    Morse, Anthony F.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Manipulating space: modelling the role of transient dynamics in inattentional blindness2009In: Connection science (Print), ISSN 0954-0091, E-ISSN 1360-0494, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 275-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Noë´s enactive theory of perception, sensorimotor knowledge allows us to predict the sensory outcomes of our actions. This paper suggests that tuning input filters with such predictions may be the cause of sustained inattentional blindness. Most models of learning capture statistically salient regularities in and between data streams. Such analysis is, however, severely limited by both the problem of marginal regularity and the credit assignment problem. A neurocomputational reservoir system can be used to alleviate these problems without training by enhancing the separability of regularities in input streams. However, as the regularities made separable vary with the state of the reservoir, feedback in the form of predictions of future sensory input can both enchance expected discriminations and hinder unanticipated ones. This renders the model blind to features not made separable in the regions of state space the reservoir in manipulated towards. This is demonstrated in a computational model of sustained inattentional blindness, leading to predictions about human behaviour that have yet to be tested.

  • 68.
    Morse, Anthony F.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Action, Detection, and Perception: A Computational Model of the Relation Between Movement and Orientation Selectivity in the Cerebral Cortex2009In: Proceedings of the Thirty-First Annual Conferenceof theCognitive Science Society / [ed] Niels Taatgen & Hedderik van Rijn, Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2009, p. 585-590Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental tenet of enactive theories of cognition states that action is a necessary prerequisite to perception. In this paper we review the basis for this assumption and, with the help of a computational model of the famous Held and Hein kitten experiments, challenge the necessity of movement in subsequent detection. In normal development action does play an important role in setting up detection, but we aim here to widen our conceptions and consider the effect of correlations between non-motoric events.

  • 69.
    Morse, Anthony
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Towards an Enactive Cognitive Architecture2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Morse, Antony F
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Cognitive Robotics, Enactive Perception, and Learning in the Real World2007In: CogSci 2007: The 29th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 2007, p. 485-490Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotic cognitive modeling in the real world requires a level of integration and grounding rarely seen in more abstract modeling. However, like Newell we believe this is exactly the kind of integration needed to promote scientific cumulation in the cognitive sciences. We present a neural model of learning compatible with Noë’s account of enactive perception. We highlight that accounts of enactive perception tend to oversimplify the problem of identifying contingent relationships and introduce a novel way to address the problem of marginal regularities. Finally, we describe a general (non-task specific) model and present a number of real-world robotic experiments demonstrating a wide range of integrated psychological phenomena.

  • 71.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brax, Christoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kronhamn, Thomas
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Martin
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Warston, Håkan
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). Saab Microwave Systems, Skövde, Sweden.
    A Unified Situation Analysis Model for Human and Machine Situation Awareness2007In: INFORMATIK 2007: Informatik trifft Logistik: Band 2: Beiträge der 37. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI) 24. - 27. September 2007 in Bremen / [ed] Otthein Herzog, Karl-Heinz Rödiger, Marc Ronthaler, Rainer Koschke, Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik , 2007, p. 105-109Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kronhamn, Thomas
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Martin
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Warston, Håkan
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Extending the scope of Situation Analysis2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), Cologne, Germany, June 30–July 3, 2008, IEEE Press, 2008, p. 454-461Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of technology to assist human decision making has been around for quite some time now. In the literature, models of both technological and human aspects of this support can be identified. However, we argue that there is a need for a unified model which synthesizes and extends existing models. In this paper, we give two perspectives on situation analysis: a technological perspective and a human perspective. These two perspectives are merged into a unified situation analysis model for semi-automatic, automatic and manual decision support (SAM)2. The unified model can be applied to decision support systems with any degree of automation. Moreover, an extension of the proposed model is developed which can be used for discussing important concepts such as common operational picture and common situation awareness.

  • 73.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lärande Datorer: Utopi eller Verklighet?1996Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna populärvetenskapliga rapport ger en kort introduktion till självlärande artificiella neurala nätverk, samt sätter dem i relation till den science fiction-version som ges på TV och film.

  • 74.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Investigating human-computer interaction issues in information-fusion-based decision support2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information fusion is a research area which focuses on how to combine information from many different sources to support decision making. Commonly used information fusion systems are often complex and used in military and crises management domains. The focus of information fusion research so far has been mainly on the technological aspects. There is still a lack of understanding relevant user aspects that affect the information fusion systems as a whole. This paper presents a framework of HCI issues which considers users as embedded in the context of information fusion systems. The framework aims at providing insights regarding factors that affect user interaction to inform the development of future information fusion systems. Design considerations are presented together with a heuristic evaluation of an information fusion prototype.

  • 75.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Formalising Distributed Cognition into a Tool to Capture Information Fusion Processes2008In: Proceedings of the second Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2008) / [ed] H. Boström, R. Johansson, Joeri van Laere, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2008, p. 34-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented research is motivated by the limited ability of current methods to capture the nature of information fusion processes. Fusion processes typically include both humans and technology, hence, there is a need for a new way to analyse such processes. With the aid of distributed cognition, the interaction between decision makers and IF technology can be captured more clearly, and thereby critical bottlenecks can be identified which may require further automation. Application of the tool may advance the research area of information fusion.

  • 76.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Viktoria Swedish ICT.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Action and intention recognition in human interaction with autonomous vehicles2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information fusion in practice: A distributed cognition perspective on the active role of users2012In: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 60-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, the focus of most information fusion research has been on computational aspects, as illustrated by, for example, different versions of the JDL data fusion model. Consequently, the human user has mainly been conceived as a relatively passive recipient of fused information. However, the importance of understanding the active role of human information processing in information fusion is gaining increasing recognition, as also reflected in discussions of a "level 5" in the JDL model. This paper presents a case study of the interaction between human and machine information processing in a maritime surveillance control room. A detailed analysis of cognitive processes and information flows involved in identifying and tracking moving vessels illustrates how machines and human operators collaboratively perform fusion in a highly distributed fashion. The theoretical framework of distributed cognition provides an alternative or complementary way of analysing information fusion systems/processes that more clearly reveals the actual complexities of the interaction between human and machine information processing in practice. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 78.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berggren, Peter
    Swedish Defence Research Agency Command and Control Systems Man-Systems-Interaction Linköping.
    Kylesten, Birgitta
    Swedish Defence Research Agency Command and Control Systems Man-Systems-Interaction Linköping.
    A user study of the Impact matrix, a fusion based decision support for enhanced situation awareness2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion 2008 (FUSION 2008), IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, p. 440-447Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Today’s asymmetric threats put new challenges on military decision making. As new technology develops we have new possibilities to support decision making in such environments. However, it is important that the tools developed take into account users’ (commanders’) decision needs. This paper presents some initial user studies of Swedish commanders testing a prototype application developed to answer these new challenges introduced by asymmetric threats. The application aids commanders by supporting situation awareness in terms of providing an overview of incoming intelligence reports and displaying probabilities of future events. The user study focuses on how the tool can support commanders’ daily decision making activities. The results indicate that the general concept could be useful for Swedish commanders and analysts, but some suggestions for improvements are made. The issues found in this study will inform the continuing evaluation of this tool.

     

  • 79.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Edlund, Johan
    Saab Systems Järfälla, Sweden.
    Extracting rules from expert operators to support situation awareness in maritime surveillance2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), IEEE Press, 2008, p. 908-915Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In maritime surveillance, supporting operators’ situation awareness is a very important issue for enabling the possibility to detect anomalous behaviour. We present a user study which conceptualises knowledge to be implemented in a rulebased application aiming at supporting situation awareness. Participatory observations were used as a method for extracting operators’ knowledge. The result of the user study is in the form of a number of identified rules emerging from organisational factors, group thinking and individual experience. A description of the rule-based prototype is presented a long with the result from the user study. This is also discussed together with the applicability of rule based systems and how to support situation awareness.

     

  • 80.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information fusion: a decision support perspective2007In: 10th International Conference on Information Fusion, 2007, IEEE Press, 2007, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of most information fusion research, so far, has been on the technology, i.e. information processing techniques and algorithms. Consequently, there is a lack of research concerning the actual usage of information fusion systems in terms of cognitive and organisational issues such as supporting both individual and group decision making. This paper provides a retrospective of information fusion research so far and a future vision of information fusion systems as actual decision support systems. A methodology for developing decision support systems is suggested which could not only ensure the effectiveness of information fusion systems as decision support systems but also provide a natural user perspective and top-down approach to information fusion in general.

  • 81.
    Olsson, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Nilsson, Patric
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Gawronska, Barbara
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    An Information Fusion Approach to Controlling Complexity in Bioinformatics Research2005In: 2005 IEEE Computational Systems Bioinformatics Conference: Workshops & Poster Abstracts: CSB 2005, IEEE Computer Society, 2005, p. 299-304Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Fusion (IF) is about combining, or fusing, information from different sources in order to facilitate our understanding of a complex system and thereby provide insights that could not be gained from any of the individual data sources in isolation. We argue in this paper that there is a need for applying an IF approach in bioinformatics research, since the aim of bioinformatics is to understand complex biological systems using many different data sources providing complementary views of the system. We illustrate this argument with two application examples, where IF-based bioinformatics is applied to the study of stem cell differentiation and lipid digestion, respectively. We also discuss the use of automated information extraction from text sources, which is an essential component of a bioinformatics IF approach, given the abundant literature.

  • 82.
    Pellicano, Antonello
    et al.
    Section of Neurological Cognition Research, Department of Neurology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Binkofski, Ferdinand
    Section of Neurological Cognition Research, Department of Neurology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
    Affordances, adaptive tool use and grounded cognition2011In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 2, p. 1-2, article id 53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Perez, Carlos Herrera
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Moffat, David C.
    Glasgow Caledonian University, School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, G4 0BA. Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Emotions as a bridge to the environment: On the role of body in organisms and robots2006In: FROM ANIMALS TO ANIMATS 9, PROCEEDINGS, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2006, p. 3-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive agents exhibit tightly coupled interactions between nervous system, body and environment. Parisi recently suggested that the current focus on sensorimotor interaction between agent and environment needs to be complemented by an "internal robotics", i.e. modeling of the interaction between internal physiology and nervous system in, for example, emotional mechanisms. The dynamical systems notion of "collective variables" can help understanding such interactions. In emotions physiological states are key parameters that trace the global dynamic concern relevance of the situation. Such variables may be key, in adaptive systems, to monitoring and controlling the agent's interaction with the external environment. We show in a simple robotic simulation that the neural controller can self-organize to exploit the dynamical regularities traced by these variables. We conclude this can prove to be a useful technique in robots and animals, towards evolving emotion-based adaptive behaviors.

  • 84.
    Pérez, Carlos Herrera
    et al.
    Intelligent Systems Research Centre, University of Ulster, Derry, United Kingdom.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Aristotle, autonomy and the explanation of behaviour2007In: Pragmatics & Cognition, ISSN 0929-0907, E-ISSN 1569-9943, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 547-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines Aristotle’s notion of autonomy and its implication for the mechanicism/autonomy debate. We introduce the basic principles of Aristotle’s scientific framework, including his theory of four causes for the explanation of nature. We draw parallels between these notions of autonomy and causation and autopoietic theory, dynamical systems and robotics, suggesting that they may be compatible with Aristotle’s framework. We argue that understanding the problem of design of autonomous robots may benefit from the consideration of integration of Aristotle’s causes, while robotics, in turn, may contribute to the debate providing a common ground for epistemological and ontological notions of autonomy

  • 85.
    Rambusch, Jana
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Artefacts as Mediators of Distributed Social Cognition: A Case Study2005In: Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society, August 4 - 7, 2004, Chicago, Illinois, USA / [ed] Kenneth Forbus, Dedre Gentner & Terry Regier, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005, p. 1113-1118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, cognition has been regarded as the outcome of internal cognitive processes manipulating mental representations. More recently, however, it has become clear that cognition cannot be separated from the social and material environment in which people live and act, and that in many cases cognition is distributed among individuals and environmental properties. One important aspect has turned out to be artefacts and their use, and there is growing interest in understanding how tool use affects cognition. However, even with this increased awareness of the role of artefacts, the focus has mainly been on the cognitive processes and representations of individuals, while the social role of artefacts has received less attention. An ethnographically inspired field study, observing a hospital’s children admission unit, was conducted to investigate the way individual and collaborative work are affected by the use of artefacts within a given social context. The results indicate that the use of artefacts is closely coupled to the social environment, that to some degree social interactions are transformed into more indirect, individual processes, and that artefacts are crucial for high-level processes such as memory and coordination.

  • 86.
    Rambusch, Jana
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The Role of Embodiment in Situated Learning2005In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society: CogSci05 / [ed] Bruno G. Bara, Lawrence Barsalou, Monica Bucciarelli, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005, p. 1803-1808Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of activity is central to situated learning theories, but activity has largely been considered an exclusively sociocultural process in which the body only plays a minor role. In embodied cognition research, on the other hand, there is an increasing awareness that mind and body are inextricably intertwined and cannot be viewed in isolation. Findings in the field of cognitive neuroscience provide additional evidence that cognition is tightly linked to perception and action. This paper aims to shed a light on the role of the body insituated learning activity by integrating the different perspectives of situated learning and embodied cognition research. The paper suggests that, like individual human conceptualization and thought, situated learning is in fact deeply rooted in bodily activity. In social interactions the body provides individuals with a similar perspective on the world, it functions as a means of signalling to others what cannot (yet) be expressed verbally, and it serves as a resonance mechanism in the understanding of others.

  • 87.
    Rapp, Amon
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, University of Turin, Italy / ICxT - ICT and Innovation for Society and Territory, University of Turin, Italy.
    Tirassa, Maurizio
    Psychology Department, University of Turin, Italy.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Cognition and Interaction Lab, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Cognitive aspects of interactive technology use: From computers to smart objects and autonomous agents2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, no MAY, article id 1078Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Richardson, Kathleen
    et al.
    De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Coeckelbergh, Mark
    De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Wakunuma, Kutoma
    De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gómez, Pablo
    Vrije Universiteit, Brussel, Belgium.
    Vanderborght, Bram
    Vrije Universiteit, Brussel, Belgium.
    Belpaeme, Tony
    University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Robot Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism (DREAM): A Social Model of Autism2018In: IEEE technology & society magazine, ISSN 0278-0097, E-ISSN 1937-416X, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 30-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of social robots for children with autism has been a growth field for the past 15 years. This article reviews studies in robots and autism as a neurodevelopmental disorder that impacts socialcommunication development, and the ways social robots could help children with autism develop social skills. Drawing on ethics research from the EU-funded Development of Robot-Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism (DREAM) project (framework 7), this paper explores how ethics evolves and developed in this European project.

  • 89.
    Riveiro, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Improving maritime anomaly detection and situation awareness through interactive visualization2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), IEEE Computer Society, 2008, p. 47-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveillance of large land, air or sea areas with a multitude of sensor and sensor types typically generates huge amounts of data. Human operators trying to establish individual or collective maritime situation awareness are often overloaded by this information. In order to help them cope with this information overload, we have developed a combined methodology of data visualization, interaction and mining techniques that allows filtering out anomalous vessels, by building a model over normal behavior from which the user can detect deviations. The methodology includes a set of interactive visual representations that support the insertion of the user’s knowledge and experience in the creation, validation and continuous update of the normal model. Additionally, this paper presents a software prototype that implements the suggested methodology.

     

  • 90.
    Riveiro, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Visual Analytics for the Detection of Anomalous Maritime Behavior2008In: Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Information Visualisation IV08 / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Liz Stuart, Mikael Jern, Gennady Andrienko, Francis T. Marchese, Nasrullah Memon, Reda Alhajj, Theodor G. Wyeld, Remo Aslak Burkhard, Georges Grinstein, Dennis Groth, Anna Ursyn, Carsten Maple, Anthony Faiola, and Brock Craft, IEEE Computer Society, 2008, p. 273-279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The surveillance of large sea areas often generates huge amounts of multidimensional data. Exploring, analyzing and finding anomalous behavior within this data is a complex task. Confident decisions upon the abnormality of a particular vessel behavior require a certain level of situation awareness that may be difficult to achieve when the operator is overloaded by the available information. Based on a visual analytics process model, we present a novel system that supports the acquisition of situation awareness and the involvement of the user in the anomaly detection process using two layers of interactive visualizations. The system uses an interactive data mining module that supports the insertion of the user's knowledge and experience in the creation, validation and continuous update of the normal model of the environment.

  • 91.
    Riveiro, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Kronhamn, Thomas
    Saab AB.
    Reasoning about anomalies: a study of the analytical process of detecting and identifying anomalous behavior in maritime traffic data2009In: Visual Analytics for Homeland Defense and Security: Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009 / [ed] William J Tolone, William Ribarsky, SPIE , 2009, p. Article ID 73460A-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of visual analytical tools is to support the analytical reasoning process, maximizing human perceptual, understanding and reasoning capabilities in complex and dynamic situations. Visual analytics software must be built upon an understanding of the reasoning process, since it must provide appropriate interactions that allow a true discourse with the information. In order to deepen our understanding of the human analytical process and guide developers in the creation of more efficient anomaly detection systems, this paper investigates how is the human analytical process of detecting and identifying anomalous behavior in maritime traffic data. The main focus of this work is to capture the entire analysis process that an analyst goes through, from the raw data to the detection and identification of anomalous behavior.

    Three different sources are used in this study: a literature survey of the science of analytical reasoning, requirements specified by experts from organizations with interest in port security and user field studies conducted in different marine surveillance control centers. Furthermore, this study elaborates on how to support the human analytical process using data mining, visualization and interaction methods.

    The contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) within visual analytics, contribute to the science of analytical reasoning with practical understanding of users tasks in order to develop a taxonomy of interactions that support the analytical reasoning process and (2) within anomaly detection, facilitate the design of future anomaly detector systems when fully automatic approaches are not viable and human participation is needed.

  • 92.
    Riveiro, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Warston, Håkan
    Saab Microwave Systems AB (Sweden).
    VISAD: an interactive and visual analytical tool for the detection of behavioural anomalieis in maritime traffic data2009In: Visual Analytics for Homeland Defense and Security: Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009 / [ed] William J. Tolone, William Ribarsky, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2009, p. Article ID 734607-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring the surveillance of large sea areas normally involves the analysis of huge quantities of heterogeneous data from multiple sources (radars, cameras, automatic identification systems, reports, etc.). The rapid identification of anomalous behavior or any threat activity in the data is an important objective for enabling homeland security. While it is worth acknowledging that many existing mining applications support identification of anomalous behavior, autonomous anomaly detection systems are rarely used in the real world. There are two main reasons: (1) the detection of anomalous behavior is normally not a well-defined and structured problem and therefore, automatic data mining approaches do not work well and (2) the difficulties that these systems have regarding the representation and employment of the prior knowledge that the users bring to their tasks. In order to overcome these limitations, we believe that human involvement in the entire discovery process is crucial.

    Using a visual analytics process model as a framework, we present VISAD: an interactive, visual knowledge discovery tool for supporting the detection and identification of anomalous behavior in maritime traffic data. VISAD supports the insertion of human expert knowledge in (1) the preparation of the system, (2) the establishment of the normal picture and (3) in the actual detection of rare events. For each of these three modules, VISAD implements different layers of data mining, visualization and interaction techniques. Thus, the detection procedure becomes transparent to the user, which increases his/her confidence and trust in the system and overall, in the whole discovery process.

  • 93.
    Riveiro, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Supporting Maritime Situation Awareness Using Self Organizing Maps and Gaussian Mixture Models2008In: Proceedings of the Tenth Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence (SCAI 2008) / [ed] Anders Holst, Per Kreuger, Peter Funk, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2008, p. 84-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime situation awareness is of importance in a lot of areas – e.g. detection of weapon smuggling in military peacekeeping operations, and harbor traffic control missions for the coast guard. In this paper, we have combined the use of Self Organizing Maps with Gaussian Mixture Models, in order to enable situation awareness by detecting deviations from normal behavior in an unsupervised way. Initial results show that simple anomalies can be detected using this approach.

  • 94.
    Sakreida, Katrin
    et al.
    Division for Clinical Cognitive Sciences, Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany / Department of Neurosurgery, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Effnert, Isabel
    Division for Clinical Cognitive Sciences, Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Menz, Mareike M.
    Department of Systems Neuroscience and Neuroimage Nord, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Jirak, Doreen
    Knowledge Technology Group, Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Eickhoff, Claudia R.
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Eickhoff, Simon B.
    Cognitive Neuroscience Group, Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany / Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany.
    Borghi, Anna M.
    Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy / Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, National Research Council, Rome, Italy.
    Binkofski, Ferdinand
    Division for Clinical Cognitive Sciences, Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany / Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany / JARA − Translational Brain Medicine, Germany.
    Affordance processing in segregated parieto-frontal dorsal stream sub-pathways2016In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 69, p. 89-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Sakreida, Katrin
    et al.
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Menz, Mareike
    University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Rottschy, Claudia
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Eickhoff, Simon
    Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany / Research Centre Jülich, Germany.
    Borghi, Anna
    University of Bologna, Italy / National Research Council, Rome, Italy.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Binkofski, Ferdinand
    Neural pathways of stable and variable affordances: a coordinate-based meta-analysis2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Schäfer, Boris
    et al.
    Dept. of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, 58 183 Linköping, Sweden.
    Bergfeldt, Nicklas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro Carballa, Maria José
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Evolution of Tool Use Behavior2007In: Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE Symposium on Artificial Life (CI-ALife 2007), IEEE Press, 2007, p. 31-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the capability of artificial evolution to produce tool use behaviors of different complexity in simulated robotic agents and in the absence of learning or other lifetime methods. The results show by example that tool use behaviours of different complexity can evolve and do not necessarily rely on reasoning abilities.

  • 97.
    Sharkey, Noel E
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A consideration of the biological and psychological foundations of autonomous robotics.1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The new wave of robotics aims to provide robots with the capacity to learn, develop and evolve in interaction with their environments using biologically inspired techniques. This work is placed in perspective by considering its biological and psychological basis with reference to some of the grand theorists of living systems. In particular, we examine what it means to have a body by outlining theories of the mechanisms of bodily integration in multicellular organisms and their means of solidarity with the environment. We consider the implications of not having a living body for current ideas on robot learning, evolution, and cognition and issue words of caution about wishful attributions that can smuggle more into observations of robot behaviour than is scientifically supportable. To round off the arguments we take an obligatory swipe at ungrounded artificial intelligence but quickly move on to assess physical grounding and embodiment in terms of the rooted cognition of the living.

  • 98.
    Stening, John
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Jacobsson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Imagination and Abstraction of Sensorimotor Flow: Towards a Robot Model2005In: AISB'05 Convention: Proceedings of the Symposium on Next Generation Approaches to Machine Consciousness: Imagination, Development, Intersubjectivity and Embodiment, The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour , 2005, p. 50-58Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Susi, Tarja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Beyond the bounds of cognition2003In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 2003, p. 1134-1139Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Susi, Tarja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    On the subject of objects: Four views on object perception and tool use2005In: tripleC (cognition, communication, co-operation): Journal for a Global Sustainable Information Society / Unified Theory of Information Research Group, ISSN 1726-670X, E-ISSN 1726-670X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 6-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the relation between an agent and its environment, and more specifically, how subjects perceive object/artefacts/tools and their (possible) use. Four different conceptions of the relation between subject and object are compared here: functional tone (von Uexküll), equipment (Heidegger), affordance (Gibson), and entry point (Kirsh). even as these concepts have developed within different disciplines (theoretical biology, philosophy, psychology, and cognitive science) and in very different historical contexts, they are used more or less interchangeably in much of the literature, and typically conflated under the label of ‘affordance’. However, at closer inspection, they turn out to have not only similarities, but also substantial differences, which are identified and discussed here. Given that the relation between subjects and their objects is crucial to understanding human cognition and interaction with tools and technology, as well as robots’ interaction with their environment, we argue that these differences deserve some more attention than they have received so far.

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