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  • 51.
    Railo, Henry
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Tracking the processes behind conscious perception: A review of event-related potential correlates of visual consciousness2011In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 972-983Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have attempted to discover the processes that underlie conscious visual perception by contrasting ERPs produced by stimuli that are consciously perceived with those that are not. Variability of the proposed ERP correlates of consciousness is considerable: the earliest proposed ERP correlate of consciousness (P1) coincides with sensory processes and the last one (P3) marks postperceptual processes. A negative difference wave called visual awareness negativity (VAN), typically observed around 200 ms after stimulus onset in occipitotemporal sites, gains strong support for eflecting the processes that correlate with, and possibly enable, aware visual perception. Research suggests that the early parts of conscious processing can proceed independently of top-down attention, although top-down attention may modulate visual processing even before consciousness. Evidence implies that the contents of consciousness are provided by interactions in the ventral stream, but indispensable contributions from dorsal regions influence already low level visual responses.

  • 52.
    Railo, Henry
    et al.
    Turku Univ, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Turku, Finland / Turku Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Turku Univ, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Turku, Finland / Turku Univ, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland / Turku Univ, Dept Philosophy, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hannula, Minna M.
    Cornell Univ, Weill Med Coll, Sackler Inst Dev Psychobiol, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA / Turku Univ, Dept Educ, Turku, Finland.
    The role of attention in subitizing2008In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 82-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of rapidly and accurately enumerating small numbers of items without counting, i.e. subitizing, is often believed to rest on parallel preattentive processes. However, the possibility that enumeration of small numbers of items would also require attentional processes has remained an open question. The present study is the first that directly contrasts the preattentive and attentive models of subitizing. We used an inattentional blindness paradigm to manipulate the availability of attentional resources during enumeration. In the inattention condition, the items to be enumerated were presented unexpectedly while participants focused on a line length comparison task. Divided- and full-attention conditions were also included. The results showed that only numbers one and two could be enumerated when the effects of attention were minimized. Freeing attentional resources increased the enumeration accuracies considerably, including for number two. The results suggest that even for enumerating small numbers, the attentional demands increase as the number of objects increases.

  • 53.
    Railo, Henry
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for fast emergence of visual consciousness2015In: Neuroscience of Consciousness, ISSN 2057-2107, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental unsettled dispute concerns how fast the brain generates subjective visual experiences. Both early visual cortical activation and later activity in fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace correlate with conscious vision, but resolving which of the correlates causally triggers conscious vision has proved a methodological impasse. We show that participants can report whether or not they consciously perceived a stimulus in just over 200 ms. These fast consciousness reports were extremely reliable, and did not include reflexive, unconscious responses. The neural events that causally generate conscious vision must have occurred before these behavioral reports. Analyses on single-trial neural correlates of consciousness revealed that the late cortical processing in fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace (∼300 ms) started after the fastest consciousness reports, ruling out the possibility that this late activity directly reflects the emergence of visual consciousness. The consciousness reports were preceded by a negative amplitude difference (∼160–220 ms) that spread from occipital to frontal cortex, suggesting that this correlate underlies the emergence of conscious vision.

  • 54.
    Railo, Henry
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Turku 20014, Finland .
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Henriksson, Linda
    Aalto Univ, Espoo, Finland .
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Unconscious and Conscious Processing of Color Rely on Activity in Early Visual Cortex: A TMS Study2012In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 819-829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromatic information is processed by the visual system both at an unconscious level and at a level that results in conscious perception of color. It remains unclear whether both conscious and unconscious processing of chromatic information depend on activity in the early visual cortex or whether unconscious chromatic processing can also rely on other neural mechanisms. In this study, the contribution of early visual cortex activity to conscious and unconscious chromatic processing was studied using single-pulse TMS in three time windows 40-100 msec after stimulus onset in three conditions: conscious color recognition, forced-choice discrimination of consciously invisible color, and unconscious color priming. We found that conscious perception and both measures of unconscious processing of chromatic information depended on activity in early visual cortex 70-100 msec after stimulus presentation. Unconscious forced-choice discrimination was above chance only when participants reported perceiving some stimulus features (but not color).

  • 55.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Altered and Exceptional States of Consciousness2009In: Encyclopedia of Consciousness / [ed] William P. Banks, London: Academic Press, 2009, p. 9-21Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Biological naturalism and biological realism2018In: The Routledge Handbook of Consciousness / [ed] Rocco J. Gennaro, New York: Taylor & Francis, 2018, 1, p. 188-201Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarizes the main principles of Biological Naturalism (BN) and Biological Realism (BR), and analyzes some of their similarities and differences. It contrasts the biological approach represented by BN and BR with another currently influential approach: information theories of consciousness, especially the Information Integration Theory. John Searle appears to accept the two main components of the supervenience relationship between consciousness and the brain: there can be no difference in conscious states without a corresponding difference in the underlying brain states (the covariance principle), and the conscious states owe their existence to the underlying brain states (the principle of ontological dependency). BN fails to offer a coherent account of how the first-person ontology of consciousness is related to the third-person ontology of neurophysiology. Searle suggests that BN solves (or dissolves) the philosophical mind-body problem, but this turns out to be a mere promissory note.

  • 57.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Consciousness: The Science of Subjectivity2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Foundations of Consciousness2018Book (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Hard to See the Problem?2015In: Journal of consciousness studies, ISSN 1355-8250, E-ISSN 2051-2201, Vol. 22, no 3-4, p. 52-67Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Inner presence: consciousness as a biological phenomenon2006Book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    The future of consciousness science: From empirical correlations to theoretical explanation2015In: The Constitution of Phenomenal Consciousness: Toward a science and theory / [ed] Steven M. Miller, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 260-270Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Department of Psychology/Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Department of Psychology/Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. Department of Psychology/Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    What is an altered state of consciousness?2009In: Philosophical Psychology, ISSN 0951-5089, E-ISSN 1465-394X, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 187-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘‘Altered State of Consciousness’’ (ASC) has been defined as a changed overall pattern of conscious experience, or as the subjective feeling and explicit recognition that one’s own subjective experience has changed. We argue that these traditional definitions fail to draw a clear line between altered and normal states of consciousness (NSC). We outline a new definition of ASC and argue that the proper way to understand the concept of ASC is to regard it as a representational notion: the alteration that has happened is not an alteration of consciousness (or subjective experience) per se, but an alteration in the informational or representational relationships between consciousness and the world. An altered state of consciousness is defined as a state in which the neurocognitive background mechanisms of consciousness have an increased tendency to produce misrepresentations such as hallucinations, delusions, and memory distortions. Paradigm examples of such generally misrepresentational, temporary, and reversible states are dreaming, psychotic episodes, psychedelic drug experiences, some epileptic seizures, and hypnosis in highly hypnotizable subjects. The representational definition of ASC should be applied in the theoretical and empirical studies of ASCs to unify and clarify the conceptual basis of ASC research.

  • 63.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Electrophysiological evidence for phenomenal consciousness2010In: Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1758-8928, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 225-227Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent evidence from event-related brain potentials (ERPs) lends support to two central theses in Lamme's theory. The earliest ERP correlate of visual consciousness appears over posterior visual cortex around 100-200 ms after stimulus onset. Its scalp topography and time window are consistent with recurrent processing in the visual cortex. This electrophysiological correlate of visual consciousness is mostly independent of later ERPs reflecting selective attention and working memory functions. Overall, the ERP evidence supports the view that phenomenal consciousness of a visual stimulus emerges earlier than access consciousness, and that attention and awareness are served by distinct neural processes.

  • 64.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    The Avatars in the Machine: Dreaming as a Simulation of Social Reality2016In: Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century / [ed] Thomas Metzinger & Jennifer M. Windt, MIT Press, 2016, p. 1295-1322Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    The Simulation Theories of Dreaming: How to Make Theoretical Progress in Dream Science2016In: Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century / [ed] Thomas Metzinger & Jennifer M. Windt, MIT Press, 2016, p. 1341-1348Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    How to test the threat-simulation theory2008In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 1292-1296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malcolm-Smith, Solms, Turnbull and Treduoux (Malcolm-Smith, S., Solms, M., Turnbull, O., & Tredoux, C. (2008). Threat in dreams; An adaptiation? Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1281-1291.) have made an attempt to test the Threat-Simulation Theory (TST), a theory offering an evolutionary psychological explanation for the function of dreaming (Revonsuo, A. (2000a). The reinterpretation of dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioural and Brain Sciences, 23(6), 877-901). Malcolm-Smith et al. argue that empirical evidence from their own study as well as from some other studies in the literature does not support the main predictions of the TST: that threatening events are frequent and overrepresented in dreams, that exposure to real threats activates the threat-simulation system, and that dream threats contain realistic rehearsals of threat avoidance responses. Other studies, including or own, have come up with results and conclusions that are in conflict with those of Malcolm-Smith et al. In this commentary, we provide an analysis of the sources of these disagreements, and their implications to the TST. Much of the disagreement seems to stem from differing interpretations of the theory and, consequently, of differing methods to test it.

  • 67.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Noreika, Valdas
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Vanni, Simo
    Brain Research Unit, O.V. Lounasmaa Laboratory, Aalto University School of Science, Finland / Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre, Aalto University School of Science, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation suggests that area V2 is necessary for visual awareness2012In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 1621-1627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary visual cortex (V1) has been shown to be critical for visual awareness, but the importance of other low-level visual areas has remained unclear. To clarify the role of human cortical area V2 in visual awareness, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over V2 while participants were carrying out a visual discrimination task and rating their subjective awareness. Individual retinotopic maps and modelling of the TMS-induced electric field in V1, V2 and V3d ensured that the electric field was at or under the phosphene threshold level in V1 and V3d, whereas in V2 it was at the higher suppressive level. As earlier shown for the V1, our results imply that also V2 is necessary for conscious visual experience. Visual awareness of stimulus presence was completely suppressed when the TMS pulse was delivered 44-84 ms after the onset of visual stimulus. Visual discrimination and awareness of stimulus features was impaired when the TMS pulse was delivered 44-104 ms after the visual stimulus onset. These results suggest that visual awareness cannot be generated without an intact V2. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 68.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Vorobyev, Victor
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Alakurtti, Kati
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Does TMS on V3 block conscious visual perception?2019In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 128, p. 223-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary visual cortex (V1) and extrastriate V2 are necessary for the emergence of visual consciousness, but the effects of involvement of extrastriate V3 on visual consciousness is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the causal role of V3 in visual consciousness in humans. We combined neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with a computational model of the TMS-induced electric field to test whether or not the intact processing of visual input in V3, like in V1 and V2, is necessary for conscious visual perception. We targeted the stimulation both to V2 and to V3. If TMS of V3 blocks conscious visual perception of stimuli, then activation in V3 is a causally necessary prerequisite for conscious perception of stimuli. According to the alternative hypothesis, TMS of V3 will not block the conscious visual perception of stimuli, because the pathways from V1 to the higher cortical areas that go around V3 provide sufficient visual input for the emergence of conscious visual perception. The results showed that TMS interfered with conscious perception of features, detection of stimulus presence and the ability to discriminate the letter stimuli both when TMS was targeted either to V3 or to V2. For the conscious detection of stimulus presence, the effect was significantly stronger when V2 was stimulated than when V3 was stimulated. The results of the present study suggest that in addition to the primary visual cortex and V2, also V3 causally contributes to the generation of the most basic form of visual consciousness. Importantly, the results also indicate that V3 is necessary for visual perception in general, not only for visual consciousness.

  • 69.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland .
    Noreika, Valdas
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland .
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland .
    Vanni, Simo
    Aalto Univ, Sch Sci & Technol, Brain Res Unit, Low Temp Lab, Helsinki, Finland / Aalto Univ, Sch Sci & Technol, Adv Magnet Imaging Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
    Is selective primary visual cortex stimulation achievable with TMS?2012In: Human Brain Mapping, ISSN 1065-9471, E-ISSN 1097-0193, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 652-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary visual cortex (V1) has been the target of stimulation in a number of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies. In this study, we estimated the actual sites of stimulation by modeling the cortical location of the TMS-induced electric field when participants reported visual phosphenes or scotomas. First, individual retinotopic areas were identified by multifocal functional magnetic resonance imaging (mffMRI). Second, during the TMS stimulation, the cortical stimulation sites were derived from electric field modeling. When an external anatomical landmark for V1 was used (2 cm above inion), the cortical stimulation landed in various functional areas in different individuals, the dorsal V2 being the most affected area at the group level. When V1 was specifically targeted based on the individual mffMRI data, V1 could be selectively stimulated in half of the participants. In the rest, the selective stimulation of V1 was obstructed by the intermediate position of the dorsal V2. We conclude that the selective stimulation of V1 is possible only if V1 happens to be favorably located in the individual anatomy. Selective and successful targeting of TMS pulses to V1 requires MRI-navigated stimulation, selection of participants and coil positions based on detailed retinotopic maps of individual functional anatomy, and computational modeling of the TMS-induced electric field distribution in the visual cortex. It remains to be resolved whether even more selective stimulation of V1 could be achieved by adjusting the coil orientation according to sulcal orientation of the target site. Hum Brain Mapp, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 70.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    et al.
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Vanni, Simo
    Advanced Magnetic Imaging Centre, Aalto University School of Science, Finland / Brain Research Unit, O.V. Lounasmaa Laboratory, Aalto University School of Science, Finland.
    Noreika, Valdas
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valiulis, Vladas
    Department of Neurobiology and Biophysics, Vilnius University, Lithuania.
    Moro, Levente
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Subjective characteristics of TMS-induced phosphenes originating in human V1 and V22014In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 2751-2760Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Sandman, Nils
    et al.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland / University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Kronholm, Erkki
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, Finland.
    Ollila, Hanna M.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, Finland / University of Eastern Finland, Institute for Public Health and Clinical Nutrition.
    Paunio, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland / Helsinki University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nightmares: Prevalence among the Finnish General Adult Population and War Veterans during 1972-20072013In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 1041-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of nightmares among the Finnish general adult population during 1972-2007 and the association between nightmare prevalence and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety in World War II veterans. Design: Eight independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study conducted in Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007. Setting: Epidemiologic. Participants: A total of 69,813 people (33,811 men and 36,002 women) age 25-74 years. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The investigation of nightmare prevalence and insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms was based on questionnaires completed by the participants. Among the whole sample, 3.5% of the men and 4.8% of the women reported frequent nightmares (P < 0.0001 for sex difference), but the prevalence was affected by the age of participants and the year of the survey. Nightmare prevalence increased with age, particularly among the men. The number of people reporting occasional nightmares increased roughly by 20% for both sexes from 1972 to 2007 (P < 0.0001). Participants with war experiences reported more frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, depression, and anxiety than participants without such experiences (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Prevalence of nightmares was affected by the sex and age of the participants, and occasional nightmares have become more common in Finland. Exposure to war elevates nightmare prevalence as well as insomnia, depression, and anxiety symptoms even decades after the war; large numbers of war veterans can affect nightmare prevalence on population level.

  • 72.
    Sandman, Nils
    et al.
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland / University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Kronholm, Erkki
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Health, Unit of Chronic Disease Prevention, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, Turku, Finland.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Health, Unit of Chronic Disease Prevention, Turku, Finland / University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, Kuopio, Finland / Hospital District of North Karelia, Joensuu, Finland.
    Paunio, Tiina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Public Health Genomics Unit and Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland / Helsinki University and University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nightmares: Risk factors among the Finnish general adult population2015In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 507-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for experiencing nightmares among the Finnish general adult population. The study aimed to both test whether previously reported correlates of frequent nightmares could be reproduced in a large population sample and to explore previously unreported associations.

    DESIGN: Two independent cross-sectional population surveys of the National FINRISK Study.

    SETTING: Age- and sex-stratified random samples of the Finnish population in 2007 and 2012.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13,922 participants (6,515 men and 7,407 women) aged 25-74 y.

    INTERVENTIONS: N/A.

    MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Nightmare frequency as well as several items related to socioeconomic status, sleep, mental well-being, life satisfaction, alcohol use, medication, and physical well-being were recorded with a questionnaire. In multinomial logistic regression analysis, a depression-related negative attitude toward the self (odds ratio [OR] 1.32 per 1-point increase), insomnia (OR 6.90), and exhaustion and fatigue (OR 6.86) were the strongest risk factors for experiencing frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all). Sex, age, a self-reported impaired ability to work, low life satisfaction, the use of antidepressants or hypnotics, and frequent heavy use of alcohol were also strongly associated with frequent nightmares (P < 0.001 for all).

    CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of depression and insomnia were the strongest predictors of frequent nightmares in this dataset. Additionally, a wide variety of factors related to psychological and physical well-being were associated with nightmare frequency with modest effect sizes. Hence, nightmare frequency appears to have a strong connection with sleep and mood problems, but is also associated with a variety of measures of psychological and physical well-being.

  • 73.
    Scheinin, Annalotta
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland / Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Kallionpää, Roosa E.
    Turku University Hospital, Finland / University of Turku, Finland.
    Li, Duan
    University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Kallioinen, Minna
    Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Kaisti, Kaike
    University of Turku, Finland / Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland / Oulu University Hospital, Finland.
    Långsjö, Jaakko
    University of Turku, Finland / Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland / Tampere University Hospital, Finland.
    Maksimow, Anu
    University of Turku, Finland / Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Vahlberg, Tero
    University of Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Mashour, George A.
    University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland / Hospital District of Southwest Finland, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Differentiating Drug-related and State-related Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Propofol on the Electroencephalogram2018In: Anesthesiology, ISSN 0003-3022, E-ISSN 1528-1175, Vol. 129, no 1, p. 22-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Differentiating drug-related changes and state-related changes on the electroencephalogram during anesthetic-induced unconsciousness has remained a challenge. To distinguish these, we designed a rigorous experimental protocol with two drugs known to have distinct molecular mechanisms of action. We hypothesized that drug- and state-related changes can be separated.

    METHODS: 

    Forty-seven healthy participants were randomized to receive dexmedetomidine (n = 23) or propofol (n = 24) as target-controlled infusions until loss of responsiveness. Then, an attempt was made to arouse the participant to regain responsiveness while keeping the drug infusion constant. Finally, the concentration was increased 1.5-fold to achieve presumable loss of consciousness. We conducted statistical comparisons between the drugs and different states of consciousness for spectral bandwidths, and observed how drug-induced electroencephalogram patterns reversed upon awakening. Cross-frequency coupling was also analyzed between slow-wave phase and alpha power.

    RESULTS: 

    Eighteen (78%) and 10 (42%) subjects were arousable during the constant drug infusion in the dexmedetomidine and propofol groups, respectively (P = 0.011 between the drugs). Corresponding with deepening anesthetic level, slow-wave power increased, and a state-dependent alpha anteriorization was detected with both drugs, especially with propofol. Negative phase-amplitude coupling before and during loss of responsiveness frontally and positive coupling during the highest drug concentration posteriorly were observed in the propofol but not in the dexmedetomidine group.

    CONCLUSIONS: 

    Electroencephalogram effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol are strongly drug- and state-dependent. Changes in slow-wave and alpha activity seemed to best detect different states of consciousness.

  • 74.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Feilhauer, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    How You Measure Is What You Get: Differences in Self- and External Ratings of Emotional Experiences in Home Dreams2017In: American Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0002-9556, E-ISSN 1939-8298, Vol. 130, no 3, p. 367-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates that different methods for measuring emotional experiences in dreams — self-ratings of dreams using emotion rating scales versus external ratings in the form of content analysis of narrative dream reports — can lead to strikingly different results and contradicting conclusions about the emotional content of home dreams. During 3 consecutive weeks, every morning upon awakening, 44 participants (16 men, 28 women, average age 26.9± 5.1 years) reported their dreams and rated their emotional experiences in those dreams using the modified Differential Emotions Scale. Two external judges rated emotional experiences inthe same 552 (M = 12.55 ± 5.72) home dream reports using the same scale. Comparison of the 2 methods showed that with self-ratings dreams were rated as more emotional and more positive than with external ratings. Moreover, whereas with self-ratings the majority of dreams was rated as positively valenced, with external ratings the majority of dream reports was rated as negatively valenced. Although self- and external ratings converge, at least partially, in the measurement of negative emotional experiences, they diverge greatly in the measurement of positive emotional experiences. On one hand, this discrepancy may result from different biases inherent in the 2 measurement methods highlighting the need to develop better methods for measuring emotional experiences. On the other hand, self- and external ratings may capture different phenomena and should thus be considered complementary and used concurrently. Nevertheless, results suggest that negative emotional experiences can be measured in a more valid and reliable manner than positive emotional experiences.

  • 75.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Pesonen, Henri
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Computer Science, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Peace of mind and anxiety in the waking state are related to the affective content of dreams2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 12762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waking mental well-being is assumed to be tightly linked to sleep and the affective content of dreams. However, empirical research is scant and has mostly focused on ill-being by studying the dreams of people with psychopathology. We explored the relationship between waking well-being and dream affect by measuring not only symptoms of ill-being but also different types and components of well-being. Importantly, this is the first time peace of mind was investigated as a distinct aspect of well-being in a Western sample and in relation to dream content. Healthy participants completed a well-being questionnaire, followed by a three-week daily dream diary and ratings of dream affect. Multilevel analyses showed that peace of mind was related to positive dream affect, whereas symptoms of anxiety were related to negative dream affect. Moreover, waking measures were better related to affect expressed in dream reports rather than participants’ self-ratings of dream affect. We propose that whereas anxiety may reflect affect dysregulation in waking and dreaming, peace of mind reflects enhanced affect regulation in both states of consciousness. Therefore, dream reports may possibly serve as markers of mental health. Finally, our study shows that peace of mind complements existing conceptualizations and measures of well-being.

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  • 76.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Noreika, Valdas
    Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, UK.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    EEG Frontal Alpha Asymmetry and Dream Affect: Alpha Oscillations Over the Right Frontal Cortex During REM Sleep and Pre-Sleep Wakefulness Predict Anger in REM Sleep Dreams2019In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 39, no 24, p. 4775-4784, article id 2884-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective experiences are central not only to our waking life but also to rapid eye movement(REM) sleep dreams. Despite our increasing understanding of the neural correlates of dreaming, we know little about the neural correlates of dream affect. Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) is considered a marker of affective states and traits as well as affect regulation in the waking state. Here, we explored whether FAA during REM sleep and during evening resting wakefulness is related to affective experiences in REM sleep dreams. EEG recordings were obtained from 17humanparticipants (7men)whospent 2 nights in the sleep laboratory. Participants were awakened 5minafter the onset of everyREMstage after which they provided a dream report and rated their dream affect. Two-minute preawakening EEG segments were analyzed. Additionally, 8 min of evening presleep and morning postsleep EEG were recorded during resting wakefulness. Mean spectral power in the alpha band (8 –13 Hz and correspondingFAAwere calculated over the frontal (F4-F3) sites. Results showed that FAA during REM sleep, and during evening resting wakefulness, predicted ratings of dream anger. This suggests that individuals with greater alpha power in the right frontal hemisphere may be less able to regulate (i.e., inhibit) strong affective states, such as anger, in dreams. Additionally, FAA was positively correlated across wakefulness and REM sleep. Together, these findings imply that FAA may serve as a neural correlate of affect regulation not only in the waking but also in the dreaming state.

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  • 77.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Sandman, Nils
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / The Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Dream emotions: a comparison of home dream reports with laboratory early and late REM dream reports2018In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 206-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the emotional content of dream reports collected at home upon morning awakenings with those collectedin the laboratory upon early and late rapid eye movement (REM) sleep awakenings. Eighteen adults (11 women, seven men; mean age = 25.89 ± 4.85) wrote down their home dreams every morning immediately upon awakening during a 7-day period. Participants also spent two non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory where they were awoken 5 min into each continuous REM sleep stage, upon which they gave a verbal dream report. The content of a total of 151 home and 120 laboratory dream reports was analysed by two blind judges using the modified Differential Emotions Scale. It was found that: (1) home dream reports were more emotional than laboratory early REM dream reports, but not more emotional than laboratory late REM dream reports; (2) home dream reports contained a higher density of emotions than laboratory (early or late REM) dream reports; and (3) home dream reports were more negative than laboratory dream reports, but differences between home and early REM reports were larger than those between home and late REM reports. The results suggest that differences between home and laboratory dream reports in overall emotionality may be due to the time of night effect. Whether differences in the density of emotions and negative emotionality are due to sleep environment or due to different reporting procedures and time spent in a sleep stage, respectively, remains to be determined in future studies.

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  • 78.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Methodological Issues in Measuring Dream Emotions2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions are central in dreams, specifically in rapid eye movement sleep dreams. Despite a wealth of research on the emotional content of dreams, there is little consensus about the overall emotionality and predominant valence of dreams or about the prevailing specific emotions in dreams. Previous contradictory findings are arguably due to unresolved methodological issues. However, studies that have directly investigated these methodological issues are scarce. In this presentation three studies that investigated the effect of study methodology on the frequency, valence and phenomenological content of dream emotions are discussed. The studies demonstrate that the use of different methods for rating dream emotions (participants who experience the dream vs external judges who analysed the respective dream report) and for collecting dream reports (home vs laboratory setting) leads to very different results and conclusions about the emotional content of dreams. As such, these studies highlight the importance of carefully considering study methodology when conducting and interpreting dream (emotional) content studies.

  • 79.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Virta, Tiina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    I know how you felt last night, or do I?: Self- and external ratings of emotions in REM dreams2014In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 25, p. 51-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether inconsistencies in previous studies regarding emotional experiencesin dreams derive from whether dream emotions are self-rated or externally evaluated.Seventeen subjects were monitored with polysomnography in the sleep laboratoryand awakened from every rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage 5 min after the onsetof the stage. Upon awakening, participants gave an oral dream report and rated their dreamemotions using the modified Differential Emotions Scale, whereas external judges rated theparticipants’ emotions expressed in the dream reports, using the same scale. The twoapproaches produced diverging results. Self-ratings, as compared to external ratings,resulted in greater estimates of (a) emotional dreams; (b) positively valenced dreams;(c) positive and negative emotions per dream; and (d) various discrete emotions representedin dreams. The results suggest that this is mostly due to the underrepresentationof positive emotions in dream reports. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  • 80.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Virta, Tiina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Subjective and objective measures of affective states in REM sleep dreams2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Stenberg, Tuula
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Social contents in dreams: An empirical test of the Social Simulation Theory2019In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 69, p. 133-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Simulation Theory (SST) considers the function of dreaming to be the simulation of social events. The Sociality Bias and the Strengthening hypotheses of SST were tested. Social Content Scale (SCS) was developed to quantify social events. Additionally, we attempted to replicate a previous finding (McNamara et al., 2005, Psychological Science) of REM dreams as predisposed to aggressive, and NREM dreams to prosocial interactions. Further, we investigated the frequency and quality of interactions in late vs early REM and NREM dreams. Data consisted of wake, REM and NREM home dream reports (N = 232, 116, 116, respectively) from 15 students. Dreams overrepresented social events compared to wake reports, supporting the Sociality Bias hypothesis. However, the Strengthening Hypothesis was not supported. We weren't able to replicate the McNamara et al. finding, and no time of night effect was found. While SST gained partial support, further research on social contents in dreams is required. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 82.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Frauscher, Birgit
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Gschliesser, Viola
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Wolf, Elisabeth
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Falkenstetter, Tina
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Schönwald, Suzana V.
    Hosp Clin Porto Alegre, Dept Neurol, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Ehrmann, Laura
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Zangerl, Anja
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Marti, Isabelle
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Boesch, Sylvia M.
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Poewe, Werner
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Högl, Birgit
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Can observers link dream content to behaviours in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder?: A cross-sectional experimental pilot study2012In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor activity in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) has been linked to dream content. Systematic and controlled sleep laboratory studies directly assessing the relation between RBD behaviours and experienced dream content are, however, largely lacking. We aimed to investigate whether a link can be established between RBD behaviours and dream content when both are systematically sampled in a controlled setting. We investigated six patients with Parkinson syndrome and RBD who underwent 23 nights of videopolysomnographic recording during which they were awakened from REM sleep (10 min after the onset of the second and successive REM periods). Spontaneous free-worded dream reports and a structured dream questionnaire were obtained. Video recordings of motor manifestations were each combined with four dream reports, and seven judges had to match the video clip with the correctly reported dream content from a choice of four possibilities. Of the 35 REM sleep awakenings performed, a total of 17 (48.6%) motor-behavioural episodes with recalled dream content were obtained. The mean of correctly identified video-dream pairs was 39.5% (range 0100%). Our data showed that reported dream content can be linked to motor behaviours above chance level. Matching accuracy was affected mainly by the clarity of dream reports and the specific nature of movements manifest in video recordings.

  • 83.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Frauscher, Birgit
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Peltomaa, Taina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Gschliesser, Viola
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Högl, Birgit
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Dreaming furiously?: A sleep laboratory study on the dream content of people with Parkinson's disease and with or without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder2015In: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 419-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) has been related to altered, action-filled, vivid, and aggressive dream content, but research comparing the possible differences in dreams of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with and without RBD is scarce. The dream content of PD patients with and without RBD was analyzed with specific focus on action-filledness, vividness, emotional valence, and threats.

    METHODS: A total of 69 REM and NREM dream reports were collected in the sleep laboratory, 37 from nine PD patients with RBD and 32 from six PD patients without RBD. A content analysis of (1) action-filledness (actions and environmental events); (2) vividness (emotions and cognitive activity); (3) intensity of actions, events and emotions; (4) emotional valence, and (5) threatening events was performed on the transcripts.

    RESULTS: Altogether 563 dream elements expressing action-filledness and vividness were found. There were no significant between-group differences in the number or distribution of elements reflecting action-filledness or vividness, emotional valence or threats. In within-group analyses, PD patients with RBD had significantly more negative compared to positive dreams (p = 0.012) and compared to PD patients without RBD, a tendency to have more intense actions in their dreams (p = 0.066).

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of this study, there are no major between-group differences in the action-filledness, vividness, or threat content of dreams of PD patients with and without RBD. However, within-group analyses revealed that dreams were more often negatively than positively toned in PD patients with RBD.

  • 84.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Assistentinkatu 7, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Lenasdotter, Sophie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    MacGregor, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Department of Philosophy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    A Test of the Threat Simulation Theory: Replication of Results and Independent Sample2007In: Sleep and Hypnosis: A Journal of Clinical Neuroscience and Psychopathology, ISSN 1302-1192, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 30-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Threat Simulation Theory (TST) postulates that dreaming evolved as a mental simulation for the rehearsal of the neurocognitive mechanisms essential for threat recognition and avoidance behaviors. In the present study, we tested the predictions of the TST that dreams are specialized in the frequent simulation of realistic and severe threatening events targeted against the dream self, and that the dream self is likely to take appropriate defensive actions against the threat. The subjects were 50 Swedish university students who kept home-based dream diaries for a period of two or four weeks. The dreams were analyzed with a content analysis method specifically designed for identifying and classifying threatening events in dreams, the Dream Threat Scale. Our results show that in the dreams of ordinary young adults threatening events are frequent, severe, realistic and targeted against the self and significant others. Appropriate defensive actions are frequently undertaken when the situation allows active participation. The present study replicates earlier findings but in an independent sample, collected in a different country and language area, and analyzed by judges different from the original study. Our findings thus offer further support for the predictions of the TST

  • 85.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Evolutionary Psychological Approaches to Dream Content2007In: The New Science of Dreaming: volume III, Praeger, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Sleep: Dreaming Data and Theories2009In: Encyclopedia of Consciousness / [ed] William P. Banks, London: Academic Press, 2009, p. 341-355Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Pälkäs, Outi
    Punamäki, Raija-Leena
    The effect of trauma on dream content: A field study of Palestinian children2006In: Dreaming (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 1053-0797, E-ISSN 1573-3351, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 63-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we compared the frequency and intensity of threatening events in the dreams of traumatized and nontraumatized Palestinian children. The aim of the study was to test some of the predictions and hypotheses derived from the Threat Simulation Theory proposing an evolutionary function for dreaming. Most, but not all, of our hypotheses were supported by the findings. We discuss the results in the light of the Threat Simulation Theory, and we also consider whether alternative theories of dream function are able to account for them

  • 88.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Strandholm, Thea
    Univ Helsinki, Cent Hosp, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sillanmäki, Lauri
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Dreams are more negative than real life: Implicaitons for the function of dreaming2008In: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 833-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dream content studies have revealed that dream experiences are negatively biased; negative dream contents are more frequent than corresponding positive dream contents. It is unclear, however, whether the bias is real or due to biased sampling, i.e., selective memory for intense negative emotions. The threat simulation theory (TST) claims that the negativity bias is real and reflects the evolved biolgical function of dreaming. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis of the TST that threatening events are overrepresented in dreams, i.e., more frequent and more severe in dreams than in real life. To control for biased sampling, we used as a baseline the corresponding negative events in real life rather than the corresponding positive events in dreams. We collected dream reports (N = 419) and daily event logs (N = 490) from 39 university students during a two-week period, and interviewed them about real threat experiences retrievable from autobiographical memory (N = 714). Threat experiences proved to be much more frequent and severe in dreams than in real life, and Current Dream Threats more closely resembled Past than Current Real Threats. we conclude that the TST´s predictions hold, and that the negativity bias is real.

  • 89.
    Wilenius, Maria
    et al.
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland / Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Timing of the earliest ERP correlate of visual awareness2007In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 703-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The earliest reliably occurring event-related brain potential (ERP) correlate of visual awareness (visual awareness negativity, VAN) emerges after 100 ms and peaks between 200 and 300 ms from stimulus onset. In a study using low-contrast stimuli, VAN was significantly delayed, peaking at 460 ms (V. Ojanen, A. Revonsuo, & M. Sams, 2003). In that study physical differences between the conscious and nonconscious stimuli may have confounded the results. Here we explored whether VAN is similarly delayed for physically identical stimuli. We presented low-contrast stimuli near an individually determined subjective contrast threshold. A delayed VAN peaked at 400 ms at occipito-temporal sites to subjectively perceived stimuli. Our results support the interpretation that VAN is the earliest ERP correlate of phenomenal visual awareness. The electrophysiological processes eliciting VAN may become delayed as a function of the difficulty of the early perceptual discrimination.

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