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  • 51.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mikula, Gerold
    University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Justice: Social Psychological Perspectives2015In: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences / [ed] James D. Wright, Oxford: Elsevier, 2015, 2, p. 949-955Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the concept of justice from a social psychological perspective. The authors begin by briefly outlining some theoretical precursors of current social psychological research on justice. Another part is devoted to an overview of theories and empirical research in the areas of distributive and procedural justice. The article furthermore addresses interactional justice, why people care about justice, and reactions to injustice in the context of which individual differences in conceptions of justice are briefly discussed. The article ends by discussing some current trends, social applications, and some future challenges in social psychological inquiries of social justice.

  • 53.
    Kimmo, Eriksson
    et al.
    School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    A New Look at Individual Differences in Perceptions of Unfairness: The Theory of Maximally Unfair Allocations in Multiparty Situations2015In: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 401-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has demonstrated that unfairness judgments of resource allocations become more complex when there are more than two recipients. In order to explain some of this complexity, we propose a set of psychological mechanisms that may underlie four different choices of maximally unfair resource allocations (MUA): Self-Single-Loser, Self-One-Loser-of-Many, Self-Single-Winner, and Self-One-Winner-of-Many. From this psychological theory, several predictions are derived and tested in vignette studies involving a total of 708 participants recruited online using MTurk. As predicted by our theory, (1) choices of MUA where there is a single loser were much more common when the allocated resource was of negative rather than positive valence, and (2) the amount of egoistic bias individuals exhibited when judging the unfairness in receiving a small rather than a large share in a non-extreme multi-party allocation was predicted by their choices of MUA. These findings suggest that an individual’s choice of MUA reveals some generally relevant principles of how unfairness is perceived in multi-party allocations. This opens up new lines of inquiry, especially regarding research on social dilemmas and social value orientation.

  • 54.
    Klarén, Anton
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Dispositional optimism and attentional bias to happy facial expressions2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that the human attentional system is biased towards emotional events in the environment. This attentional bias is believed to be an adaptive function that can provide survival benefits for the organisms that possess it. Dispositional optimism is a trait defined as a general expectation that good things will happen in the future. This trait has received interest as an adaptive trait that has a multitude of psychological and physical benefits for the individuals who exhibit it. The aim of this study is to examine whether there is a difference in the attentional bias towards happy and angry facial expressions based on level of dispositional optimism using the dot-probe paradigm. Thirty-two psychologically and neurologically healthy females (mean age = 26.5, SD = 5.8) participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire measuring dispositional optimism and performed the dot-probe task in a laboratory setting in the University of Skövde. In the dot- probe task a short exposure (100 ms) of photographs depicting happy, angry and neutral facial expressions was used as emotional cues. A general bias towards happy faces across all participants was detected. Also, a clear trend towards an interaction between DO and AB to emotional faces was found in the group high in DO displaying and AB towards happy facial expressions. This study implies that for the psychologically and neurologically healthy population, a fast operating and automatic AB for positive stimuli exists, moreover, this AB may be modulated by individual differences in DO.

  • 55.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Grassini, Simone
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Different Electrophysiological Correlates of Visual Awareness for Detection and Identification2017In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1621-1631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting the presence of an object is a different process than identifying the object as a particular object. This difference has not been taken into account in designing experiments on the neural correlates of consciousness. We compared the electrophysiological correlates of conscious detection and identification directly by measuring ERPs while participants performed either a task only requiring the conscious detection of the stimulus or a higher-level task requiring its conscious identification. Behavioral results showed that, even if the stimulus was consciously detected, it was not necessarily identified. A posterior electrophysiological signature 200-300 msec after stimulus onset was sensitive for conscious detection but not for conscious identification, which correlated with a later widespread activity. Thus, we found behavioral and neural evidence for elementary visual experiences, which are not yet enriched with higher-level knowledge. The search for the mechanisms of consciousness should focus on the early elementary phenomenal experiences to avoid the confounding effects of higher-level processes.

  • 56.
    Koukoura, Angeliki
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Is Telling the Truth a New Index for Deception?: An Electrophysiological Approach2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 57.
    Labbé, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Measures of Working Memory, Motivation, and Time Perception2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have indicated a further need to investigate the role of motivation in workingmemory (WM) training and that time perception affects motivation. We addressed whethersubjectively perceived time on task in reference to objective time on task could serve as animplicit measure of motivation, while controlling for individual differences in timeperception. Here, the relationship between different measures of time perception, WM, andmotivation was explored in healthy children. Fifty children in three natural groups (ages: 6-7,8-9, 10-11) at a Swedish school participated. WM scores changed with age as expected.However, the absence of correlations between WM performance and intrinsic motivationwere inconsistent with previous findings, presumably due to the low statistical sensitivity.Nevertheless, time perception accuracy (r=0.318, p=0.043) and state motivation (r=0.434,p=0.005) correlated with performance on task interference, but not WM. With somereservations due to low sensitivity, time perception accuracy appears to be linked tocoordinative capacity required for shifting attention, but to a lesser degree sequential working memory capacity.

  • 58.
    Labbé, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The Feeling of Anxiety: Phenomenology and neural correlates2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The feeling of anxiety, a conscious experience, is associated with uneasiness, painfulness, or disturbing suspense. The current paper presents the phenomenology of anxiety disorders based on diagnostic criteria and reviews neuroimaging studies on anxiety including dissociation studies. Activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, insula, temporal poles and amygdala suggest neural correlates of anxiety. The relevance of the neural correlates, how the feeling of anxiety differs from fear and worry, and the construct validity of anxiety are addressed. Anxiety and pain correlate with activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, which warrants further studies on the painfulness–anxiety relationship.

  • 59.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Perception of Agent Properties in Humans and Machines2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Lamb, Maurice J.
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, University of Cincinnati, United States.
    Chemero, Anthony P.
    Department of Philosophy and Psychology, University of Cincinnati, United States.
    Interaction-dominant dynamics and extended embodiment2013In: Constructivist Foundations, ISSN 1782-348X, E-ISSN 1782-348X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 88-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Linde, Helene
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Alkoholens effekt på kognitiva funktioner med fokus på minnet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol är den vanligaste och mest accepterade drogen i världen. I västvärlden uppskattas 90 % ha konsumerat alkohol någon gång i livet varav 30 % utvecklar alkoholrelaterade problem. Alkoholkonsumtionen är störst i länder med högt ekonomiskt välstånd samtidigt som antalet nykterister i dessa länder är lågt. Alkohol har en global inhiberingseffekt på hjärnan vilket ofta leder till negativa konskevenser för samhället, enskilda individer samt dess närstående. Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en omfattande överblick om de negativa konsekvenser alkohol har på kognitiva funktioner med fokus på minnet. Alkoholen påverkar främst hippocampus vilket leder till försämringar av minnet. Studier har visat att tillfällig kraftig alkoholkonsumtion stör inkodningen av ny episodisk information vilket leder till uppkomsten av begränsade perioder där minnen delvis eller helt saknas, vilket kallas för minnesluckor. Andra processer relaterade till minnet som long-term potentiation och long-term depression i hippocampus förhindras till viss del eller blockeras helt av alkohol. Studier har även visat att både tillfällig och långvarig alkoholkonsumtion leder till försämringar av kognitiva funktioner som minnet och exekutiva funktioner vilket ofta involverar förändrad neural aktivitet i frontalloben. Alkoholvolymen och alkoholkoncentrationen i blodet är två faktorer som har en avgörande roll för alkoholens effekt på kognitiva funktioner. Risken för uppkomsten av minnesluckor ökar vid tillfällig kraftig alkoholkonsumtion när alkoholvolymen är hög och alkoholkoncentrationen i blodet stiger fort till höga nivåer. Alkoholberoende utvecklas däremot genom att det sker fysiologiska förändringar av signalsubstanserna i hjärnan. Långvarig alkoholkonsumtion kan leda till utvecklandet av Korsakoff syndrom som innefattar amnesi.

  • 62.
    Lund, Jesper
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The Effects of Positive Emotions on School Satisfaction Among Adolescents2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between positive emotions and school satisfaction was studied in 19 adolescents aged 13,57 to 15,17 years (M=14,45, SD=0,446), of these 50% were female. The subjects were all Caucasian native Swedish speakers. Schools satisfaction, life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect and gratitude was measured at the beginning of the study and again fourteen days later. During the fourteen days, the subjects were given a task to carry out each day. The control condition was asked to list up to five things that had affected them during the last day. The experimental condition was asked to list up to five things they were grateful for in the last day. The results did not show any relationship between positive affect and school satisfaction. It is suggested that the results might be caused by either too little time for the intervention to cause a significant effect, by the subjects failing to carry out the given task each day or by too few subjects to rule out random effects.

  • 63.
    Lönn, Josefina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Well-being and Dispositional Optimism in Uganda and Sweden: An empirical and neurobiological investigation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Uganda´s well-being ranks among the worst in the world, while Sweden´s well-being ranks among the best. This thesis investigates if there is a difference in well-being and dispositional optimism in Uganda and Sweden. The neurobiology underlying well-being and optimism is also examined. The neural correlations of well-being and optimism are connected to areas in the limbic system and cerebral cortex. Prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex are two curial regions involved in both well-being and optimism. Amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus are central areas for hedonic well-being, dispositional optimism, and optimism bias. In this thesis 284 Ugandans and 256 Swedes completed a questionnaire based survey. Greater hedonic well-being was found among Swedes, whereas greater eudiamonic well-being was found among Ugandans. Swedes reported greater global life satisfaction than Ugandans, but Ugandans expressed higher satisfaction with their current lives compared with Swedes. In relation to dispositional optimism, Ugandans were found to be both more optimistic and more pessimistic than Swedes. This unexpected dispositional optimism pattern is discussed and future research directions are proposed.

  • 64.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    et al.
    Department of psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding2018In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in personality have been shown to be larger in more gender equal countries. We advance this researchby using an extensive personality measure, the IPIP-NEO-120, with large country samples (N > 1000), from 22countries. Furthermore, to capture the multidimensionality of personality we measure sex differences with a multivariateeffect size (Mahalanobis distance D). Results indicate that past research, using univariate measures of effect size, haveunderestimated the size of between-country sex differences in personality. Confirming past research, there was a strongcorrelation (r = .69) between a country’s sex differences in personality and their Gender Equality Index. Additionalanalyses showed that women typically score higher than men on all five trait factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and that these relative differences are larger in more gender equal countries. Wespeculate that as gender equality increases both men and women gravitate towards their traditional gender roles.

  • 65.
    Modigh, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Effekten av längre tids praktiserande av mindfulnessmeditation på hjärnfunktion och struktur – en summering utifrån nyare studier av vipassana- och zenmeditation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Västerländsk mindfulnessmeditation har sina rötter i tusenårig buddhistisk tradition, främst genom vipassana- och zentraditionerna. Senaste tiden har mindfulness ökat i popularitet och blivit en accepterad klinisk metod i former som mindfulness based stress reduction. Möjligheten att undersöka dess effekter genom neurovetenskapliga metoder bidrar med intressant och viktig forskning om mänskligt välbefinnande. Dock har tidigare studier visat på bristande samstämmighet vad gäller resultat och metod. Uppsatsen är en litteraturstudie där det huvudsakliga syftet är att utifrån nyare studier undersöka de tydligaste effekterna på hjärnfunktion och struktur av långvarigt praktiserande av mindfulness utifrån vipassana- och zenmeditation. Uppsatsen syftar även till att redogöra för samstämmigheten i dessa nyare studier. Detta gäller resultat men också metod. Studierna tyder på minskad aktivitet i prefrontala cortex (PFC), posteriora cingulum cortex (PCC) och minskad aktivitet mellan PFC och regioner inom default mode network(DMN) som anteriora cingulum cortex (ACC). Studier visar även ökad aktivitet från parietala-occipitala området. Resultaten tyder på förbättrad kroppsmedvetenhet och ökad sensorisk klarhet, ökad förmåga till uppmärksamhetsreglering och inhibition av automatiska responser samt minskning av och ökad kontroll över det spontana flödet av tankar och en förändrad självuppfattning. Jag finner att resultaten var samstämmiga beträffande minskat involverande av frontala och parietala områden, samt svagare förbindelser mellan dessa (dlPFC-IPL, PFC-dACC). Gemensamt för studierna är också att mindfulnessmeditation tycks påverka DMN och områden kopplade till det självrefererande processandet. Det är dock inte klart hur predispositioner inverkat på resultaten och det är något för framtida forskning att klargöra.

  • 66.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Herrera, Carlos
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On Cognition as Dynamical Coupling: An Analysis of Behavioral Attractor Dynamics2008In: Adaptive Behavior, ISSN 1059-7123, E-ISSN 1741-2633, Vol. 16, no 2-3, p. 182-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of brain, body, and environment can result incomplex behavior with rich dynamics, even for relatively simpleagents. Such dynamics are, however, often difficult to analyze.In this article, we explore the case of a simple simulated roboticagent, equipped with a reactive neurocontroller and an energylevel, which the agent has been evolved to recharge. A dynamicalsystems analysis shows that a non-neural internal state (energylevel), despite its simplicity, dynamically modulates the behavioralattractors of the agent—environment system, such thatthe robot's behavioral repertoire is continually adapted toits current situation and energy level. What emerges is a dynamic,non-deterministic, and highly self-organized action selectionmechanism, originating from the dynamical coupling of four systems(non-neural internal states, neurocontroller, body, and environment)operating at very different timescales.

  • 67.
    Määttä, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Moral Cognition and Emotion: A Dual-Process Model of Moral Judgment2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive and emotional processes both seem to contribute in the production of moral judgments, but how they interact is still under investigation. Greene’s dual-process model suggests that these processes constitute dissociable systems in the brain, which are hypothesized to give rise to two qualitatively different ways of moral thinking characterized by two normative moral theories, consequentialism and deontology. Greene indicates that this research undermine deontology as a normative theory. The empirical investigation of moral judgments implies that the dual-process model only seems to accurately predict and explain moral judgments in moral dilemmas involving physical harmful intentions. Regardless of the models empirical support, the empirical findings in the study of moral judgments could have normative and metaethical implications.

  • 68.
    Persson, Björn N.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Blekinge Center of Competence, Region Blekinge, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Current Directions in Psychiatric Classification: From the DSM to RDoC2019In: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa, Cham: Springer, 2019, 1, p. 253-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dark and bright values: The Dark Triad and empathy relating to universal values2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an emphasis on self-enhancing values in present-day society. Empathy is shown to be declining and callousness increasing.This two-study research set out to analyze dark personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and brightpersonality traits (emotional and cognitive empathy), and their predictive validity on universal value types. Using a sample ofSwedes and Americans (N = 385), the Dark Triad (SD3) correlated significantly with all value types (Schwartz’s 10 values), forminga sinusoid pattern which aligned with the circumplex value model. Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated withthe self-enhancing values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the self-enhancing valuesHedonism and Power. Using a middle-aged US sample, cognitive and emotional empathy (IRI) were positively related to the selftranscendingvalues of Universalism and Benevolence and negatively with the self-enhancement values of Achievement and Power.In addition, both the dark and bright personality traits explained significant variance over the basic Big Five traits in universal values.Given the complex of values accounted for, we argue that these results account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values” andself-transcending “bright values”. This research highlights that certain universal values of individual and societal relevance can bepredicted by personality traits.

  • 70.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum Theories of Consciousness2018In: The Routledge Handbook of Consciousness / [ed] Rocco J. Gennaro, Taylor & Francis, 2018, 1, p. 216-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a brief historical introduction to quantum theory, and shows that the theory opens up some radically new ways of thinking about the place of mind and consciousness in nature. Quantum theory is all about learning, on the basis of scientific experiments, to question the "obvious" truths about the nature of the physical world and to come up with more coherent alternatives. The chapter considers the famous two-slit experiment. It explores what the different interpretations of quantum theory say about situations like the two-slit experiment, and also considers what kind of theories of mind and consciousness some interpretations have inspired. The attempt to explain mind and consciousness in terms of the quantum theory involves heavy speculation. The advances in quantum biology, while not giving direct support to quantum brain theory, perhaps make a biologically grounded quantum theory of consciousness seem less inconceivable.

  • 71.
    Roos, John M.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Gothenburg, Sweden / University West, Sweden.
    The Personality Map of Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The majority of research in this field has focused on cross-national comparisons, while less attention has been given to variations in personality traits within countries (Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015).

    More recently, regional personality differences have been mapped in both United States and Great Britain (Rentfrow, Gosling, Jokela, Stillwell, Kosinki & Potter, 2013; Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015). The aim of the present study is to map regional personality differences in Sweden.

    Using a representative sample of Swedish residents (N = 6154), we mapped the geographical distribution of the Big Five Personality traits across eight national areas (e.g. Stockholm, East Middle Sweden, South Småland and the Islands, South Sweden, West Sweden, North Middle Sweden, Middle Norrland and Upper Norrland).

    The result revealed statistically significant associations on national areas and the degree of agreeableness [F (7, 6154) = 4.63, p < .01, partial ƞ² =.005]. Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test, significant differences (p < .01) were found between South Sweden (M = 2.74) and the Upper Norrland (M = 2.93), and between South Sweden and North Middle Sweden (M = 2.88). Descriptive statistics illustrate a stepwise change toward higher degree of agreeableness, from the South of Sweden to the North of Sweden (Figure 1).

    The result revealed statistically significant associations on national areas and the degree of conscientiousness (F (7, 6164) = 2,51, p < .05, partial ƞ² =.003). Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test, significant (p < .05) differences were found only between Stockholm (M = 2.94) and the Upper Norrland (M = 3.06). 

    Insights about regional personality differences within a nation are useful, because such differences are associated with political, economic, social and health outcomes and thereby linked to a regions history, culture and ability to change.

  • 72.
    Roos, John Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Veryday, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. University College West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Non-verbal personality assessment with 10 cartoon-like portrayals2015In: ECPA 13th European Conference on Psychological Assessment, Zurich, July 22-25, 2015: Book of abstracts / [ed] Willibald Ruch, 2015, p. 78-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a non-verbal personality assessment that consists of 10 cartoon-like portrayals, one for each factor in the five-factor model of personality and their counterparts (i.e. open-minded, conscientious, extravert, agreeable, and neurotic; versus close-minded, impulsive, introvert, antagonistic, and emotionally stable). The assessment has been constructed in collaboration with graphic designers at an international top-ranking design and innovation agency, Veryday. Unlike existing personality assessments, this assessment is developed for interviews and combines the respondent´s perceived self and ideal self rather than only focusing on the ECPA13 Zurich 79 Paper Sessions respondent´s self-reported perceived self. The aim of the assessment is to provide insight into gaps that reside in incongruity between the respondent´s perceived self and ideal self and thereafter focusing the interview on how to bridge the gap(s). The portrayals have been validated through 156 undergraduate students at Stockholm University. The content validity was verified via tag clouds of top-of-mind words and the criterion validity was verified via the verbal assessment criterion, HP5i. The preliminary analyses are promising in terms of reshaping and adjusting established personality assessments into non-verbal tools for interview settings in therapy and user-studies. However, the assessment need to be further validated and discussed with experts in the field of psychological assessments.

  • 73.
    Roos, John Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Centre for Consumer Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Personality traits and Internet usage across generation cohorts: Insights from a nationally representative study2018In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies examining the relationship between personality and Internet usage have usually used small and non-representative samples. In the present study, we examine the relationship between the Five Factor Model of Personality and Internet usage in a large nationally representative Swedish sample (N = 1694). Neuroticism was negatively associated with overall Internet usage, whereas extraversion and openness to experience were shown to be positively associated with overall Internet usage. However, exploring these associations across categories of Internet usage and generation cohorts revealed some other interesting patterns. Specifically, neuroticism was negatively associated with using the Internet for activities relating to information and duties but not for leisure and social activities. Extraversion was positively associated with using the Internet for leisure and social activities among DotNets (born 1977–1999), whereas among Dutifuls (born 1910–1945) and Baby Boomers (born 1946–1964) extraversion was positively associated with using the Internet for information and duty activities. Openness to experience was positively associated with Internet usage but only among Baby Boomers. Conscientiousness was a significant predictor of Internet usage only for DotNets and GenXers (born 1965–1976). In these cohorts, conscientiousness was positively associated with using the Internet for information and duty activities but negatively associated with using the Internet for leisure and social activities. Apparently, understanding the relationship between personality and Internet usage is not possible without considering the modifying role of categories of Internet usage and generation cohorts. The implications of the results for theory and practice are discussed in detail.

  • 74.
    Roos, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Mapping the Relationship between Personality and Electronic Commerce in a Representative Swedish sample2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: According to previous research, a high degree of Openness and Neuroticism, and a low degree of Agreeableness are personality determinants of online shopping. This study aims to explore the relationship between the five factor model of personality and online shopping in a Swedish context.

    Methods: 5238 individuals in a representative sample of the Swedish population responded to a survey including measures of the five personality factors (HP5i, 15 items) and online shopping. (3686 individuals were included in the analysis).

    Results: A logistic regression analysis was conducted to test if personality factors (ranging from 1 = completely disagree to 4 = completely agree) predicted online shopping. The dependent variable was buying online at least one time per month. Gender, age and monthly income were control variables. Our findings indicated that online shopping was significantly (p < .05) associated with a high degree of Openness (e.g. open to feelings/emotions) and high degree of Extraversion (e.g. positive emotional experiences).

    Discussion and Conclusion: People high on Openness might like to shop online because online shopping offers them an adventure, variety and new ideas. People high on extraversion might be motivated to purchase online for their need of excitability. The findings propose that online shopping primarily is triggered by emotions and affect rather than reasoning and cognition.

  • 75.
    Rosén, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Towards Understanding Social Robots2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging research field of human-robot interaction (HRI) has grown increasingly popular as social robots are being introduced to the general public with applications such as elderly care, companionship, or therapy. With researchers with multidisciplinary backgrounds from e.g. psychology, cognitive science, computer science, how HRI is chosen to be framed is still discussed. My research aims to gain a deeper knowledge of how humans interpret and understand social robots. When interacting with social robots, humans tend to prescribe more intelligence than what the robot is actually capable of. Due to this expectation from the humans, one may fill in a gap between what humans prescribe in social robots and what they actually can do. People’s expectations of robots and other agents has been previously addressed in different ways, e.g. in research on anthropomorphism, intentional stance, and autonomy. My aim is to address this in social robots and look at the different levels when this occurs. My first approach involves how humans respond to robots on a low level cognitive function, namely anticipatory gaze. Previous research has shown that humans have anticipatory gaze when observing another human move objects with their hands. This ties into the direct-matching hypothesis: human’s understand another human’s action by mapping it to their own motor representation of that action. Preliminary research has shown that this is also possible if the hand performing the action is a social robot. Although the social robot has no agency, humans tend to fill in this intelligence in the robot and thus eliciting anticipatory gaze. Another more explicit way of deepening the knowledge of this topic, is how human’s describe and react to an interaction with social robots. Because social robots are such a new artefact, most humans are not used to interacting with them and yet they tend to have preconceived notions of what they are capable of. I ask, how are humans actually interacting with robots and how are they influenced by these preconceived notions? Furthermore, what responsibility to we have a researchers towards participants when exposing them to social robots? Are we deceiving participants when we are not transparent with what the robot is actually capable of? There is a need to understand this further in HRI in order to continue with the important research that is being done in this field.

  • 76.
    Saari, Pauli
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Intrinsic Motivation: Psychological and Neuroscientific Perspectives2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to give an overview of the topic of intrinsic motivation based on psychological an neuroimaging research. More specifically, the objective is to give an overview of the various benefits of intrinsic motivation, discuss its relationship to extrinsic rewards, and review the existing neuroimaging research that has explicitly explored intrinsic motivatoin. A positive relationship betweeen intrinsic motivation and persistence, conceptual learning, creativity, and both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being has been demonstrated. A wealth of studies has shown that extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation, while the validity of these findings has been debated. Initial neuroimaging studies concerning the neural basis of intrinsic motivation have been conducted, showing unique activations in the intrinsic motivation conditions in e.g. the anterior precuneus and the right insular cortex. Conceptual and methodological problems have been discussed, and it is suggested that the neuroscientific findings mentioned above can be interpreted in terms of the neural distinction between wanting and liking, rather than in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and that psychological research can draw on neuroscientific findings in order to make its research more precise.

  • 77.
    Sandman, Nils
    et al.
    Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Psychology and Speech Language Pathology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Merikanto, Ilona
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Määttänen, Hanna
    Department of Psychology and Speech Language Pathology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech Language Pathology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kronholm, Erkki
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland / Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland / Hospital District of North Karelia, Joensuu, Finland .
    Partonen, Timo
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Paunio, Tiina
    Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Winter is coming: nightmares and sleep problems during seasonal affective disorder2016In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 612-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep problems, especially nightmares and insomnia, often accompany depression. This study investigated how nightmares, symptoms of insomnia, chronotype and sleep duration associate with seasonal affective disorder, a special form of depression. Additionally, it was noted how latitude, a proxy for photoperiod, and characteristics of the place of residence affect the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder and sleep problems. To study these questions, data from FINRISK 2012 study were used. FINRISK 2012 consists of a random population sample of Finnish adults aged 25–74 years (n = 4905) collected during winter from Finnish urban and rural areas spanning the latitudes of 60°N to 66°N. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire was used to assess symptoms of seasonal affective disorder. Participants with symptoms of seasonal affective disorder had significantly increased odds of experiencing frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, and they were more often evening chronotypes. Associations between latitude, population size and urbanicity with seasonal affective disorder symptoms and sleep disturbances were generally not significant, although participants living in areas bordering urban centres had less sleep problems than participants from other regions. These data show that the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder was not affected by latitude. 

  • 78.
    Sandman, Nils
    et al.
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland / Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Kronholm, Erkki
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland.
    Vartiainen, Erkki
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland / Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland / Hospital District of North Karelia, Finland.
    Paunio, Tiina
    Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland / Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland.
    Nightmares as predictors of suicide: an extension study including war veterans2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 44756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nightmares are intensive dreams with negative emotional tone. Frequent nightmares can pose a serious clinical problem and in 2001, Tanskanen et al. found that nightmares increase the risk of suicide. However, the dataset used by these authors included war veterans in whom nightmare frequency -and possibly also suicide risk -is elevated. Therefore, re-examination of the association between nightmares and suicide in these data is warranted. We investigated the relationship between nightmares and suicide both in the general population and war veterans in Finnish National FINRISK Study from the years 1972 to 2012, a dataset overlapping with the one used in the study by Tanskanen et al. Our data comprise 71,068 participants of whom 3139 are war veterans. Participants were followed from their survey participation until the end of 2014 or death. Suicides (N = 398) were identified from the National Causes of Death Register. Frequent nightmares increase the risk of suicide: The result of Tanskanen et al. holds even when war experiences are controlled for. Actually nightmares are not significantly associated with suicides among war veterans. These results support the role of nightmares as an independent risk factor for suicide instead of just being proxy for history of traumatic experiences.

  • 79.
    Sellberg, Charlott
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A comparative theoretical and empirical analysis of three methods for workplace studies2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace studies in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is a research field that has expanded in an explosive way during the recent years. Today there is a wide range of theoretical approaches and methods to choose from, which makes it problematic to make methodological choices both in research and system design. While there have been several studies that assess the different approaches to workplace studies, there seems to be a lack of studies that explore the theoretical and methodological differences between more structured methods within the research field. In this thesis, a comparative theoretical and empirical analysis of three methods for workplace studies is being conducted to deal with the following research problem: What level of theoretical depth and methodological structure is appropriate when conducting methods for workplace studies to inform design of complex socio-technical systems? When using the two criterions descriptive power and application power, to assess Contextual Design (CD), Determining Information Flow Breakdown (DIB), and Capturing Semi-Automated Decision-Making (CASADEMA), important lessons are learned about which methods are acceptable and useful when the purpose is to inform system design.

  • 80.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Methodological Issues in Measuring Dream Emotions2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions are central in dreams, specifically in rapid eye movement sleep dreams. Despite a wealth of research on the emotional content of dreams, there is little consensus about the overall emotionality and predominant valence of dreams or about the prevailing specific emotions in dreams. Previous contradictory findings are arguably due to unresolved methodological issues. However, studies that have directly investigated these methodological issues are scarce. In this presentation three studies that investigated the effect of study methodology on the frequency, valence and phenomenological content of dream emotions are discussed. The studies demonstrate that the use of different methods for rating dream emotions (participants who experience the dream vs external judges who analysed the respective dream report) and for collecting dream reports (home vs laboratory setting) leads to very different results and conclusions about the emotional content of dreams. As such, these studies highlight the importance of carefully considering study methodology when conducting and interpreting dream (emotional) content studies.

  • 81.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Virta, Tiina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    I know how you felt last night, or do I?: Self- and external ratings of emotions in REM dreams2014In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 25, p. 51-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether inconsistencies in previous studies regarding emotional experiencesin dreams derive from whether dream emotions are self-rated or externally evaluated.Seventeen subjects were monitored with polysomnography in the sleep laboratoryand awakened from every rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage 5 min after the onsetof the stage. Upon awakening, participants gave an oral dream report and rated their dreamemotions using the modified Differential Emotions Scale, whereas external judges rated theparticipants’ emotions expressed in the dream reports, using the same scale. The twoapproaches produced diverging results. Self-ratings, as compared to external ratings,resulted in greater estimates of (a) emotional dreams; (b) positively valenced dreams;(c) positive and negative emotions per dream; and (d) various discrete emotions representedin dreams. The results suggest that this is mostly due to the underrepresentationof positive emotions in dream reports. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  • 82.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Virta, Tiina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Subjective and objective measures of affective states in REM sleep dreams2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Svenning, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Impetuous Voice of Reason: Emotion versus reason in moral decision-making2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a review of what the currently dominant theories of moral decision-making are and where they derive from. While the introduction serves as a common ground to explain what moral decision-making is, the earlier parts of the thesis describe older traditionalist theories within the field,  theories of emotional decision-making, in the form of the somatic marker hypothesis, as well as critique of the older traditionalist theories through the social intuitionist model. Both of these two theories are explained as the foundation of the current theories of moral decision-making and after establishing a clear basis on what the currently dominant theories of moral decision-making are built on, said theories are introduced in the form of the dual-processing theory and the event-feature-emotion complexes which are thoroughly reviewed, explained in detail and serves as the core of the text. This is afterward followed by criticism as well as arguments in favor of both theories as well as criticisms from other researchers who disagree with the methodology which the theories of moral decision-making are conducted on. The essay reviews the current state of the field of moral decision-making which has been split up into two different approaches, the locationist approach and the constructionist approach. The essay concludes that there are terms which needs to be clarified in order for the field to move forward and studies to be made regarding the social implications of gut reactions in moral decision-making.

  • 84.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Twomey, Katherine E.
    Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, United Kingdom.
    What's on the inside counts: A grounded account of concept acquisition and development2016In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, p. 1-11, article id 402Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Thorner, Annika
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Mot en ökad förståelse för datorstödets inverkan på den psykosociala arbetsmiljön: UDIPA - ett nytt utvärderingsverktyg2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användningen av datorer i arbetet har blivit en allt vanligare företeelse på arbetsplatsen, och för anställda på till exempel callcenter är datorer ett oumbärligt inslag i arbetssituationen. Med tekniken följer dock inte enbart fördelar; användningen av datorstöd kan även leda till kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem och stress och ha en märkbart negativ inverkan på den psykosociala arbetsmiljön. Genom teoretisk genomgång och kvalitativa intervjuer med arbetsmiljökunniga konstateras dock att det saknas bra utvärderingsverktyg för att uppmärksamma denna typ avproblem. En arbetsplatsstudie på ett callcenter används för att visa på hur användningen av datorstöd kan inverka negativt på den psykosociala arbetsmiljön, och dess resultat ligger till grund för ett helt nytt utvärderingsverktyg. Detta syftar till att hjälpa organisationer och företagshälsovård att uppmärksamma kognitiva och psykosociala arbetsmiljöproblem relaterade till användningen av datorstöd, med hjälp av termer som kognitiva krav, kontroll och socialt stöd. Förhoppningen är att verktyget ska bidra till att öka medvetenheten om kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem och teknikstress, och att i längden medverka till att förbättra datoranvändarens psykosociala arbetsmiljö.

  • 86.
    Thyberg, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Dehumanization in the brain2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dehumanization is a process whereby people fail to view others as human beings. Instead, the others are perceived as nonhuman animals or objects, unworthy of the same moral treatment. Dehumanization has previously been studied in a variety of different scholarly domains without adhering to a uniform theoretical framework. This literature review contrasts research on fully humanized perception, with research on dehumanized perception, and proposes neural areas which are likely to be involved. Not every aspect of dehumanization can be understood at the neurological level. To understand what factors lead up to, and modulates dehumanization, other perspectives might also be necessary. Dehumanized perception is coupled with reduced activity in the social cognitive brain network, a wide network which encompasses several cortical and subcortical areas. This disengages prosocial abilities and allows for other people to be treated like objects and means to an end. One area of special interest is the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). It functions as an integration center in the person perception network and is also active when we make moral judgments, empathize, or take the perspective of someone else. For this reason, the MPFC is sometimes used as an index of dehumanized perception.

  • 87.
    Torstensson, Niklas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Judging the Immigrant: Accents and Attitudes2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spoken language as a means of communication contains huge amounts of information apart from the linguistic message that is conveyed. It is often the first channel of interaction between people and based on the speaker’s manner of talk, we create a mental image of the speaker as a person, of the speaker’s background, origin and personal qualities. Through five case studies, this dissertation investigates how immigrants to Sweden are judged based on their foreign accents (Cases 1—3) and how the use of an interpreter in court can affect the legal process and the judging of the immigrant (Cases 4—5). Case 1 investigated Swedish students’ attitudes towards immigration and immigrants through a survey-based study and revealed that Swedish students hold predominantly positive attitudes towards immigrations and immigrants. Case 2, using accent imitation, asked if Swedish speakers have a cognitive prototype for British English accented Swedish and found that this was the case. This demonstrated that Swedes have models of accented Swedish accents. Case 3 asked Swedish students to rate their impressions of speakers of nine foreign accented Swedish voices on 18 six-point semantic differential scales. They also rated their impressions of each voice for five social factors. The results suggest that the listeners evaluated the voices based on perceived social desirability, or perceived cultural distance between the listener and the voice’s country of origin. Juxtaposing these findings with those of Case 1 suggests that even among a group who are positive to immigrants and immigration some groups of immigrants are more welcome than others. Case 4 examined discourse disfluencies in a bilingual court hearing and a Swedish-Polish bilingual court hearing in detail. The case showed that most of the dialogue-related difficulties have other sources than the interpreter, even if the interpreter at first glance often appeared to be part of the problem rather than part of the solution. Case 5 examined the interpreter’s role in courtroom dialogue situations through interviews with a court interpreter and a lay judge. The study found that the picture of the interpreter’s role differs between the various actors in the court setting. This, in combination with a lack of knowledge about cultural differences in dialogue strategies, creates complications, can have an impact on the perception of the witness and, ultimately, affect the legal rights of the accused. Furthermore, as the interpreter most frequently speaks foreign accented Swedish, the perception and evaluation of their foreign accented Swedish can further place some immigrant groups at a double legal disadvantage when being judged.

  • 88.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Peltola, Karoliina
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Saaresranta, Tarja
    Division of Medicine, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Sleep Research Centre, Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Clinical Allergology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland /Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sleep Parameter Assessment Accuracy of a Consumer Home Sleep Monitoring Ballistocardiograph Beddit Sleep Tracker: A Validation Study2019In: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (JCSM), ISSN 1550-9389, E-ISSN 1550-9397, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 483-487, article id PII jc-18-00561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Growing interest in monitoring sleep and well-being has created a market for consumer home sleep monitoring devices. Additionally, sleep disorder diagnostics, and sleep and dream research would benefit from reliable and valid home sleep monitoring devices. Yet, majority of currently available home sleep monitoring devices lack validation. In this study, the sleep parameter assessment accuracy of Beddit Sleep Tracker (BST), an unobtrusive and non-wearable sleep monitoring device based on ballistocardiography, was evaluated by comparing it with polysomnography (PSG) measures. We measured total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE). Additionally, we examined whether BST can differentiate sleep stages. Methods: We performed sleep studies simultaneously with PSG and BST in ten healthy young adults (5 female/5 male) during two non-consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Results: BST was able to distinguish SOL with some accuracy. However, it underestimated WASO and thus overestimated TST and SE. Also, it failed to discriminate between non-rapid eye movement sleep stages and did not detect the rapid eye movement sleep stage. Conclusions: These findings indicate that BST is not a valid device to monitor sleep. Consumers should be careful in interpreting the conclusions on sleep quality and efficiency provided by the device.

  • 89.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Stenberg, Tuula
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Social contents in dreams: An empirical test of the Social Simulation Theory2019In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 69, p. 133-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Simulation Theory (SST) considers the function of dreaming to be the simulation of social events. The Sociality Bias and the Strengthening hypotheses of SST were tested. Social Content Scale (SCS) was developed to quantify social events. Additionally, we attempted to replicate a previous finding (McNamara et al., 2005, Psychological Science) of REM dreams as predisposed to aggressive, and NREM dreams to prosocial interactions. Further, we investigated the frequency and quality of interactions in late vs early REM and NREM dreams. Data consisted of wake, REM and NREM home dream reports (N = 232, 116, 116, respectively) from 15 students. Dreams overrepresented social events compared to wake reports, supporting the Sociality Bias hypothesis. However, the Strengthening Hypothesis was not supported. We weren't able to replicate the McNamara et al. finding, and no time of night effect was found. While SST gained partial support, further research on social contents in dreams is required. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 90.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Department of Environmental Systems Science, USYS TdLab, Switzerland.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Distributive Justice: Revisiting Past Statements and Reflecting on Future Prospects2015In: The Oxford Handbook of Justice in the Workplace / [ed] Russell S. Cropanzano & Maureen L. Ambrose, New York: Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 15-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter starts with brief discussions of the whens and whys of justice reasoning and acting, after which descriptions of several distributive justice theories are provided. These are analyzed on the basis of four dimensions: type of justice motivation, orientation of justice behavior, the source of justice behavior initiation, and the source of justice behavior direction. We suggest that the overemphasis in the distributive justice literature on the three principles of equity, equality, and need, ought to be tempered by finer distinctions among the varieties of each and increased attention to additional principles and combinations of principles. The chapter ends by outlining suggestions for future research. Four issues are featured: the nature of the object (social resource) that is distributed and the focus of justice judgments, how the way the resource was produced may affect its allocation and justice judgment, how justice relates to various types of conflict, and why people sometimes do not react to perceived injustices.

  • 91.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Dreams2016In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology / [ed] Harold L. Miller, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 92.
    van Meer, Floor
    et al.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    van der Laan, Laura N.
    Tilburg University, the Netherlands.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Wolters, Maike
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany.
    Rach, Stefan
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany.
    Herrmann, Manfred
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Erhard, Peter
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Molnár, Dénés
    University Medical School of Pécs, Hungary.
    Orsi, Gergely
    University Medical School of Pécs, Hungary / MTA-PTE Clinical Neuroscience MR Research Group, Pécs, Hungary.
    Viergever, Max A.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Adan, Roger A.H.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Smeets, Paul A.M.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands / Division of Human Nutrition & Health, Wageningen University & Research, the Netherlands.
    Development and body mass inversely affect children's brain activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during food choice2019In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 201, p. 1-10, article id 116016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood obesity is a rising problem caused in part by unhealthy food choices. Food choices are based on a neural value signal encoded in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and self-control involves modulation of this signal by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). We determined the effects of development, body mass (BMI Cole score) and body mass history on the neural correlates of healthy food choice in children. 141 children (aged 10-17y) from Germany, Hungary and Sweden were scanned with fMRI while performing a food choice task. Afterwards health and taste ratings of the foods were collected. In the food choice task children were asked to consider the healthiness or tastiness of the food or to choose naturally. Overall, children made healthier choices when asked to consider healthiness. However, children who had a higher weight gain per year chose less healthy foods when considering healthiness but not when choosing naturally. Pubertal development stage correlated positively while current body mass correlated negatively with dlPFC activation when accepting foods. Pubertal development negatively and current body mass positively influenced the effect of considering healthiness on activation of brain areas involved in salience and motivation. In conclusion, children in earlier stages of pubertal development and children with a higher body weight exhibited less activation in the dlPFC, which has been implicated in self-control during food choice. Furthermore, pubertal development and body mass influenced neural responses to a health cue in areas involved in salience and motivation. Thus, these findings suggest that children in earlier stages of pubertal development, children with a higher body mass gain and children with overweight may possibly be less susceptible to healthy eating interventions that rely on self-control or that highlight health aspects of food. 

  • 93.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Arvola, MattiasLinköpings Universitet, Sweden.Dahlbäck, NilsLinköpings Universitet, Sweden.Billing, ErikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
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