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  • 51.
    Dudas, Catarina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H.C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Pehrsson, Leif
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Boström, Henrik
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Integration of data mining and multi-objective optimisation for decision support in production system development2014In: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 824-839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective optimisation (MOO) is a powerful approach for generating a set of optimal trade-off (Pareto) design alternatives that the decision-maker can evaluate and then choose the most-suitable configuration, based on some high-level strategic information. Nevertheless, in practice, choosing among a large number of solutions on the Pareto front is often a daunting task, if proper analysis and visualisation techniques are not applied. Recent research advancements have shown the advantages of using data mining techniques to automate the post-optimality analysis of Pareto-optimal solutions for engineering design problems. Nonetheless, it is argued that the existing approaches are inadequate for generating high-quality results, when the set of the Pareto solutions is relatively small and the solutions close to the Pareto front have almost the same attributes as the Pareto-optimal solutions, of which both are commonly found in many real-world system problems. The aim of this paper is therefore to propose a distance-based data mining approach for the solution sets generated from simulation-based optimisation, in order to address these issues. Such an integrated data mining and MOO procedure is illustrated with the results of an industrial cost optimisation case study. Particular emphasis is paid to showing how the proposed procedure can be used to assist decision-makers in analysing and visualising the attributes of the design alternatives in different regions of the objective space, so that informed decisions can be made in production systems development.

  • 52.
    Eklind, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Larsson, Michelle
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Samarbetet mellan människa och automation i det avhjälpande underhållet: behovsanalys och krav på framtida utveckling av automationsutrustning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project has explored the interaction between humans and automation within the remedial maintenance on two manufacturing companies. The purpose of the project is to contribute to the interaction between humans and automation and by that make it successful in the future. The study has investigated how the present interaction is designed, where there is a need for interaction, how the interaction can be designed in the future together with the requirements that will need to be achieved to get there. In this study there is also a focus on sustainable development and how the interaction affects it. The result of the project is produced by performing two attendance observations, one at each company and four semi-structured interviews at each company. Today a lot of communication is done by phone to get the attention of personnel and summon them to the machine that has stopped. The troubleshooting of the machine is done in a panel or with a computer if deeper troubleshooting is needed. The computer needs to be connected to the machine. Today there are some technics that are present but these are not used due to the fact that they are perceived tedious to use. These technics are communication radio, mouse and keyboard. The result of the study indicates that there is a need for more information in all the phases of a remedial maintenance work. It also shows that the technics needs to be more mobile compared to how it is today. The authors recommends that handheld devices are used in the future and that softwares such as voice recognition, Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality are used within the handheld devices. Smartwatches are also interesting in an attention point of view where alarm messages can be shown. There is a belief that with more information and more mobility the maintenance will be more effective in the future and that the time for remedial maintenance will reduce. The authors strongly recommend that all technics that will be implemented need to first be tested in a realistic environment and by the people that should use it.

  • 53.
    Fast-Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Palmquist, Adam
    Insert Coin, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Romero, David
    Tecnologico de Monterrey, Mexico.
    Weichhart, Georg
    Profactor, Studgart, Austria.
    Conceptualizing Embodied Automation to Increase Transfer of Tacit knowledge in the Learning Factory2018In: "Theory, Research and Innovation in Applications": 9th International Conference on Intelligent Systems 2018 (IS’18) / [ed] Ricardo Jardim-Gonçalves, João Pedro Mendonça, Vladimir Jotsov, Maria Marques, João Martins, Robert Bierwolf, IEEE, 2018, p. 358-364, article id 8710482Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will discuss how cooperative agent-based systems, deployed with social skills and embodied automation features, can be used to interact with the operators in order to facilitate sharing of tacit knowledge and its later conversion into explicit knowledge. The proposal is to combine social software robots (softbots) with industrial collaborative robots (co-bots) to create a digital apprentice for experienced operators in human- robot collaboration workstations. This is to address the problem within industry that experienced operators have difficulties in explaining how they perform their tasks and later, how to turn this procedural knowledge (knowhow) into instructions to be shared among other operators. By using social softbots and co-bots, as cooperative agents with embodied automation features, we think we can facilitate the ‘externalization’ of procedural knowledge in human-robot interaction(s). This enabled by the capabilities of social cooperative agents with embodied automation features of continuously learning by looking over the shoulder of the operators, and documenting and collaborating with them in a non-intrusive way as they perform their daily tasks. 

  • 54.
    Fathi, Masood
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Fontes, Dalila Benedita Machado Martins
    University of Porto, Portugal / INESC TEC, Porto, Portugal.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden / Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Assembly line balancing problem: a comparative evaluation of heuristics and a computational assessment of objectives2018In: Journal of Modelling in Management, ISSN 1746-5664, E-ISSN 1746-5672, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 455-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to firstly investigate the efficiency of the most commonly used performance measures for minimizing the Number of Workstations (NWs) in approaches addressing Simple Assembly Line Balancing Problem (SALBP) for both straight and U-shaped line. Secondly, this study aims to provide a comparative evaluation of 20 constructive heuristics to find solutions to the SALBP-1.

    Design/methodology/approach – 200 problems are solved by 20 different constructive heuristics for both straight and U-shaped assembly line. Moreover, several comparisons have been made to evaluate the performance of constructive heuristics.

    Findings – Minimizing the Smoothness Index (SI) is not necessarily equivalent to minimizing the NWs, therefore, it should not be used as the fitness function in approaches addressing the SALBP-1. Line efficiency (LE) and the idle time (IT) are indeed reliable performance measures for minimizing the NWs. The most promising heuristics for straight and U-shaped line configurations for SALBP-1 are also ranked and introduced.

    Practical implications – Results are expected to help scholars and industrial practitioners to better design effective solution methods for having a most balance assembly line. This study will further help with choosing the most proper heuristic with regard to the problem specifications and line configuration.

    Originality/value – There is limited research assessing the efficiency of the common objectives for SALBP-1. This study is among the first to prove that minimizing the workload smoothness is not equivalent to minimizing the NWs in SALBP-1 studies. This work is also one of the first attempts for evaluating the constructive heuristics for both straight and U-shaped line configurations.

  • 55.
    Fathi, Masood
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Nourmohammadi, Amir
    Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Assembly Line Balancing Type-E with Technological Requirement: A Mathematical Model2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, p. 183-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is motivated by a real-world assembly line in an automotive manufacturing company and it addresses the simple assembly line balancing problem type-E (SALBPE). The SALBPE aims to maximize the balance efficiency (BE) through determining the best combinations of cycle time and station number. To cope with the problem, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model is proposed. The MINLP model differs from the existing ALBPE models as it includes the technological requirements of assembly tasks and optimizes the variation of workload beside the BE. The validity of the proposed model is tested by solving the real-world case study and a set of benchmark problems.

  • 56.
    Fathi, Masood
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Nourmohammadi, Amir
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    An optimization model for balancing assembly lines with stochastic task times and zoning constraints2019In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 32537-32550, article id 8663269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to bridge the gap between theory and practice by addressing a real-world assembly line balancing problem (ALBP) where task times are stochastic and there are zoning constraints in addition to the commonly known ALBP constraints. A mixed integer programming (MIP) model is proposed for each of the straight and U-shaped assembly line configurations. The primary objective in both cases is to minimize the number of stations; minimizing the maximum of stations’ mean time and the stations’ time variance are considered secondary objectives. Four different scenarios are discussed for each model, with differences in the objective function. The models are validated by solving a real case taken from an automobile manufacturing company and some standard test problems available in the literature. The results indicate that both models are able to provide optimum solutions for problems of different sizes. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is used to create reliable comparisons of the different scenarios and valid analysis of the results. Finally, some insights regarding the selection of straight and U-shaped layouts are provided.

  • 57.
    Fathi, Masood
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Nourmohammadi, Amir
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Eskandari, Hamidreza
    Faculty of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    An improved genetic algorithm with variable neighborhood search to solve the assembly line balancing problem2019In: Engineering computations, ISSN 0264-4401, E-ISSN 1758-7077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    • Purpose – This study aims to propose an efficient optimization algorithm to solve the assembly line balancing problem (ALBP). The ALBP arises in high-volume, lean production systems when decision makers aim to design an efficient assembly line while satisfying a set of constraints.
    • Design/methodology/approach – An improved genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed in this study to deal with ALBP in order to optimize the number of stations and the workload smoothness.
    • Findings – To evaluate the performance of the IGA, it is used to solve a set of well-known benchmark problems and a real-life problem faced by an automobile manufacturer. The solutions obtained are compared against two existing algorithms in the literature and the basic genetic algorithm. The comparisons show the high efficiency and effectiveness of the IGA in dealing with ALBPs.
    • Originality/value – The proposed IGA benefits from a novel generation transfer mechanism that improves the diversification capability of the algorithm by allowing population transfer between different generations. In addition, an effective variable neighborhood search is employed in the IGA to enhance its local search capability.
  • 58.
    Fathi, Masood
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Eskandari, Hamidreza
    Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    An optimization model for material supply scheduling at mixed-model assembly lines2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. 6p. 1258-1263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is motivated by a real case study and addresses the material supply problem at assembly lines. The aim of the study is to optimally schedule the delivery of raw material at assembly lines while using the minimum number of vehicles. To cope with the problem an original mixed integer linear programming model has been proposed based on the assumptions and constraints observed in the case study. The validity of the model has been examined by solving several real cases and analysing different scenarios. The results of the study show the efficiency and effectiveness of the model.

  • 59.
    Frantzén, Marcus
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    A real-time simulation-based optimisation environment for industrial scheduling2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to cope with the challenges in industry today, such as changes in product diversity and production volume, manufacturing companies are forced to react more flexibly and swiftly. Furthermore, in order for them to survive in an ever-changing market, they also need to be highly competitive by achieving near optimal efficiency in their operations. Production scheduling is vital to the success of manufacturing systems in industry today, because the near optimal allocation of resources is essential in remaining highly competitive.

     

    The overall aim of this study is the advancement of research in manufacturing scheduling through the exploration of more effective approaches to address complex, real-world manufacturing flow shop problems. The methodology used in the thesis is in essence a combination of systems engineering, algorithmic design and empirical experiments using real-world scenarios and data. Particularly, it proposes a new, web services-based, industrial scheduling system framework, called OPTIMISE Scheduling System (OSS), for solving real-world complex scheduling problems. OSS, as implemented on top of a generic web services-based simulation-based optimisation (SBO) platform called OPTIMISE, can support near optimal and real-time production scheduling in a distributed and parallel computing environment. Discrete-event simulation (DES) is used to represent and flexibly cope with complex scheduling problems without making unrealistic assumptions which are the major limitations of existing scheduling methods proposed in the literature.  At the same time, the research has gone beyond existing studies of simulation-based scheduling applications, because the OSS has been implemented in a real-world industrial environment at an automotive manufacturer, so that qualitative evaluations and quantitative comparisons of scheduling methods and algorithms can be made with the same framework.

     

    Furthermore, in order to be able to adapt to and handle many different types of real-world scheduling problems, a new hybrid meta-heuristic scheduling algorithm that combines priority dispatching rules and genetic encoding is proposed. This combination is demonstrated to be able to handle a wider range of problems or a current scheduling problem that may change over time, due to the flexibility requirements in the real-world.  The novel hybrid genetic representation has been demonstrated effective through the evaluation in the real-world scheduling problem using real-world data.

  • 60.
    Galindo Aranda, Patricia Cristina
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Bottleneck analysis using reverse-score: An experimental study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are manufacturing systems all over the world and all of them present dif- ferent characteristics. To get close to those manufacturing systems and aid them to analyze data and improve their efficiency, it arises FACTS Analyzer®. The present project concerns the development of a bottleneck analysis using REVERSE- SCORE (Simulation based COnstraint REmoval), feature included in FACTS Ana- lyzer. It is used Simulation-based Multi-Objective Optimization (SMO) to ana- lyze the different variables of a production line and investigate how to best extend previous application of SMO for bottleneck detection to not only consider im- provements of system parameters but also degradations of them. Degrading some system parameters can have many hidden advantages such as reduce power con- sumption, increase material efficiency or lengthen the useful life of the machines or tools, advantages that can draw near sustainability.

  • 61.
    Gandhi, Kanika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Machine maintenance decision support system: A systematic literature review2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11 – 13, 2018, Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, p. 349-354Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing competition market situations have emerged the requirement of the real-time data, understanding data behaviour, and maintenance actions in the manufacturing system. The future decision-making process in manufacturing needs to be more flexible to adapt to various methods for maintenance decision support systems (MDSS). This paper classifies various application areas of MDSS through a systemic literature review. Specifically, it identifies the relationship between the machine maintenance areas and the processes in which it integrates different tools and techniques to develop MDSS. The accumulated information helps in analyzing trends and shortcomings to concentrate the efforts for future research work. The reviewed papers are selected based on the contents, application tool assessments and clustered by their application areas. Furthermore, it proposes a structure outlined based on the functional knowledge as well as the information flow design during the development of MDSS, along with the relationship among application areas.

  • 62.
    Garay, Beñat
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    High-level language design for IMMA-Virtual Driver DHM Research2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growing implementation of ergonomics in the automotive sector sets high demands on Digital Human Modelling (DHM) functionalities towards the simulation of more realistic environments and the reduction of physical model dependency. During the current degree project a leading element that smartly assembles DHM usage (implementation of high-level commanding languages) was designed, revolving around the industries’ needs which were gathered and interpreted in order to organize current functions in this language and suggest new complementary functions that would create a language environment suitable for non-expert users. This was achieved by focusing in an intuitive word-function structure, the proposal of defaults and other tools that aid users with different kinds of expertise. The need for realism of simulations was assessed by the language design especially by designing means to coordinate synchronic manikin-actions. 

  • 63.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Minab Higher Educational Center, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Azar, Adel
    Department of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Fathi, Masood
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lean-green manufacturing: the enabling role of information technology resource2018In: Kybernetes, ISSN 0368-492X, E-ISSN 1758-7883, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 1752-1777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the existing knowledge about the relationships between information technology (IT), lean manufacturing (LM), organizational environmental issues and business performance.

    Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect data from 122 elite manufacturers, and the hypothesized relationships were tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Findings – IT competence in LM acts as a lower-order organizational capability, and its business value should be recognized through the intermediate roles of LM effectiveness and environmental management capability. Findings recommend that the net benefits of LM are mainly materialized through waste and pollution reduction and simplified implementation of proactive environmental practices.

    Research limitations/implications – Among other limitations, relying on a rather small sample size and cross-sectional data of this research, and lack of generalizability of findings, tends to have certain limitations. An interesting direction for future research would be to extend this research by assessing interaction of other types of IT resources with LM and organizational environmental issues.

    Practical implications – Both LM and proactive environmental management are information-intensive. Investment in both technological and human aspects of IT resource aimed at increasing the effectiveness of LM activities and proactive environmental practices is imperative for contemporary manufacturers.

    Originality/value – This study introduces the IT capability of IT competence in LM and two organizational capabilities of LM effectiveness and environmental management capability. By doing so, the study highlights the significant role of organizational environmental issues in devising firms’ IT and advanced manufacturing technology investment strategies in LM context.

  • 64.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran / Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
    Fathi, Masood
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Corporate survival in Industry 4.0 era: the enabling role of lean-digitized manufacturing2019In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    purpose– The study demonstrates how small manufacturing firms can leverage their Information Technology (IT) resources to develop the lean-digitized manufacturing system that offers sustained competitiveness in the Industry 4.0 era.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study performs an in-depth 5-years case study of a manufacturing firm, and reports its journey from failure in the implementation of enterprise resource planning to its success in integrating IT-based technology trends of Industry 4.0 with the firm’s core capabilities and competencies while pursuing manufacturing digitization.

    Findings – Industry 4.0 transition requires the organizational integration of many IT-based modern technologies and the digitization of entire value chains. However, Industry 4.0 transition for smaller manufacturers can begin with digitization of certain areas of operations in support of organizational core strategies. Development of leandigitized manufacturing system is a viable business strategy for corporate survivability in the Industry 4.0 setting.

    Research limitations/implications – Although the implementation of lean-digitized manufacturing system is costly and challenging, this manufacturing strategy offers superior corporate competitiveness in the long run. Since this finding is rather limited to the present case study, assessing the business value of lean-digitized manufacturing system in a larger-scale research context would be an interesting avenue for future research.

    Practical implications – Industry 4.0 transition for typical manufacturers should commensurate with their organizational, operational, and technical particularities. Digitization of certain operations and processes, when aligned with the firm’s core strategies, capabilities, and procedures, can offer superior competitiveness even in Industry 4.0 era, meaning that the strategic plan for successful Industry 4.0 transition is idiosyncratic to each particular manufacturer.

    Social implications – Manufacturing digitization can have deep social implications as it alters inter and intra organizational relationships, causes unemployment among low-skilled workforce, and raises data security and privacy concerns. Manufacturers should take responsibility for their digitization process and steer it in a direction that simultaneously safeguards economic, social, and environmental sustainability.

    Originality/value – The strategic roadmap devised and employed by the case company for managing its digitization process can better reveal what manufacturing digitization, mandated by Industry 4.0, might require of typical manufacturers, and further enable them to better facilitate their digital transformation process.

  • 65.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Minab Higher Educational Center, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Fathi, Masood
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Fontes, Dalila Benedita Machado Martins
    Faculty of Economics, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Ching, Ng Tan
    Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman - Kuala Lumpur Campus, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Modeling lean manufacturing success2018In: Journal of Modelling in Management, ISSN 1746-5664, E-ISSN 1746-5672, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 908-931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about the process ofachieving Lean Manufacturing (LM) success.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study uses interpretive structural modeling and captures theopinions of a group of LM experts from a world-class Japanese automobile manufacturer, to map theinterrelationships among potential determinants of LM success. This study further uses the data from asurvey of 122 leading automobile part manufacturers by performing structural equation modeling toempirically test the research model proposed.

    Findings – Management support and commitment, financial resources availability, information technologycompetence for LM, human resources management, production process simplicity, supportive culture andsupply chain-wide integration are the key determinants that directly or indirectly determine the level ofachievement of LMsuccess.

    Research limitations/implications – The determinants of LM success as experienced by Asianautomobile manufacturers might be different from determinants of LM success as experienced byWestern automobile manufacturers. An interesting direction for future research would be to capturethe experts’ inputs from Western automobile manufacturers to complement the findings of thisstudy.

    Practical implications – The practical contribution of this study lays in the development of linkagesamong various LM success determinants. Utility of the proposed interpretive structural modeling andstructural equation modeling methodologies imposing order, direction and significance of therelationships among elements of LM success assumes considerable value to the decision-makers and LMpractitioners.

    Originality/value – Building on opinions of a group of LM experts and a case study of leading auto partmanufacturers, the present study strives to model the success of LM, a topic that has received little attentionto date.

  • 66.
    Goienetxea, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H.C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bringing together Lean and simulation: a comprehensive review2019In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588XArticle, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean is and will still be one of the most popular management philosophies in the Industry 4.0 context and simulation is one of its key technologies. Many authors discuss about the benefits of combining Lean and simulation to better support decision makers in system design and improvement. However, there is a lack of reviews in the domain. Therefore, this paper presents a four-stage comprehensive review and analysis of existing literature on their combination. The aim is to identify the state of the art, existing methods and frameworks for combining Lean and simulation, while also identifying key research perspectives and challenges. The main trends identified are the increased interest in the combination of Lean and simulation in the Industry 4.0 context and in their combination with optimisation, Six Sigma, as well as sustainability. The number of articles in these areas is likely to continue to grow. On the other hand, we highlight six gaps found in the literature regarding the combination of Lean and simulation, which may induce new research opportunities. Existing technical, organisational, as well as people and culture related challenges on the combination of Lean and simulation are also discussed.

  • 67.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bringing Together Lean, Simulation and Optimization: Defining a framework to support decision-making in system design and improvement2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid changes in the market including globalization, the requirement for personalizedproducts and services by the customers, shorter product life-cycles, the exponential growthof technological advances, and the demographical changes, will demand organizations toeffectively improve and design their systems in order to survive. This is the actual paradigmcharacterizing the industrial and service sectors. This scenario presents a considerablechallenge to decision makers who will need to decide about how to design and improve amore than ever complex system without compromising the quality of the decision taken.Lean, being a widely applied management philosophy with very powerful principles, itsmethods and tools are static in nature and have some limitations when it comes to the designand improvement of complex and dynamic systems. Some authors have proposed thecombined use of simulation with Lean in order to overcome these limitations. Furthermore,optimization and post-optimization tools coupled to simulation, provide knowledge aboutoptimal or nearly optimal system configurations to choose from. However, even if Leanprinciples, methods and tools, as well as simulation and optimization, pursue the objectiveof supporting organizations regarding system design and improvement, a bilateral approachfor their combination and its benefits have barely been addressed in the literature.Many studies focus only on how specific Lean tools and simulation can be combined, treatingLean purely as a toolbox and not considering how Lean can support the simulation process.The aim of this research is to address this knowledge gap by analyzing the mutualbenefits and presenting a framework for combining Lean, simulation and optimization tobetter support decision makers in system design and improvement where the limitationsof Lean tools and simulation are overcome by their combination. This framework includesa conceptual framework explaining the relationships between the Lean philosophy, methodsand tools with simulation and optimization; the purposes for this combination and stepby step processes to achieve these purposes; the identification of the roles involved in eachprocess; a maturity model providing guidelines on how to implement the framework; existingbarriers for the implementation; and ethical considerations to take into account. Anindustrial handbook has also been written which explains how to deploy the framework.The research has been conducted in three main stages including an analysis of the literatureand the real-world needs, the definition and formulation of the framework, and finally, itsevaluation in real-world projects and with subject matter experts. The main contributionof this research is the reflection provided on the bilateral benefits of the combination, aswell as the defined and evaluated framework, which will support decision makers take qualitydecisions in system design and improvement even in complex scenarios.

  • 68.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bringing together Lean, simulation and optimization in a framework for system design and improvement2018In: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, Gothenburg, 9-12 December, 2018 / [ed] M. Rabe, A. A. Juan, N. Mustafee, A. Skoogh, S. Jain, B. Johansson, Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE, 2018, p. 4132-4133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it beneficial to combine lean, simulation and optimization? And if so, how can they be combined for decision-making support in system design and improvement? This research proposes a framework that sets the basis for achieving beneficial interactions between the lean philosophy, methods and tools, and simulation-based optimization. A framework that gives the users the possibility to get better system understanding, conduct a deeper system analysis, and attain an optimal system design and improvement, and thereby, get better foundation for sustainable long time improvement. The framework has been tested in several realworld case studies. Moreover, surveys have been conducted to evaluate the perception of subject matter experts about its usefulness, as well as its usability and perceived quality by end users and decision makers, all of them reporting very positive results.

  • 69.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Supporting the lean journey with simulation and optimization in the context of Industry 4.02018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 586-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new industrial revolution brings important changes to organizations that will need to adapt their machines, systems and employees’ competences to sustain their business in a highly competitive market. Management philosophies such as lean will also need to adapt to the improvement possibilities that Industry 4.0 brings. This paper presents a review on the role of lean and simulation in the context of Industry 4.0. Additionally, the paper presents a conceptual framework where simulation and optimization will make the lean approach more efficient, speeding up system improvements and reconfiguration, by means of an enhanced decision-making process and supported organizational learning.

  • 70.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    How can decision makers be supported in the improvement of an emergency department?: A simulation, optimization and data mining approach2017In: Operations Research for Health Care, ISSN 2211-6923, E-ISSN 2211-6931, Vol. 15, p. 102-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The improvement of emergency department processes involves the need to take into considerationmultiple variables and objectives in a highly dynamic and unpredictable environment, which makes thedecision-making task extremely challenging. The use of different methodologies and tools to support thedecision-making process is therefore a key issue. This article presents a novel approach in healthcarein which Discrete Event Simulation, Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization and Data Miningtechniques are used in combination. This methodology has been applied for a system improvementanalysis in a Swedish emergency department. As a result of the project, the decision makers were providedwith a range of nearly optimal solutions and design rules which reduce considerably the length of stayand waiting times for emergency department patients. These solutions include the optimal number ofresources and the required level of improvement in key processes. The article presents and discussesthe benefits achieved by applying this methodology, which has proven to be remarkably valuable fordecision-making support, with regard to complex healthcare system design and improvement.

  • 71.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    System design and improvement of an emergency department using Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization2015In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 616, no 1, article id 012015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is nowadays widely used to support decision makers in system analysis and improvement. However, the use of simulation for improving stochastic logistic processes is not common among healthcare providers. The process of improving healthcare systems involves the necessity to deal with trade-off optimal solutions that take into consideration a multiple number of variables and objectives. Complementing DES with Multi-Objective Optimization (SMO) creates a superior base for finding these solutions and in consequence, facilitates the decision-making process. This paper presents how SMO has been applied for system improvement analysis in a Swedish Emergency Department (ED). A significant number of input variables, constraints and objectives were considered when defining the optimization problem. As a result of the project, the decision makers were provided with a range of optimal solutions which reduces considerably the length of stay and waiting times for the ED patients. SMO has proved to be an appropriate technique to support healthcare system design and improvement processes. A key factor for the success of this project has been the involvement and engagement of the stakeholders during the whole process.

  • 72.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Sellgren, Tommy
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Uppsala University.
    Introducing simulation and optimization in the Lean continuous improvement standards in an automotive company2019In: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, Gothenburg, December 9-12, 2018 / [ed] M. Rabe, A. A. Juan, N. Mustafee, A. Skoogh, S. Jain, B. Johansson, Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE, 2019, p. 3352-3363Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly competitive automobile market requires automotive companies to become efficient by continuously improving their production systems. This paper presents a case study where simulationbased optimization (SBO) was employed as a step within a Value Stream Mapping event. The aim of the study was to promote the use of SBO to strengthen the continuous improvement work of the company. The paper presents all the key steps performed in the study, including the challenges faced and a reflection on how to introduce SBO as a powerful tool within the lean continuous improvement standards.

  • 73.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lean, Simulation and Optimization: A Win-Win combination2016In: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal, and M. D. Rossetti, Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 2227-2238Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean and simulation analysis are driven by the same objective, how to better design and improve processes making the companies more competitive. The adoption of lean has been widely spread in companies from public to private sectors and simulation is nowadays becoming more and more popular. Several authors have pointed out the benefits of combining simulation and lean, however, they are still rarely used together in practice. Optimization as an additional technique to this combination is even a more powerful approach especially when designing and improving complex processes with multiple conflicting objectives. This paper presents the mutual benefits that are gained when combining lean, simulation and optimization and how they overcome each other´s limitations. A framework including the three concepts, some of the barriers for its implementation and a real-world industrial example are also described.

  • 74.
    Gudfinnsson, Kristens
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    On transforming into the data-driven decision-making era: current state of practice in manufacturing smes2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, Vol. 8, p. 337-342Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research lacks details on how SMMEs are able to capitalize on how their IT-solutions supports data-driven decision-making. Such details are important for being able to support further development of SMMEs and assuring their sustainability and competitive edge. Prosperous SMMEs are vital due to their economical and societal importance. To alleviate the lack of details, this paper presents the results of four case studies towards SMMEs partly aimed at investigating their current state of data-driven decision-making. The findings reveal that IT-solutions in some areas are either underdeveloped or unexplored. Instead, the SMMEs tend to focus on traditional manufacturing techniques, continuous improvements in the manufacturing process, and manual support routines and thereby neglects opportunities offered in relation to e.g. incident management, product quality monitoring, and the usage of KPIs not directly linked to manufacturing.

  • 75.
    Gunnarsson Ljungblom, Joel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Larsson, Rikard
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Identifiering av variabler vid framtagning av optimerad stickprovsfrekvens2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work on measuring frequencies, which is how often a produced detail is to be measured, within Volvo Cars’ production currently does not follow a standardized approach. The work around it basically builds on past experiences and what similar equipment has for measurement frequency. Volvo Cars requests more knowledge in the area to get more cost-effective quality assurance.

    The main objective of the work has contained identification of the variables that affect the measurement frequency, as well as construction of a simpler model where the variables are applied. Interviews have also been conducted on a number of companies, where some of the key conclusions are:

    • Measuring frequencies are worked retrospectively, rather than proactively.

    • Capability is currently the most common for work with measurement frequencies.

    • Working with measurement frequencies does not occur standardized.

    • Improving measurement frequencies occur to a low extent, and when done, it is often triggered by a man-time analysis.

    The work has resulted in the identification of two main variables; capability and quality costs. Although the reality is more complicated, these two variables can be seen as main categories. Under capability and quality costs, there are subcategories.

    For capability, tool-related properties such as wear and its material are available. The material of the detail and its thermodynamic properties also affect the capability. Finally, error intensity, vibrations and stability of the process are found.

    Regarding quality deficiency there are error costs arising within the company's walls, internal error costs, and the error costs that occur when the product is delivered to the customer, external error costs. In addition to the two, there are also control costs and prevention costs.

    In addition, the work has resulted in a simpler model, taking into account experience from interviews and data from Volvo Cars. Several of the data contained in the model have been developed by analyzing three-week production data from Volvo Cars. Data used in the model related to quality is the capability and the percentage distribution of the current variant. The data that impact on quality costs is how many operations the flow has and the current operation location in relation to the total number. The cost of the raw material, the severity of the quality lack of the current property and the scrap cost is also used.

    The model has then been applied to one of the machines covered by the work to check the outcome. With data imported based on production data from Volvo Cars, a sampling rate of 62 has been generated.

  • 76.
    Gustafsson, Rasmus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Time study and flow-simulation: Current and future analysis2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete-event simulations are increasingly being used to solve problems and to aid in decision making which are proving useful in the manufacturing industry. The main aim for this thesis was to compare the current production line and how implementing changes for a future state as a supporting basis for making the decision.

    The theoretical framework focused on the Lean philosophy merged with simulation-based methods. The simulation model was build using the collected data. A time study was conducted in order to verify the process and setup times since these were only estimated at the time. Two simulation models were built for the current production line and the future state. The future state was based on the current one since no changes in the process and setup times would be made during the two simulation-model. Experiments were then done to compare the different states, one with batch and the other single-piece flow. The parameters were set on equal terms and the compared values were throughput (TH), lead-time (LT) and work in process (WIP). The conclusion drawn from the results is that the future state would be more efficient.

  • 77.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Scania CV / Chalmers.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Carlson, Johan S
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Chalmers.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Stefan, Gustafsson
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Keyvani, Ali
    Högskolan Väst / Chalmers.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre / Chalmers.
    IMMA – Intelligently moving manikins in automotive applications2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Carlson, Johan S.
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Spensieri, Domenico
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Björkenstam, Staffan
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nyström, Johan
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ore, Fredrik
    School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Industrial path solutions - intelligently moving manikins2019In: DHM and Posturography / [ed] Sofia Scataglini, Gunther Paul, London: Academic Press, 2019, p. 115-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IPS IMMA (Industrial Path Solutions - Intelligently Moving Manikins) is a digital human modeling tool developed in close cooperation between academia and industry in Sweden. The academic consortium behind the software consists of expertise within applied mathematics, ergonomics, and engineering. The development of IMMA was initiated from the vehicle industries’ need of an effective, efficient, objective, and user-friendly software for verification of manufacturing ergonomics. The ‘Industrial path solutions - intelligently moving manikins’ chapter consists of two main sections: the first about the commercially available tool, and the second about current or recent research projects developing the software further. Commercial IPS IMMA is presented by describing the biomechanical model and appearance, anthropometrics module, motion prediction, instruction language, and ergonomics evaluation. The research projects focus on dynamic motions simulation, muscle modelling and application areas such as human-robot collaboration, occupant packaging, and layout planning.

  • 79.
    Hellberg, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Lindberg, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ställtidsförbättring på Cejn AB: SMED arbete i maskiner som bearbetar rostfritt material2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företaget Cejn AB har idag svårt att konkurrera prismässigt på marknaden när det gäller vissa rostfria detaljer. Ett led i att minska kostnaderna för att producera artiklarna är önskemålet från företagets sida att se efter om det går att genomföra en ställtidsreducering på maskincellen, se bilaga 5, som tillverkar rostfritt. Företaget har även önskemål om att en checklista ska tas fram för hur ställarbetet ska gå till i cellen, för om möjligt standardisera arbetet. Skiftgången i cellen är idag tvåskift och maskinerna är bemannade med en operatör per maskin och skift. Nulägesanalysen, som gjordes i början av projektet, visar att den genomsnittliga ställtiden idag är på ca 18 % av planerad produktionstid.

    Önskad arbetsmetod från företagets sida var SMED (Singel Minute Exchange of Die), metoden myntades av Shiego Shingo som kom fram till att ett ställ, tiden det tar att byta produktion i en maskin av en produkt till en annan, bör kunna ske på under tio minuter. Metoden bygger på att förvandla inre ställ, arbete som pågår när maskinen står still, till yttre ställ, arbete som pågår när maskinen går. Endast de moment som måste göras när maskinen står still ska vara med i det inre stället. För att mäta den effekt SMED-arbetet medför och för att se hur lång tid som varje moment tar användes en tidsstudie. Valet föll på att använda en kontinuerlig klocka under tidtagningen. Tidsstudiedokumentet som användes för att notera tiderna i var framtaget med ursprung i de inledande observationerna. Då Cejn AB har Lean som produktionsfilosofi har ett antal verktyg inom området använts under arbetet. Övergripande arbetsmetod för arbetet har varit PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act), där varje mindre moment i arbetet har delats ned i mindre PDCA-cykler.

    Utifrån den inledande tidsstudien beräknades ett teoretiskt resultat fram, det visar på att bara genom att förändra den ordning som operatören utför arbetsmomenten i går det att minska ställtiden med ca 20 %. För att verifiera det resultatet och för att testa den checklista som var framtagen gjordes en pilotstudie. Den visar på att förändringen är ca 11 %, vilket beror på att de ställ som observerades var krångligare och svårare än de som den inledande studien mätte. Ovanan med att arbeta utefter det nya arbetssättet för operatörerna är även det en bidragande orsak till att det är en diskrepans mellan teoretiskt och verkligt utfall. Under pilotstudien testades även den ställåda som var framtagen i projektet, vilket mottogs bra av operatörerna. Resultatet från pilotstudien visar att ställådan har effekt på momentet med att montera verktyg. Effekten är att tiden minskar med ca 8 % av att den inre ställtiden på det momentet.

    De av Cejn AB satta målen har uppnåtts då ställtidsreducering kan påvisas och checklistor har tagits fram. Det nya arbetssättet kan standardiseras av företaget.

  • 80.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Differentiated Supply Chain Strategy - Building Knowledge through Case Studies2008In: Fourth International Railway Logistics Seminar: Co-operation among Transportation Modes in Northern Europe, Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2008, p. 5-28Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays companies usually offer a wide range of products and services in various types of non-coherent business environments. It is becoming apparent that traditional ‘one-size-fits-all’ supply chain strategies does not support a wide range of products sold in a diversity of markets. Consequently, it becomes increasingly necessary to employ different manufacturing and delivery strategies concurrently in order to develop a differentiated supply chain strategy. This paper employs a descriptive multiple case study approach to illustrate how two companies has develop a differentiated supply chain strategy. Case study findings reveal that one efficient method to develop a differentiated supply chain strategy is to combine different manufacturing and delivery strategies into various supply chain solutions. By combining relatively few strategies it is possible to develop several differentiated supply chain solutions.

  • 81.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Differentiated Supply Chain Strategy - Response to a fragmented and complex market2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) aims to synchronize the requirements of customers with the flow of materials from suppliers, in order to satisfy the needs of the customers as costefficiently as possible. This has become a difficult task due to several developments in the market, such as increased competition, increased demand variability, increased product variety, increased amounts of customer-specific products, and shortening product life cycles. These developments, due in part to globalization, provide additional management challenges and new practices in which supply chains are designed and managed, and can eventually make the difference between companies staying competitive or not. The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate how complexity and globalization affect supply chain design and operations. The main emphasis has been on producing descriptive results of the studied phenomenon. This research involves five case studies covering international transportation structures used in SCM, the selection of supply chain strategies in different business environments, and the role of information systems and technology in achieving the objective of SCM. In this thesis it has been concluded that in order to cope with increasingly complex and fragmented markets companies need more differentiated transportation structures, modes, and supply chains. Furthermore, to effectively manage this, information systems and advanced decision support tools are required. In addition, this thesis has shown that current taxonomies for supply chain strategy selection are too simplistic due to three major problems: they mediate that it is a question of choosing one supply chain strategy for the entire company,

    they regard markets as rather homogeneous, and they link each supply chain strategy to a specific business context. Instead, it has been concluded that in order to better satisfy differing customer needs in various markets it is increasingly necessary to develop a differentiated supply chain strategy by utilizing different manufacturing and delivery strategies concurrently. Thus, a need exists for new taxonomies for supply chain strategy selection which recognize that the markets are becoming more fragmented and complex, that customer preferences differ across customer/market segments, and that there is a need to differentiate the supply chain strategy. This thesis also highlights several requirements of a differentiated supply chain strategy. Firstly, extended supply chain collaboration is required, since a differentiated supply chain strategy will involve more supply chain partners than a traditional supply chain strategy. Secondly, there is a need for more transportation mode alternatives, particularly intermodal, both in supply and distribution operations, due to the fact that differentiation requires diversity. In this thesis, intermodal landbridge freight services are highlighted as one interesting avenue, which could potentially facilitate a more differentiated supply chain strategy. Thirdly, more integrated information systems are needed along with decision support tools. This study illustrates that agent based modeling appears to be an interesting method for developing realistic decision support tools in the context of complex supply chains. An interesting aspect for further research is to investigate how different manufacturing and delivery strategies can be used concurrently in international supply chains. Moreover, there are several requirements and opportunities of a differentiated supply chain strategy, and these have to be investigated further

  • 82.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Enterprise Resource Planning Systems in Higher Education2008In: Fourth International Railway Logistics Seminar: Co-operation among Transportation Modes in Northern Europe / [ed] Olli-Pekka Hilmola, Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2008, p. 167-180Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems and technology are becoming more and more important in the industry. Consequently, it is important to include these in any modern logistics education. This paper describes how ERP-systems are utilized in logistics education programs and courses at University of Skövde (Sweden). The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of information systems and technology in a modern logistics education.

  • 83.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Lorentz, Harri
    Logistics, Turku School of Economics, Turku, Finland.
    Savolainen, Ville-Veikko
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Research Unit, Kouvola, Finland.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Research Unit, Kouvola, Finland.
    Ivanova, Oksana
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Section of Logistics, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Using Eurasian Landbridge in Logistics Operations: Building Knowledge through Case Studies2007In: World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research (WRITR), ISSN 1749-4729, E-ISSN 1749-4737, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 183-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research concerns about the use of Eurasia as a landbridge for container traffic. We present case study findings concerning European-Asian transportation, and this reveals that the lead time advantage of landbridges (with respect of its costs) would be suitable for a manufacturer, but malfunctioning parts of harbours and railway transports hinder the potential of this alternative. Findings from demanding manufacturing logistics are further verified with a case study concerning a Finnish retailer having increasingly important presence in Russian markets. Retailer used to favour railways (~early part of Eurasian corridor) but has nowadays configured distribution operations to favour road transports.

  • 84.
    Hjelm, Susanna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av en användarcentrerad designprocess för utformning av ergonomiska arbetsplatser enligt Lean2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The mission of this thesis is to develop a user-centered design process for the design of ergonomic workstations that follows the guidelines and philosophy for Lean. The aim is to study the philosophies and management tools for Lean, Regulation of the Working Environment Act and other regulations and ergonomic guidelines that can be successfully integrated into product development processes. The starting point is to conduct a qualitative analysis of a prototype of an evaluation model for the Volvo Production System (VPS) developed by ergonomic experts at AB Volvo. The aim is to support the design process so that guidelines for Lean, legal requirements in the Work Environment Act and ergonomic requirements are naturally included in the typical phases of a design process; pre-study, definition of requirements specification, concept development, evaluation and detailed design. The qualitative analysis that was performed resulted in an integration of a number of aspects of Volvo's evaluation model VPS assessment of an overall design process. The results of the analysis was used as the foundation for the development of a user-centered design process. The conclusions drawn from the work is that aspects of VPS assessment can naturally be integrated into a generic design process in the concept development phases for designing ergonomic workplaces that meet guidelines for Lean as well as legal requirements of the Work Environment Act. 

  • 85.
    Hjort af Ornäs, Viktor
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Users, emotions and meaningful things2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adaptive Decision Support for Shop-floor Operators using Function Blocks2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In manual and semi-automation production systems, flexibility and adaptability are affected by the shop-floor operators’ skills, abilities and knowledge. Such dependencies highlight the vital importance of developing and utilising the knowledge, achievements and abilities of the operators working with production on the shop-floor. Teamwork, including both novice and highly experienced shop-floor operators, in a production environment with a high level of automation, is essential already today and is predicted to increase, when the complexity and demands of future production systems intensify. This trend is confirmed in both the research literature and by specialists within industry.

    The key to future competitiveness and effectiveness of the manufacturing industry is the shop-floor operators who handle the production systems. In addition, the future information intensive working environment, with its increasing complexity and less time available for decision-making, demands adaptive decision support and adaptive control systems that facilitate collaborative work on the shop-floor. It is therefore important to emphasise how decisions are supported in the time-limited working environment of the shop-floor, because this has a large impact on production output and quality and is vital to the success of the company. Consequently, this dissertation presents a framework for an adaptive decision support system that concentrates on shop-floor operators, in order to enhance their development and future contribution to leading edge production systems.

    The overall aim of the research presented is to define a framework for an Adaptive Decision Support System, to address the scope and demands of the future shop-floor, as indicated in the research literature, and confirm its relevance, as well as further elaborate it on the basis of interviews with production managers and HR specialists

    The research presented uses the design science research process. In parallel, decision support systems and the industrial shop-floor have been studied in the research literature and the current state of industrial practice has been assessed. These areas together form the basis for the research on adaptive decision support for shop-floor operators. A framework enabling adaptive decision support and adaptive system control, based on event-driven function block technology and Augmented Reality technology, is formulated.

    The gap of research on decision support for shop-floor operators, indicated in the research literature is addressed by the research preformed.  Adaptive and dynamic decision support and system control able to process vast amounts of information in real time demonstrates utility for shop-floor operators. The research presenting the Adaptive Decision Support System has demonstrated its utility for shop-floor systems and production operatives in two extensive studies using demonstrators based on real-life production environments.

    A methodology, the ‘User group’, has been formulated for research collaboration and bi-directional knowledge transfer between academia and the industrial partners. It provides tools that enable cooperation between the experienced research partner and the novices, despite their different levels of engagement in the same project, without dividing them into separate groups. The ‘user group’ case study presented describes how both the inexperienced and the research mature companies gain new knowledge and engage in ongoing research. By doing so, the industrial project partners have extensively supported the research presented and will subsequently be the expected beneficiaries.

  • 87.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    The future shop-floor operators, demands, requirements and interpretations2018In: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 47, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of the manufacturing industry reveals continuous progress and development throughout the years. This evolution not only includes production methodologies and the production equipment, it also includes the working environment of the shop-floor operators. The demands faced by the shop-floor operators have developed from strictly controlled, simple and monotonic tasks to self-controlled team work requiring a holistic approach that aims at continuous improvements and achieving a high degree of flexibility, adaptability and initiative.

    This paper describes the evolution of the shop-floor operator, according to the research literature and interviews with manufacturing managers and human resources specialists. In addition, the paper presents the response of future Swedish shop-floor operators, today’s high-school students, to a description of their possible future work as shop-floor operators. The Swedish manufacturing industry competes, to a large extent, on and responds to the international market. The findings made in this paper are thus also interesting for other industries and countries acting on the international market.

  • 88.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy of Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, Cornwall, United kingdom.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Why I want to be a future Swedish shop-floor operator2016In: Research and Innovation in Manufacturing: Key Enabling Technologies for the Factories of the Future - Proceedings of the 48th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Roberto Teti, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 41, p. 1101-1106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When looking in rear view mirrors the Swedish as well as the international production industries can overview several years of progress covering all aspects of production. Production methodologies and machines etc. have changed and evolved, and so has the environment of the shop-floor operator. The demands on the shop-floor operators have grown from simple monotonic tasks with low complexity to pro-active team work requiring flexibility, continuous improvements and a holistic approach. With a base in a study where production and HR-managers at six Swedish manufacturing industries have been interviewed this paper identifies the role of today’s and the future Swedish shop-floor operator. The response to the described role of the future operator is compiled from the ones who will become the future Swedish shop-floor operators – today’s teenagers attending technical high-school. Their views of the environment of the future shop-floor operator are described by accuracy, development, a good working environment and team work. The paper also reveals what the offer should include to make these teenagers say: I want to be a future Swedish shop-floor operator.

  • 89.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy of Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, United Kingdom.
    Framework for an adaptive decision support system for industrial shop-floor operators2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s shop-floor operators’ working tasks often stretches over a broad spectra of jobs; from ordinary production assignments to handling errors and performing maintenance. Demands for enhanced skills and knowledge are constantly raised to limit the consequences of tool breakage, machine down time and other stochastic events negatively affecting the production.

    To be able to meet these increasing demands a framework for a distributed and adaptive decision support system is proposed. It will help the shop-floor operator to distinguish between decision options and minimize time to consider appropriate actions to maximize productivity both during normal production and when facing unexpected or unscheduled events.

    In what ways is it possible to support operators in making decisions for optimal productivity?” was the opening question from the industry partner when beginning this research. Targeting this question a novel framework for an adaptive decision support system (DSS) enabled by event-driven function blocks, based on decision logics is proposed. Its ability to adapt to the actual conditions on the shop-floor is compared to a currently used voice message system in a test case.

  • 90.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Cordero Garcia, Aimar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adaptive decision support for shop-floor operators in automotive industry2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 17, p. 440-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's operators on factory shop-floors are often not stationed, dealing with a single or few tasks but have increasing responsibilities demanding enhanced skills and knowledge in a production environment where any disturbance must be settled with adequate actions without delay to keep optimum output. To be able to respond to these demands, the operators need dynamic, distributed and adaptive decision support in real-Time, helping them to distinguish decision options and maximizing productivity despite incoming stochastic events. The minimum of time and option for operators to consider appropriate action both during normal production and when facing unexpected or unscheduled events point out the need of adaptive decision support for operators. When initiating this research project the question from the industry partner was the following: In what ways is it possible to support operators in making decisions for optimal productivity? By targeting this problem this paper introduces a novel framework for an adaptive decision-support system enabled by event-driven function blocks and based on decision logics. The proposed decision support systems' ability to adapt to the actual conditions on the shop-floor is validated through a case study, and its capability is compared to the voice message system installed on-site.

  • 91.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    Sustainable Manufacturing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Adaptive instructions to novice shop-floor operators using Augmented Reality2017In: Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, ISSN 2168-1015, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 362-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel system using Augmented Reality and Expert Systems to enhance the quality and efficiency of shop-floor operators. The novel system proposed provides an adaptive tool that facilitates and enhances support on the shop-floor, due to its ability to dynamically customize the instructions displayed, dependent upon the competence of the user. A comparative study has been made between an existing method of quality control instructions at a machining line in an automotive engine plant and this novel system. It has been shown that the new approach outcompetes the existing system, not only in terms of perceived usability but also with respect to two other important shop-floor variables: quality and productivity. Along with previous research, the outcomes of these test cases indicate the value of using Augmented Reality technology to enhance shop-floor operators’ ability to learn and master new tasks.

  • 92.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Frantzén, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Falmouth University, Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A methodology facilitating knowledge transfer to both research experienced companies and to novice SMEs2017In: International Journal of Enterprise Network Management, ISSN 1748-1252, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 123-140, article id IJENM0080202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, knowledge transfer is defined as a process of disseminating both technological and theoretical understanding as well as enhancing both industrial and academic knowledge through conducted research to project partners collaborating within a research project. To achieve this, a new methodology called 'user groups' is introduced. It facilitates knowledge transfer between project participants in collaborative research programs engaging both experienced and unexperienced partners regardless of level of input. The introduced methodology 'user groups' provides tools for collaborating with several research partners even though their levels of engagement in the project and prior research experience may vary without dividing them into separate groups. It enables all project partners to gain new knowledge and by so doing extending the knowledge society. The case study shows that the eight engaged companies are able to cooperate, achieve their own objectives and, both jointly and individually, contribute to the overall project goals.

  • 93.
    Hoyos Rodriguez, David
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Realistic Computer aided design: model of an exoskeleton2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The musculoskeletal disorders have significant health care, social and economic consequences in the factories nowadays. One of the most promising possible solutions is the use of exoskeletons in the workstations. Exoskeletons are assistive wearable robotics connected to the body of a person, which aims to give mechanical power or mobility to the user (Wang, Ikuma, Hondzinski, & de Queiroz, 2017).

    The objective of this project is to create a realistic CAD model of a passive exoskeleton which will be used in future research to analyse the behaviour of the workers in a virtual environment with and without the exoskeleton. This model will be a virtual representation of the exoskeleton EKSOVest which has been designed to support these workers who have to realize overhead tasks. This virtual representation will be carried out in PTC CREO and exported to IPS IMMA in order to check the viability of this model. To achieve a realistic model, the exoskeleton should have the same characteristics than the real exoskeleton. The objectives of this project will be defined for these characteristics, which are part creation, mechanisms, forces simulation, and parametrization. The parts and the mechanisms will be created and defined in PTC CREO with the same dimensions and behaviour as the real exoskeleton. Furthermore, this report will be focussed mainly in force simulation and the parametrization.

    The forces of the EKSOVest are generated by two different spring and by a high-pressure spring. To simulate these forces, the equation of these springs will be obtained and introduced in PTC CREO. These equations will be obtained through the regression of a set of points, which will be obtained from the real exoskeleton using a dynamometer. The parametrization will be carried out with the objective to make the virtual model adaptable for every type of mannequins. This parametrization will modify the length of the exoskeleton’s spine bar and the distance between the mechanical arms. These distances will be adapted according to the mannequin’s measures which will be introduced by the user. The measures that have to be introduced by the user are shoulder height, liac spine height, and chest width.

    In conclusion, it can be said that the regression of the springs obtained are an accurate result which can imitate quite well the forces of this exoskeleton. Furthermore, the results of the parametrization allow the exoskeleton adaptable to any type of dimensions that the mannequin could have. The final model obtained has been exported to IPS IMMA and implemented in a mannequin.

  • 94.
    Hurme, Mikko
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Railo, Henry
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    V1 activity during feedforward and early feedback processing is necessary for both conscious and unconscious motion perception2019In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 185, p. 313-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of blindsight has revealed a seminal dissociation between conscious vision and visually guided behavior: some patients who are blind due to V1 lesions seem to be able to employ unconscious visual information in their behavior. The standard assumption is that these findings generalize to the neurologically healthy. We tested whether unconscious processing of motion is possible without the contribution of V1 in neurologically healthy participants by disturbing activity in V1 using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Unconscious processing was measured with redundant target effect (RTE), a phenomenon where participants respond faster to two stimuli than to one stimulus, when the task is just to respond as fast as possible when one stimulus or two simultaneous stimuli are presented. We measured the RTE caused by a motion stimulus. V1 activity was interfered with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) to test whether TMS delivered in a specific time window suppresses conscious perception (participant reports seeing only one of the two stimuli) but does not affect unconscious processing (RTE). We observed that at each SOA, when TMS suppressed conscious perception of the stimulus, the RTE was also eliminated. However, when visibility of the redundant target was suppressed with a visual mask, we found unconscious processing of motion. This suggests that unconscious processing of motion depends on V1 in neurologically healthy humans. We conclude that the neural mechanisms that enable motion processing in blindsight are modulated by neuroplastic changes in connectivity between subcortical areas and the visual cortex after the V1 lesion. Neurologically healthy observers cannot process motion unconsciously without functioning of V1. 

  • 95.
    Hägglund, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Berglund, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    ROTORSAKSANALYS AV TIDIGARE 5S-ARBETE PÅ ETT TILLVERKANDE FÖRETAG I SKARABORG2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Cementa AB är ett företag som idag ingår i Heidelberg koncernen som är en stor aktör inom tillverkning av cement. Företagets anläggning i Skövde har som uppgift att implementera 5S i sina lokaler främst inom underhållsavdelningen. På grund av tidigare misslyckat försök har företaget inte lyckats att implementera 5S fullt ut i företaget men kommer 2017 att göra ett nytt försök för att kunna lyckas implementera 5S i verksamheten. Denna gång tar företaget in två studenter från Högskolan i Skövde vars uppgift blir att ta reda på varför den tidigare implementeringen misslyckades och vad som kan göras bättre vid ny 5S-implementering.Examensarbetet går ut på att genomföra en rotorsaksanalys av de tidigare försök av varför 5S inte lyckades drivas igenom på Cementas underhållsavdelning och eventuellt hur företagets operatörer och ledning bör jobba vidare för att lyckas med 5S-implementering och inte riskera att hamna i samma situation.Teorin som examensarbetet använder sig av stöds från hållbar utveckling och Lean-filosofin, med metoden 5S och slöseri. Teori om att lyckas med förbättringsarbeten tas med, för att kunna förklara hur förbättringsarbeten bör utformas och vilka viktiga delar som behöver finnas med för att lyckas med en ny metod eller ett arbetssätt inom en verksamhet.Metoderna som tillämpades var observationer, intervjuer med ledning, enkät med operatörer och en workshop. Alla resultat som studenterna fick från ledningen och operatörer sammanställdes och jämfördes mot teori för att se vilka orsaker som påverkade den tidigare misslyckade 5S-implementationen och hur nuläget ser ut för att kunna implementera 5S i verksamhetens underhållsavdelning.Resultatet sammanställdes och presenteras varför förbättringsarbetet med 5S misslyckades och vilka bidragande orsaker som avgjorde resultatet. Även vilka slöseri som kunde identifieras och dess negativa orsaker och påverkande faktorer på underhållsavdelningen redovisades.Det som framkommer av resultatet är att ledningen och operatörer har skilda åsikter som påverkar en 5S-implementering i nuläget. Men det finns även gemensamma åsikter som kan stödja en framtida 5S-implementering. Att påbörja en implementering utan kunskap om metoden skulle riskera ännu en misslyckad 5S-implementering i lokalerna.Det som påverkar är att inga tydliga mål har satts med vad verksamheten vill få ut av 5S. Andra faktorer var kunskap och brister om förståelse vad 5S är för något och hur arbetet ska bedrivas för att lyckas.Bristerna identifierades och förklaras i rapportens diskussionsdel där resultatet av studien kommenteras hur det har varit och vilka påverkande händelser som har lett till resultatet av arbetet på Cementa. Åtgärdsförslaget till fortsatta arbete för 5S på Cementa förklaras stegvis i rapporten, hur de skall jobba vidare med 5S och möjligheten att kunna nå målet dit hela företaget strävar efter att få komma. Förslaget är inspirerat av ett liknande företag som tillämpade en lyckad metod för sin 5S-implementering.

  • 96.
    Härström, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Gunnarson Ljungblom, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Optimering Scania DL: VICI Industri AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vici Industri AB är ett företag som tillverkar vipparmar vilket är en ingående komponent i förbränningsmotorer. Segmentet som företaget verkar inom är den tunga fordonsindustrin och de är leverantör åt bland annat Scania och Volvo. Scanias vipparmar tillverkas i en produktionsprocess som kallas Scania DL. Uppgiften som tilldelades syftade till att undersöka nuvarande kapacitet, ta fram valid simulering för att därigenom påvisa kostnadseffektiva åtgärder.

    Data som krävdes för att validera simulering fanns inte i dåvarande dagsläge och därför krävdes ett grundligt undersökande av produktionsprocessens kapacitet. Det genomfördes även för att påvisa de brister som fanns i nuläget. Flertalet produktionstekniska verktyg användes till analysering för att nå korrekt rotorsak och utifrån det togs förslag, till åtgärder att tillämpa, fram. Dessutom togs valid simulering fram som användes för att experimentera och påvisa effekten av de framtagna åtgärderna.

    Genom initial stopptidsuppföljning gick det bland annat att belysa att reaktionstiden stod för cirka 35 % av stopptiden. Dessutom framkom de stopporsaker med högst frekvens som stod för största delen av stopptiden. Efter analysering av orsaker och framtagna åtgärder visades en möjlighet att i genomsnitt öka output med cirka 10 %. Arbetet i sig har gett en möjlighet att lyfta fram de slöserier som förekommer i produktionsprocessen och med hjälp av det framföra förbättringspotential.

  • 97.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ergonomics Integration and User Diversity in Product2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Concideration of products' ergonomic qualitys is one important component for  successful product developement. Product designers engaged in the core activity of product developement need methods that support the consideration of ergonomics along with other product requirements. this thesis aims to adress these needs.

    The first part of the thesis investigates how people working within product developement organisations communicate with and about users of their products. The general need for methods to support communication of user aspects in product development is indentified trough formal interviews whith product developers and a review of the management, ergonomics and design litterature.

    The second part of the thesis studies the factors wich affect th integration of ergonomics in product design. Supportive methods, including User Characters, for evoking user concideration among designers together with Overlapping methods fos scheduling ergonomics evaluation in product design processes are introduced and argued.

    The third part of the thesis reviews an discusses computer aided ergonomics as a mens for integration of ergonomics in product design. A web-based support system for effective employment of human  simulation tools is developed using a participativa approach and evaluated based on the system's usability.

    The objective of the fourt part of the thesis is to study how human simulation tool can aid designers' consideration of human diversity  to accomodate users of diverse anthropometric characteristics in multivariate design problems such as automobile cockpits. The work involves the evaluation off different approaches for th egeneration of specific manikin families wich can be used as test groups for fitting trials in the virtual design process.

    The research demonstrates enchantments in design methodology knowledge to support integration of ergonomics in design product processes with a focus on anthopometric diversity in vehicledesign.

  • 98.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Basic Method for Handling Trivariate Normal Distributions in Case Definition for Design and Human Simulation2014In: Advances in Applied Digital Human Modeling, AHFE Conference , 2014, p. 27-40Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Case, Keith
    Loughborough University.
    Supporting 'Design for All' in Automotive Ergonomics2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry faces increasingly tough competition in a global market. One key for competitiveness is product differentiation, in order to attract clearly defined market segments. However, designing cars for specific customer groups incorporates the risk that a car appeals to only a small number of potential buyers. Another issue is that the actual customer group in many cases differs fromthe initially targeted customer group. The use of the ‘design for all’ (DfAll) concept may very well enlarge a car manufacturer’s market and improve the vehicles by making them suit larger populations. This paper discusses the aims of a research project that seeks to identify areas where both the main targeted customer group andothers can gain from a ‘design for all’ approach. Other objectives are to suggest working methods that enable ‘design for all’ in the automotive development process and the identification of computer tools, such as virtual manikins, that can support these objectives early in a virtual design process.

  • 100.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Case, Keith
    Loughborough University.
    De Vin, Leo J
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Overlapping Ergonomic Evaluation in the Automotive Design Process2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomic evaluation typically comes late in the automotive design process, often not performed until physical mock-ups are produced. This may lead to expensive and cumbersome iterations, or to reductions of the final product quality due to low priority of meeting set ergonomic requirements. Computer aided design (CAD) is intensively used for design in the automotive industry. Performance and usability of computers and software are improving at a rapid pace, which enables CAD to be employed even more intensively. This encourages a digital design process where expensive, inflexible and time consuming physical mock-ups are only built at the end of the design process. This incorporates the risk that ergonomic evaluation will be put back even further. A way to address this problem is to enable ergonomics to be evaluated in the digital design process - in a virtual product. However, in many cases, evaluation made in a physical prototype is unbeatable in establishing ergonomic conditions. This paper discusses possible advantages of moving ergonomic evaluation earlier in the automotive design process by implementing planned overlapping strategies. It also shows initial results from a project at a car company, which aims at improving ergonomics integration in the automotive design process, e.g. by looking at task overlapping. These strategies are believed to be applicable both for evaluations made in a virtual environment and evaluations performed in the real world.

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