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  • 51.
    Choulagai, Bishnu P.
    et al.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal / Nepal Public Health Foundation, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Onta, Sharad
    Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal / Nepal Public Health Foundation, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Subedi, Narayan
    Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal / Nepal Public Health Foundation, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Bhatta, Dharma N.
    Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkla, Thailand.
    Shrestha, Binjwala
    Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Petzold, Max
    Health Metrics, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, / School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    A cluster-randomized evaluation of an intervention to increase skilled birth attendant utilization in mid- and far-western Nepal2017In: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 1092-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skilled birth attendant (SBA) utilization is low in remote and rural areas of Nepal. We designed and implemented an evaluation to assess the effectiveness of a five-component intervention that addressed previously identified barriers to SBA services in mid- and far-western Nepal. We randomly and equally allocated 36 village development committees with low SBA utilization among 1-year intervention and control groups. The eligible participants for the survey were women that had delivered a baby within the past 12 months preceding the survey. Implementation was administered by trained health volunteers, youth groups, mothers' groups and health facility management committee members. Post-intervention, we used difference-in-differences and mixed-effects regression models to assess and analyse any increase in the utilization of skilled birth care and antenatal care (ANC) services. All analyses were done by intention to treat. Our trial registration number was ISRCTN78892490 (http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN78892490). Interviewees included 1746 and 2098 eligible women in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The 1-year intervention was effective in increasing the use of skilled birth care services (OR = 1.57; CI 1.19-2.08); however, the intervention had no effect on the utilization of ANC services. Expanding the intervention with modifications, e.g. mobilizing more active and stable community groups, ensuring adequate human resources and improving quality of services as well as longer or repeated interventions will help achieve greater effect in increasing the utilization of SBA.

  • 52.
    Dahl, Amanda
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hundar i utbildningssyfte för främjande av elevers läslust eller läsutveckling samt för att underlätta inlärning för barn med särskilda behov2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This literature study will examine how reading- and/or therapy dogs can promote children´s motivation to read and develop their reading skills. In many countries, primarily in USA and Canada, dog based education is an accepted tool in schools. 

    Aim:  The aim of the thesis is via a literature study explore whether students improve their reading ability and motivation to read with use of a dog. Also, the aim is to explore if dogs can facilitate learning to read for children with special needs.  

    Method: This thesis presents the results of 15 articles. The results have been categorized according to different themes and are presented in a table and in the current text. 

    Results: According to the studies there a positive development regarding reading ability, pronunciation and comprehension of the children who read out loud for a dog could be detected. The children experience higher joy, motivation and pleasure to read if a dog is present. Even children with special needs benefit from dog based therapy. 

    Discussion: This literature study supports previous research and the conclusion is that children who reads for dogs can develop their reading ability and increase the motivation to read.  

  • 53.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Centre for Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion (CIPSP), School of Health & Medical Sciences, Department of Public Health Science, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Svanström, Leif
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Division of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Economic Burden of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) of Injuries2015In: Health, ISSN 1949-4998, E-ISSN 1949-5005, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 487-494Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Centre for Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion (CIPSP), School of Health & Medical Sciences, Department of Public Health Science, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wang, Shumei
    School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.
    Svanström, Leif
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. WHO CC Community Safety Promotion, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Intimate Partner Violence against Women in Nepal: An Analysis through Individual, Empowerment, Family and Societal Level Factors2014In: Journal of Research in Health Sciences, ISSN 1682-2765, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 251-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The current study estimated the national prevalence rate of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) in Nepal. Besides, the individual level, empowerment level, family and societal level factors were assessed to relate with the victims of IPAVW in Nepal.

    METHODS: Nationally representative sample of 4210 women of reproductive age (15-49 yr) were included in the study. Household surveys using two stage sampling procedures, face to face interview with pre-tested questionnaires were performed. Emotional, physical and sexual violence were target variables. A violence variable was constructed from these three types of violence. Individual level factors were measured by age, residency, education, religion and husband's education. Empowerment factors included employment status and various decision making elements. Family and societal factors included economic status, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage index, history of family violence, husband's controlling behavior and other issues. Cross tabulation with chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were employed.

    RESULTS: Prevalence of emotional IPVAW was 17.5%, physical IPAVW 23.4% and sexual IPAVW 14.7%. Overall the prevalence of IPVAW in Nepal was 32.4%. Joint decision making for contraception, husband's non-controlling behavior to wives and friendly feelings were emerged as less likely to be IPVAW perpetration.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings have immense policy importance as a nationally representative study and indicating necessity of more gender equality.

  • 55.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Movement & Sport Sci, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Verbestel, V.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Movement & Sport Sci, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    De Henauw, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Maes, L.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Huybrechts, I.
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Dietary Exposure Assessment Grp, F-69372 Lyon, France.
    Marild, S.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Pediat, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Barba, G.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Avellino, Italy.
    Kovacs, E.
    Univ Pecs, Dept Paediat, Pecs, Hungary / Univ Munich, Inst Med Informat Proc Biometr & Epidemiol, Munich, Germany.;Univ Munich, German Ctr Vertigo & Balance Disorders, Munich, Germany.
    Konstabel, K.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Gallois, K.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Hebestreit, A.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Pigeot, I.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Fac Math & Comp Sci, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Behavioural effects of a community-oriented setting-based intervention for prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. Main results from the IDEFICS study2015In: Obesity Reviews, ISSN 1467-7881, E-ISSN 1467-789X, Vol. 16, p. 30-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveThe objective of this paper is to evaluate the behavioural effects, as reported by the parents of the participating boys and girls, of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) intervention. MethodsThe effectiveness of the IDEFICS intervention was evaluated through a cluster-controlled trial in eight European countries (control and intervention communities in each country) including more than 16,000 children. The 2- to 9.9-year-old children in the intervention group were exposed to a culturally adapted intervention that aimed to prevent childhood obesity through the community, schools/kindergartens and family. Parents completed questionnaires to measure water, soft drink and fruit juice intake; fruit and vegetable intake; daily TV viewing and other sedentary behaviours; daily physical activity levels and strengthening of the parent-child relationships at baseline and follow-up (2years later). Mixed models with an additional random effect for country were used to account for the clustered study design, and results were stratified by sex. ResultsThe pan-European analysis revealed no significant time by condition interaction effects, neither for boys nor girls, i.e. the analysis revealed no intervention effects on the behaviours of the IDEFICS children as reported by their parents (F=0.0 to 3.3, all p>0.05). Also very few significances were found in the country-specific analyses. Positive intervention effects were only found for sport club participation in Swedish boys, for screen time in weekends for Spanish boys and for TV viewing in Belgian girls. ConclusionAlthough no expected intervention effects as reported by the parents on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviours could be shown for the overall IDEFICS cohort, a few favourable intervention effects were found on specific behaviours in some individual countries. More in-depth analyses of the process evaluation data are needed to obtain more insight into the relationship between the level of exposure to the intervention and its effect. 

  • 56.
    De Decker, Annelies
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, De Pintelaan 185 UZ 4K3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Verbeken, Sandra
    Univ Ghent, Fac Psychol & Educ Sci, Dept Dev Personal & Social Psychol, Henri Dunantlaan 2, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Sioen, Isabelle
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, De Pintelaan 185 UZ 4K3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium / Univ Ghent, Fac Biosci Engn, Dept Food Safety & Food Qual, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Van Lippevelde, Wendy
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, De Pintelaan 185 UZ 4K3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Braet, Caroline
    Univ Ghent, Fac Psychol & Educ Sci, Dept Dev Personal & Social Psychol, Henri Dunantlaan 2, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabrielle
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Box 453, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pala, Valeria
    Fdn IRCSS Ist Nazl Tumori, Dept Prevent & Predict Med, Via Venezian 1, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Reish, Lucia A.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Porcelaenshaven 18a, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, De Pintelaan 185 UZ 4K3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium / Vesalius Univ Coll Ghent, Dept Hlth Sci, Keramiekstr 80, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Palatable food consumption in children: interplay between (food) reward motivation and the home food environment2017In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 176, no 4, p. 465-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the importance of the home food environment on unhealthy food consumption in children high in reward sensitivity, this study tested the hypothesis that the home availability of unhealthy food moderates the effect of reward sensitivity on children's fast-food consumption frequency, exerted via food cue responsiveness. Children between 7.5 and 14 years (n = 174, 50.6% boys) reported on reward sensitivity and food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'external eating'). Their height and weight were measured. Parents reported on their children's fast-food consumption frequency, food cue responsiveness (by means of the subscale 'food responsiveness'), and on the home availability of unhealthy foods. Two moderated mediation models were conducted, one with the parent- and one with the child-reported food cue responsiveness as mediator. Findings suggested that with a high home availability of unhealthy foods, (a) a higher fast-food consumption frequency was found in children high in reward sensitivity and (b) the relation between reward sensitivity and the fast-food consumption frequency was mediated by external eating. Conclusions: The findings point at the importance of the home food environment in children high in reward sensitivity. They suggest to limit the home availability of unhealthy foods.

  • 57.
    De Henauw, S.
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Univ Hosp, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.;Univ Coll Ghent, Vesalius Coll, Dept Hlth Sci, Ghent, Belgium.
    Michels, N.
    Univ Ghent, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Univ Hosp, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Vyncke, K.
    Univ Ghent, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Univ Hosp, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Hebestreit, A.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Russo, P.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Avellino, Italy.
    Intemann, T.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Peplies, J.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Fraterman, A.
    MVZ Dortmund Dr Eberhard & Partner, Dortmund, Germany.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Primary Hlth Care, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    de Lorgeril, M.
    Fac Med Grenoble, TIMC IMAG, CNRS UMR 5525, Coeur & Nutr, Grenoble, France.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Molnar, D.
    Univ Pecs, Natl Inst Hlth Promot, Gyermekklin, Pecs, Hungary.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ahrens, W.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Fac Math & Comp Sci, Inst Stat, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Sch Hlth Sci, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Blood lipids among young children in Europe: results from the European IDEFICS study2014In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 38, p. S67-S75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) fractions in blood has become standard practice in the early detection of atherosclerotic disease pathways. Considerable attention is given nowadays to the presence of these risk factors in children and to start preventive campaigns early in life. In this context, it is imperative to have valid comparative frameworks for interpretation of lipid levels. The aim of this study is to present sex-and age-specific reference values on blood lipid levels in European children aged 2.0-10.9 years. METHODS: Fasting blood was obtained via either venipuncture or capillary sampling. In 13 579 European non-obese children (50.3% boys), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), TG and TC/HDL-C ratio levels were measured with a point-of-care analyser (Cholestech). Sex- and age-specific reference values were computed with the GAMLSS method with the statistical software R. RESULTS: Reference curves and 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentile values are presented. HDL-C showed a positive trend with age, from 2 years onwards, but was relatively stable above the age of 7. For LDL-C and TC, linear but small age-related trends were seen. The TC/HDL-C values showed a gradual negative trend from the age of 2 up to 6 and were relatively stable afterwards. For TG, no age trend was found (P = 0.285). Boys had higher mean HDL-C values than girls (1.414 vs 1.368 mmol l(-1)), and lower TC, LDL-C, TC/HDL-C and TG values (3.981 vs 4.087 mmol l(-1); 2.297 vs 2.435 mmol l(-1); 2.84 vs 3.01mmol l(-1); and 0.509 vs 0.542 mmol l(-1), respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These new and recent references could serve as a European orientation of blood lipid values in children in the context of standard medical practice and for the purpose of public health screening.

  • 58.
    De Henauw, S.
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, State Univ Ghent Hosp, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Verbestel, V.
    Univ Ghent, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Movement & Sports Sci, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Marild, S.
    Univ Gothenburg, Queen Silvia Childrens Hosp, Dept Paediat, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barba, G.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Unit Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Avellino, Italy.
    Bammann, K.
    Univ Bremen, Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med, Bremen, Germany.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hebestreit, A.
    Univ Bremen, Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med, Bremen, Germany.
    Iacoviello, L.
    Catholic Univ, Lab Genet & Environm Epidemiol, Campobasso, Italy.
    Gallois, K.
    Univ Bremen, Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med, Bremen, Germany.
    Konstabel, K.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Kovacs, E.
    Univ Pecs, Fac Med, Dept Paediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Lissner, L.
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Public Health Epidemiology Unit, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Maes, L.
    Univ Ghent, State Univ Ghent Hosp, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Molnar, D.
    Univ Pecs, Fac Med, Dept Paediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Reisch, L.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Siani, A.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Unit Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Avellino, Italy.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Williams, G.
    Univ Lancaster, Dept Philosophy, Lancaster, England.
    Ahrens, W.
    Univ Bremen, Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med, Bremen, Germany.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.
    Univ Ghent, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Movement & Sports Sci, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Pigeot, I.
    Univ Bremen, Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med, Bremen, Germany.
    The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention programme: a new model for childhood obesity prevention in Europe?2011In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 35, p. S16-S23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: The European Union-as well as other parts of the world-faces a major challenge of increasing incidence of overweight/obesity. In particular, the increase in childhood obesity gives rise to a strong imperative for immediate action. Yet, little is known about the effectiveness of community interventions, and further research in this field is needed. There is, however, a growing consensus that such research should start from the paradigm that the current living environments tend to counteract healthy lifestyles. Questioning these environments thoroughly can help to develop new pathways for sustainable health-promoting communities. Against this background, the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study developed and implemented innovative community-oriented intervention programmes for obesity prevention and healthy lifestyle primarily in children aged 2-10 years in eight European countries: Sweden, Estonia, Germany, Belgium, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Cyprus. Materials and methods: The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention study mobilised an integrated set of interventional efforts at different levels of society, with the aim of facilitating the adoption of a healthy obesity-preventing lifestyle. The overall programme has been composed of 10 modules: three at community level, six at school level and one for parents. The main focus was on diet, physical activity and stress-coping capacity. The sphere of action encompassed both children and their (grand) parents, schools, local public authorities and influential stakeholders in the community. All materials for the interventions were centrally developed and culturally adapted. Results: So far, the following has been achieved: focus group research, literature review and expert consultations were done in an early phase as a basis for the development of the intervention modules. The intervention mapping protocol was followed as guide for structuring the intervention research. The overall intervention programme's duration was 2 years, but a longer-term follow-up programme is under development. Conclusions: This large-scale European effort is expected to contribute significantly to the understanding of this major public health challenge. International Journal of Obesity (2011) 35, S16-S23; doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.31

  • 59.
    Delin, Paula
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Rågård, Sandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Vegetarisk kost: ur ett hälsofrämjande samt sjukdomsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vegetarians have made a lifechanging decision to not eat meat and therefore have an eating pattern consisting of vegetable products.

    Purpose: The systematic literature overview examines how a vegetarian diet affect health from a health promoting and disease perspectives.

    Method: A systematic literature overview based on 11 scientific articles that have been examined from a positive and negative approach of a vegetarian diet.

    Results: A vegetarian diet can both be positive and negative to a persons health. The study shows a positive health for the participants with risk of diseases because there are health promoting effects as well as risks for malnutrition caused by lack of knowledge both regarding short term and long-term diets.

    Discussion: The research shows that the area regarding vegetarian diets is not a wellresearched area and more research is needed. Both negative and positive effects with this diet can be found. The health promoting effect are reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, and the negative effects are the risk of malnutrition when animal products are excluded from the diet with a lack of knowledge regarding the subject.

  • 60.
    Didriksson, Annika
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Jordbrukares psykiska hälsa: en litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Within the agricultural profession, there are many stress factors. The suicide statistics show that the profession is associated with an even globally increased risk of suicide. How sustainable is agriculture's psychosocial resilience when urbanization, globalization and prevailing climate-change affect the conditions for agriculture and for the individuals who work with food production. Can available scientific literature explain which factors affect the farmer's mental health? Aim: The purpose of this literature rewiev is to demonstrate that the incidence of mental illness in the agricultural sector is a real problem and to get answers to what factors affect the farmers' mental health. The rewiev also aims to achieve a greater understanding in the reader about the mental health of farmers. Methods: A literature study, in which qualitative and quantitative articles have been studied. Articles were searched in the databases Medline and CINAHL and the content was analyzed to meet the criteria of the study. Results: Ten scientific articles were included for analysis and four themes emerged: Working life, Social relations, Geographical location and Stigma. Geographical isolation from healthcare and social meeting places increase isolation and are risk factors for mental illness. Higher prevalence of mental illness among farmers is explained by time pressure, stigmatization of the profession and societal changes which can have a negative effect on mental health.  Conclusion:  Farmers' health is vulnerable and there are reasons to worry about their mental health. But the agricultural profession is also associated with several protective factors that should be strengthened in order to reduce the risk of mental problems.

  • 61.
    Do, Loan Minh
    et al.
    Outpatient Department, National Hospital of Paediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam / Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Viveca
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Tran, Toan Khanh
    Family Medicine Department, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Huong Thanh
    Faculty of Social Sciences, Behaviour and Health Education, Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Eriksson, Bo
    Health Metrics, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ascher, Henry
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Angered Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vietnamese mother's conceptions of childhood overweight: Findings from a qualitative study2016In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 9, article id 30215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Childhood overweight and obesity is a new and emerging problem in Vietnam. The so far observed prevalence increases have pointed to the need for public health intervention strategies with parents as crucial resources for change. Objective: The aim of this study was to understand mothers' conceptions of childhood overweight. Design: Four focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 33 mothers of preschool children, 4-6 years old, living in urban and rural districts of Hanoi, Vietnam. The discussions were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed using the principles of phenomenography. Results: Four main categories with 13 subcategories emerged in the process of analysis. The first category, called 'Concept of overweight', contained mothers' views on childhood overweight. A major concern was the negative aspects of overweight such as impaired social interaction and health problems. The second category, 'Identification of overweight', described the ways mothers use to recognize overweight in children: own experience, growth chart, and public or health care system's information. The third category, 'Causes of overweight', showed mothers' understanding of factors possibly contributing to overweight development: unhealthy food and lifestyle, genetic susceptibility, parent's lack of knowledge, and limited time to take care of children as well as economic improvement. The fourth category, 'Management of overweight', described the ways mothers use to manage a child's weight problem: control of their food intake, increasing their physical activity, and encouraging their child self-control. However, they find such strategies difficult to implement and their intentions are sometimes challenged by the child's grandparents. Conclusions: The study gives an understanding of the mothers' conceptions of four important and practically useful aspects of overweight in children. The findings highlight the roles of media and the health care system in enhancing a social awareness of the problem and the need for prevention. Growth charts need to be used more regularly and consciously in child health care for early detection of children at risk and as a tool for information to parents. When designing intervention programs, the entire extended families, especially grandparents and their roles, need to be considered.

  • 62.
    Edlund Berg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hald Göthberg, Birgitte
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    En systematisk litteraturstudie om utbrändhet, confoundingfactorer och effektiva interventioner2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Behavioral and mental disorders, including burnout syndrome, represent a serious public health issue with increasing prevalence in the last 30 years, especially in 2010-2015 where women were overrepresented in the statistics.

    Aim This study aimed to identify evidence based interventions and relevant psychosocial work factors with regards to stress related ill health and burnout. The focus group was women, age 18-64 years.

    Method A systematic literature study was used with studies selected from PubMed. The results were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results Factors related to psychosocial factors and burnout differed by gender. Women were exposed to more risks for burnout, and experienced less access to prevention factors in work environments, compared to men. The most common interventions were cognitive behavioral therapy, coaching and physical activity. Lack of supervisor support had a key role in the development of burnout for men. Existing supervisor support is a preventive factor for women. Women used private networks for emotional support, while men developed their professional networks.

    Discussion Prevention factors in burnout differed between men and women. Burnout interventions focused on individual level despite the need for primary level interventions. Leadership should prioritize reducing risk factors for burnout.

  • 63.
    Edman Wallér, Jon
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Vårdplatsbyten och Clostridium difficile-infektion: En fall-kontroll-studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Clostridium difficile is a spore-forming bacterium; the spores are highly resilient and can survive for long periods of time in the hospital environment. Most Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) are hospital-acquired. Colonization of spores or vegetative bacteria in the large intestine is necessary for infection to occur; the risk of infection is modulated by the state of the intestinal microbiome and the host´s immune status. Patient-to-patient transmission within and between wards are commonplace in modern healthcare, exposing patients to more of the hospital environment where spores may exist. Aim: To determine whether changing room and/or ward is a risk factor for developing CDI when adjusted for other known risk factors. Method: A case-control study of all hospital-acquired CDI cases at Södra Älvsborg Hospital, Borås, Sweden, during two years: 2012 and 2015. Odds ratios were calculated using univariate logistic regression analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to evaluate statistically significant (p<0,05) variables identified by the univariate analysis. Results: Patient transfers were not more common in the case group when data was adjusted for other known risk factors. In the multivariate model, length of stay [A1] alone was the only statistically significant variable (OR per additional day of care: 1.07, 95 % confidence interval: 1.02-1.12). Conclusion: The study could not demonstrate patient transfers as an independent risk factor for CDI, though replicating the study on a larger patient sample might be valuable.

  • 64.
    Ehrnström, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Einarsson, Charlotte
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Fysisk aktivitets positiva effekter på folkhälsan2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The brain is what is most affected by regular exercise in the human body. Exercise often affects the concentration, memory, sleep, and creativity. Having a passive lifestyle increases the risk of developing many of our common diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases.

    Method

    This thesis is based on an overview of literature, where ten scientific articles have been read, examined, and analysed. The result is based on scientific articles that were peer-reviewed.

    Result

    All articles confirm the hypothesis of a connection between physical activity and positive effects. A large number of articles also suggest to the need for further research on the subject in order to eventually establish physical activity as a protective factor and alternative treatment for welfare disease symptoms. Also for physical and mental well-being with improved learning abilities in both school and at leisure.

    Discussion

    A review of ten scientific articles shows a strong connection between physical activity and positive effects. In a longer perspective there is potential for physical activity to become a recognized treatment method to alleviate symptoms such as obesity, depression, mental health, and to achieve a better average result in school.

  • 65.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    et al.
    Department of Primary Health Care, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, C. S.
    Department of Primary Health Care, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden / Department of Geriatric Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rothenberg, E.
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden / Department for Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sundh, V.
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Steen, B.
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lissner, L.
    Department of Primary Health Care, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden / Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Secular trends in diet among elderly Swedes – cohort comparisons over three decades2004In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 637-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare dietary practices among different birth cohorts of 70-year-old Swedes, who were examined between 1971 and 2000.

    SETTING: Göteborg, Sweden.

    DESIGN: Four population-based samples of 1360 70-year-olds, born in 1901, 1911, 1922 and 1930, have undergone health examinations and dietary assessments over a period of almost three decades. One-hour diet history (DH) interviews were conducted in 1971, 1981, 1992 and 2000 with a total of 758 women and 602 women. The formats and contents of the dietary examinations were similar over the years. Statistical analysis of linear trends was conducted, using year of examination as the independent variable, to detect secular trends in food and nutrient intakes across cohorts.

    RESULTS: At the 2000 examination, the majority of 70-year-olds consumed nutritionally adequate diets. Later-born cohorts consumed more yoghurt, breakfast cereals, fruit, vegetables, chicken, rice and pasta than earlier-born cohorts. Consumption of low-fat spread and milk also increased, along with that of wine, light beer and candy. In contrast, potatoes, cakes and sugar were consumed less in 2000 than in 1971. The ratio of reported energy intake to estimated basal metabolic rate did not show any systematic trend over time in women, but showed a significant upward trend in men.

    CONCLUSIONS: The diet history method has captured changes in food selections in the elderly without changing in general format over three decades. Dietary quality has improved in a number of ways, and these findings in the elderly are consistent with national food consumption trends in the general population.

  • 66.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    et al.
    Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Dey, D. K.
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Rothenberg, E.
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Sweden / Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Steen, B.
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Björkelund, C.
    Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, C.
    Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Lissner, L.
    Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Obesity in 70-year-old Swedes: Secular changes over 30 years2005In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 29, no 7, p. 810-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Secular increases in obesity have been widely reported in middle-aged adults, but less is known about such trends among the elderly. The primary purpose of this paper is to document the most recent wave of the obesity epidemic in population-based samples of 70-y-old men and women from Goteborg. Additionally, we will investigate the influences of physical activity, smoking and education on these secular trends. POPULATIONS AND METHODS: Five population-based samples of 3702 70-y-olds (1669 men and 2033 women) in Goteborg, Sweden, born between 1901 and 1930, were examined in the Gerontological and Geriatric Population Studies (H70) between 1971 and 2000. Cohort differences in anthropometric measures were the main outcomes studied. Physical activity, smoking habits and education were assessed by comparable methods in all cohorts. Subsamples of the women in the latest two cohorts (birth years 1922 and 1930) were also part of the Prospective Population Study of Women in Goteborg. In these women, it was possible to examine body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR) longitudinally since 1968. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Significant upward trends were found for height, weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), WHR, prevalence of overweight (BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) and obesity ( BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) across cohorts in both sexes. In 2000, 20% of the 70-y-old men born in 1930 were obese, and the largest increment (almost doubling) had occurred between the early 1980s and the early 1990s. In 70-y-old women the prevalence of obesity was 24% in 2000, a 50% increase compared to the cohort born 8 y earlier. BMI increased over time in all physical activity, smoking and education groups, with the exception of neversmoking men. Although 70-y-old women in 2000 were heavier than cohorts examined 8 y previously, data from the women studied longitudinally revealed that these differences were already present in earlier adulthood. In conclusion, the elderly population is very much part of the obesity epidemic, although secular trends in BMI were detected slightly earlier in men than in women. The health implications of these secular trends should be focused on in future gerontological research.

  • 67.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    et al.
    Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Lissner, L
    Department of Primary Health Care, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Health Hunters - an intervention to prevent overweight and obesity in young high-risk women2006In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 691-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study was to develop and implement an obesity and weight gain prevention program targeted to a high-risk group. Method: Women, 18-28 years old, with at least one severely obese parent, were randomized to the intervention or control group of the 'Health Hunters' program. During 1 year of follow-up, the intervention group received an individualized behavioral program focusing on food choice, physical activity and other lifestyle factors. Anthropometric measures, DXA-based body composition and fitness levels were measured at baseline and after 1 year. Self-reported changes in obesity-related behaviors were also assessed. Results: Baseline examinations were conducted in 40 women, of whom 30 completed follow-up examinations 1 year later. Pregnancy was the most common reason for failure to complete the study. Compared to the control group (which gained weight), the intervention group displayed significant improvements in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and self-reported physical activity. Changes in body composition, although not significant, suggested that the intervention tended to be associated with improved body composition. Further analysis of changes in diet and fitness in relation to concurrent weight changes indicated that the strongest 'protective' associations were for energy percent protein, fiber density and fitness. Conclusion: Pilot data from the Health Hunters obesity prevention program indicates that it is effective in high-risk young women with familial predisposition for obesity.

  • 68.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet, Sweden.
    Mårild, Staffan
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet, Sweden.
    A healthy diet: key factor in efforts to tackle child obesity2014In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, no 11, p. 489-92Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Einberg, Eva-Lena
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Wilhsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Elevhälsan ska vara en promotiv insats för barns hälsa2019In: Hälsopromotion i teori och praktik: olika arenor och målgrupper / [ed] Åsa Bringsén, Petra Nilsson Lindström, Stockholm: Liber, 2019, 1, p. 79-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Ekman, Robert
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Stark Ekman, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Schyllander, Jan
    Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, Sweden.
    Schelp, Lothar
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Reducing visits to local health care by one third safety promotion efforts in Western Sweden2016In: Injury Prevention, ISSN 1353-8047, E-ISSN 1475-5785, Vol. 22, p. A85-A85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 71.
    El Ansari, Walid
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar / Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Gloucestershire, Gloucester, United Kingdom.
    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
    Unit for Health Promotion Research, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Association of health status and health behaviors with weight satisfaction vs. Body image concern: Analysis of 5888 undergraduates in Egypt, Palestine, and Finland2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 2860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the relationships between weight satisfaction, body image concern, healthy nutrition, health awareness, and physical activity among college students across culturally different countries. We assessed country and sex-specific associations between health status (self-rated health, depression, BMI), healthy behavior (healthy nutrition, physical activity, health awareness), weight satisfaction, and body image concern via a cross-sectional survey (5888 undergraduates) in Egypt, Palestine, and Finland. This health and wellbeing survey employed identical self-administered paper questionnaires administered at several Universities in two Eastern Mediterranean countries (Egypt, Palestine—Gaza Strip), and an online-survey comprising the same questions in Finland. Regression analyses were employed. Health status variables exhibited the strongest associations; high BMI and more depressive symptoms were more often among students satisfied with their weight (except in Palestine), but they were positively associated with body image concern irrespective of country or gender. Self-rated health was not associated with body image concern or weight satisfaction. Healthy behaviors were not associated with body image concern or weight satisfaction. Depressive symptoms and BMI were the most prominent predictors for body image concern. There were country-specific consistent results when using the body image concern score. Further research is necessary to compare body image across different cultures and countries. 

  • 72.
    El Ansari, Walid
    et al.
    Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Gloucestershire, Gloucester, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
    Unit for Health Promotion Research, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark.
    Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints?: Evidence from Turku, Finland2015In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 7, no 10, p. 8478-8490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined nutrition behaviour, self-reported health and 20 health complaints of undergraduates in Finland. Students at the University of Turku in Finland participated in a cross-sectional online survey (N = 1189). For nutrition behaviour, we computed two composite food intake pattern scores (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential confounders (age, sex, living with partner, economic situation, moderate physical activity, Faculty and BMI). Factor analysis of the 20 health complaints revealed three components (psychological, pains/aches and circulatory/breathing symptoms). Multiple linear regression tested the association of students' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health, exhibiting a decreasing trend for those individuals with poor/fair self-reported health. High levels of psychological symptoms were associated with decreased consumption of fruits and vegetables, less dietary guideline adherence and less subjective importance of healthy eating. Pain/aches symptoms were associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary guideline adherence index was the best indicator and exhibited the most consistent associations with self-reported health and health complaints.

  • 73.
    El Ansari, Walid
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / College of Medicine, Doha, Qatar / Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Gloucestershire, Gloucester, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. University of Turku, Department of Public Health, Turku, Finland.
    Draper, Steve
    University Centre Hartpury, Gloucester, United Kingdom.
    Correlates of achieving the guidelines of four forms of physical activity, and the relationship between guidelines achievement and academic performance: Undergraduate students in Finland2017In: Central European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1210-7778, E-ISSN 1803-1048, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We surveyed and compared, by gender, the levels and correlates of achieving the international guidelines of four forms of physical activity (PA): moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), moderate or vigorous PA (MVPA), and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA). The study assessed the associations between achieving the guidelines of the four PA forms and a range of socio-demographic, health and academic performance variables. Methods: Data was collected across the seven faculties of the University of Turku (2013-2014 from a representative sample of 1,189 undergraduates). An English language online self-administered questionnaire assessed frequency and duration of PA/week for each form of PA. We employed cut-offs for the guidelines in accordance with the American Heart Association. Chi-square statistic tested the differences in PA, socio-demographic variables and academic performance between males and females. Binary logistic regression examined the factors associated with achieving the four PA guidelines and linear regression examined the association between the frequency of PA and academic performance. Results: Achievement of PA guidelines was relatively low across the sample. Female students were less likely to achieve the VPA or MSPA guidelines, but were more health conscious and in generally exhibited better academic performace than males. High health awareness and excellent/very good self-rated health were the strongest predictors of achieving all forms of PA. Parents' education level was positively related to likelihood of achieving the VPA, MVPA and MSPA guidelines. Achieving the MPA guidelines (but not VPA or MSPA) was positively associated with subjective perceptions of better academic performance. Conclusions: Achievement of PA guidelines was generally low for this sample of Finnish students, and was associated with positive health status and high health awareness. Universities need a holistic approach to improve awareness of health and promote PA in students' lifestyles.

  • 74.
    Eliasson, Ellen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Nilsson, Erika
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sociala mediers positiva påverkan på fysisk aktivitet hos män och kvinnor över 18 år: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 75.
    Eliasson, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Mindfulness och effekter vid rökavvänjning2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I över ett halvt sekel har rökningens skadeverkningar varit kända, menfortfarande är det många i alla befintliga samhälls- och åldersgrupper som röker. En rökarebörjar ofta med detta tidigt i livet och rökningen vidmakthålls med påverkan från inre ochyttre faktorer. Rökning är det största förebyggbara folkhälsoproblemet och orsakar en storsjukdomsbörda trots en minskning av rökning nationellt i Sverige och globalt den senastetiden. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien är att beskriva mindfulness, medveten närvaro, ochdess inverkan vid rökavvänjning. Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie där vetenskapliga artiklaranalyserats och essensen av resultat sammanställts och ordnats i teman. En allmänlitteraturstudie är ungefär detsamma som en litteraturöversikt eller litteraturgenomgång därkunskapsläget inom ett visst område beskrivs. Resultat: Mindfulness som beståndsdel irökavvänjning är framgångsrikt. Mindfulness handlar om att vara medvetet närvarande. Attmedvetet vara uppmärksam på och beskriva händelser, känslor, önskningar, tankar ochhandlingar i nuet utan att döma eller agera på dem. Observerade effekter avmindfulnessträning är minskad känsla av stress, begär, beroende och ökad känsla av självtillitoch självkontroll. Mindfulnessträning kan även bidra till att mer effektivt förändra ettohälsosamt beteende. Slutsats: Mindfulness utövat under längre tid kan ge mindre upplevdstress, minskat rök- och nikotinbegär, färre återfall i rökning och större antal vidmakthållnarökstopp än enbart metoder med avslappning, telefonstöd (sluta-rökalinjer) och/ellerläkemedel. Mer forskning behövs dock för att ytterligare stärka evidens.

  • 76.
    Eneslätt, Monica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Stenlund, Mari
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Påverkar användandet av ett rondkort sjuksköterskornas upplevelse av delaktighet i patienternas antibiotika- och urinkateterbehandling: En interventionsstudie i Västerbotten2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Healthcare-associated infections and antibiotic resistance are public health

    problems. Indwelling catheters increase risk for urinary tract infections. There are

    connections among healthcare-associated infections, antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance.

    Nurses play a key role in infection control during hospital ward rounds. Aim: To investigate

    if a ward round checklist affects nursesʼ experiences of participation in patients’ antibiotica

    and indwelling catheter treatments. Method: An intervention study was conducted in two

    wards at Norrland University Hospital. The intervention was use of a checklist,

    RondkortVLL, that we developed for use by nurses at the ward round. The duration of the

    intervention was 1 month. The nurses answered a questionnaire about the use of antibiotica-

    and indwelling catheter before and after the intervention. Pre- and post-intervention

    responses were compared using the Mann Whitney-U test. Results: Significant

    improvements were found in 1) daily consideration of indwelling catheters and 2) the nurses

    feeling it was natural to conduct a dialogue with the physician about lower infection risk

    alternatives to indwelling catheters. While nurses tended to more often report the experience

    of participation in antibiotic treatment considerations post-intervention, this was not

    significant. Conclusion: Due to a small sample size and only two wards investigated it is

    difficult to generalize our results. However, our data indicate that RondkortVLL improved

    the nurses' experience of participation in patients' indwelling catheter treatments and may

    improve nursesʼ experiences of participation in a patient’s antibiotic treatment. Given these

    findings and the importance of infection prevention and control, we are pursuing greater

    clinical utilization of the RondkortVLL. We assert that RondkortVLL can be useful as a

    daily reminder, empower the nursesʼand raise awareness of their importance in all aspects

    of patient care.

  • 77.
    Erhardt, E.
    et al.
    Univ Pecs, Dept Paediat, H-7623 Pecs, Hungary.
    Foraita, R.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Pigeot, I.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Fac Math & Comp Sci, Inst Stat, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Barba, G.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Avellino, Italy.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Michels, N.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ahrens, W.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Fac Math & Comp Sci, Inst Stat, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Kovacs, E.
    Univ Pecs, Dept Paediat, H-7623 Pecs, Hungary.
    Molnar, D.
    Univ Pecs, Dept Paediat, H-7623 Pecs, Hungary.
    Reference values for leptin and adiponectin in children below the age of 10 based on the IDEFICS cohort2014In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 38, p. S32-S38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To establish age- and sex-specific reference values for serum leptin and adiponectin in normal-weight 3.0-8.9-year old European children. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Blood samples for hormone analysis were taken from 1338 children of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary-and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS) study cohort. Only normal-weight children aged 3.0-8.9 years were included (n = 539) in our analysis. Using the General Additive Model for Location Scale and Shape, age-and sex-specific percentiles were derived. The influence of under/overweight and obesity on the proposed reference curves based on normal-weight children was investigated in several sensitivity analyses using the sample without obese children (n = 1015) and the whole study sample (n = 1338). RESULTS: There was a negative age trend of adiponectin blood levels and a positive trend of leptin levels in boys and girls. Percentiles derived for girls were generally higher than those obtained for boys. The corresponding age-specific differences of the 97th percentile ranged from -2.2 to 4.6 mu g ml(-1) and from 2.2 to 4.8 ng ml(-1) for adiponectin and leptin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: According to our knowledge, these are the first reference values of leptin and adiponectin in prepubertal, normal-weight children. The presented adiponectin and leptin reference curves may allow for a more differentiated interpretation of children's hormone levels in epidemiological and clinical studies.

  • 78.
    Erlandsson, Fanny
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Velander, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ”Socioekonomiska faktorers påverkan på tonåringars psykiska hälsa”: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Mental health issues in adolescents have been a growing problem over the last few years. Socioeconomic factors, or factors relating to the social and economic environment appear to play a part in this trend. The aim of this study was to explore the literature available on how socioeconomic factors impact adolescents mental health.

    Method

    The study was a literature review. Data was collected in Academic Search Elite, CINAHL and Ebsco Medline. The data collection processes resulted in the finding of 10 scientific articles.  The articles were analyzed in order to find the themes that made up the results of this study.

    Results

    “Social factors”, “disadvantage”, “context and personal traits” and “type of factors” are themes that frequently occured in the ten selected articles and all four aspects appear to impact the mental health of adolescents.

    Discussion

    The findings of this study show that socioeconomic factors greatly impact the mental health of adolescents and in a variety of different ways. It is important to consider context, type of factor and personal qualities of an individual when exploring how a particular socioeconomic factor will impact a particular adolescent.

  • 79.
    Ervasti, Jenni
    et al.
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland / Univ Helsinki, Clinicum, Helsinki, Finland.
    Airaksinen, Jaakko
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Univ Helsinki, Clinicum, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Finland / Turku Univ Hosp, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Univ Turku, Finland.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland / Uppsala Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Caring Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland / Univ Helsinki, Clinicum, Finland / UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Does increasing physical activity reduce the excess risk of work disability among overweight individuals?2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 376-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives We examined the extent to which an increase in physical activity would reduce the excess risk of work disability among overweight and obese people (body mass index >= 25kg/m(2)).

    Methods We used counterfactual modelling approaches to analyze longitudinal data from two Finnish prospective cohort studies (total N=38 744). Weight, height and physical activity were obtained from surveys and assessed twice and linked to electronic records of two indicators of long-term work disability (>= 90-day sickness absence and disability pension) for a 7-year follow-up after the latter survey. The models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

    Results The confounder-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of long-term sickness absence for overweight compared to normal-weight participants was 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-1.53]. An increase in physical activity among overweight compared to normal-weight individuals was estimated to reduce this HR to 1.40 (95% CI 1.31-1.48). In pseudo-trial analysis including only the persistently overweight, initially physically inactive participants, the HR for long-term sickness absence was 0.82 (95% CI 0.70-0.94) for individuals with increased physical activity compared to those who remained physically inactive. The results for disability pension as an outcome were similar.

    Conclusions These findings suggest that the excess risk of work disability among overweight individuals would drop by 3-4% if they increased their average physical activity to the average level of normal-weight people. However, overweight individuals who are physically inactive would reduce their risk of work disability by about 20% by becoming physically active.

  • 80.
    Ervasti, Jenni
    et al.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, United Kingdom / Clinicum, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Head, Jenny
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, United Kingdom.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Population-based Cohorts Unit, French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Villejuif, France / Research Unit 1168 Aging and Chronic Diseases—Epidemiological and Public Health Approaches, French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Villejuif, France / Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
    Airagnes, Guillaume
    Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France / Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Ouest, Paris, France.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Clinicum, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Jokela, Markus
    Medicum, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Zins, Marie
    Population-based Cohorts Unit, French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Villejuif, France / Research Unit 1168 Aging and Chronic Diseases—Epidemiological and Public Health Approaches, French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Villejuif, France / Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sickness absence diagnoses among abstainers, low-risk drinkers and at-risk drinkers: consideration of the U-shaped association between alcohol use and sickness absence in four cohort studies2018In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 113, no 9, p. 1633-1642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims To estimate differences in the strength and shape of associations between alcohol use and diagnosis-specific sickness absence. Design A multi-cohort study. Participants (n = 47 520) responded to a survey on alcohol use at two time-points, and were linked to records of sickness absence. Diagnosis-specific sickness absence was followed for 4-7 years from the latter survey. Setting and participants From Finland, we had population cohort survey data from 1998 and 2003 and employee cohort survey data from 2000-02 and 2004. From France and the United Kingdom, we had employee cohort survey data from 1993 and 1997, and 1985-88 and 1991-94, respectively. Measurements We used standard questionnaires to assess alcohol intake categorized into 0, 1-11 and > 11 units per week in women and 0, 1-34 and > 34 units per week in men. We identified groups with stable and changing alcohol use over time. We linked participants to records from sickness absence registers. Diagnoses of sickness absence were coded according to the International Classification of Diseases. Estimates were adjusted for sex, age, socio-economic status, smoking and body mass index. Findings Women who reported drinking 1-11 units and men who reported drinking 1-34 units of alcohol per week in both surveys were the reference group. Compared with them, women and men who reported no alcohol use in either survey had a higher risk of sickness absence due to mental disorders [rate ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-1.88], musculoskeletal disorders (1.22, 95% CI = 1.06-1.41), diseases of the digestive system (1.35, 95% CI = 1.02-1.77) and diseases of the respiratory system (1.49, 95% CI = 1.29-1.72). Women who reported alcohol consumption of > 11 weekly units and men who reported alcohol consumption of > 34 units per week in both surveys were at increased risk of absence due to injury or poisoning (1.44, 95% CI = 1.13-1.83). Conclusions In Finland, France and the United Kingdom, people who report not drinking any alcohol on two occasions several years apart appear to have a higher prevalence of sickness absence from work with chronic somatic and mental illness diagnoses than those drinking below a risk threshold of 11 units per week for women and 34 units per week for men. Persistent at-risk drinking in Finland, France and the United Kingdom appears to be related to increased absence due to injury or poisoning.

  • 81.
    Ervasti, Jenni
    et al.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Clinicum, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Head, Jenny
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Population-based Cohorts Unit, INSERM, Paris, Villejuif, France / French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Research Unit 1168 Aging and Chronic Diseases—Epidemiological and Public Health Approaches, INSERM, Paris, Villejuif, France.
    Airagnes, Guillaume
    Faculty of Medicine, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris, France / Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Ouest, Paris, France.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Clinicum, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland / Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Jokela, Markus
    Medicum, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Zins, Marie
    French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Population-based Cohorts Unit, INSERM, Paris, Villejuif, France / French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Research Unit 1168 Aging and Chronic Diseases—Epidemiological and Public Health Approaches, INSERM, Paris, Villejuif, France / University Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Paris, France.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Sociodemographic Differences Between Alcohol Use and Sickness Absence: Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies2018In: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 95-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: We examined differences in sickness absence in relation to at-risk drinking and abstinence, taking into account potential changes in consumption.& para;& para;Methods: We used individual-participant data (n = 46,514) from four prospective cohort studies from Finland, France and the UK. Participants responded to a survey on alcohol use at two time points 4-6 years apart, and were linked to records of sickness absence for an similar to 6-year follow-up after the latter survey. Abstainers were those reporting no alcohol use in either survey. At-risk drinkers at T1 were labelled as 'former', at-risk drinkers at T2 as 'current' and at-risk drinkers at both times as 'consistent' at-risk drinkers. The reference group was low-risk drinkers at both times. Study-specific analyses were stratified by sex and socioeconomic status (SES) and the estimates were pooled using meta-analysis.& para;& para;Results: Among men (n = 17,285), abstainers (6%), former (5%), current (5%) and consistent (7%) at-risk drinkers had an increased risk of sickness absence compared with consistent low-risk drinkers (77%). Among women (n = 29,229), only abstainers (12%) had a higher risk of sickness absence compared to consistent low-risk drinkers (74%). After adjustment for lifestyle and health, abstaining from alcohol was associated with sickness absence among people with intermediate and high SES, but not among people with low SES.& para;& para;Conclusions: The U-shaped alcohol use-sickness absence association is more consistent in men than women. Abstinence is a risk factor for sickness absence among people with higher rather than lower SES. Healthy worker effect and health selection may partly explain the observed differences.& para;& para;Short summary: In a pooled analysis from four cohort studies from three European countries, we demonstrated a U-shaped association between alcohol use and sickness absence, particularly among men. Abstinence from alcohol was associated with increased sickness absenteeism among both sexes and across socioeconomic strata, except those with low SES.

  • 82.
    Fernandez-Alvira, J. M.
    et al.
    Univ Zaragoza, Fac Hlth Sci, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Gr, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
    Bammann, K.
    Univ Bremen, Inst Publ Hlth & Nursing Sci Ipp, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS GmbH, Bremen, Germany.
    Pala, V.
    Fdn IRCCS, Ist Nazl Tumori, Dept Prevent & Predict Med, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, Milan, Italy.
    Krogh, V.
    Fdn IRCCS, Ist Nazl Tumori, Dept Prevent & Predict Med, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, Milan, Italy.
    Barba, G.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Unit Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Avellino, Italy.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hebestreit, A.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS GmbH, Bremen, Germany.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Reisch, L.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Kovacs, E.
    Univ Pecs, Dept Paediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Huybrechts, I.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium / Int Agcy Res Canc, Dietary Exposure assessment Grp, F-69372 Lyon, France.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Fac Hlth Sci, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Gr, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
    Country-specific dietary patterns and associations with socioeconomic status in European children: the IDEFICS study2014In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 68, no 7, p. 811-821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary patterns with an additive SES indicator. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES. RESULTS: Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing gastronomic and cultural differences in Europe. The 'processed' pattern was significantly inversely associated with the SES additive indicator in all countries except Sweden, whereas the 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with SES in the Belgian, Estonian, German and Hungarian regions, but was not significant in the Italian, Spanish and Swedish regions. CONCLUSIONS: A 'processed' pattern and a 'healthy' pattern were found in most of the participating countries in the IDEFICS study, with comparable food item profiles. The results showed a strong inverse association of SES with the 'processed' pattern, suggesting that children of parents with lower SES may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. Therefore, special focus should be given to parents and their children from lower SES levels when developing healthy eating promotion strategies.

  • 83.
    Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel
    et al.
    GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Edificio del SAI,C/Pedro Cerbuna s/n, Zaragoza, Spain / Fundación Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Bammann, Karin
    Institute for Public Health and Nursing Sciences (IPP),University of Bremen,Bremen,Germany.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Public Health Epidemiology Unit (EPI), Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hebestreit, Antje
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Kourides, Yannis A.
    Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Kovacs, Eva
    Institute for Medical Information Processing, Biometrics and Epidemiology and German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.
    Michels, Nathalie
    Department of Public Health,Ghent University,Ghent,Belgium.
    Pala, Valeria
    Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine, Epidemiology Unit,Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
    Reisch, Lucia
    Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Russo, Paola
    Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
    Veidebaum, Tomas
    Department of Chronic Diseases, National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    GENUD (Growth, Exercise, NUtrition and Development) Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Edificio del SAI,C/Pedro Cerbuna s/n, Zaragoza, Spain / Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Aragón, Spain / Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Spain.
    Börnhorst, Claudia
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Prospective associations between dietary patterns and body composition changes in European children: the IDEFICS study2017In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 20, no 18, p. 3257-3265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe dietary patterns by applying cluster analysis and to describe the cluster memberships of European children over time and their association with body composition changes.

    DESIGN: The analyses included k-means clustering based on the similarities between the relative frequencies of consumption of forty-three food items and regression models were fitted to assess the association between dietary patterns and body composition changes.

    SETTING: Primary schools and pre-schools of selected regions in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain.

    SUBJECTS: Participants (n 8341) in the baseline (2-9 years old) and follow-up (4-11 years old) surveys of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) study.

    RESULTS: Three persistent clusters were obtained at baseline and follow-up. Children consistently allocated to the 'processed' cluster presented increased BMI (β=0·050; 95 % CI 0·006, 0·093), increased waist circumference (β=0·071; 95 % CI 0·001, 0·141) and increased fat mass gain (β=0·052; 95 % CI 0·014, 0·090) over time v. children allocated to the 'healthy' cluster. Being in the 'processed'-'sweet' cluster combination was also linked to increased BMI (β=0·079; 95 % CI 0·015, 0·143), increased waist circumference (β=0·172; 95 % CI 0·069, 0·275) and increased fat mass gain (β=0·076; 95 % CI 0·019, 0·133) over time v. the 'healthy' cluster.

    CONCLUSIONS: Children consistently showing a processed dietary pattern or changing from a processed pattern to a sweet pattern presented the most unfavourable changes in fat mass and abdominal fat. These findings support the need to promote overall healthy dietary habits in obesity prevention and health promotion programmes targeting children.

  • 84.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / School of Community and Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Jokela, Markus
    Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Batty, G. David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin), Berlin, Germany.
    Dragano, Nico
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Elovainio, Marko
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden / Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kumari, Meena
    Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Unit of Social Medicine, Frederiksberg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Pahkin, Krista
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    The Danish National Centre for Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Tabák, Adam
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / 1st Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University Faculty of Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    University of Skövde, Health and Education. University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Theorell, Töres
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Väänänen, Ari
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark / Departments of Public Health and Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland / Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Job insecurity and risk of diabetes: a meta-analysis of individual participant data2016In: CMJA. Canadian Medical Association Journal. Onlineutg. Med tittel: ECMAJ. ISSN 1488-2329, ISSN 0820-3946, E-ISSN 1488-2329, Vol. 188, no 17-18, p. E447-E455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Job insecurity has been associated with certain health outcomes. We examined the role of job insecurity as a risk factor for incident diabetes.

    METHODS: We used individual participant data from 8 cohort studies identified in 2 open-access data archives and 11 cohort studies participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. We calculated study-specific estimates of the association between job insecurity reported at baseline and incident diabetes over the follow-up period. We pooled the estimates in a meta-analysis to produce a summary risk estimate.

    RESULTS: The 19 studies involved 140 825 participants from Australia, Europe and the United States, with a mean follow-up of 9.4 years and 3954 incident cases of diabetes. In the preliminary analysis adjusted for age and sex, high job insecurity was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes compared with low job insecurity (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.30). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis restricted to 15 studies with baseline data for all covariates (age, sex, socioeconomic status, obesity, physical activity, alcohol and smoking), the association was slightly attenuated (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24). Heterogeneity between the studies was low to moderate (age- and sex-adjusted model: I(2) = 24%, p = 0.2; multivariable-adjusted model: I(2) = 27%, p = 0.2). In the multivariable-adjusted analysis restricted to high-quality studies, in which the diabetes diagnosis was ascertained from electronic medical records or clinical examination, the association was similar to that in the main analysis (adjusted OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.35).

    INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that self-reported job insecurity is associated with a modest increased risk of incident diabetes. Health care personnel should be aware of this association among workers reporting job insecurity.

  • 85.
    Fors, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Andersson, Kristina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Finns det skillnader i orsaker till arbetsrelaterad stress hos män och kvinnor?: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86.
    Frisk, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Roswall, Kristin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    En litteraturstudie kring psykisk ohälsa bland barn och unga2012Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Den psykiska ohälsan bland barn och unga har de senaste 10-20 åren ökat. Syfte: En litteraturstudie har utförts med syfte att undersöka orsaker till psykisk ohälsa, hur den yttrar sig bland barn och unga samt insatser som bör genomföras för att främja psykisk hälsa. Metod: Resultatet bygger på tio vetenskapliga artiklar av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats. Resultat: Resultatet visar att den psykiska ohälsan bland barn och unga har ökat. Detta kan bland annat bero på socioekonomiska skillnader och stress. Resultatet visar även att psykosomatiska besvär har ökat bland barn och unga, där huvudvärk och buksmärtor är vanliga symtom. Ångest har visat sig vara ett större problem än vad tidigare varit känt. Stress är en del av barn och ungas vardag och flera faktorer i skolan har visat sig vara stressorer; det kan bland annat inbegripas av skolarbetets krav och relationer till lärare. Skolan är en viktig arena för hälsoutvecklingen hos barn och unga. Därför är många insatser riktade mot förskola, skola och fritidsverksamhet. Slutsats: Forskning tyder på att barn med psykisk ohälsa växer upp till vuxna med problem och därför är tidiga insatser nyckeln till att bryta den negativa trenden. 

  • 87.
    Frisk, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Roswall, Kristin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Samverkan i arbetet med våldsutsatta kvinnor i nära relationer: En kvalitativ studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The violence against women is a public health problem. It is difficult to determine the actual prevalence of the violence against women because unreported cases are high. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the interaction in organizations and agencies with abused women in intimate relationships in the region of Skaraborg. Method: Three semistructured interviews were conducted with officials from X, Y and Z, who work with abused women in intimate relationships. Results: The results showed that there are fifteen councils in the region of Skaraborg who interact with abused women. One of the effects of the interaction is to be able to refer further according to the informants. The informants saw potential for improvement in the future, for example by collaborating with preschool and school. The results also showed that the informants are aware of the importance of their treatment against abused women, some more than others. Conclusion: The interaction is important to the fifteen councils in the region of Skaraborg, because one council can not alone give the women adequate help. The interaction in the region of Skaraborg works fine, however there are things that can improve in order to get better. The informants had their own different suggestions on how to make changes to the better, an example is a wider interaction with other agencies.

  • 88.
    Fröblom, Christine
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Fysisk aktivitet som fallprevention bland äldre: En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Fall accidents are globally the second largest cause of death due to injury. In addition to human suffering, it is an expensive public health problem, which is also increasing in many countries due to the rising life expectancy.

    Aim: The purpose was to describe how physical activity can prevent fall accidents in the elderly. The question aimed to investigate which exercise that gave good results for fall prevention.

    Methods: Literature review was chosen as study design. Ten articles were found and analyzed using the checklists strobe and consort to be included in a thematic analysis.

    Results: The results were presented according to four themes where studies that showed good results for fall prevention and studies with less clear results were presented. Thereafter, relevant findings related to physical and psychological factors followed. Factors that gave good results were strong hand grip strength, long-term physical activity, balance-demanding training, training with leaders, social support, motivational information and a safe environment. Factors that seemed to result in poorer results were weak hand grip strength, short-term physical activity, independent training at home with video instructions, living in retirement homes, lack of social support, transport difficulties and an insecure environment. Fear of falling was common, but in several cases it could be counteracted with physical activity.

    Conclusion: The review shows that physical activity is not only fall preventive but also improves the physical function and promotes psychosocial health. In order to succeed with the implementation, physical and psychological factors should be included in the planning.

  • 89.
    Gonzalez-Gil, E. M.
    et al.
    Univ Zaragoza, GENUD Growth Exercise NUtr & Dev Res Grp, Fac Hlth Sci, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Santabarbara, J.
    Minist Sci & Innovat, Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.;Univ Zaragoza, Dept Prevent Med & Publ Hlth, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Siani, A.
    CNR, Unit Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Inst Food Sci, Avellino, Italy.
    Ahrens, W.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Dept Epidemiol Methods & Etiol Res, Bremen, Germany / Univ Bremen, Fac Math & Comp Sci, Inst Stat, Bremen, Germany.
    Sioen, I.
    Univ Ghent, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Ghent, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Community Med & Publ Hlth, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Guenther, K.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Dept Epidemiol Methods & Etiol Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Iacoviello, L.
    IRCCS Mediterranean Neurol Inst NEUROMED, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent, Lab Mol & Nutr Epidemiol, Pozzilli, Italy.
    Molnar, D.
    Univ Pecs, Fac Med, Dept Pediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Rise, P.
    Univ Milan, Dept Pharmacol & Biomol Sci, Milan, Italy.
    Russo, P.
    CNR, Unit Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Inst Food Sci, Avellino, Italy.
    Tornaritis, M.
    REF, Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Tervise Arengu Inst, Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Galli, C.
    Univ Milan, Dept Pharmacol & Biomol Sci, Milan, Italy.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, GENUD Growth Exercise NUtr & Dev Res Grp, Fac Hlth Sci, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Whole-blood fatty acids and inflammation in European children: the IDEFICS Study2016In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 819-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fatty acids are hypothesized to influence cardiovascular disease risk because of their effect on inflammation. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between whole-blood fatty acids (WBFAs) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in European children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 1401 subjects (697 boys and 704 girls) aged between 2 and 9 years from the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects in Children and infantS) study were measured in this cross-sectional analysis. The sample was divided into three categories of hs-CRP. Associations between WBFA and hs-CRP were assessed by logistic regression models adjusting for body mass index (BMI), country, age, breastfeeding, mother's education and hours of physical activity. RESULTS: Linoleic acid (LA) (P = 0.013, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.822-0.977) and sum of n-6 WBFA (P = 0.029, 95% CI: 0.866-0.992) concentrations were associated with lower concentrations of hs-CRP in boys. In girls, a high ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) was associated (P = 0.018, 95% CI: 0.892-0.989) with lower hs-CRP concentrations. In contrast, sum of blood n-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.012, 95% CI: 1.031-1.284), AA (P = 0.007, 95% CI: 1.053-1.395) and AA/LA ratio (P = 0.005, 95% CI: 1.102-1.703) were associated (P < 0.05) with higher concentrations of hs-CRP in girls. CONCLUSIONS: The n-6 WBFAs (sum of n-6 FA and LA) were associated with lower hs-CRP in boys and with higher hs-CRP in girls (AA, sum of n-6 highly unsaturated and AA/LA ratio). More studies are needed to identify the optimal levels of WBFAs to avoid low-grade inflammation in children considering the differences by sex and BMI.

  • 90.
    Grekelä, Harri
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. harri.grekela@gmail.com.
    Barn och trafikrelaterade luftföroreningar: En översyn av riskfaktorer associerade till astma och pip ljud2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Traffic related air pollution is a global problem which causes mortality and morbidity mainly in developing countries and large cities where the problem is largest. Asthma is one of the diseases associated with traffic related air pollution and is globally the most common non-communicable disease among children, who are an especially vulnerable group since they are growing and developing. A global estimation by World Health Organization shows that about two billion children live in areas where air pollution exceeds the global guideline values. PURPOSE: The purpose is to identify risk factors associated with traffic related air pollution which may lead to asthma and wheezing among children. METHODS: A systematic literature review of 15 articles. RESULTS: Results from this study identified risk factors such as proximity to roads, pollutants and parental history of allergy. Furthermore, modifiers such as seasons, traffic volume and traffic density were identified. DISCUSSION: Traffic related air pollution is a big problem which can lead to several diseases on respiratory systems. It is a complex problem where risk factors and modifiers interact with each other where some of the risk factors cannot be addressed by individuals and that is why policymakers must act now.

  • 91.
    Gustafson, Deborah R.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Neurology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, New York, USA.
    Adipose Tissue Complexities in Dyslipidemias2019In: Dyslipidemia / [ed] Samy I. McFarlane, London: IntechOpen , 2019, p. 1-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adipose tissue is the largest organ in the human body and, in excess, contributes to dyslipidemias and the dysregulation of other vascular and metabolic processes. Adipose tissue is heterogeneous, comprised of several cell types based on morphology, cellular age, and endocrine and paracrine function. Adipose tissue depots are also regional, primarily due to sex differences and genetic variation. Adipose tissue is also characterized as subcutaneous vs. visceral. In addition, fatty deposits exist outside of adipose tissue, such as those surrounding the heart, or as infiltration of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on adipose tissue and its contribution to dyslipidemias. Dyslipidemias are defined as circulating blood lipid levels that are too high or altered. Lipids include both traditional and nontraditional species. Leaving aside traditional definitions, adipose tissue contributes to dyslipidemias in a myriad of ways. To address a small portion of this topic, we reviewed (a) adipose tissue location and cell types, (b) body composition, (c) endocrine adipose, (d) the fat-brain axis, and (e) genetic susceptibility. The influence of these complex aspects of adipose tissue on dyslipidemias and human health, illustrating that, once again, that adipose tissue is a quintessential, multifunctional tissue of the human body, will be summarized.

  • 92.
    Gustafson, Deborah R.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Neurology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, New York, USA.
    Epidemiology Informs Randomized Clinical Trials of Cognitive Impairments and Late-Onset, Sporadic Dementias2018In: Journal of Neurology & Neuromedicine, ISSN 2572-942X, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Gustafson, Deborah R.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    McFarlane, S. I.
    Obesity, cardiovascular disease risk and frailty in aging women with HIV infectionIn: Geriatrics, ISSN 2308-3417Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Gustafsson, Katarina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Polycystiskt ovariesyndrom: effekter av olika kostmetoder: en litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: About 5-10 % of women in fertile age have been diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome diagnosis with many other women also having polycystic ovary syndrome without diagnoses. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disease where a woman’s ovaries are filled with cysts, along with related hormonal disorders. Diets can help reduce the symptoms of this syndrome. Aim: See how various dietary approaches impacts on women with polycystic ovary syndrome and to see which approach is the best. Method: A literature review that analyzes ten different scientific articles. Four major themes were extracted from this review. Results: A high-protein diet, a diet with low GI and increased physical activity are three different approaches that are show to provide positive effects in people who suffer from this syndrome. Low-fat diets did not show positive effects. The study shows that the syndrome also becomes better with a weight loss. Conclusion: More research is needed on the various dietary approaches effects on women with polycystic ovary syndrome in larger study populations to identify the effects of different dietary approaches.

  • 95.
    Gustavsson, Johan
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Styrketräning som medel för viktminskning: Som enskild faktor och i samband med konditionsträning och förändrade kostvanor – en litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight and obesity is a public health problem that is spreading in our society. Being greatly discussed and researched there is new methods being developed constantly in an attempt to hinder the spreading. The vast amount of different training programs and diets can seem endless. In this literature review a form of training, resistance training, is examined if it can be a method of hindering the spread of overweight and obesity. Aim: The aim of this literature review is to describe the effect of resistance training as a mean to achieve weight loss. The effect of both resistance training alone and resistance training combined with aerobic training and changed dietary habits will be described. Method: The method is a literature review where previous research is examined to achieve the aim of this literature review. Results: In some few articles there was no sign of any effect on weight loss using resistance training, although, in the majority of the articles there were positive results, often equal those of the more popular forms of training such as aerobic training. The best results for the cause of achieving weight loss were shown when resistance training was combined with aerobic training and changed dietary habits. These results were however only marginally better than when the different methods of training were performed individually. Conclusion: Resistance training as a mean to achieve weight loss is often equal to theuse of aerobic training, which is one of the more popular methods of training to achieve weight loss.The greatest effect is given if these training methods are combined with each other and with changed dietary habits. Combining aerobic training with resistance training can be a strong complement to break a monotonous training habit and increasing the motivation.

  • 96.
    Gwozdz, Wencke
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Ctr Corp Social Responsibil, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Sousa-Poza, Alfonso
    Institute for Health Care & Public Management, University of Hohenheim, Germany.
    Reisch, Lucia A.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Ctr Corp Social Responsibil, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Univ Bremen, Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    De Henauwg, Stefaan
    Univ Ghent, Univ Hosp, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Ghent, Belgium.
    Kovacs, Eva
    Univ Pecs, Fac Med, Dept Paediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Lauria, Fabio
    Institute of Food Science & Technology, National Research Council, Italy.
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Williams, Garrath
    Univ Lancaster, Dept Polit Philosophy & Relig, Lancaster, England.
    Bammann, Karin
    Univ Bremen, Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Inst Publ Hlth & Nursing Res, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Maternal employment and childhood obesity: A European perspective2013In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 728-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 97.
    Gwozdz, Wencke
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Ctr Corp Social Responsibil, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sousa-Poza, Alfonso
    Univ Hohenheim, Inst Hlth Care & Publ Management, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Reisch, Lucia A.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Ctr Corp Social Responsibil, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bammann, Karin
    Univ Bremen, Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Human & Hlth Sci, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kourides, Yiannis
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Kovacs, Eva
    Univ Pecs, Dept Paediat, Med, Pecs, Hungary.
    Lauria, Fabio
    CNR, Inst Food Sci & Technol, Rome, Italy.
    Konstabel, Kenn
    Univ Tartu, Inst Psychol Social Sci & Educ, Tartu, Estonia.
    Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Vyncke, Krishna
    Univ Ghent, Univ Hosp, Dept Publ Hlth Med & Hlth Sci, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Pigeot, Iris
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Inst Stat Math & Comp Sci, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Peer effects on obesity in a sample of European children2015In: Economics and Human Biology, ISSN 1570-677X, E-ISSN 1873-6130, Vol. 18, p. 139-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes peer effects on childhood obesity using data from the first two waves of the IDEFICS study, which applies several anthropometric and other measures of fatness to approximately 14,000 children aged two to nine participating in both waves in 16 regions of eight European countries. Peers are defined as same-sex children in the same school and age group. The results show that peer effects do exist in this European sample but that they differ among both regions and different fatness measures. Peer effects are larger in Spain, Italy, and Cyprus - the more collectivist regions in our sample - while waist circumference generally gives rise to larger peer effects than BMI. We also provide evidence that parental misperceptions of their own children's weight goes hand in hand With fatter peer groups, supporting the notion that in making such assessments, parents compare their children's weight with that of friends and schoolmates. 

  • 98.
    Gysell, Yennie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Nilsson Grenabo, Karolina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Övervikt och dess påverkan på ungdomars självkänsla: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Childhood obesity is becoming a major public health issue in the community. 42 million children under the age of five are overweight globally. Good self-esteem is important for mental well-being. Aim: We wanted to investigate if overweight youths were more likely to develop low self-esteem compared with normal weight youths. Method: We did a literature study where we analyzed ten scientific articles. Results: Overweight and obesity is a major problem with a negative impact on adolescent’s mental health. There is a difference between gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic background found in these studies. Girls report lower self-esteem compared to boys and young African-American report higher self-esteem compared to adolescents from other ethnicities. Conclusion: Overweight and obesity is clearly associated with low self-esteem in adolescents, especially evident in female gender. Therefore, it is important to start with interventions at an early age to prevent the problem of obesity.

  • 99.
    Gånedahl, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Viklund, Pernilla
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hälsoekonomiska aspekter av magsäcksoperationer: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity has increased dramatically in the last 20 years and has become a major public health issue. Bariatric surgery has become a more commonly used method for treating morbid obesity. The health economic aspects of bariatric surgery have not yet been studied in Sweden. Aim: The study highlights the health economic aspects of bariatric surgery as an intervention to treat obesity. Method: The method used was a literature review. Eleven scientific studies were selected, analyzed and compiled using a health economic perspective. Results: Bariatric surgery was a cost effective intervention for treating obesity, compared with no interventions, traditional interventions and medical treatment. The results of the studies vary in time to break even and incremental cost ratio. The studies different countries of origin and time perspectives are possible reasons for these differences. Conclusion: From a health economic perspective bariatric surgery was recommended as an intervention for treating obesity. However, ethical issues should be considered when the society's limited financial resources are distributed between different interventions.

  • 100.
    Gånedahl, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Zsaludek Viklund, Pernilla
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Carlén, Kristina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Unit for Health Analysis, Centre for Healthcare Development, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden / Unit of Community Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Work-site wellness programmes in Sweden: a cross-sectional study of physical activity, self-efficacy, and health2015In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 129, no 5, p. 525-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, a work-site wellness programme implies reimbursing some of the expenses for health-promoting activities. Although work-site wellness programmes are readily available in Sweden, a large number of employees elect not to participate.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of physical activity, self-reported general health assessment and self-efficacy with participation in a work-site wellness programme.

    STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design was used.

    METHODS: An online questionnaire was distributed to employees of a manufacturing company with 2500 employees in southwest Sweden.

    RESULTS: Those who took advantage of the work-site wellness programme assessed their general health as better and had higher assessment of physical activity. The study showed that being enlisted also implies a higher level of physical activity and general health; however, the effect sizes of these correlations were small. Self-efficacy, i.e. perceived behavioural control, was not associated with participation in the work-site wellness programme. However, self-efficacy was correlated with both general health assessment and physical activity. A regression analysis to determine explanatory contributions to the general health assessment score showed no significant contribution from participation in a work-site wellness programme, but was instead explained by perceived behavioural control and physical activity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Given the small effect size of the difference in physical activity between participators and non-participators in the work-site wellness programme, it is probable that only a small proportion of participators changed their health-promoting activities as a result of the work-site wellness programme.

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