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  • 51.
    Borgström, Juliana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Cyclical Women: Menstrual Cycle Effects on Mood and Neuro-Cognitive Performance2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During roughly forty years of a woman’s life-span, the fertile female human body prepares itself monthly for the possibility of pregnancy. Science has shown that the fluctuation of the sex steroids progesterone and estrogen have a crucial role in the female body's physiology, determining the menstrual cycle and its general phases. This biological dance of hormones governing the cycle influences a lot of physical, mental and cognitive aspects of life for a fertile ovulating woman. Although the question of whether these changes also affect women's cognitive performance is still unclear, some evidence has been gathered that could bring us closer to answers. Recent research findings show that this hormonal interplay might have a significant role in cognitive and psychological development - modulating brain activity, cognitive performance, higher cognition, emotional status, sensory processing, appetite and more. This thesis aims to uncover to what extent the menstrual cycle affects brain functions, neurobiology, mood, well-being and cognitive performance in menstruating cisgender women.

  • 52.
    Boström, Kristina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The cognitive and neurodevelopmental benefits of breastfeeding:: Nutrition or parent-infant interaction2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Breastfeeding is encouraged exclusively until the infant is 6 months and then continuing up until the age of two years and further, as a supplement to solid food. Few infants get this opportunity even though positive effects have been seen. In recent days brain imaging techniques has begun to study the differences in brain development between breastfed and formula fed infants. In this essay methods for assessing the cognitive and neurodevelopmental aspect of breastfeeding aspects will be reviewed. The results found in this review suggest that breastfeeding has a benefit in the development of the brain and in addition a beneficial impact on the parents. This can be seen in faster development of crucial brain areas, better cognitive functions and better maternal sensitivity which in turn relates to a child’s better adjustment. However, it is not clear how these benefits develop, if it is due to breastfeeding or parental characteristics related to breastfeeding.  

  • 53.
    Boström, Kristina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The key to understanding PTSD: Contrasting post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic incidences happen all around the globe. Some of the people who experience trauma

    develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while some do not. Even more interesting is

    that some also experience growth afterwards (post-traumatic growth; PTG). The purpose of

    this paper is to look at neural aspects of why some people develop PTSD and others PTG after

    a traumatic event. To fulfill the aim, both PTSD and PTG will be reviewed to create an image

    of the existing research in behavioral and neurological terms. In addition to looking at the

    constructs separately, a chapter will also look at studies where both PTSD and PTG are

    acknowledged collaterally in participants. When looking deeper into the theories of PTSD

    divisions occur, and more research is needed to establish the most prominent explanation of

    PTSD. PTG on the other hand has only been studied for a short period of time but yields

    important insights into trauma-related outcomes. These fields need to be submerged and new

    multidisciplinary definitions are needed for future research. The key to PTSD is suggested to

    emerge within the new field.

  • 54.
    Boström, Patrik
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Arousal-induced memory augmentation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional events are often better preserved in memory than events without an emotional component. Emotional stimuli benefit from capturing and holding the attention of a perceiver to a higher degree than more emotion-neutral stimuli. Arousal associated with experiencing emotionally valenced stimuli or situations affects every major stage in creating, maintaining and retrieving lasting memories. Presented in this thesis were models delineating the behavioral and neurological mechanisms that might explain arousal-induced effects on subsequent memory outcome. Based on a study of relevant literature, findings were presented in this thesis that highlight amygdala activation as crucial for the enhancement of memory generally associated with emotional arousal. The amygdala modulates processing in other areas of the brain involved in memory. Heightened levels of norepinephrine, stemming from sympathetic nervous system activation, underlies observable arousal-induced memory effects and seem to be a crucial component in enabling glucocorticoid augmentation of memory. Arousal seems to further amplify the biased competition between stimuli that favors the neural representation of motivationally relevant stimuli and stimuli of a sensory salient nature. The aim of this thesis was to outline the impact of emotional arousal on different stages of memory processing, including processes for memory formation, strengthening of memory traces, and eventual subsequent retrieval. 

  • 55.
    Boström, Unni
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Less is more?: The Effect of Tianeptine and SSRI in the Treatment of Depression2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is rapidly growing among the population. A widely believed neurobiological explanation is that the symptoms arise due to an imbalance of the neurotransmitter serotonin. Therefore, the most provided antidepressant is currently selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), which increase the serotonin in the synaptic cleft by inhibit the reuptake of serotonin. There are medications which challenge the serotonin hypothesis such as tianeptine. Tianeptine increases the reuptake of serotonin in the synaptic cleft and thus decreasing the serotonin levels. The thesis has three aims: First, to investigate what mechanisms tianeptine and SSRI work upon. Second, compare the efficiency of SSRI and tianeptine. Third, if the two agents display any differences in adverse side effects. A systematic review and search through relevant databases were made to obtain results. The main findings of this thesis were the two agents act differently of many aspects of the brain mechanisms and neurochemistry such as the cannabinoid system, expression of different cell types and their dependence of protein kinase. Even so, the results show that both agents are equally efficient in treating the depressive symptoms in the larger context, although some interesting findings are seen when zooming in. Anxiety is often comorbid with depression and even though both tianeptine and SSRI are shown to reduce these symptoms during chronic administration, SSRI can produce an anxiogenic effect in the beginning. Another noteworthy finding was that tianeptine showed to be clinically significant, but so did placebo. The third aim investigated the differences in side-effects between these two agents, and both agents were equally safe in number of adverse side-effects. Though tianeptine showed to have some slight advantages in manners of sexual dysfunction and the item 3 on the CGI scale.

  • 56.
    Browall, Sarah
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Backhaus, Erik
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Naucler, Pontus
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Galanis, Ilias
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Karin
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Berg, Stefan
    Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Luthander, Joachim
    Department of Paediatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Margareta
    Department of Paediatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Spindler, Carl
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Ejdebäck, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Trollfors, Birger
    Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Darenberg, Jessica
    Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Kalin, Mats
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Örtqvist, Åke
    Department of Communicable Diseases Control and Prevention, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medicine, Unit of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Andersson, Rune
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Henriques-Normark, Birgitta
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Dept of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Clinical manifestations of invasive pneumococcal disease by vaccine and non-vaccine types2014In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1646-1657Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Brundin, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Binge Eating Disorder: Neural correlates and treatments2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent of all eating disorders and is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating a large amount of food in the absence of control. There have been various kinds of research of BED, but the phenomenon remains poorly understood. This thesis reviews the results of research on BED to provide a synthetic view of the current general understanding on BED, as well as the neural correlates of the disorder and treatments. Research has so far identified several risk factors that may underlie the onset and maintenance of the disorder, such as emotion regulation deficits and body shape and weight concerns. However, neuroscientific research suggests that BED may characterize as an impulsive/compulsive disorder, with altered reward sensitivity and increased attentional biases towards food cues, as well as cognitive dysfunctions due to alterations in prefrontal, insular, and orbitofrontal cortices and the striatum. The same alterations as in addictive disorders. Genetic and animal studies have found changes in dopaminergic and opioidergic systems, which may contribute to the severities of the disorder. Research investigating neuroimaging and neuromodulation approaches as neural treatment, suggests that these are innovative tools that may modulate food-related reward processes and thereby suppress the binges. In order to predict treatment outcomes of BED, future studies need to further examine emotion regulation and the genetics of BED, the altered neurocircuitry of the disorder, as well as the role of neurotransmission networks relatedness to binge eating behavior.

  • 58.
    Bryde, Jonathan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Affect and Attention: An Empirical Study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In daily life there are numerous experiences and events that divert people's attention and cause stress, which may be linked with aspects of ill-being and lowered well-being. Mindfulness meditation may alleviate such issues. Mindfulness can be summarized as a form of awareness and attention in the present that is characterized by an open-minded and non-judgemental perspective, and meditation as a group of practices that engage many of the same processes and may involve mindfulness. There is evidence that both mindfulness and mindfulness meditation are associated with activity in brain regions relating to, for example, attention, emotion-regulation, and bodily awareness. Consequently, mindfulness meditation was hypothesized in the present study to improve attention as measured by the Attention Network Test, and decrease negative affect as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule when compared to a control condition. The mindfulness meditation instructions employed were largely based on the work of Kabat-Zinn (1982). 14 participants were recruited to the study, and 7 of them completed the experiment. 3 participants were randomized to the experimental group, and 4 to the control group. Results were largely contrary to the hypotheses, with only executive attention having statistical significance (p < .05) and supporting one hypothesis. Although effect sizes were on average large for the variables of the study, the small sample size may have limited the power and increased the risk for type-II errors.

  • 59.
    Budnjo, Almir
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Gene expression of MAP2K1 and Cyclin D1 in BDII rat model of Endometrial cancer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the most frequently diagnosed gynecological cancer of the female genital tract in the Western world. Research studies in EC is difficult to conduct on human tumor samples due to the complex nature of tumor arousal and genetic heterogeneousness in the human population. Therefore, inbred animal models can be promising tools to use in EC research due to similar histopathology and pathogenesis as humans. Studies performed on MAP2K1 and CCND1 has shown that their altered expression play a crucial role in carcinogenesis. CCND1 has been demonstrated to have oncogenic properties when overexpressed in human neoplasias.

    The aim of this study is to investigate gene expression levels of MAP2K1 and CCND1 in BDII rat model of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to analyze expression levels of MAP2K1 and CCND1 genes in BDII/Han rat model of endometrial cancer cells using TaqMan approach. The differences in gene expression levels of MAP2K1 and CCND1 between pathologically EAC malignant and nonmalignant cells showed an upregulation of MAP2K1 and CCND1 in EAC malignant cells. The analyzed data presented observable mean differences between MAP2K1 and CCND1 in several endometrial cell lines that were examined.

    Although no statistical significance was reached, an alteration in gene expression levels in malignant and nonmalignant endometrial cells could be observed. Furthermore, this present study shows observable upregulation of MAP2K1 and CCND1 in endometrial carcinoma cells vs. nonmalignant endometrium cells and encourages further investigation of the role of CCND1 and MAP2K genes in endometrial carcinogenesis.

  • 60.
    Bukhari, Shervin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Exploring The Socially Anxious Brain: Cognitive Neuroscience, Functional Connectivity and Neuropsychiatry2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition, which causes considerablesuffering. The disorder has for long been studied in neuroscience, although the clinical impact ofresearch results have so far been insignificant. In the first part of this essay, the basic understanding ofSAD within cognitive neuroscience is provided. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI) have revealed that SAD is primarily related to dysfunctions in, and between, threat processing,emotional regulatory, attentional and perceptual neural systems - implicating regions such as theamygdala, insula, prefrontal, parietal and occipital lobes in the disorder . To this background follows apresentation and discussion about more recent research on SAD using a neuroimaging method knownas functional connectivity. Here, I find that the functional connectivity research, although problematicin many regards, extends the cognitive neuroscientific view on SAD. This by suggesting that thedisorder is related to abnormalities in functional connectivity between several of the above-mentionedregions and within brain networks such as the default mode network. Finally, I explore the potential offunctional connectivity as a tool for the diagnosis of SAD and for predicting individual patients'treatment responses. Studies on these topics, while sparse, indicate that functional connectivitymeasures can make both accurate classifications of SAD and predictions of treatment outcomes on thelevel of individuals. However, there is not sufficient empirical evidence to suggest that functionalconnectivity measures are superior to other neuroimaging measures in these contexts. Moreover, thereare substantial challenges that need to be surmounted before neuroimaging measures can have clinicalviability.

  • 61.
    Byström Mollstedt, Hannes
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Laken i vänern – Populationsutveckling och potentiella påverkansfaktorer: Jämförande analyser av material från perioden 1973-20182019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The burbot (Lota lota, Linnaeus 1758) is a benthic and predatory cod-relative that only occurs in fresh- and brackish water around the northern hemisphere. It has long been a common catch in Swedish lakes and rivers, but the species has seen a decline by over 20% since the mid 1980’s. This led to the burbot being red listed as nearly threatened (NT) in 2010. A decline of this magnitude might be alarming, the burbot is mostly declining in smaller lakes and rivers in southern Sweden and it’s still showing significant numbers in larger lakes such as Vänern – Sweden’s largest lake. Although recent monitoring of the burbot shows an erratic population that’s declining over several years, only to bounce back a couple of years later. This peculiar pattern made me interested in the historical aspects of the burbot population and its potential influencing factors in lake Vänern.

    In this study I compare data from the oldest known gillnet sampling done in lake Vänern that also contain burbot with more contemporary samplings (2010, 2011, 2012, 2015 and 2018).

    I manage to show that the number of large burbot caught were in line later years, but I also manage to show a decline by over 80% in the number of middle-sized burbot between 1973 and the later years. Furthermore, I produced results showing that the burbot seems to be aggregating deeper in later years compared to 1973.

    Finally, I correlate the population changes to environmental data and get statistically significant correlations showing that the declining numbers of fish and their decent into deeper areas of the lake are connected to the rising water temperatures.

    This result is in line with ecological studies that describes the burbot as cold-water dependent with a preferred temperature of around 10 – 14 °C. This study suggests that the burbot is affected by rising average water temperatures caused by climate change.

  • 62.
    Carlsson, Veronica
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Emotional attention: A cognitive neuroscience perspective2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attention is a cognitive mechanism that guides our perception in order to prioritize the limited resources to the most relevant information while ignoring distracting information. Attention can be voluntarily deployed to stimuli during tasks or goals, or the features of the stimulus can capture our attention either by being salient or being emotionally induced. Emotions affect multiple different cognitive processes such as attention because emotional stimuli can be relevant for defending or sustain life. This relationship between attention and emotion indicates that there should be interactive but distinct networks between these cognitive mechanisms as well as a modulative effect on perceptional and attentional systems. Emotions were in general demonstrating a facilitation affect on attentional and saccadic processes as well as broadening or narrowing the scope of attention. The reason behind emotions impact on attention was proposed to be for eliciting a change in the application of resources in order to solve the limited capacity problem and possibly to protect and sustain life. Inconsistent findings as well as limitations for emotional attention studies are discussed.

  • 63.
    Carlström, Karl E.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ewing, Ewoud
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granqvist, Mathias
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gyllenberg, Alexandra
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aeinehband, Shahin
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Enoksson, Sara Lind
    Department of Clinical Immunology Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Checa, Antonio
    Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Badam, Tejaswi
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Physics, Chemistry & Biology (IFM), Bioinformatics, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Huang, Jesse
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gomez-Cabrero, David
    Translational Bioinformatics Unit, Navarrabiomed, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra (CHN), Universidad Publica de Nevarra (UPNA), IdiSNA, Pamplona, Spain.
    Gustafsson, Mika
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Al Nimer, Faiez
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wheelock, Craig E.
    Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kockum, Ingrid
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Tomas
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jagodic, Maja
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Piehl, Fredrik
    Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Therapeutic efficacy of dimethyl fumarate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis associates with ROS pathway in monocytes2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-13, article id 3081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a first-line-treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The redox master regulator Nrf2, essential for redox balance, is a target of DMF, but its precise therapeutic mechanisms of action remain elusive. Here we show impact of DMF on circulating monocytes and T cells in a prospective longitudinal RRMS patient cohort. DMF increases the level of oxidized isoprostanes in peripheral blood. Other observed changes, including methylome and transcriptome profiles, occur in monocytes prior to T cells. Importantly, monocyte counts and monocytic ROS increase following DMF and distinguish patients with beneficial treatment-response from non-responders. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the ROS-generating NOX3 gene is associated with beneficial DMF treatment-response. Our data implicate monocyte-derived oxidative processes in autoimmune diseases and their treatment, and identify NOX3 genetic variant, monocyte counts and redox state as parameters potentially useful to inform clinical decisions on DMF therapy of RRMS.

  • 64.
    Chakole, Vipul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Gene expression analysis of fibroblast growth factor in a rat model of human endometrial cancer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF/FGFR) signaling has a significant role in normal organ development, like vascular and skeletal development. The dysregulation of the fibroblast growth receptor signaling occursdue to genetic modification or over expression of the receptor. This has been observed in different carcinomas [34,35].The endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic malignancy in western counties and fourth most common cancer among women worldwide.Type I endometrial carcinomas constitute approximately 70 to 80% of all endometrium cancer.Itfollows estrogens related pathways in carcinogenesis. The BDII rat model is an ideal model for hormonal carcinogenesis because 90% of the female virgin spontaneously develop type I hormone independent endometrial adenocarcinomas within two years of age. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ligands via FGFR combined with heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HPSG) in extracellular matrix with the help of proteases and participate in the signal transmission of various functions such as cell proliferation, cell survival, cell motility. FGF signaling pathway is found to be aberrantly expressed in many of the cancers such as prostate and breast carcinomas. The main aim of the study was to investigate the differential expression of FGF gene in the malignant and nonmalignant cell lines of BDII rat endometrial strains along with human embryonic kidney cell& Ishikawa cell lines. [1, 2, 34, 35, 36,]. Real-time qPCR was used for analyzing relative expression of FGF gene between malignant and non-malignant cell lines in this study. The result showed a higher trend of the FGF gene in the non-malignant cell lines, compared to the expression in the malignant cell lines. It can be conspicuously seen that the FGF gene has shown higher trend in the Ishikawa cell line but cannot conclude about significantly over expression of FGF gene in this study due to very low number of samples. Moreover, this study should confirm by using additional techniques such as Western blot, Immunofluorescence to check the expression of FGF at protein level and cellular level.

  • 65.
    Chamorro, Emilia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Theories of Nightmares in Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dreaming is a complex, multimodal and sequentially organized model of the waking world (Metzinger, 2003). Nightmares are a category of dreams involving threatening scenarios, anxiety and other negative emotions (Hartmann, 1998; Nielsen & Levin, 2007). Dreams and nightmares are explored in this present thesis in the light of psychology and modern cognitive neuroscience as to their nature, function and neural correlates. The three main dream theories and their leading investigations are reviewed to evaluate their evidence and overall explanatory power to account for the function of dreams and nightmares. Random Activation Theories (RATs) claim dreams are biological epiphenomena and by-products of sleep underlying mechanisms (Crick & Mitchison, 1983; Flanagan, 1995, 2000a, 2000b, Hobson & McCarley, 1997). Mood regulation theories consider that the psychological function of dreams is to regulate mood and help with the adaptation of individuals to their current environment such as solving daily concerns and recovery after trauma exposure (Hartmann, 1996; Levin, 1998; Stickgold, 2008; Kramer, 1991a, 1991b, 2014). Threat Simulation Theories of dreams present the evolutionary function for dreaming as a simulating off-line model of the world used to rehearse threatening events encountered in the human ancestral environment (Revonsuo, 2000a). With the threat-simulation system, threats were likely to be recognized and avoidance skills developed to guarantee reproductive success. TST consider nightmares to reflect the threat-simulation system fully activated (Revonsuo, 2000a). Supported by a robust body of evidence TST is concluded to be the most plausible theory at the moment to account as a theoretical explanation of dreams and nightmares

  • 66.
    Chandini, Murarilal Ratnadevi
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Molecular Characterization of arsC gene involved in accumulation of arsenics in Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 67.
    Chaudhari, Aditi
    et al.
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krumlinde, Daniel
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Annika
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Akyürek, Levent M.
    Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell biology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bandaru, Sashidhar
    Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell biology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Skålén, Kristina
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ståhlman, Marcus
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Borén, Jan
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wettergren, Yvonne
    Department of Surgery, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ejeskär, Katarina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rotter Sopasakis, Victoria
    Wallenberg Laboratory, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    p110α hot spot mutations E545K and H1047R exert metabolic reprogramming independently of p110α kinase activity2015In: Molecular and Cellular Biology, ISSN 0270-7306, E-ISSN 1098-5549, Vol. 35, no 19, p. 3258-3273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K) catalytic subunit p110α is the most frequently mutated kinase in human cancer, and the hot spot mutations E542K, E545K, and H1047R are the most common mutations in p110α. Very little is known about the metabolic consequences of the hot spot mutations of p110α in vivo. In this study, we used adenoviral gene transfer in mice to investigate the effects of the E545K and H1047R mutations on hepatic and whole-body glucose metabolism. We show that hepatic expression of these hot spot mutations results in rapid hepatic steatosis, paradoxically accompanied by increased glucose tolerance, and marked glycogen accumulation. In contrast, wild-type p110α expression does not lead to hepatic accumulation of lipids or glycogen despite similar degrees of upregulated glycolysis and expression of lipogenic genes. The reprogrammed metabolism of the E545K and H1047R p110α mutants was surprisingly not dependent on altered p110α lipid kinase activity.

  • 68.
    Chowdhury, Manjushree
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mostafa, M. G.
    Institute of Environmental Science, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Biswas, Tapan Kumar
    Department of Chemistry, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Saha, Ananda Kumar
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Characterization of the effluents from leather processing industries2015In: Environmental Processes, ISSN 2198-7491, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 173-187Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Christersson, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Psychedelic Altered State of Consciousness: An Assessment of the Current Status of Psychedelic Research2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Classic psychedelic substances, such as lysergic acid diethylamide and the active compound in magic mushrooms, psilocybin, are being studied again in a renaissance of psychedelic research. Psychedelic substances have profound effects on perception, emotion, and cognition, as well as the capacity to induce mystical-type experiences and ego-dissolution. Recent clinical studies indicate that these substances have positive effects on patient populations and healthy participants, both acutely and long-term. Neuroimaging studies show that psychedelics alter neural integration, by the disintegration of normally stable resting state networks, and increasing network connectivity between normally anticorrelated networks. This thesis will review the phenomenological characteristics of the psychedelic-induced altered state of consciousness, the therapeutic potential of the psychedelic-induced altered state of consciousness, and neuroimaging studies on the psychedelic state. Two theoretical accounts are compared on the brain basis of psychedelic-induced altered state of consciousness. From the recent research on psychedelics a novel theory of conscious states has evolved, the entropic brain theory. This theory will be compared to the integrated information theory, a well-established theory of consciousness within cognitive neuroscience.

  • 70.
    Cinarli, Pembe
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Strategy to tag Actin II in Plasmodium berghei2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria is a disease that is caused by parasite called Plasmodium spp. and trasmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes to the host. The disease has great impact around the world and there are half a million deaths and several hundred million infections every year. Studies revealed that there are two actin isoforms in the parasite, actin I and actin II. Absence of actin II has severe effect on the development of the parasite in the mosquito but the molecular function is still unknown. Identification of interacting proteins is of great importance to understand further the function of the protein. To achieve this goal actin II has to be enriched and this required a tagged version of the protein. In this project purification of the protein was to be achieved through biotinylation. In this method the protein of interest is biotinylated by BirA ligase in the cell and is then purified by , streptavidin. The project involved transfection of vector for Plasmodium berghei, containing the BirA gene and a stage-specific promoter (cdpk4). The construct was integrated in the chromosomal locus Sil6 and introduced to wild-type and actin II knock out parasites. Genotyping by PCR revealed integration of the insert in wild type parasites and phenotypic anaylsis showed no difference between BirA wild type and wild type control parasites. The expression of the BirA ligase in the parasite was investigated with Western blot but no signal was detected.

  • 71.
    Curtsdotter, Alva
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden / Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, Georgia, United States.
    Banks, H. Thomas
    Center for Research in Scientific Computation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States.
    Banks, John E.
    Undergraduate Research Opportunities Center (UROC), California State University, Monterey Bay, Seaside, CA, United States.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Laubmeier, Amanda N.
    Center for Research in Scientific Computation, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, United States.
    Traugott, Michael
    Mountain Agriculture Research Unit, Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ecosystem function in predator-prey food webs: confronting dynamic models with empirical data2019In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 196-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most ecosystem functions and related services involve species interactions across trophic levels, for example, pollination and biological pest control. Despite this, our understanding of ecosystem function in multitrophic communities is poor, and research has been limited to either manipulation in small communities or statistical descriptions in larger ones. Recent advances in food web ecology may allow us to overcome the trade-off between mechanistic insight and ecological realism. Molecular tools now simplify the detection of feeding interactions, and trait-based approaches allow the application of dynamic food web models to real ecosystems. We performed the first test of an allometric food web model's ability to replicate temporally nonaggregated abundance data from the field and to provide mechanistic insight into the function of predation. We aimed to reproduce and explore the drivers of the population dynamics of the aphid herbivore Rhopalosiphum padi observed in ten Swedish barley fields. We used a dynamic food web model, taking observed interactions and abundances of predators and alternative prey as input data, allowing us to examine the role of predation in aphid population control. The inverse problem methods were used for simultaneous model fit optimization and model parameterization. The model captured >70% of the variation in aphid abundance in five of ten fields, supporting the model-embodied hypothesis that body size can be an important determinant of predation in the arthropod community. We further demonstrate how in-depth model analysis can disentangle the likely drivers of function, such as the community's abundance and trait composition. Analysing the variability in model performance revealed knowledge gaps, such as the source of episodic aphid mortality, and general method development needs that, if addressed, would further increase model success and enable stronger inference about ecosystem function. The results demonstrate that confronting dynamic food web models with abundance data from the field is a viable approach to evaluate ecological theory and to aid our understanding of function in real ecosystems. However, to realize the full potential of food web models, in ecosystem function research and beyond, trait-based parameterization must be refined and extended to include more traits than body size. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society

  • 72.
    Dahlquist, Clara
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Somatosensory system; touch: Physiology and Neuronal Correlates of Discriminative and Affective Touch2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is about the somatosensory system, which is divided into different kinds of touch. Described briefly are the proprioceptive touch, which is transported to the brain via A-alfa fibers and transmits information about e. g. limb position and movement. The cutaneous touch is the main focus and it is divided into discriminative touch and affective touch. The first corresponds to stimuli such as vibration and pressure and is transported via A-beta axons. The second, affective touch, corresponds to e.g. painful and pleasant stimuli which are transported to the brain via A-delta and C-fibers. The aim of the essay is to give an overview of the sense of touch, by doing a literature search, including a discussion of relevant neuronal correlates focusing particularly on affective touch. Moreover, the physiological aspects of touch will be presented. The sources that are used are review and original articles taken from databases such as ScienceDirect, and some articles send by the author. Some books have also been used to find more general knowledge. The conclusion for the essay is that touch is important for humans to function in everyday life. Additional, a specific receptor called C- tactile (CT) is identified to correspond to gentle touch and is suggested to have a vital role for humans in maintaining and forming social bounds. Moreover, discriminative touch is associated with activation in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, whereas affective touch seems to be associated with activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, cingulate cortex and the insula cortex, as well as the prefrontal cortex, which is suggested to be activated during interpersonal touch. Further, the sense touch needs to be more researched in order to understand its functions and benefits deeper.

  • 73.
    Dalile, Boushra
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Is the High Probability of Type II Error an Issue in Error Awareness ERP Studies?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When researchers began addressing the electrophysiology of conscious error awareness more than a decade ago, the role of the error-related negativity (ERN), alongside the subsequently occurring error positivity (Pe), was an obvious locus of attention given the fact that they are taken as indices of cortical error processing. In contrast to the clear-cut findings that link the amplitude of the Pe to error awareness, the association between the ERN amplitude and error awareness is vastly unclear, with a range of studies reporting significant differences in the ERN amplitude with respect to error awareness, while others observing no modulation of the ERN amplitude. One problem in the studies obtaining null findings is the fact that conclusions are drawn based on small sample sizes, increasing the probability of type II error, especially given the fact that the ERN elicited using various error awareness paradigms tends to be small. The aim of the present study was to therefore address the issue of type II error in order to draw more certain conclusions about the modulation of the ERN amplitude by conscious error awareness. Forty participants performed a manual response inhibition task optimised to examine error awareness. While the early and late Pe amplitudes showed the expected sensitivity to error awareness, the ERN results depicted a more complex picture. The ERN amplitude for unaware errors appeared more negative than that of aware errors, both numerically and on the grand average ERP. The unexpected findings were explained in terms of (a) latency issues in the present data, (b) characteristics of the manual response inhibition task used and the possibility that it elicits variation in neurocognitive processing, and (c), in relation to possible contamination by the contingent negative variation (CNV), an ERP component elicited during response preparation. Suggestions for future research on how to address the issues raised in the present paper are also discussed.

  • 74.
    Dave, Vivek Priy
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Ngo, Tien Anh
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Tilevik, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kanit, Krishna
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Nguyen, Trieu
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Wolff, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Bang, Dang Duong
    Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    MicroRNA amplification and detection technologies: opportunities and challenges for point of care diagnostics2018In: Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0023-6837, E-ISSN 1530-0307, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 452-469Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume of point of care (POC) testing continues to grow steadily due to the increased availability of easy-to-use devices, thus making it possible to deliver less costly care closer to the patient site in a shorter time relative to the central laboratory services. A novel class of molecules called microRNAs have recently gained attention in healthcare management for their potential as biomarkers for human diseases. The increasing interest of miRNAs in clinical practice has led to an unmet need for assays that can rapidly and accurately measure miRNAs at the POC. However, the most widely used methods for analyzing miRNAs, including Northern blot-based platforms, in situ hybridization, reverse transcription qPCR, microarray, and next-generation sequencing, are still far from being used as ideal POC diagnostic tools, due to considerable time, expertize required for sample preparation, and in terms of miniaturizations making them suitable platforms for centralized labs. In this review, we highlight various existing and upcoming technologies for miRNA amplification and detection with a particular emphasis on the POC testing industries. The review summarizes different miRNA targets and signals amplification-based assays, from conventional methods to alternative technologies, such as isothermal amplification, paper-based, oligonucleotide-templated reaction, nanobead-based, electrochemical signaling-based, and microfluidic chip-based strategies. Based on critical analysis of these technologies, the possibilities and feasibilities for further development of POC testing for miRNA diagnostics are addressed and discussed.

  • 75.
    Davidsson, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Role of Major Life Events and Brain Development on Personality Trait Change in Adulthood: Insights from Personality Neuroscience2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between personality trait change and major life events is currently undergoing extensive investigations within the field of personality psychology. A debate has risen regarding whether or not major life events can bring about trait change, and how typical trait change patterns over the adult lifespan can be explained. It is valuable to understand how traits change because they predict important future outcomes. The Five-Factor Theory described by McCrae and Costa (2008a) states that traits are purely biological entities, and trait change is explained to result from processes of intrinsic biological maturation, unaffected by life events. This thesis reviewed the literature regarding the relationship of trait change and life events, and the research of potential biological bases of traits in the brain together with a brain developmental perspective of intrinsic maturation. Gaining an insight in the relationship between personality traits and the brain is a goal within a young field of research called personality neuroscience, and an agenda of the Five-Factor Theory. Major life events do cause trait change, but the relationship is complex. A brain developmental perspective of intrinsic maturation did not entirely correspond with patterns of typical trait change in young adulthood. The Five-Factor Theory is challenged and modifications are suggested. Neurobiological correlates of five-factor traits reveal issues and potentials for future research.

  • 76.
    Degerfeldt, Anton
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    It's About a Day: The Effect of Glucocorticoids on Shifting and Re-entraining the Circadian Rhythm in Peripheral Cells: A Review and Meta-Analysis2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The circadian rhythm is a rhythm which permeates all aspects of biological life and follows the hours of the sun. The pace of the rhythm is controlled by a collection of neurons in the hypothalamus, called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), whose signals affect rhythms throughout the body as can be seen in aspects of life from behavior down to oscillations of proteins in the cells. A disruption of this rhythm such as what happens during jet lag, where the rhythm of the SCN is out of synch with the rhythm of the rest of the body, is something that can have adverse effects on mental and physical health. To realign the SCN and the rhythm of the body, different methods and be implemented. This thesis investigated the effectiveness of glucocorticoids on re-aligning the rhythms of the body following a disruption through a meta-analysis and a qualitative review. The meta-analysis and review incorporated experiments from six articles investigating the hours of circadian rhythm shifts in the mouse model, after administering glucocorticoids. What was found was that the individual experiments presented results with high effect sizes; however, the direction of said effects was not uniform as the rhythms shifted in different directions. The lack of uniform direction caused no significant combined effect size to be found by this meta-analysis (MES=0.11 ± 0.06), showing that a statistical analysis based on hours shifted could not find a significant combined effect. The qualitative review, however, indicates that the administration of glucocorticoids shows an effect in re-entraining the rhythm of the peripheral parts of the body to that of the environmental cues and the SCN. Though no significant statistical effect was found in this analysis, the effect of glucocorticoids should not be discounted and could still prove a promising treatment for circadian disruptions, such as jet lag.

  • 77.
    Delsing, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Dönnes, Pierre
    SciCross AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Sánchez, José
    Biostatistics, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Clausen, Maryam
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Voulgaris, Dmitrios
    Department of Micro and Nanosystems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falk, Anna
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Herland, Anna
    Department of Micro and Nanosystems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brolén, Gabriella
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Department of Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden / iClinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom / UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, United Kingdom.
    Hicks, Ryan
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Barrier properties and transcriptome expression in human iPSC-derived models of the blood-brain barrier2018In: Stem Cells, ISSN 1066-5099, E-ISSN 1549-4918, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 1816-1827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell-based models of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are important for increasing the knowledge of BBB formation, degradation and brain exposure of drug substances. Human models are preferred over animal models because of inter-species differences in BBB structure and function. However, access to human primary BBB tissue is limited and has shown degeneration of BBB functions in vitro. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be used to generate relevant cell types to model the BBB with human tissue. We generated a human iPSC-derived model of the BBB that includes endothelial cells in co-culture with pericytes, astrocytes and neurons. Evaluation of barrier properties showed that the endothelial cells in our co-culture model have high transendothelial electrical resistance, functional efflux and ability to discriminate between CNS permeable and non-permeable substances. Whole genome expression profiling revealed transcriptional changes that occur in co-culture, including upregulation of tight junction proteins such as claudins and neurotransmitter transporters. Pathway analysis implicated changes in the WNT, TNF and PI3K-Akt pathways upon co-culture. Our data suggests that co-culture of iPSC-derived endothelial cells promotes barrier formation on a functional and transcriptional level. The information about gene expression changes in co-culture can be used to further improve iPSC-derived BBB models through selective pathway manipulation.

  • 78.
    Delsing, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Discovery Biology, Discovery Sciences, R&D, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Kallur, Therese
    BioLamina, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Department of Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK / UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, UK.
    Hicks, Ryan
    Discovery Biology, Discovery Sciences, R&D, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Enhanced xeno-free differentiation of hiPSC-derived astroglia applied in a blood-brain barrier model2019In: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS, ISSN 2045-8118, E-ISSN 2045-8118, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) hold great promise for use in cell therapy applications and for improved in vitro models of human disease. So far, most hiPSC differentiation protocols to astroglia use undefined, animal-containing culture matrices. Laminins, which play an essential role in the regulation of cell behavior, offer a source of defined, animal-free culture matrix. Methods In order to understand how laminins affect astroglia differentiation, recombinant human laminin-521 (LN521), was compared to a murine Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma derived laminin (L2020). Astroglia expression of protein and mRNA together with glutamate uptake and protein secretion function, were evaluated. Finally, these astroglia were evaluated in a coculture model of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Results Astroglia of good quality were generated from hiPSC on both LN521 and L2020. However, astroglia differentiated on human LN521 showed higher expression of several astroglia specific mRNAs and proteins such as GFAP, S100B, Angiopoietin-1, and EAAT1, compared to astroglia differentiated on murine L2020. In addition, glutamate uptake and ability to induce expression of junction proteins in endothelial cells were affected by the culture matrix for differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest that astroglia differentiated on LN521 display an improved phenotype and are suitable for coculture in a hiPSC-derived BBB model. This provides a starting point for a more defined and robust derivation of astroglia for use in BBB coculture models.

  • 79.
    Delsing, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Hicks, Ryan
    IMED Discovery Sciences, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Human iPSC-derived endothelial cells can develop in to brain-like endothelial cells after coculture with primary human brain cells2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Derveni, Eleni
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Isolaion and characteization of an arsC generesponsible (gene ID: 2889) for arsenicsequestration in Lysinibacillus sphaericus2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many inhabited regions in the world, especially in the South‐East Asia, are suffering from heavy metalpollution in the soil, the ground water and in the corps. During the previous decades chemical methodswere being used to collect the pollutants from the environment, especially the arsenic, but during the lastyears bioremediation has gained ground, using microorganisms. Lysinibacillus sphaericus is one of thenumerous bacterial species that can be used for this purpose. It is a Gram+ bacterium that contains all theimportant genes for arsenic uptake and accumulation inside the cells. One of these genes it the arsenicreductase, arsC (gene ID: 2889). The aim of this study was to characterize thestructure of the ArsC proteinin order to determine the function of the gene. The prediction of the structure was conducted by usingthe online server I‐TASSER, which proposed a 3D model for the protein and predicted its role as anarsenate reductase. For verification of its function numerous laboratory techniques were used. The genewas isolated by PCR amplification using custom primers designed just for this project. The next step wasthe cloning of the gene into the pGEMT‐Easy vector and transformation of a mutant arsC‐ strain of E. coliOP50 with this vector containing the insert. After the transformation, the transformed colonies wereselected based on blue‐white screening and exposed to LB medium containing 50 mM sodium arsenate(As5+). The results obtained so far were not concluding, as no bacterial growth was observed in presenceof arsenate.

  • 81.
    Desale, Prithviraj
    et al.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Kashyap, Deboleena
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Rahman, Aminur
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kapadnis, Balasaheb
    University of Pune, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Biosorption of nickel by Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 native to bauxite mine2014In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 107, p. 260-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current scenario of environmental pollution urges the need for an effective solution for toxic heavy metal removal from industrial wastewater. Bioremediation is the most cost effective process employed by the use of microbes especially bacteria resistant to toxic metals. In this study, Lysinibacillus sp. BA2, a nickel tolerant strain isolated from bauxite mine was used for the biosorption of Ni(II). Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 biomass had isoelectric point (pI) of 3.3. The maximum negative zeta potential value (−39.45) was obtained at pH 6.0 which was highly favourable for Ni(II) biosorption. 238.04 mg of Ni(II) adsorbed on one gram of dead biomass and 196.32 mg adsorbed on one gram of live biomass. The adsorption of Ni(II) on biomass increased with time and attained saturation after 180 min with rapid biosorption in initial 30 min. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms could fit well for biosorption of Ni(II) by dead biomass while Langmuir isotherm provided a better fit for live biomass based on correlation coefficient values. The kinetic studies of Ni(II) removal, using dead and live biomass was well explained by second-order kinetic model. Ni(II) adsorption on live biomass was confirmed by SEM-EDX where cell aggregation and increasing irregularity of cell morphology was observed even though cells were in non-growing state. The FTIR analysis of biomass revealed the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups, which seem responsible for biosorption of Ni(II). The beads made using dead biomass of Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 could efficiently remove Ni(II) from effluent solutions. These microbial cells can substitute expensive methods for treating nickel contaminated industrial wastewaters.

  • 82.
    Diaz Cruz, Maria Araceli
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Quantitative detection of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and prediction of stem rot rape seed plants disease by using real time PCR.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 83.
    Donaldson, Chad
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Analyzing Factors Influencing Reproductive Success of the Mountain Chicken: Nordens Ark Captive Breeding Program2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Amphibians globally are declining with roughly a third facing extinction due primarily to threats linked to human impacts. One way in which this is being combated is by captive breeding programs. Nordens Ark in Sweden, in collaboration with other organizations, is attempting to breed one of the most threatened frogs for future reintroduction to the wild. The mountain chicken (Leptodactylus fallax) has unique characteristics related to its reproduction which make it challenging to breed successful offspring. Using Nordens Ark’s data on environmental conditions within breeding enclosures, this study attempts to determine which extrinsic factors are having the most influence on reproduction, in order to increase the success of the captive breeding program.

    Multiple linear regression analysis and model simplification using Stepwise regression and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were performed in order to determine which explanatory variables had the most influence in relation to foam nests.

    A reduced model with significant values for explanatory variables was deemed the best model based on the dataset. Of the 14 environmental variables tested, minimum temperature after nest construction had the most influence on foam nest length. When compared to wild habitats, temperatures within enclosures may be too high or lack seasonal cyclical patterns. Barometric pressure and humidity also had influence on foam nests, but the relationships between these environmental conditions is difficult to parse. Food supplements were also a significant factor and suggest that lack of vitamins or nutrients can have a negative effect on reproductive success. Ensuring the optimal conditions can be difficult for captive breeding programs, especially as amphibians are under-represented and face biases in conservation and research.

  • 84.
    Eeli, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The mechanisms of addiction and impairments related to drug use2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contains an overview of the mechanisms of addiction as well as a description of the impairments related to drug abuse. The general view of addiction is that it depends on three characteristics that have separate neural mechanisms, called “wanting”, liking and learning. “Wanting” is described as a desire evoked by reward cues, liking refers to the pleasure of getting a reward and learning is described in terms of classical conditioning. “Wanting” and liking are usually in agreement but in addiction they are dissociable, that is, wanting a drug but getting no pleasure from it. Reward cues, acquired through learning, awakes the motivation to obtain the drug again. This can be problematic when trying to cease drug taking. The dopamine system in the brain is much discussed in relation to addiction and its neural correlates. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is suggested to be altered in addiction, and this may underlie some of the impairments discussed. Addiction is also strongly related to cognitive impairments such as working memory problems, impulsivity, attentional problems and decision-making impairments. Affective impairments, such as empathy problems, may also to have some connection to addiction, although this is less clear.

  • 85.
    Eero, Margit
    et al.
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Behrens, Jane
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Buchmann, Kurt
    Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Cardinale, Massimiliano
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Casini, Michele
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Gasyukov, Pavel
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Horbowy, Jan
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Hüssy, Karin
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Kirkegaard, Eskil
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kornilovs, Georgs
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment “BIOR”, Riga, Latvia.
    Krumme, Uwe
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Köster, Friedrich W.
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Oeberst, Rainer
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Plikshs, Maris
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment “BIOR”, Riga, Latvia.
    Radtke, Krzysztof
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Raid, Tiit
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Schmidt, Jörn
    Department of Economics, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Stockholm University, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vinther, Morten
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Zimmermann, Christopher
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Technical University of Denmark, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Eastern Baltic cod in distress: biological changes and challenges for stock assessment2015In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 2180-2186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eastern Baltic (EB) cod (Gadus morhua) stock was depleted and overexploited for decades until the mid-2000s, when fishing mortality rapidlydeclined and biomass started to increase, as shown by stock assessments. These positive developments were partly assigned to effective managementmeasures, and the EB cod was considered one of the most successful stock recoveries in recent times. In contrast to this optimistic view, theanalytical stock assessment failed in 2014, leaving the present stock status unclear. Deteriorated quality of some basic input data for stock assessmentin combination with changes in environmental and ecological conditions has led to an unusual situation for cod in the Baltic Sea, which posesnew challenges for stock assessment and management advice.Anumber of adverse developments such as low nutritional condition and disappearanceof larger individuals indicate that the stock is in distress. In this study, we (i) summarize the knowledge of recent changes in cod biology andecosystem conditions, (ii) describe the subsequent challenges for stock assessment, and (iii) highlight the key questions where answers are urgentlyneeded to understand the present stock status and provide scientifically solid support for cod management in the Baltic Sea.

  • 86.
    Eidering, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    INCREASED MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE FROM FOCUSING ON TASK INSTEAD OF SELF: INDUCED BY TRIAL-TO-TRIAL FEEDBACK: An fmri study2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback is argued to be an impactful variable in learning. The impact however, depends on what kind of feedback- and in what way the feedback is provided. The way intelligence, in terms of subjective experience of ability, is perceived has been observed to affect motivation and performance in individuals. This is hypothesized to be associated with whether individuals’ identifies their personal self with performance or not. Individuals who see intelligence as changeable through effort generally adopt learning goals which are associated with increased motivation and performance. Individuals who see intelligence as unchangeable and as a permanent trait of the self, generally adopt performance goals which instead are associated with decreases in motivation and performance. In this fMRI study, 20 participants were given trial-to-trial feedback when performing a typical conflict paradigm. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of feedback to alter participants’ attention towards themselves (being smart) or their task actions (choosing correct). It was found that task feedback (‘you chose correct’) increased participants’ motivation to continue with the task. Those who were given task feedback also improved their accuracy. Task feedback was associated with enhanced brain activation in brain regions associated with rule-switching. However, self-feedback was associated with self-monitoring regions. Findings support the a priori hypothesis that self-focus is associated with reduced motivation and less accuracy improvement. Task-focus seems to be superior in learning and in performing cognitive tasks.  

  • 87.
    Ejeskär, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vickes, Oscar
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kuchipudi, Arunakar
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Wettergren, Yvonne
    Department of General Surgery, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Uv, Anne
    Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rotter Sopasakis, Victoria
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Wallenberg Laboratory, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The unique non-catalytic C-terminus of p37delta-PI3K adds proliferative properties in vitro and in vivo2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0127497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PI3K/Akt pathway is central for numerous cellular functions and is frequently deregulated in human cancers. The catalytic subunits of PI3K, p110, are thought to have a potential oncogenic function, and the regulatory subunit p85 exerts tumor suppressor properties. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a highly suitable system to investigate PI3K signaling, expressing one catalytic, Dp110, and one regulatory subunit, Dp60, and both show strong homology with the human PI3K proteins p110 and p85. We recently showed that p37δ, an alternatively spliced product of human PI3K p110δ, displayed strong proliferation-promoting properties despite lacking the catalytic domain completely. Here we functionally evaluate the different domains of human p37δ in Drosophila. The N-terminal region of Dp110 alone promotes cell proliferation, and we show that the unique C-terminal region of human p37δ further enhances these proliferative properties, both when expressed in Drosophila, and in human HEK-293 cells. Surprisingly, although the N-terminal region of Dp110 and the C-terminal region of p37δ both display proliferative effects, over-expression of full length Dp110 or the N-terminal part of Dp110 decreases survival in Drosophila, whereas the unique C-terminal region of p37δ prevents this effect. Furthermore, we found that the N-terminal region of the catalytic subunit of PI3K p110, including only the Dp60 (p85)-binding domain and a minor part of the Ras binding domain, rescues phenotypes with severely impaired development caused by Dp60 over-expression in Drosophila, possibly by regulating the levels of Dp60, and also by increasing the levels of phosphorylated Akt. Our results indicate a novel kinase-independent function of the PI3K catalytic subunit.

  • 88.
    Ekvall, Viveka
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Facial expressions and electrophysiological impressions: an LPP study of emotional regulation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The conceptual model of emotion regulation (ER) of Gross and Thompson (2007) introduces families of ER strategies ordered on a temporal scale. This scale has been attributed implications both for the grouping strategies but also for the neurocognitive processing. The two event-related potential (ERP) studies of emotional regulation presented here focus on emotional regulation at different temporal distances, as well as, different stages of cognitive processing. Trying to discern if various neural processes could be disentangled by looking at different stages of the late positive potential (LPP). The theoretical background begins with the neurocognitive science of emotionality and visits cognitive processing at both early and late stages before summating results of the contemporary research of emotional regulation. 39 participants were enrolled within the two experiments aiming to compare the efficiency of different strategies in reducing negative social emotion induced by photographs of angry faces. Technical difficulties discourage conclusions about how temporal distancing is most effectively adapted. Results suggest self-focused distancing strategies are more effective than situation-focused reappraisal and could be preferred for therapeutic purposes based on greater observed LPP effect.

  • 89.
    Eldblom, Hans
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Facial width-to-height ratio as a cue of threat: An ERP study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related potential (ERP) component associated with increased affective processing. Studies have shown that stimuli with high evolutionary significance (e.g. a threatening face) induce increased activity over centro-parietal areas of the brain. In an electrophysiological context, this is hypothesized to be indexed by greater LPP amplitudes. The facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is a facial-masculinity metric which refers to cheekbone width, divided by upper facial height (top of the lip to between the brows). For the first time, LPP amplitudes were examined in subjects upon observing faces with high vs. low facial fWHRs. Prior studies suggest that faces with high fWHRs are perceived as more threatening than faces with low fWHRs. Consequently, fWHR has by some researchers been proposed to serve as a cue of threat. Two separate tasks in the present study were used to investigate this. In the aggression task, males with high fWHRs were judged as more aggressive. Moreover, when put in a threatening context, high fWHR faces also elicited greater LPP amplitudes in subjects compared to faces with low fWHRs. Conversely, in the self-regulation task, differences in LPP amplitudes did not reach significance. In this task, statistical power was low due to few blocks/trials in the ERP experiment and subjects were not primed on threat, which may explain the non-significant results. Taken together, the results provide modest support to the theory that fWHR serve as a cue of threat. Future studies will need to take the present study’s limitations into consideration

  • 90.
    Elfstrand Corlin, Tinna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    The impact of personality on person-centred care: a study of care staff in Swedish nursing homes2017In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e12132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and objective: In this study, we explore how personal and situational factors relate to the provision of person-centred care (PCC) in nursing homes. Specifically, we focus on the relationship between the care staff's personality traits and provision of PCC and to what extent perceptions of the working environment influences this relationship.

    Background: The ultimate goal of elderly care is to meet the older person's needs and individual preferences (PCC). Interpersonal aspects of care and the quality of relationship between the care staff and the older person are therefore central in PCC.

    Design and methods: A cross-sectional Swedish sample of elderly care staff (= 322) completed an electronic survey including measures of personality (Mini-IPIP) and person-centred care (Individualized Care Inventory, ICI). A principal component analysis was conducted on the ICI-data to separate the user orientation (process quality) of PCC from the preconditions (structure quality) of PCC.

    Results: Among the five factors of personality, neuroticism was the strongest predictor of ICI user orientation. ICI preconditions significantly mediated this relationship, indicating the importance of a supportive working environment. In addition, stress was introduced as a potential explanation and was shown to mediate the impact of neuroticism on ICI preconditions.

    Conclusions: Personality traits have a significant impact on user orientation, and the perception of a supportive and stress free working environment is an important prerequisite for achieving high-quality person-centred elderly care.

    Implications for practice: Understanding how personality is linked to the way care staff interacts with the older person adds a new perspective on provision of person-centred elderly care.

  • 91.
    Elhakim, Rawan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    URBANA BLOMYTOR I MARIESTAD TÄTORT: Kunskapsunderlag för tillämpad planering2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of species has decreased, and our planet is at the beginning of a sixth mass extinction, mainly due to anthropogenic effects. Research shows, among other things, on an insect population collapse, as 41% of the world's insects have fallen, and one-third of which are heading towards extinction. This can lead to a catastrophic breakdown in nature's ecosystem. Government agencies shall develop guidelines for the implementation of an action plan regarding green infrastructure, acting as a basis for the county administrative board's sustainability work. In collaboration with the municipality of Mariestad, simple and cost-effective means shall create a basis for practical commitments, thereby increasing the biodiversity in limiting habitat areas. This is done through the reinforcement of the transition environment in urban environments, and the examination of favourable distribution links for pollinators. In this project, good-, improvement- and potential flower areas have been analysed to theoretically increase connectivity for different pollinators. Sub-results show that there is, 896991-m2 deficiency areas to manage for pollinators with 50 m proliferation distance in Mariestad ́s urban area. Connectivity can then be expected to increase, by 41% overall for these pollinators, and by 37% for the closest possible proliferation. Through measures such as planting of flowering plants, mowing, the use of organic plant soil, growing seedballs, and implementation of green infrastructure, deficiency areas can be converted into oases for pollinating insects. Zoning plans can be changed for anthropogenic purposes, but balancing between what is beneficial to man or nature should not be exclusive of each other. Therefore, this report is a current description, but will eventually be misleading. It would therefore be excellent to supplement with a probability analysis, and a specific management plan for each deficiency area, with emphasis on species significance.

  • 92.
    Engström, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Direct poly(A) RNA nanopore sequencing on the freshwater duck mussel Anodonta anatina following exposure to copper: A pilot study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic ecotoxicology is the study of toxic chemicals and its effects on aquatic biological systems with the aim of minimising threats to human health and ensure self-sustained ecosystems. Freshwater bivalves are excellent sentinels for use in ecotoxilogical research due to their filter feeding properties, stationary lifestyle and inability to regulate body temperature. This project aimed to assess the feasibility and use of nanopore sequencing, a real-time single-molecule sequencing technology in comparative expression analysis by sequencing transcriptomic RNA from the freshwater mussel Anodonta anatina following exposure to copper. RNAs were extracted from 80 mg hepatopancreas tissue, followed by poly(A) RNA selection. Furthermore, the poly(A) RNA was used to construct a nanopore sequencing library. Sequencing a total amount of 560 ng poly(A) RNA over the course of two separate runs generated 239,448 reads, in which 75% of the reads were obtained during the first run (control) and 25% of the reads were obtained during the second run (case). The median read lengths ranged between 534-650 nucleotides, with a base call accuracy <90%. Due to the big differences in sequence data output between the two sequencing runs, the data was ineligible for comparative analysis. The findings conclude that nanopore sequencing is capable of generating longer read lengths when compared to other sequencing platforms. However, the technology is error-prone in terms of accurate base call identifications and relies on other platforms for error corrections. Future advances include de novo transcriptome assembly for efficient use of Anodonta anatina as a bioindicator in aquatic ecotoxicology.

  • 93.
    Enroth, Helena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Unilabs AB.
    Engstrand, L.
    Karolinska Institute and Science for Life Laboratory.
    Infectious Diseases: Helicobacter pylori2015In: Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, Elsevier, 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common human infections in the world. The bacteria cause peptic ulcer disease and their infection is an important factor for gastric cancer development. The bacteria are transmitted from person to person within families, with young children most often infected. The bacteria reside in the stomach for a lifetime if untreated by antimicrobial agents. Many virulence factors are known that contribute to the persistence of the bacteria in the stomach, and the bacteria harbors a pathogenicity island in its genome. The discovery of H. pylori as a cause of gastritis in the stomach led to the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005.

  • 94.
    Enroth, Helena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Retz, Karolina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Andersson, Sofie
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Andersson, Carl
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Svensson, Kristina
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Tilevik, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Evaluation of QuickFISH and maldi Sepsityper for identification of bacteria in bloodstream infection2019In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 249-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early detection of bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns are critical to guide therapeutic decision-making for optimal care of septic patients. The current gold standard, blood culturing followed by subculture on agar plates for subsequent identification, is too slow leading to excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotic with harmful consequences for the patient and, in the long run, the public health. The aim of the present study was to assess the performance of two commercial assays, QuickFISH® (OpGen) and Maldi Sepsityper™ (Bruker Daltonics) for early and accurate identification of microorganisms directly from positive blood cultures.

    Materials and methods: During two substudies of positive blood cultures, the two commercial assays were assessed against the routine method used at the clinical microbiology laboratory, Unilabs AB, at Skaraborg Hospital, Sweden.

    Results: The Maldi Sepsityper™ assay enabled earlier microorganism identification. Using the cut-off for definite species identification according to the reference method (>2.0), sufficiently accurate species identification was achieved, but only among Gram-negative bacteria. The QuickFISH®assay was time-saving and showed high concordance with the reference method, 94.8% (95% CI 88.4–98.3), when the causative agent was covered by the QuickFISH® assay.

    Conclusions: The use of the commercial assays may shorten the time to identification of causative agents in bloodstream infections and can be a good complement to the current clinical routine diagnostics. Nevertheless, the performance of the commercial assays is considerably affected by the characteristics of the causative agents.

  • 95.
    Enroth, Helena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Unilabs AB.
    Wefer, Hugo
    Clinical genomics, Science for Life Laboratories.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde.
    Tilevik, Diana
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    NGS pilot study of E. coli ESBL from patients with suspected sepsis2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Esborn, Ida
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Oxytocin and Trust: Biology, Neuroscience and Genetics of Trusting Behavior and Bonding in Human Adults2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years the research regarding the versatility and variety of roles that oxytocin takes on in social behavior has grown substantially. The focus has mainly been on the reproductive functions of the hormone since it is released in the body during and after childbirth to help the mother connect with her offspring. More recent research shows that oxytocin influences higher-level social cognitive behaviors such as empathy, recognition, and trust. A connection between oxytocin and trust has been suggested, but not yet established. This thesis will further investigate if human trusting behavior is correlated with levels of oxytocin, and if so, to what degree. It seems that to what extent oxytocin affects human trust is due to personal and situational characteristics. By understanding how oxytocin can influence human trusting behavior researchers will get a better insight to persons suffering from conditions affecting their social abilities, such as anxiety, autism and schizophrenia. The study of oxytocin faces some problems, which will be brought up in this thesis. Among them is the unclear correlation between central and peripheral oxytocin levels. Another problem is how oxytocin interacts with other hormones in the body, and if the correlation with trusting behavior is due to hormones’ combined effects. More research in the field is needed to investigate how more complex human behaviors such as trust, can be modulated with the help of oxytocin. Further studies with broader and larger populations need to be conducted before any conclusion can be drawn.

  • 97.
    Fabre, Kristin M.
    et al.
    Microphysiological Systems Center of Excellence, Drug Safety & Metabolism, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA, United States.
    Delsing, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hicks, Ryan
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Colclough, Nicola
    Oncology, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Crowther, Damian C.
    Neuroscience, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Ewart, Lorna
    Microphysiological Systems Center of Excellence, Drug Safety & Metabolism, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Utilizing microphysiological systems and induced pluripotent stem cells for disease modeling: a case study for blood brain barrier research in a pharmaceutical setting2019In: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, ISSN 0169-409X, E-ISSN 1872-8294, Vol. 140, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microphysiological systems (MPS) may be able to provide the pharmaceutical industry models that can reflect human physiological responses to improve drug discovery and translational outcomes. With lack of efficacy being the primary cause for drug attrition, developing MPS disease models would help researchers identify novel targets, study mechanisms in more physiologically-relevant depth, screen for novel biomarkers and test/optimize various therapeutics (small molecules, nanoparticles and biologics). Furthermore, with advances in inducible pluripotent stem cell technology (iPSC), pharmaceutical companies can access cells from patients to help recreate specific disease phenotypes in MPS platforms. Combining iPSC and MPS technologies will contribute to our understanding of the complexities of neurodegenerative diseases and of the blood brain barrier (BBB) leading to development of enhanced therapeutics. © 2018

  • 98.
    Fagerlind, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Stålhammar, Hans
    VikingGenetics, Skara.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Expression of miRNAs in Bull Spermatozoa Correlates with Fertility Rates2015In: Reproduction in domestic animals, ISSN 0936-6768, E-ISSN 1439-0531, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 587-594Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Fasthén, Patrick
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Virtual Self: Sensory-Motor Plasticity of Virtual Body-Ownership2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The distinction between the sense of body-ownership and the sense of agency has attracted considerable empirical and theoretical interest lately. However, the respective contributions of multisensory and sensorimotor integration to these two varieties of body experience are still the subject of ongoing research. In this study, I examine the various methodological problems encountered in the empirical study of body-ownership and agency with the use of novel immersive virtual environment technology to investigate the interplay between sensory and motor information. More specifically, the focus is on testing the relative contributions and possible interactions of visual-tactile and visual-motor contingencies implemented under the same experimental protocol. The effect of this is supported by physiological measurements obtained from skin conductance responses and heart rate. The findings outline a relatively simple method for identifying the necessary and sufficient conditions for the experience of body-ownership and agency, as studied with immersive virtual environment technology.

  • 100.
    Fatima, Zahida
    et al.
    Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Athar Khan, Muhammad
    University of Lahore, Pakistan.
    Ahmad, Mansur-ud-Din
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Muhammad, Khushi
    Department of Microbiology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Khwaja, Khalid Naeem
    Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Khan, Amjad
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Anwar, Zubair
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Ahad, Abdul
    Department of Microbiology and Veterinary and Public Health, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Bangladesh.
    Mahmood, Altaf
    Livestock and Dairy Development Department, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Cross Sectional Survey of Live Bird Markets and Zoo Birds for Circulating Influenza Subtypes in Pakistan2017In: Pakistan Veterinary Journal, ISSN 0253-8318, E-ISSN 2074-7764, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 185-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Pakistan, avian influenza surveillance has been both active and passive. Here, we present the results of a survey effort focusing solely on the live bird markets and wild bird species from different zoos and national parks to understand the impact of live bird markets on the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. A cross sectional survey was conducted from Jan-Dec 2011 to identify and isolate the circulating avian influenza virus subtypes in live bird markets and wild birds from different localities in and around Islamabad Capital Territory. Swabs, tracheal tissues and sera samples were collected, screened and diagnosed by hemagglutination inhibition assay and RT-PCR. The highest seropositivity was recorded for H9 (100%) followed by H5 (89.4%) and H7 (72.3%). All 27 isolates were of the low pathogenic H9N2 subtypes and no viruses could be successfully isolated of subtype H5N1 or H7N7. The higher prevalence of H5N1 (89.4%) observed in the present study was an alarming threat; therefore, we suggested immediate control strategies against this emerging risk of H5N1 for human in live bird markets in Pakistan. The factors unveiled in this study will help in understanding the lapses in controlling persistent outbreaks of avian influenza in country.

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