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  • 51.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Invandrade kvinnors hälsa och arbetsvillkor i Sverige2011In: Perspektiv på kvinnors hälsa i arbetslivet / [ed] Sandmark, Hélène, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, 1, p. 135-142Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Midwives' views on factors that contribute to health care inequalities among immigrants in Sweden: a qualitative study2012In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 11, p. 47-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in the Swedish health care system have increased. Most indicators suggest that immigrants have significantly poorer health than native Swedes. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of midwives on the factors that contribute to health care inequality among immigrants. Methods: Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with ten midwives. These were transcribed and related categories identified through content analysis. Results: The interview data were divided into three main categories and seven subcategories. The category "Communication" was divided into subcategories "The meeting", "Cultural diversity and language barriers" and "Trust and confidence". The category "Potential barriers to the use of health care services" contained two subcategories, "Seeking health care" and "Receiving equal treatment". Finally, the category "Transcultural health care" had subcategories "Education on transcultural health care" and "The concept". Conclusions: This study suggests that midwives believe that health care inequality among immigrants can be the result of miscommunication which may arise due to a shortage of meeting time, language barriers, different systems of cultural beliefs and practices and limited patient-caregiver trust. Midwives emphasized that education level, country of origin and length of stay in Sweden play a role when an immigrant seeks health care. Immigrants face more difficulties when seeking health care and in receiving adequate levels of care. However, different views among the midwives were also observed. Some midwives were sensitive to individual and intra-group differences, while some others viewed immigrants as a group of "others". Midwives' beliefs about subgroup-specific health services vs. integrating immigrants' health care into mainstream health care services should be investigated further. Patients' perspective should also be considered.

  • 53.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Utvärdering av projektet "utlandsfödda kvinnor som doulor och kulturtolkar"2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 54.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Edge, Dawn
    School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work , The University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.
    Foreign-Born Women's Experiences of Community-Based Doulas in Sweden - A Qualitative Study2012In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 833-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study our aim was to explore the experiences of doula support among foreign-born women in Sweden in the context of a “Community-Based Doula” (CBD) intervention project. We conducted interviews with ten women and analyzed the data using content analysis. Participating women reported that, in addition to support during labor; doulas provided important information and continuity of care, which apparently increased their satisfaction with and trust in maternity health care. Training of CBDs therefore has implications for delivery of equitable maternity care, which apply not only to Sweden and other European countries but wherever there are increasingly diverse populations.

  • 55.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Karlsen, Saffron
    University College London.
    Practitioner and Client Explanations for Disparities in Health Care Use Between Migrant and Non-migrant Groups in Sweden: A Qualitative Study2013In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 188-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate variations in explanations given for disparities in health care use between migrant and nonmigrant groups, by clients and care providers in Sweden. Qualitative evidence collected during in-depth interviews with five ‘migrant’ health service clients and five physicians. The interview data generated three categories which were perceived by respondents to produce ethnic differences in health service use: ‘‘Communication issues’’, ‘‘Cultural differences in approaches to medical consultations’’ and ‘‘Effects of perceptions of inequalities in care quality and discrimination’’. Explanations for disparities in health care use in Sweden can be categorized into those reflecting social/structural conditions and the presence/absence of power and those using cultural/behavioural explanations. The negative perceptions of ‘migrant’ clients held by some Swedish physicians place the onus for addressing their poor health with the clients themselves and risks perpetuating their health disadvantage. The power disparity between doctors and ‘migrant’ patients encourages a sense of powerlessness and mistreatment among patients.

  • 56.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lundgren, Ingela
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Hlth & Care Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Midwives' experiences of doula support for immigrant women in Sweden: A qualitative study2012In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 80-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: to describe and analyse midwives’ experiences of doula support for immigrant women in Sweden. Design: qualitative study, analysed using content analysis. Data were collected via interviews. Setting: interviews were conducted at the midwives’ workplaces. One midwife was interviewed at a cafe. Participants: ten midwives, who participated voluntarily and worked in maternity health care in western Sweden. Findings: the interview data generated three main categories. (1) ‘A doula is a facilitator for the midwife’ has two subcategories, ‘In relation to the midwife’ and ‘In comparison with an interpreter’, (2) ‘Confident women giving support, ’has two subcategories, ‘Personal characteristics and attitudes’ and ‘Good support,’ (3) ‘Doulas cover shortcomings’ has two subcategories, ‘In relation to maternity care’ and ‘In relation to ethnicity’. Key conclusion and implications for practice: The findings of this study show that midwives experience that doulas are a facilitator for them. Doulas provide support by enhancing the degree of peace and security and improving communication with the women in childbirth. Doulas provide increased opportunities for transcultural care. They may increase childbearing women’s confidence and satisfaction, help meet the diverse needs of childbearing women and improve care quality.

  • 57.
    Akl, Ziad
    et al.
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden / Youth Association for Social Awareness- YASA, Lebanon.
    Akl, Mona
    Youth Association for Social Awareness- YASA, Lebanon.
    Eriksson, Charli
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Gifford, Mervyn
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Higher School of Public Health, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    Evaluating seat belt use in Lebanon (1997-2017)2019In: Open Public Health Journal, ISSN 1874-9445, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The use of seat belts has made a significant contribution to the reduction of road traffic casualties, and the risk inherent with not wearing seat belts in all seats of a vehicle is now well-known worldwide. The use of seat belts has a major role in reducing fatal and nonfatal injuries in all types of motor-vehicles crashes. Aim: The aim of this study is to understand the reasons behind the variation in seat belt use over the past two decades in Lebanon. It analyzes the situation and suggests recommendations to improve seat belt use in Lebanon. Design: Nine observational studies had been conducted in Lebanon during the last two decades between 1997 and 2017, and one qualitative study was performed in 2017. Results: The results show a significant variation in the use of the seat belt. When enforcement efforts are in progress, seat belt use increases. While when there are no checkpoints and the enforcement of seat belt use is almost absent, a significant fall was noticed. Discussion: The results of this study proved the failure of the Lebanese government in saving hundreds of lives just by a simple measure of enforcing seat belt law. Although experiences from various countries prove that such laws usually have a long-lasting effect on seat belt use, Lebanon failed to pursue the successful implementation of this law due to security and political problems. Conclusion: During the past two decades, Lebanon witnessed continuous fluctuations in seat belt use. Outside few short enforcement campaigns, our observations showed lack in seat belt use. Our observations of seat belt use among drivers and front seat passengers showed a significant correlation between seat belt use and the enforcement of seat belt law. The greatest national benefits from seat belt use are obtained when wearing rates are very high. This can be achieved only through a sustained enforcement campaign alongside other seat belt wearing interventions such as publicity and education. © 2019 Open Public Health Journal. All rights reserved.

  • 58.
    Albertsson, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Bergström, Matilda
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Copingstrategier hos patienter med KOL: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: COPD is a disease that affects the airways and the lungs. The disease is characterized by the patient having a limited airflow and the most common risk factor for COPD is tobacco smoke. COPD affects the entire lifeworld of the patient as the disease has both physical and mental impact and the patient is often in need of support. To handle stress-causing factors, people use different coping strategies, and these may vary depending on the situation, experience, and support available around the person. Aim: To describe coping strategies in patients with COPD and thereby create an understanding of these patients need for support. Method: The study is a literature review where nine articles with a qualitative approach and one article with a quantitative approach have been analyzed. Result: The result is presented with the categories Coping strategies for managing emotions and thoughts and Coping strategies that focus on change. In these categories different coping strategies of COPD patients are described in ten subcategories. Conclusion: Which coping strategies COPD-patients use depends on their lifeworld and what social and professional support is available around them. The coping strategies that focus on change are especially those who promote health, but other coping strategies are also common since the disease is associated with shame and guilt. The nurse must pay attention to the patients' coping strategies and provide them with support in implementing coping strategies that promote health. 

  • 59.
    Alemayehu, Samrawit
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Tranchell, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors upplevelser efter en gastric bypass operation: Är gräset alltid grönare på andra sidan?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The worldwide prevalence of obesity has doubled in the last twenty years and is therefore classified as a global epidemic and is therefore a major health problem. This has initiated the gastric bypass surgery to increase. It is therefore important that nurses and people considering this operation have a better understanding and knowledge the life after the surgery. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe women's experiences after a gastric bypass surgery. Method: This study used qualitative method to study the blogs written by women who have gone through gastric bypass surgery. It contains 14 analysed blogs. Results/ Discussion: The result shows that women have a better quality of life when it´s easier for them to move around and don’t feel the discomfort when they are participating in social activities. However, there is a downside to the surgery. They find it difficult to adjust to the new lifestyle, in order to avoid the complications. Some of these women are also experiencing identity crisis. Conclusion: It is therefore significant for patients who have gone through gastric bypass surgery to get the support they need with attitudes and information about diet to have a healthy and permanent weight loss and lifestyle. Further research on how women experience the psychological health before and after the surgery needs to be done since obesity is increasing and more people are choosing this method for weight loss.

  • 60.
    Alexandersson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Willsson, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Barns upplevelser av att leva med övervikt eller fetma: en litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to describe children’s experience of living with overweight or obesity, by using a literature-review. The study includes eleven articles, data is from children between ages 5-15 year. The result occurring were in the areas; Quality of life and self-esteem, Social company, Body concept and weight reduction and Psychological unhealth. BMI above what is recommended gives a negative influence on quality of live and self-esteem. The exposure of teasing is rising, which also dieting and weight–related concerns do. Depression symptoms occur in varying degree, but the correlation to BMI is not direct. Girls in ages up to 14 years seem to be most influenced by being overweight or obese. The language children are using related to their own body may act as a barrier to apply its health- consequences on themselves. Health- care professionals should treat those children in a way that reinforce their view of themselves, by doing so they can help them reaching better health. To improve treat and treatment of the children, there is a need of more qualitative investigation in the subject.

  • 61.
    Alexandersson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Roos Andersson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att förebygga och behandla malnutrition i sjukvården: En litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Malnutrition is a well known problem in the patient related care in Europe as well as in the rest of the world. Despite this is malnutrition something that still exists. What can that depend on? It is important to judge the patients nutrition status as a routine to be able to prevent malnutrition. The effects of malnutrition cost the community a lot of money and human suffering. The aim of this study was to see the nurse’s responsibility when it comes to prevent and treat malnutrition in his/her daily work. Our choice of method to answer this aim was a literature review. With regard to scientific quality we elected to review ten articles. The results of this study are showing that judging, preventing measures, documentation and interaction between the nurse and patient are important in the work of preventing and treating of malnutrition. The conclusion is that it’s necessary for the nurses to have more education in malnutrition to be able to identify risk patients. The interaction between the nurse and patient is also very important and has to work correctly

  • 62.
    Alexandersson, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Pettersson, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelser av telefonrådgivning inom primärvården i samtal med människor av annan etnisk bakgrund: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Telephone advice nursing is a big part of the assignment as a district nurse in primary care. The district nurse must have the ability to assess the urgency and health care need of the patients matter as well as provide information and self-care advice by telephone. As immigration is increasing in Sweden the calls to primary care from people with different ethnical background are most likely to increase along with it. Difficulties in communication and lack of visual contact might lead to misunderstanding and miscalculation regarding the patients matter. It is important that the district nurse can extract relevant information about the patient in order to assess the health care need.       Aim: The aim of the study was to illuminate the district nurses' experiences of telephone advice nursing in primary care regarding calls with people of different ethnic background. Method: A qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach was used in the study. The data was collected through interviews with seven district nurses. Results: The analysis revealed four themes; A threat to patient safety, Different points of view that collides, A challenge that require resources, Shifting emotions in telephone advice nursing.                                                                                                                                                     Conclusion: This study made it visible that there are difficulties in telephone advice nursing regarding calls with people who have different ethnic background, which could be a threat to patient safety. The result can provide increased awareness to this problem, and that telephone advice nursing to this group of people needs to be improved and adjusted.

     

  • 63.
    Alfredsson, Ellen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Johansson, Evelina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av telefonrådgivning: En litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Telephone counseling exists worldwide and it’s a easy way for the patient to come in contact with care.  The assessment process is made more difficult because the nurse can’t see the patient, which requires a broad knowledge. Telephone counseling is making it possible for the nurse to perform the nursing work without physically meet the patient. Aim: To describe the nurse's experience of telephone counseling. Method: A literature review based on 11 articles with qualitative approach. Results: Three categories emerged from the analysis; The sense of work, Meeting the patient in the telephone counseling and Doing your own assessments. The categories is supported a total of seven subcategories. Discussion: Nurses experience the work in telephone counseling as stressful, which can affect the caring relationship with the patient. In the assessment over the telephone the nurse ask more questions than at a physical meeting to create an understanding of the patient's life-world. This can lead to a more individualized care for the patient. Conclusion: The nurse feels that the work in telephone counseling is stimulating and rewarding. The caring relationship is crucial to how the nurses feel about their work. The nurse is experiencing some difficulties, one of these is to make decisions and an assessment without seeing patient.                

  • 64.
    Alfredsson, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Blom, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Faktorer som påverkar sjuksköterskans bedömning och värdering av patientens smärta i den palliativa vården2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Palliative care is practices in all care institutions in Sweden. With this study we wanted to elucidate factories that influence’s the nurse’s assessment and value of pain to patients who are dying. We wonted to illuminate how important it is that the nurse does a correct assessment of pain because all patients deserve to die with out pain. The aim of the study was to describe factories that influence nurse’s assessment and value of the pain of patients in the palliative care. The method that’s been used was a qualitative literature study. The result showed that the nurse experiences assessment of pain as complicated because of many different reasons, for instance lack of knowledge and difficulties to communicate with certain patients groups. The result also showed that they lacked sufficient knowledge and experience in order to do assessment of pain in a correct way and they were missing of good sense of confidence in their professionals.

  • 65.
    Alfredsson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Johansson, Amanda
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    I väntan på ett nytt hjärta.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden the primary reason for heart transplants is severe heart failure. Heart transplants are performed both at Sahlgrenska University hospital and at Skånes University hospital. Patient undergoing several extensive investigations before he or she will be considered for the waiting list. Primary factor for receiving a heart is first of all the patient who is in the greatest need of a new heart and the patient most suited to receive the donated heart. Previous studies show that patients feel the waiting time to be unpredictable. Aim: To describe patients’ experiences of the time before a heart transplant. Method: Qualitative content analysis was used as the analysis method and seven blogs were applied. Results: Life is seen from a new and different perspective. A common factor for patients with heart failure was the physical limitation they felt. Life stopped for a while, and a waiting to regain “life” grew strong. Family and nursing staff was thought to play an important role. To maintain a positive attitude was thought to be a criterion to manage the anticipations. Conclusion: A patient waiting for a heart transplant experiences a change in their life world. To allow proper care it is important that the nurse recognizes this change and acknowledge it.

  • 66.
    Alfredsson, Pontus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hildorzon, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att främja fysisk aktivitet hos gravida kvinnor2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a gradual percentage increase in pregnant women who are overweight or obese in the west hemisphere. In Sweden, nearly 40 percent of those women are overweight and 10 percent are obese. One third of them are physically inactive which makes the research within public health highly relevant. Aim: To promote physical activity amongst pregnant women. Method: Ten research articles on the topic were reviewed to achieve a deeper understanding. By summarizing the most important and relevant points brought up in each article, a conclusion was formed. Those points where then categorized into three themes, which turned the study into a type of literature. Results: There are many factors that impact the pregnant women’s physical activity. These factors can be triggered by the actual pregnancy, such as symptoms causing the body to change. Location and environment is seen as important to help the promotion, such as social support and access to activities close to home. Effective interventions are diet and exercise consultations and measurable goals by using pedometers. Conclusion: The conclusion of this study was that several factors promoting pregnant women’s physical activity. Pregnant women are likely to follow the prenatal cares advice and therefore can interventions designed with the promoting factors integrated to prenatal care to achieve goals of public health.

  • 67.
    Algar, Natalie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skolsköterskors erfarenhet av möten med flickor som har ett självskadebeteende2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows that mental disorders in children and adolescent is increasing, especially when it comes to teenage girls. This may increase anxiety in some girls, which they might handle by developing self-harm behavior. School nurses are able to pay attention to these girls through daily health promotion nursing work.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the school nurse’s experience of meeting girls with self-harm behavior.

    Method: A qualitative method was used in the study and the result was analyzed according to meaning analysis. Six school nurse were interviewed by email interviews.

    Result: The study resulted in three meaning subjects; the girls are noted differently, experience of cooperation and create good relationships.

    Conclusion: The study showed that the school nurses meet girl with self-harm behavior, either through health interviews or by the environment warning that the girls feel bad. The study also shows that school nurses are experiencing frustration when cooperation with external actors such as children and adolescent psychiatry does not work and much of the responsibility is left with the school nurses. The study also showed that cooperation with parents is important when working with these girls. 

  • 68.
    Algerin, Karin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lundahl, Sofie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av informationen de får efter insjuknandet i hjärtinfarkt, samt vilken information de efterfrågar -En litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Myocardial infarction is a big health problem in Sweden. Between the years 1987-2004 about 56 000 people have suffered from an acute myocardial infarction. In many studies men have been the main focus. That means that the findings don’t represent women. Women may have different symptoms than men, because of this the women are often diagnosed wrong, and get treatment long after men. The aim of this study is to describe how women experience the information they are given after a Myocardial infarction, and what sort of information they request. A literature review is chosen for this study. Ten articles are analysed, they answered the question formulations and the aim of the study. The result of this study is that women’s needs of information are great and women need individual information. If this is neglected the women’s recovery is prolonged. Information can also be a form of support. Women want to know why this happened and what the illness is going to mean for their lives. When women are informed they feel supported. They can also get support and information from cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Nurses should build a relationship with the patient based on respect and trust.

  • 69.
    Ali, Abukar
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Time window of TNF-a in innate immunity against staphylococcal infection2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is responsible for many human diseases including septic arthritis and sepsis shock. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in inflammation and produced mainly by macrophages and monocytes. It is believed to be involved in pathogenesis of septic arthritis. Time window of TNF-a in innate immunity against staphylococcal infection was studied in this project.

    Two experiments were carried out: In the first experiment mice were infected with a low dose (8x106cfu/mouse) of S. aureus to induce septic arthritis whereas in the second experiment the mice were infected with a higher dose (8x107cfu/mouse) of S. aureus to induce sepsis shock. All mice were divided into three groups. The first group was treated with anti-TNF-α 20 minutes after infection. The second group was treated with the anti-TNF-α three days after infection. The third group served as control and was injected with PBS instead of anti-TNF-α. The mice were regularly weighed and signs of arthritis and mortality were recorded. Two weeks after inoculation bacteria viable counts in different organs was done, as well as histopathological assessment of joints and measurement of cytokines in blood.

    We have observed that mice treated with anti-TNF-α had less severe arthritis and also less mortality. However, they had more bacteria accumulated in the kidneys and lost more weight compared to the control group. The results were mostly seen in the group early treated with TNF-α, compared to the late treated group.

    We conclude that anti-TNF-α might be potentially used as a therapy against septic arthritis and sepsis shock. This should be combined with antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria while the anti-TNF-α reduces the severity of the inflammation and thus reduce the risk of permanent joint destruction and mortality. We can conclude that blocking TNF-α early on is essential in order to get the best results.

  • 70.
    Ali, Sajeda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kindbom Höydhal, Emilia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Psykisk ohälsa bland studenter: En kvalitativ litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every other student experience mental health problems in relation to the studies they are in involved in and this requires adjustment in lifestyle. Students avoid seeking help due to the stigmatization regarding mental illness. There is a lack of resources in student healthcare to identify mental health issues in early stages, which results infliction of suffering and deterioration of health, leaving conditions untreated and resulting in increased risk of suicide. There is a lack of knowledge on the topic and failure to correctly educate nurses which creates uncertainty in how they could and should respond. Aim: The purpose of this study illuminate students' experiences of mental illness. Method: There were thirteen scientific articles chosen and also examined. A literature review was used to analyse the data. Result: Three areas are identified, Difficulties living up to expectations and demands, not having control of their everyday lives. The experience of social stigma. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of paying attention to mental illness as there is a need to reduce stigma and to reach out to students with mental illness. Students and nurses are in need of support and guidance.

  • 71.
    Alke Nilsson, Karin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Darius, Hanna-Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors levda erfarenheter efter viktminskningskirurgi: Ett nytt kapitel i livet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity is a growing problem worldwide, more and more surgical procedures are conducted every year to reduce obesity among the population. Complications resulting from obesity can adversely affect women's fertility, giving them a greater reason to undergo bariatric surgery. When the benefits of a surgical procedure outweigh health risks, an alternative solution to the problem may be bariatric surgery. Being responsible for nursing care the nurse has an important function in the process following bariatric surgery. Therefore, it is important to consider the experiences that these patients have in order to increase knowledge and understanding. Aim: Describe women's lived experiences after bariatric surgery. Method: Analysis of seven narratives in the form of blogs to study women's lived experiences. Result / Discussion: The result is presented in two main themes and three subthemes. The main themes are presented in a body of change and a change in everyday life. Subthemes are presented in other prerequisites in a lighter and healthier body, difficulties afterwards and adapting to a new everyday life. Conclusion: It is important that patients undergoing bariatric surgery to receive the right information and support to achieve lasting results and increased quality of life. Further research on how the nurse can develop the care of these patients is necessary as more and more people undergo bariatric surgery.

  • 72.
    Allard, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ögnelod, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Triage på en akutmottagningen ur sjuksköterskors perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 73.
    Almersved, Karin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Bergmanson, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder för att lindra smärta hos äldre i hemsjukvården: Litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Our life expectancy is increasing, we are getting older. In home healthcare nurses meet older people living with pain. Pain that emanates from the muscles, skeletal and joints and prevents the elderly from living a good life. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe what nursing care measures can be used by nurses in home health care to relieve the pain. Method: Literature review was chosen as method. Five qualitative and three quantitative scientific articles were included. Findings: Three main categories emerged: Physical activity, Pharmacological treatment and Cognitive method. From these were discerned nine sub-categories: movement/rest, utilities, heating/cooling, massage, medication, knowledge, communication, continuity, diversion. Conclusion: In nursing pain includes several different parts. A combination of measures are required to alleviate pain. The nurse has an important role in the choice of measures.

  • 74.
    Almquist, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Svensson, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Långvarig ogiltig frånvaro i gymnasieskolan: Hur upplever gymnasieelever med långvarig ogiltig frånvaro sin skolsituation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The occurrence of school absenteeism in Sweden is high among high school students. School absenteeism is a complex phenomenon with several causes and can lead to non-approved grades, unemployment, alienation and mental health issues.

    Purpose: The purpose is to describe how high school students with long-term invalid absence experience their school situation.

    Method: A qualitative method was used and the result was analyzed according to meaning analysis. Five informants participated in the study.

    Result: The study resulted in four meaning subjects which described the informants’ experiences: To experience victimization and injustice, to experience familiar and everyday relationship problems, to experience inadequate school adaption and to experience the needs of school improvements/changes.

    Conclusion: The study showed how important it is to adapt school to every unique student, both in an educational way and when it comes to efforts which make the student more involved and respected. School needs to address issues which involve the idea that no student should be exposed to bullying, victimization or harassments. The cause of the school absenteeism is in most cases related to the school activities. Students in this study experience that school has many areas which could be subject to improvements to avoid situations leading to chronic, invalid absenteeism. They don’t associate school with something positive and motivational, but something with a negative impact on their health.

  • 75.
    Almqvist, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Castillo, Joselyne
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans sätt att bedöma postoperativ smärta: En litteraturöversikt2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Postoperative pain is still a major problem that is difficult to identify. The extent of uncontrolled pain in patients has not improved noticeably over the last decades. Nurses tend to underestimate the patients pain. The aim of this study was to examine factors influencing nurses’ assessment of postoperative pain. To obtain the aim a literature review was chosen. Search of literature was carried out in the databases: Academic Search Elite, CINAHL, SweMed +. Six articles were analysed according to a five-step- method. The result of the selected articles showed seven factors influencing how nurses assess postoperative pain: communication, experiences and attitudes, nurses knowledge, information and preparation, to interpreting pain, obstacles in pain assessment and following-up the pain assessment. Despite extensive research in this subject, there is a need for the research to continue. It would be favourable to increase the pain education for nurses.

  • 76.
    Almsand, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Duell, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ”Hinner jag få ett nytt hjärta i tid?”: - Unga kvinnors bloggar kring upplevelser av att vänta på en hjärttransplantation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of performed heart transplants in Sweden is increasing and is now about fifty transplants per year. The primary reason for a heart transplant is severe heart failure. To suffer from heart failure as young is rare and trying. If heart transplantation becomes necessary the patient is placed on a waiting list where the median waiting time is three months. Previous research shows that nurses have an important role in the patient's experience during this time. Aim: The study aims to analyze and describe the experiences of young women facing a heart transplant.  Method: Qualitative content analysis is used as analytical method. Data consists of five blogs published on the Internet. Results: Young women waiting for a heart transplant experience physical limitations in daily life. Relatives, professionals and the environment are important to provide support and act as motivation in the situation. The uncertain waiting is incused by anxiety and fear of their own death. The waiting means that young women will have a new outlook on life. Conclusion: The lifeworld of young women drastically changed awaiting heart transplantation and it´s important for the nurse to recognize this change and frame the care thereafter.

  • 77.
    Almstedt, Ando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Pettersson, Karolin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    HIV/AIDS-Patienters upplevelser av stigmatisering och diskriminering från vårdpersonal: - En litteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is an epidemic disease, with the highest prevalence in the less developed countries. Earlier studies show that healthcare providers have a negative attitude towards this patient group. The cause of this is believed to be due to ignorance and fear. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe patients with HIV/AIDS and their experiences of stigmatization and discrimination by healthcare providers. METHOD: A literature review, based on an analysis of ten scientific articles is used to answer the aim of the study. RESULT: Two main themes emerge; preconception and contempt and support and the healthcare provider/patient relationship. The result of this studie shows that patients experience contempt from the healthcare providers both verbally and nonverbally. Patients value highly the development of trust in the healthcare provider and feel that this is essential for a good relationship. A good relationship should include respect, understanding, cooperation and honesty. CONCLUSION: The authors draw the conclusion that healthcare providers are fearful of the patients with HIV and also have poor knowledge about the disease. This problem can be solved by a better knowledge and information. If nothing is done to prevent the stigmatization and discrimination against HIV/AIDS-patients the risk of significant health problems will increase.

  • 78.
    Alonso Lavén, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sandberg, Kristin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ungdomars upplevelse av sex- och samlevnadsundervisning i skolan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sexuality education in school reaches out to all adolescents. Good knowledge about sex and relationship issues will strengthen their self-esteem and promote sexual health.

     

    Aim: The aim was to describe adolescents experiences of sexuality education in school.

     

    Method: The study was conducted with a qualitative approach. It is based on interviews with adolescents between 16-19 years old and the material was analyzed by using a qualitative meaning analysis.

     

    Results: The analysis revealed three categories: To experience a comfortable or uncomfortable teaching, the experience of getting needs and expectations satisfied, to experience the topic based on their own level of maturity.

     

    Conclusion:  Adolescents experiences of sexuality education varied depending on the person who was teaching and its approach to the subject. The educator's own feelings about the topic could lead to a sense of embarrassment, insecurity, or inspire greater interest and enjoyment of the subject. The expectations and needs were not satisfied, adolescents missed discussions about feelings, more detailed information about different sexual activities and more detailed information about the opposite sex. Adolescents would prefer to ask questions and show concerns about the subject towards professionals with secrecy, rather than talk openly in front of their classmates.

  • 79.
    Alowersson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Betydelsen av fysisk aktivitet i egenvården vid diabetes mellitus: En intervjustudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetes involves a change in life and requires the individual to understand what actions are required, since self-care is an essential part of the treatment. Physical activity is a kind of self-care and it’s important that the individual finds the motivation. The aim of this study is to clarify how people with diabetes experience physical activity in everyday life.

    A qualitiative method was used and data were collected through interviews with people whom have had diabetes for between 3-48 years. They talked about their experiences related to physical activity. The interviews were recorded on a mobile telephone, transcribed and made a manifest content analysis in which the main categories and associated subcategories were created.

    The results indicated that physical activity increased well-being and lead to a continuing urge to exercise. Develop routines that work in everyday life was a prerequisite for the respondents’ well-being and also increased the ability to control blood sugar. Difficulties with motivation could appear when respondents didn’t experience any positive effects from exercising. Physical activity could also lead to a very low blood sugar at night, which was perceived as very unpleasant. The importance of preparation emerged as the most important factor associated with physical activity.

  • 80.
    Altersved, Ewa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Zetterlund, Lone
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Gothenburg, Sweden / Skaraborg Inst, Skovde, Sweden.
    Fagerstrom, Lisbeth
    Buskerud Univ Coll, Dept Hlth Sci, N-3045 Drammen, Norway.
    Advanced practice nurses: A new resource for Swedish primary health-care teams2011In: International Journal of Nursing Practice, ISSN 1322-7114, E-ISSN 1440-172X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 174-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced practice nurses: A new resource for Swedish primary health-care teams This study is associated with the first evaluation of the four first advanced practice nurses (APNs), part of a primary health-care team in Sweden. The aim is to describe health-care teams' experiences of the new APN role and investigate what opportunities and barriers to the role exist. Eighty-one respondents answered a 14-question questionnaire with a Likert scale and one open-ended question. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to investigate differences between professional groups' answers. The qualitative material was analysed using deductive content analysis. Though mostly positive experiences of the role were found, differences did exist between the professional groups. APNs are considered a resource in that access to care, cooperation and patient flow increased. Barriers include APNs' limited autonomy and inability to prescribe medication. To further develop the role, the right to prescribe medication and strategic leadership within the Swedish health-care system, policy and legislation are needed.

  • 81.
    Alvarado, Nathalie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Pontèn, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Upplevelsen av den första tiden som nyutexaminerad sjuksköterska: - En intervjustudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 82.
    Alvarez Svahn, Rodrigo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The hippocampal dependence of long-term declarative memory2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations into the neural correlates of memory have found the hippocampus to be a crucial structure for long-term declarative memories, but the exact nature of this contribution remains under debate. This paper covers three theories concerned with how the hippocampus is involved in long-term memory, namely the Standard Consolidation Model, the Multiple-Trace Theory, and the Distributed Reinstatement Theory. According to the Standard Consolidation Model, long-term declarative memories (both episodic and semantic) are dependent on the hippocampus for a limited time during which the memories undergo a process of consolidation, after which they become dependent on the neocortex. In contrast, the Multiple-Trace Theory argues that detailed and context-specific episodic (but not semantic) memories remain dependent on the hippocampus indefinitely. While both the aforementioned theories posit that memories are initially dependent on the hippocampus, the Distributed Reinstatement Theory does not. Advocates of this theory propose that several memory systems compete for the encoding of a memory, and that the hippocampus usually is the dominant system. However, it is also suggested that the other (unspecified) memory systems can overcome the hippocampal dominance through extensive and distributed learning sessions. In this paper, findings from both human and rodent studies focusing on the hippocampus are reviewed and used to evaluate the claims made by each theory on a systems level.

  • 83.
    Alvvinter, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Gustafsson, Ida
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ”Mitt KUB grumlade hela graviditeten”: Kvinnors upplevelser relaterat till genomfört KUB2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The demand on prenatal diagnosis increases among expecting parents. CUB is the most common method for the matter but doesn’t provide any diagnosis. CUB only calculates the probability of a fetus with trisomy 13, 18 or 21. Women aren’t always aware of this. Hence, careful preparations and information are necessary. This study was performed to enhance knowledge in women’s experiences in relation to have undergone CUB. Aim: To describe women’s experiences related to having undergone CUB. Method: A qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach was used. Internet was used for data collection. This collection resulted in 10 threads from bulletin board Familjeliv.se and 12 blogs which became the base for data analysis. Result: The analysis resulted in one theme: CUB is seen as an opportunity to confirm the pregnancy but leads to mixed feelings which the midwives need to support in a trustful way. Anxiety and fear are the most common emotions mentioned among women who have undergone CUB. Women felt that midwives didn’t always provide enough information or the requested information. The encounters with midwives during CUB were described as stressful and even unpleasant. Conclusion: CUB is seen as an early way to confirm the pregnancy. To reduce the anxiety, midwives need to give individualised information. Anxiety tends to obscure the pregnancy and remain a long time.

  • 84.
    Amal, Al-Otaibi
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. amal.se@hotmail.com.
    Faktorer som kan påverka psykisk hälsa hos flyktingar: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The number of refugees has increased in recent years in Europe and mainly in countries such as Germany, Sweden and Norway. Sweden received 54605 refugees in 2016 and 2017. It also has been reported that refugees flying in to European countries have an increased symptoms of psychological disease. Purpose: The purpose of the literature study is to demonstrate different factors that are important in a migration process in western countries.There may be a connection with refugees who flee to and live in European countries that they may run an increased risk of psychological disease. Method: To obtain an overall picture of various factors for psychological symptoms in adult refugees living in western countries based on a literature review. Results: The result identifies four factors for psychological disease mental illness among refugees who move to Western countries. It can be deduced that factors such as trauma experiences, social capital and access to hospital care, language and culture have an influence on the individual's psychological attitude.

  • 85.
    Améen, Sophie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    The effect of DLG knockout, vitamin D and probiotic treatment on Drosophila gene expression2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers today. Dlg is a tumor suppressor gene commonly silenced in cancer cells. Many colorectal cancer patients are subject to vitamin D3 deficiency and/ or an altered microbiome. Treatment using vitamin D3 or probiotics shown decreased cellular proliferation, invasiveness and induction of apoptosis. This study aimed to knockdown Dlg and map genetic interactions coupled to Dlg downregulation using a Drosophila model. Vitamin D3 and probiotic treatments were performed to investigate mechanism of action and capacity for Dlg rescue.

    Result and discussion: After vitamin D3 treatment, PGRP-SB1 (p<0.0001) and Drsl2 (p<0.0003) expression was significantly increased. These genes are part of the immune related Toll pathway suggesting its activation. Dlg and Veli (p=0.0042) upregulation could tentatively be through vitamin D receptor regulation of Wnt-signaling pathway, or direct VDR interaction. Traf6 and MPK2 (p38α) (p=0.0049) expression increased after vitamin D3 treatment suggesting MPK2 activation through Traf6. Pro-apoptotic pathways through Fas or Bax and decreased survival through inhibition of Pi3K/Akt and Ras/Raf pathways are also possible outcomes of MPK2 activation. Probiotic treatment increased PGRP-SB1 (p<0.0001) without enhanced Drsl2 expression, possibly activating the Imd pathway. JNK-induced apoptosis through Erg (p<0.0001) induction was speculated and increased Dlg (p=0.0113) expression was seen after probiotic treatment.

    Conclusion: Vitamin D3 and probiotic treatments increased Dlg expression. Genes linked to polarity, growth and apoptosis were also enhanced suggesting various mechanisms of action. Further studies concerning knockdown and treatments are needed to fully understand the true mechanisms of action and interactions.

  • 86.
    Anders, Gianluca
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Analysis of the effects of LIN7A and LIN7C upregulation and knockdown in neuroblastoma cells2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: LIN7 are a group of proteins that play a pivotal role in membrane protein localization and are thus important for cell adhesion and polarity. LIN7 proteins are shown to be important in neuroblastoma outcome, possibly through interactions with Disc-Large proteins (DLG). DLG2 has been shown to directly affect the regulation of LIN7A. Previous studies into the role of LIN7 have given conflicting results as to its nature.

    Methods: In this study we transfected LIN7A and LIN7C in SK-N-AS cells through the use of plasmids for upregulation and siRNA for knockdown of these genes. We also evaluated the expression levels of specific genes related to pathways such as PI3K, autophagy/lysosomal activity, AKT, etc., both independently and related to LIN7 expression through the R2 platform. Genes of interest were selected and then analyzed through qPCR.

    Results: Many of the genes that were significantly correlated when compared to LIN7A/C through R2 showed no significant expression correlation after experimentation. Some more functionally close genes to LIN7 were affected in a more predictable way such as CASK being upregulated after LIN7 knockdown, PTEN being downregulated upon LIN7 plasmid transfection while others such as FOXO3 also showed significant alterations.

    Conclusion: Many of the pathways discussed in this study are better studied through protein analysis due to the nature of the function of LIN7 proteins, however some downstream transcript changes were analyzed. Unexpectedly, the knockdown of both LIN7A and LIN7C displayed similar behavior to upregulation of LIN7A or LIN7C, possibly meaning that extreme expression differences have similar regulatory outcomes for some affected genes.

  • 87.
    Andersen, Tanja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sundesjö, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att främja sömn hos intensivvårdspatienter: En litteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sömnen är ett grundläggande behov hos människan och är därför viktig att tillgodose inom sjukvården. Ändå är sömnstörningar ett vanligt problem bland patienter i sjukhusmiljö och särskilt inom intensivvården. Sömnstörningar på en intensivvårdsavdelning orsakas ofta av frekventa omvårdnadsinsatser, behandlingar, sjukdomstillstånd samt högljudd och ovan miljö. Detta kan leda till både psykiska och fysiska konsekvenser så som försämring av immunförsvar, minskad produktion av tillväxthormoner, förlängt sjukdomsförlopp, humörförändringar och upphov av IVA-syndrom. Därför är det viktigt att vårdpersonal får kunskap om hur de bäst arbetar för att främja dessa patienters sömn. Syfte: Syftet med studien är att sammanställa och belysa forskning som beskriver omvårdnadsåtgärder och strategier för att främja sömn hos patienter inom intensivvården. Metod: En litteraturöversikt där 15 kvalitativa och kvantitativa studier analyserades. Resultat: Resultatet redogör för de tre områden som framkom ur dataanalysen och beskriver hur omvårdnadspersonal kan hjälpa patienter inom intensivvård till en bättre sömn. Dessa tre områden var: förändring av personalens arbetssätt genom utbildning, miljöförbättringar samt omvårdnadsåtgärder. Diskussion: Flera effektiva åtgärder finns presenterade i dagens forskning men fortfarande lider intensivvårdspatienter av sömnstörningar vilket gör det angeläget att fortsätta forskningen kring sömnförbättrande åtgärder hos denna patientgrupp.

  • 88.
    Andersson, Alina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Larsson, Lisa
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Patienterns upplevelser av behandlingar vid hematologisk cancer: En kvalitativ studie av bloggar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To go through treatment against haematological cancer means a big change in the daily life. Symptoms and side effects makes a big impact on both body and soul. Haematological cancer includes, in this study, three different types of cancer: leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma. The treatments given for haematological cancer involves stem cell transplant, radiation therapy and chemo therapy. Purpose: The purpose with this study was to describe patients’ experiences during treatments for haematological cancer. Method: The data was analyzed through a qualitative analysis of the context. Data were collected from six blogs. Result: Three categories emerged from the analysis; the new situation of the patients everyday life, the emotional rollercoaster and continuously comply with the body's limitations, with seven sub-categories. Conclusion: The result of this study has contributed with further knowledge about persons living with haematological cancer. This knowledge can help nurses give these patients a good, patient-centered care and raise their well-being.

  • 89.
    Andersson, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Aronsson, Aina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Upplevelser av att leva med bipolär sjukdom: En självbiografisk studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bipolar disorder is a chronic disease that entails suffering for the individual. The disease characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes. It affects the individual's lifeworld and his or her's health experience. The nurse has a significant role to support these patients.

    Aim: The aim is to describe patients' experiences of living with bipolar disorder.

    Method: A qualitative method was used and was based on six autobiographies analyzed with meaning analysis.

    Results: The results showed five themes. These are: the experience of living in the pitch-black darkness and the clearest light, the experience of shame, the experience of losing control of their life, the experience of fear and the sense of safty and support to reduce loneliness.

    Discussion: People with bipolar disorder experience both health and illness, depending on their current state of disease. The family and society have an impact on how the individual experience their existence. With support from a nurse the person can achieve control of the disease. Their reality is constantly changing and support from a nurse is important.

    Conclusion: People with bipolar disorder experience strong emotions that affect their lives. For people to feel seen and recognized the nurse must show candidness to the individual's unique lifeworld.

  • 90.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Gardvik, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Bröstcancer och kvinnlig sexualitet: En litteraturstudie om hur kvinnor upplever att bröstcancer förändrar deras sexualitet och sexuella relation.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reason why the authors conducted this study was that breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women. For most women the diagnosis means that the entire or parts of the breast will have to be removed. For most women the breast represents sexuality and femininity. The aim was to describe how female sexuality and sexual relationship change after breast cancer surgery and subsequent treatment. The method was a qualitative litterature review. The study resulted in three main categories: (1) a changed body – a changed sexuality, (2) a changed sexuality – a changed sexual relationship, (3) emotional changes in sexuality, and thirteen subcategories. The result shows that female sexuality changes physically as well as psychically. Most women experience changes in body image, decreased sexual desire and pleasure. Intercourse becomes painful which makes many women withdraw from their partner. Many women experience difficulties in communicating about their changed sexuality with their partner. The result also shows that sometimes health care providers give poor information to women about plausible side effects due to breast cancer surgery and subsequent treatment. Because many women with breast cancer experience sexual problems nurses should give better information about plausible side effects from the treatment and highlight these problems. Nurses should also enable conversations with women regarding their thoughts concerning their changed sexuality.

  • 91.
    Andersson, Annica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjöberg, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att möta och upptäcka elever med suicidtankar- Skolsköterskors upplevelser2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicide attempts among adolescents is increasing rapidly. School nurses need to use communication skills that reflect compassion by creating trusting relationships, see and meet the student in their life-world and give hope.

     

    Purpose: To describe the school nurses' experiences of encountering and discovering students with suicidal thoughts.

     

    Method: The study is based on a qualitative meaning analysis where eight school nurses by email wrote stories about their experiences to answer the purpose.

     

    Results: School nurses experiences of discovering students with suicidal thoughts is to have knowledge about the different symptoms that can be displayed by the student. The school nurses experiences of these symptoms where: Destructive behaviours, depressive symptoms, psychosomatic symptoms and problematic home situations. In the meeting with students who have suicidal thoughts, school nurses emphasize the importance of asking about suicidal thoughts, remain, listen and give hope.

     

    Conclusion: School nurses experience many risk factors that leads to that they can better detect and meet students with suicidal thoughts. To identify those risk factors are a big part of the school nurses work. This study results provide a greater knowledge and more experience for health professionals to encounter students with suicidal thoughts.

  • 92.
    Andersson, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Åkesson, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av sin sexualitet under och efter avslutad bröstcancerbehandling: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Treatment against breast cancer can cause women various side effects, including dry mucous membranes, itching, as well as deformation of one or both breasts. All in all these side effects can affect women´s experience of their sexuality and create a suffering for them. More knowledge is needed about women´s experience of their sexuality, so the nurses can provide good care and strengthen the sexual health of women. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe women´s experience of their sexuality during and after treatment of breast cancer. Method: A literature review based on three quantitative and six qualitative studies. Result: Change in body image and sexuality during or after breast cancer treatment, were a common experience among women. Anxiety and depression was common related to weight gain. However, there were women who experienced change in a positive direction after breast cancer. Concern about being insufficient in their sexual relationships with their partner was found. Women experienced lack of information about treatments and their side effects. Discussion: Both physical and mental disorders were experienced by women with breast cancer. Women needed more information before, during, and after treatment for breast cancer. In order to provide personalized care, nurse´s need to see the whole woman and meet her individual needs of caring. Conclusion: Communication both between nurses, women and their partners could strengthen women in their sexual health.

  • 93.
    Andersson, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Haage, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hur patienter med stomi upplever sin förändrade kropp: En litteraturlöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 94.
    Andersson, Catarina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hermansson Cederin, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kunskap om och attityder till munhälsa och munvård bland personal inom kommunal vård och omsorg.: En enkätstudie.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 95.
    Andersson, Catarina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Linda, Thomée
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hem ljuva hem?: Upplevelsen av att vara närstående till en människa med demenssjukdom boende på särskilt boende2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Caring for a person with dementia in special care facilities requires resources like personnel, facilities and medicine. It takes adequate educated staff with personal qualities to create a long-lasting relationship with relatives and residents. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the experience of being a relative to a person with dementia living in a nursing home. Method: A literature review was conducted in which ten scientific studies were examined and analyzed according to Friberg (2006). Results: Five themes emerged from the analyses describing relatives’ experiences of nursing home care, activities, surroundings and integrity as well as coping strategies. Conclusions: Personal relations are of outmost importance for the experience of being a relative to a person with dementia living in a nursing home. Education and guiding of staff and relatives might prohibit misunderstandings and may help to avoid conflicts.

  • 96.
    Andersson, Charlotte
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Svan, Olivia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Obesitaskirurgi - en väg till förändrat beteende?: En litteraturbaserad studie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Since 1945 obesity has tripled globally and exceeds more than 650 million people in 2016. It results in at least 2.8 million deaths annually and surpass the deaths followed by starvation. There is stigmatization around obesity which may adversely affect the physical and psychological health of the victims. Obese people generally experiences a poorer quality of life. Bariatric surgery has become an increasingly used tool to curb the ongoing obesity epidemic. A behavioural change is required after surgery in order for the weight loss to persist. A sense of coherence is central to health and whether an individual is capable of moving towards health in the presence of stressors. Aim: To describe patient’s experiences of life after bariatric surgery. Method: A literature based study where the data consisted of twelve qualitative articles. Results: From the analysis three categories emerged; from chaos to control, a changed mindset and a changed life and nine subcategories. Conclusion: Life after bariatric surgery was complex and there were differences in capability regarding changing ones behaviour. Nurses need to have a holistic perspective and individualise the support. 

  • 97.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Pesonen, John
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av omvårdnaden av närstående i särskilt boende i Västra Götaland år 20102010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: When a senior person has a large need for special care there is an option to relocate to a nursing home. The seniors every day varies there for it is of outmost importance the nursing care staff can support the senior that he maybe adapt to the new situation. Purpose: The purpose with this study is to enlighten how relatives experience their close ones in special nursing home receive good care treatment. Method: A quality approach with empirical elements is used where relatives experiences of care, being part of and recievment was collected with the help of interviews. Results: Three categories Care, Involvment and Recievment with nine sub categories. An important part in care is to create good contact between relatives and nursing care staff to evolve good ways for communication. It was revealed how important it is as a health care patient to feel they’re being looked upon for who they are and they be part of treatment measures and decisions made by nursing care staff. Discussion: The results can contribute to an increased understanding to how relatives experience care is being conducted in a special accommodation. When relatives are made more involved in care, may lead to a better care for care patient in a nursing home. Conclusion: The results which have been concluded could be used in educational purposes when the care of senior people demands that nursing care staff continuously renews their knowledges. This could be of use for the nurse, the relatives and the seniors living in a nursing home.

  • 98.
    Andersson, Christina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Lindberg, Cecilia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hälsorisker hos flickor vilka använde sociala medier: en litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Social media has created a new arena for integration. Social media seems to affect young girls mental health. The purpose of the literature review is to examine some health risks among girls aged 11 to 17 years born after 1993 witch has been exposed to through social media. Method: Ten original articles published in the past five years have been sought out through PubMed. Relevant articles were reviewed and thematized based on health risks which are found in the overview. Results: The literature review examined previous research on health risks in young girls born after 1993 in the use of social media. Girls tend to be more affected by the comments and are affected over time which can lead to depression and anxiety. Self-harm and suicidal tendencies are directly linked to depression. Self-confidence is affected by comments on social media. Girls tend increasingly to suffer from psychosomatic disorders due to use of social media. Social media can increase the feeling of fear and insecurity. The girls' body image is influenced by social media, which ultimately can lead to eating disorders. Discussion: The use of social media can be seen as a health risk in young girls. Nevertheless, the impact of social media is seen as on of the triggers for other underlying causes. Social media can also provide health benefits.

  • 99.
    Andersson, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ekman, Robin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Min osynliga sjukdom: Kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med endometrios – en litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Endometrios är en sjukdom där livmoderslemhinnan växer på annan plats än endometriet och drabbar kvinnor över hela världen. Olika typer av smärta är det vanligaste symtomet tillsammans med psykiska symtom samt övriga andrahands symtom. Patienter med endometrios har många olika behandlingar att välja mellan. Syfte: Att beskriva kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med endometrios. Metod: En litteraturöversikt med kvalitativa samt kvantitativa artiklar. Resultat: Ur analysen framkom två kategorier, begränsat dagligt liv och söker lindring med sex underkategorier. Slutsats: Endometrios är en så kallad osynlig sjukdom som drabbar kvinnor världen över både psykiskt och fysiskt.

  • 100.
    Andersson, Helen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hjertaker, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Upplevelser av att leva med juvenil idiopatisk artrit: En litteraturöversikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden 200-250 children and youths are affected with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) every year. JIA is one of the most common causes of short-term and long-term disability and impairment of quality of life during childhood. The entire family is affected when a family member becomes ill. Aim: The aim with this study was to illustrate how a prolonged disease as JIA is experienced by children, youths and their families. Method: The method used was a general literature overview. In total 7 quantitative and 5 qualitative articles. Result: During analysis one main themes were identified. This was experiences of being different. The result showed that the experiences of living with JIA is individual but common for many of the families is a sense of being different. Conclusion: When a child or youth is struck by protracted disease, this also affects family members. The life situation is affected, and also the life situation for parents, brothers and sisters is changed. Every child and youth who is affected by JIA is unique, and has its own reality. As a nurse it is meaningful to see the entire individual, and to involve its family in to the nursing.

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