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  • 51.
    Persson, Tina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Tjädern och skogsbruket: effekter av skogsbruket på tjäderlekplatser i norra Skaraborgs län2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) is one of the species of wood fowls with distribution in Europe and Russia. It is well adapted to a life in the northern coniferous forest area. The population of capercaillies has diminished considerably during the postwar period in the whole distribution area outside Russia, where it on the contrary has increased in number. Because of this increase the BirdLife International states the population as stable. The reasons for the decrease in the northern part of Europe are believed to emanate from different sources of which the changing methods in forestry during the second half of the 20th century seem to be one of the most important ones. Climate conditions and changed predacious pressure are other possible causes.

    In an attempt to observe the effects of the measures in forestry taken within the distribution areas of the mating grounds of the capercailzies, twelve sites in the northern county of Skaraborg, registered during the years 1990-1995, were again registered in spring 2005. The number of male birds today on these grounds has been compared to the number of earlier registrations. No mating ground shows an increase in the number of male birds and in five places the mating ground has been totally abandoned. Within the mating ground consisting of 300 hectares the acreage of different kinds of land has been measured. The analysis of the correlation between the use of the different kinds of land and the number of male birds has not given any significant results (p> 0,05). There is one significant correlation between lost numbers of male birds and the alter of the share of plantation (p<0,05). The reason why the male birds have disappeared and in other places have diminished in number could be the result of the increased effect of both the forestry measures taken and other factors. The size of the cutting area as well as the location in relation to the centre of the mating ground seems to be of importance in influencing the capercaillie. The knowledge of the mating grounds is therefore essential to the concerned parties in planning forestry measures in a considerate way. The capercaillie has high demands upon its environment with several different biotopes within its territory; its preference for old forests with a long continuity favors several other species, which thereby makes the capercaillie useful as a general covering species in the nature conservation work.

  • 52.
    Pettersson, Kristin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Naturvärdesbedömning av naturreservatet Blänkabacken, i Örebro kommun: Inventering av signalarter med fokus på mossor och lavar som indikerar höga naturvärden i skogsmiljöer.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 53.
    Ringdahl, Karolina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Växtsamhällets sammansättning i äldre genuina rikkärr jämfört med nybildade rikkärr2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay two young alkaline fens in Rustsäters limestone quarry are compared with two old genuine alkaline fens in the browsed wildlife preserve of Österplana hed and vall, in the municipality of Götene in Sweden. The compound and occurrence of plants in the two sites Brottet övre (Upper Quarry) and Brottet nedre (Lower Quarry) are the starting-point of comparison and discussions of how the sites can develop into genuine alkaline fens and what actions of management that would serve that purpose. Alkaline fens are important ecologically rich habitats that are threatened by diking and increased incidence of high growing herbs, bushes and trees. In Sweden there are examples of projects where historically alkaline fens have been restored by removing the upper vegetation and soil layer. The flora and fauna representative of alkaline fens re-establish in four to five years. It takes 20-30 years before the restored area looks like genuine alkaline fens. Knowledge of how new alkaline fens establish is inadequate. Species typical for alkaline fens was noted in all of the inventoried locales. Some species that signal a risk of unwanted high vegetation, that may shadow the other species, was registered in the quarry. This is an indication of that management and clearing may be necessary as well as further inventories in the two newer alkaline fens habitat in the quarry.

  • 54.
    Roubinet, Eve
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Malsher, Gerard
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Staudacher, Karin
    Mountain Agriculture Research Unit, Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Traugott, Michael
    Mountain Agriculture Research Unit, Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ekbom, Barbara
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    High Redundancy as well as Complementary Prey Choice Characterize Generalist Predator Food Webs in Agroecosystems2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 8054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food web structure influences ecosystem functioning and the strength and stability of associated ecosystem services. With their broad diet, generalist predators represent key nodes in the structure of many food webs and they contribute substantially to ecosystem services such as biological pest control. However, until recently it has been difficult to empirically assess food web structure with generalist predators. We utilized DNA-based molecular gut-content analyses to assess the prey use of a set of generalist invertebrate predator species common in temperate agricultural fields. We investigated the degree of specialization of predator-prey food webs at two key stages of the cropping season and analysed the link temperature of different trophic links, to identify non-random predation. We found a low level of specialization in our food webs, and identified warm and cool links which may result from active prey choice or avoidance. We also found a within-season variation in interaction strength between predators and aphid pests which differed among predator species. Our results show a high time-specific functional redundancy of the predator community, but also suggest temporally complementary prey choice due to within-season succession of some predator species.

  • 55.
    Roubinet, Eve
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Straub, Cory
    Biology Department, Ursinus College, Collegeville, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Staudacher, Karin
    Mountain Agriculture Research Unit, Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Traugott, Michael
    Mountain Agriculture Research Unit, Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ekbom, Barbara
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Additive effects of predator diversity on pest control caused by few interactions among predator species2015In: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 362-371Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Sargison, Neil D.
    et al.
    University of Edinburgh, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Midlothian, Scotland EH25 9RG, United Kingdom.
    Shahzad, Kashif
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Mazeri, Stella
    University of Edinburgh, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Midlothian, Scotland EH25 9RG, United Kingdom.
    Chaudhry, Umer
    University of Edinburgh, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Midlothian, Scotland EH25 9RG, United Kingdom.
    A high throughput deep amplicon sequencing method to show the emergence and spread of Calicophoron daubneyi rumen fluke infection in United Kingdom cattle herds2019In: Veterinary parasitology, ISSN 0304-4017, E-ISSN 1873-2550, Vol. 268, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of C. daubneyi infection in the United Kingdom has increased, but despite the potential for rumen flukes to cause production loss in ruminant livestock, understanding of their emergence and spread is poor. Here we describe the development of a method to explore the multiplicity of C. daubneyi infection and patterns of the parasite's emergence and spread, based on Illumina MiSeq deep sequencing of meta barcoded amplicons of a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mt-COX-1) locus. Our results show high levels of genetic diversity in 32 C. daubneyi populations derived from finished prime cattle consigned to slaughter from northern United Kingdom. The results are consistent with a single introduction of C. daubneyi infection to some of the farms where the cattle had been grazed during their lifetime and multiple introductions to most. The results illustrate the impact of high levels of animal movements in the United Kingdom, whereby multiple common mt-COX-1 haplotypes were identified in 26 populations in the absence of geographical clustering of clades. This has implications for the adaptability of environmental and intermediate host stages of the parasite to changing climatic and animal management conditions, or of parasitic stages to exposure to anthelmintic drugs; potentially allowing for greater pathogenicity, or the development of anthelmintic resistance, respectively.

  • 57.
    Sarvien, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Kan åtgärder av bristfälliga enskilda avlopp minska fosforhalten så att gränsvärdet för flodpärlmusslan (Margaritifera margaritifera) ej överskrids?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pearl mussel is a species that is threatened to become extinct. Today there are sustainable populations with an active recruitment in fewer than 50 flows in Canada, Northwest Russia and Northeast Scandinavia. In Skagersholmsån, Sweden, in a population of 4000 aging mussels no regeneration has been shown. In collaboration between Örebro County Board and Laxå municipality action has been taken to restore the habitats needed for the young mussels to survive and rejuvenate the population. Obstacles to migration, a major threat to the freshwater pearl mussel, need to be cleared away down to the outlet in Skagern. With the biggest threat removed, water quality has been investigated and measures to reduce phosphorus in Skagersholmsån prioritized.After the inventory and the prerequisite that property owners meet the demand for private sewers show that the effect of only addressing the individual drains in the relevant catchment area is not sufficient. The samples taken show a relationship between phosphorus and color number that both greatly exceed the limit the freshwater mussel requires for good living. This connection leads one to suspect that forestry accounts for the largest part of the current threat to the freshwater pearl mussel in the river of Skagersholm´s catchment area.

  • 58.
    Sjöholm, Amanda
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Vegetationsförändringar i Hornborgasjöns naturreservat: med fokus på restaureringems följder2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates vegetation changes in the nature reserve of Lake Hornborga between 1979 and 2010. Lowering of the surface of the lake had changed an important water reserve and nutritive salt trap into an overgrown fen and during the 80's a total pioneering restoration, perhaps the most important work of nature conservation of our time, was made. This study claims to answer if the restoration was successful and if its goals were reached.

    A current vegetation map for 2010 was created and adjusted in ArcGIS and this map was compared with a vegetation map of 1979. Vegetation areas were calculated to facilitate analyses between the maps. Large-scale vegetation changes have occurred between 1979 and 2010. Overgrown fenland with monoculture vegetation has been replaced by a more open landscape with a diversified growth and an open surface of water. The large extension of open surface and the disappearance of rush vegetation are two great surprises of the restoration. Thanks to a large-scale spread of underwater vegetation the aim of furthering birdlife could be reached despite the loss of rush vegetation. A new type of vegetation area has also been created, where  open water submerges dead vegetation, one of which is a biotope of dead marsh broadleaf trees, vital to many threatened species.

  • 59.
    Spak, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Sambandet mellan rastande sjöfåglar och undervattensvegetation i Hornborgasjön2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lake Hornborga is a shallow and nutrient-rich floodplain lake and is one of Sweden's most important stopover points for waterfowl. Every spring and autumn large quantities of migrating ducks and swans gather. Stoneworts (Chara spp) is the dominant underwater plant in the lake,but there are also spiked water-milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and various types of pondweed (Potamogeton spp) as common. The purpose of this study was to find out whether there is any relationship between the migrating waterfowl and the underwater vegetation found in Lake Hornborga. The results are derived from data from bird counts and inventories of underwatervegetation carried out between the years 1993-2015. Even waterfowl associated with abiotic factors such as water levels and precipitation was of interest to investigate. Previous studies have shown that water levels play a role in the availability of seabirds on food in lakes and wetlands. Higher levels of water for long periods make the feed probably less accessible to some bird species but benefit others. In the long run, this may also affect the amount and extent of underwater plants. Since water levels seem to play a role in the availability of food for some bird species, it was interesting to investigate whether the amount of precipitation during periods also has an effect on the amount of available food. Eight species of waterfowl that to some extent graze submerged vegetation and six vegetation types were included in the study. The results indicate that there is a significant correlation between the number of migrating waterfowl and underwater vegetation especially with stoneworts and pondweed. Mute Swan (Cygnusolor), tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), pochard (Aythya ferina), Gadwall (Anas strepera), and the coot (Fulica atra) were the species that showed the strongest relationship with the total percentage of underwater vegetation. No significant correlation between waterfowl and waterlevel or precipitation was found.

  • 60.
    Sunhede, Stellan
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Vedsvampar på ek: 15. Askticka (Perenniporia fraxinea)2008In: Ekbladet: medlemsskrift för Ekfrämjandet, ISSN 0283-4839, no 23, p. 31-34Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    Svensson, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Strukturer i grus- och sandtäkter som styr förekomsten av bibagge Apalus bimaculatus i Västra Götalands län2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report is an analysis of inventory data on apalus bimaculatus and colletes cunicularius from Länsstyrelsen in Västra Götalands County. Naturvårdsverket has designed a program for apalus bimaculatus because it is noted on the red list as near threatened (NT). Apalus bimaculatus is an orange beetle found in bare, sun-exposed, sandy areas where their host species colletes cunicularius live. Apalus bimaculatus live partly as a parasite in the site of colletes cunicularius. Only during the mating season, a few weeks in late March and early April, is apalus bimaculatus active above ground. This is the reason why it was an overlooked species in the Swedish beetle fauna until a few years ago. Today the species mainly live in gravel- and sandpits. Now when the use of gravel and sand decreases in favor to crushed rock the gravel- and sandpits as well as the species’ habitat is at risk to disappear. The report analyzes inventory data trying to find the structures in the pits that govern the existence of apalus bimaculatus and colletes cunicularius. Analyses were by regression trees, correlations and t-test. The most important explanatory factor for the existence of apalus bimaculatus in a pit was the presence of colletes cunicularius. To more efficiently find this difficult inventoried species in future surveys it may be a good idea to concentrate on looking for sites of colletes cunicularius.

  • 62.
    Säterberg, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Division of Theoretical Biology, Sweden / Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Yearsley, Jon
    University College Dublin, School of Biology & Environmental Science, Ireland / UCD Earth Institute, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Berg, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ebenman, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Division of Theoretical Biology, Sweden / Stockholm University, SRC, Sweden.
    A potential role for rare species in ecosystem dynamics2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, p. 1-12, article id 11107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecological importance of common species for many ecosystem processes and functions is unquestionably due to their high a bundance.Yet, the importance of rare species is much less understood. Here we take a theoretical approach, exposing dynamical models of ecological networks to small perturbations, to explore the dynamical importance of rare and common species. We find that both species types contribute to the recovery of communities following generic perturbations (i.e. perturbations affecting all species).Yet, when perturbations are selective (i.e. affects only one species), perturbations to rare species have the most pronounced effect on community stability. We show that this is due to the strong indirect effects induced by perturbations to rare species. Because indirect effects typically set in at longer timescales, our results indicate that the importance of rare species may be easily overlooked and thus underrated. Hence, our study provides a potential ecological motive for the management and protection of rare species.

  • 63.
    Wester, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Hur påverkas fisksamhällen av kemiska och fysikaliska faktorer: En jämförelse av fiskfauna mellan Tidaholm och Tibro2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I augusti år 2018 genomfördes två provfisken i ån Tidan på platserna Tibro och Tidaholm. Syftet med studien var att titta påom artdiversiteten skiljer sig mellan två olika och skilda lokaler i samma vattendrag. I studien diskuteras också vadlikheter och skillnaderi artsamhällenas sammansättning kanbero på. I studiengranskas artiklar,kemiska förutsättningar och bakgrundsfakta. Ibörjan av artikelnförklaras syftet och frågeställningarna som denna studien utgick ifrån. I metoden förklaras hur provfisketär genomfört och beräkningar som ligger till grund för denna studien. Tillvägagångsättetför att kunna genomföra en liknade studie eller en fortsättning av denna studieförklaras i texten. Resultaten presenterar skillnader i markanvändning och jämför artdiversiteten mellan lokalerna. I studienkan man läsa om hur markanvändningen skiljer sig mellan lokalerna och granskning av fångstdata genom olika diversitets index och chi square test. En diskussion som tas uppär markanvändningen och hur stor påverkan den har på vattendraget samt hur renhållning i vattendrag kan påverka mångfalden och göra ett vattendrag mer enahanda utan tydliga variationer och så vidare. Valet av platser som näten placerades på diskuteras samt fångsteffektiviteten avnäten och representationen av färna i Tidaholm diskuteras.Vattenmiljöer kan ha många olika utseende och fysiska och kemiska förutsättningar men vad är fiskars möjligheter att anpassa sig till dessa olika förhållanden. Fiskarter är i toppen av näringskedjan och bör visa på om något inte står rätt till i vattendraget men fiskar är också väldigt anpassningsbara och många arter trivs i en mängd olika miljöer. Många fiskarter kan man hitta i nästan alla svenska vatten och det gör det svårt att säga nått om deras favorithabitat men en avsaknad av dessa arter kan säga mycket om vattendraget,så en god mångfald är ett bra betyg för många vatten. Mängden speciella habitat är också ett gott betyg för ett vatten som strävar efter en stor mångfald, utan dessa habitat sjunker mångfalden och förutsättningarna för mer habitatkrävande arter kan möjligen försvinna.

  • 64.
    Åström, Stina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Bränning som alternativ skötselmetodi gräsmarker2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When the large-scale and nitrogen-intensive agriculture gained land many naturalpastures and meadows started to overgrow. This led to that many species dependent onopen land decreased or totally disappeared. To grow or re-colonize land many speciesneed some form of disturbance. Burning can be one of such disturbances. Burningincrease the light inlet and decrease the amount of nitrogen in the soil. Both of thesechanges will favor the open-land species.The aim of this study was to explore if burning could be a complement or alternative tograzing and mowing for preserving the biological diversity among plants in grasslands.The different kinds of grasslands that were inventoried include hard shoulders, meadows,field slopes and natural pastures. Both burned and control areas were inventoried at 11places. All of them were located in different habitats in Östergötland, Sweden.Three different diversity-indexes have been used to answer the question if diversity washigher on the burned areas than on the control surface. The result showed that both thediversity was higher and the distribution in species spread more evenly on the burnedareas. Species dependent on open land had a notably larger spreading on the burned areasthan on the control areas. This confirms the hypothesis that burning has a positive effecton open-land species and can be a complement or replacement for grazing or mowing inpreserving the biological diversity of plants in grasslands. The future care could bedifferent combinations of burning, grazing and mowing.To the conservation, this knowledge can have a great impact for both state and privatelandowners. Knowing that this method will favor the open-land species, more areas canbe burned. To burn, instead of mowing or grazing, can lead to that larger areas can havethe proper maintenance it requires, without changes in the financial budget of thelandowner.

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