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  • 51.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims at portraying interruptions in the socio-technical domain of manufacturing industry, from a distributed cognition perspective. The research problem addressed is the lack of naturalistic inquiry in prior interruption research. Further, manufacturing is a complex socio-technical domain where interruptions have not previously been studied. In this thesis, a workplace study is applied with distributed cognition as its theoretical framework. The results of the study identify two new types of interruptions, as well as one new dimension of interruptions. This result shows that interruptions are a multifaceted phenomenon that frequently occurs within manufacturing. An integration of the theoretical background and the empirical work resulted in five recommendations concerning how to reduce the amount of interruptions and how to minimize their disruptive effects. This study complements prior interruption research, emphasises the importance of studying interruptions in natural settings, and provides several insights regarding future interruption research.

  • 52.
    Angi-Lazar, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Self-Service Business Intelligence: Hantering av utmaningarna inom SSBI i praktiken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens affärsmiljöer är det kritiskt för organisationer att kunna ta del av sina affärsdata och använda denna för att fatta beslut och bli konkurrenskraftiga på arbetsmarknaden. Idag behöver människor i organisationer tillgång till data snabbare än någonsin vilket sätter en oerhört stor press på IT-avdelningen. Denna press gör att dem inte hinner med alla förfrågningar vilket leder till att dessa människor behöver få tillgång till och analysera data på egen hand för att fatta tidskritiska beslut. Denna miljö benämns self-service business intelligence (SSBI). Implementationen av SSBI visar sig vara svårare i praktiken än vad många organisationer räknar med då det finns många utmaningar. För att lyckas med SSBI är det kritiskt att organisationer lyckas hantera dessa utmaningar i praktiken. Denna studie besvarar frågan: ❖ Hur kan utmaningarna inom self-service BI hanteras i praktiken? Studien baseras på en litteraturanalys och en fallstudie med intervjuer för att undersöka hur erfarna människor i organisationer anser att dessa utmaningar kan hanteras i praktiken. Resultatet är en framtagen faktormodell som består av olika riktlinjer för hur respektive identifierad utmaning kan hanteras i praktiken.

  • 53.
    Aronsson, Claes
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Evolution of Neural Controllers for Robot Teams2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation evaluates evolutionary methods for evolving cooperative teams of robots. Cooperative robotics is a challenging research area in the field of artificial intelligence. Individual and autonomous robots may by cooperation enhance their performance compared to what they can achieve separately. The challenge of cooperative robotics is that performance relies on interactions between robots. The interactions are not always fully understood, which makes the designing process of hardware and software systems complex. Robotic soccer, such as the RoboCup competitions, offers an unpredictable dynamical environment for competing robot teams that encourages research of these complexities. Instead of trying to solve these problems by designing and implement the behavior, the robots can learn how to behave by evolutionary methods. For this reason, this dissertation evaluates evolution of neural controllers for a team of two robots in a competitive soccer environment. The idea is that evolutionary methods may be a solution to the complexities of creating cooperative robots. The methods used in the experiments are influenced by research of evolutionary algorithms with single autonomous robots and on robotic soccer. The results show that robot teams can evolve to a form of cooperative behavior with simple reactive behavior by relying on self-adaptation with little supervision and human interference.

  • 54.
    Aronsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Identifiering av kritiska problem vid implementering av ERP-system ur ett leverantörsperspektiv: En identifiering av bidragande faktorer till misslyckade implementeringsprocesser av affärssystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the ERP system has been a key factor in successful information management and served as a foundation for many corporate organizations. Implementing a new business system is a complex process, which leads organizations having difficulties implementing the process. Implementation of business systems involves combining previously separated systems focusing on providing a more complete information resource for an organization. ERP systems accelerated during the millennium shift y2k, and many companies at the time had difficulties to implement the systems with a positive end result. Eighteen years later, the problem remains, despite the fact that ERP systems have evolved and businesses become more knowledgeable in the field. This shows a study from Panorama Consulting (2017) where it was found that 26 percent of companies failed with implementation. 74 percent exceed budget and 59 percent passed the intended schedule. To find a solution to the problem, most researchers have conducted studies focusing on identifying the negative contributing factors in ERP implementation. These factors are called "Critical failure factors". There is currently a lack of empirical research where information has been gathered from ERP providers. The research found is based on old theories for which factors contribute positively and negatively to an implementation process. These theories are being used by most researchers in their studies regarding the implementation of the ERP system. This study therefore focuses on ERP suppliers' perspectives on negative contributing factors in implementing ERP systems. Major emphasis has been placed on collecting factors from ERP providers in order that at a later stage in the study they can address the factors mentioned in previous studies to find relationships and possible deviations. The study used interviews as data collection method and five interviews have been conducted with experienced ERP providers. The result of the collected material from ERP providers identifies a number of critical factors that can be linked to factors from previous studies. Interestingly, the study also identified a number of factors that differ from previous studies. The conclusions that can be deduced from the study are that the implementation processes can be improved and become significantly more efficient with the help of the new insight into the problems that the ERP providers lifts up. Awareness of these negative contributing factors in implementing an ERP system contributes knowledge in the field of implementation processes, which in turn can be used by companies and individuals to facilitate and prevent the problems that may arise in such a process.

  • 55.
    Ask, Lena
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Informationssäkerhet i datorjournal: en studie med användaren i fokus2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom vårdområdet hanteras en stor mängd känslig information och den bör finnas tillgänglig utan organisatoriska hinder. Många vårdanställda får snabbare och enklare tillgång till information genom informationsteknik (IT), men IT ställer även nya krav på medvetandet om informationssäkerhet.

    Den i detta arbete studerade litteraturen menar att användarna är den största orsaken till att brister uppkommer i informationssäkerheten. Det kan bland annat förebyggas genom upprättande av informationssäkerhetspolicy samt genom att ge information till och utbilda användaren vid införande av informationssystem.

    Syftet med arbetet var att fastställa hur användare av datorjournaler påverkas av kraven på informationssäkerhet och hur användarna påverkar informationssäkerheten. Vidare var syftet att ta reda på om de rekommendationer som Datainspektionen gett ut efterföljs av användarna. Observationer och intervjuer med vårdpersonal har legat till grund för att uppnå arbetets resultat. Resultatet av observationerna och intervjuerna visar att användaren fortfarande bidrar till att det finns brister i informationssäkerheten genom att in- och utloggningsfunktionen inte stödjer personalens arbetssätt. Resultatet visar också en tydlig tendens till att information och utbildning om informationssäkerhet bör ges regelbundet till användarna för att en medvetenhet om informationssäkerhet ska uppnås. Personalen bör även få möjlighet att diskutera och repetera handhavande av datorjournalsystem samt hantering av känslig information.

  • 56.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Analysis of manufacturing supply chains using system dynamics and multi-objective optimization2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chains are in general complex networks composed of autonomous entities whereby multiple performance measures in different levels, which in most cases are in conflict with each other, have to be taken into account. Hence, due to the multiple performance measures, supply chain decision making is much more complex than treating it as a single objective optimization problem. Thus, the aim of the doctoral thesis is to address the supply chain optimization problem within a truly Pareto-based multi-objective context and utilize knowledge extraction techniques to extract valuable and useful information from the Pareto optimal solutions. By knowledge extraction, it means to detect hidden interrelationships between the Pareto solutions, identify common properties and characteristics of the Pareto solutions as well as discover concealed structures in the Pareto optimal data set in order to support managers in their decision making. This aim is addressed through the SBO-framework where the simulation methodology is based on system dynamics (SD) and the optimization utilizes multi-objective optimization (MOO). In order to connect the SD and MOO software, this doctoral thesis introduced a novel SD and MOO interface application which allow the modeling and optimization applications to interact. Additionally, this thesis work also presents a novel SD-MOO methodology that addresses the issue of curse off dimensionality in MOO for higher dimensional problems and with the aim to execute supply chain SD-MOO in a computationally cost efficient way, in terms of convergence, solution intensification and accuracy of obtaining the Pareto-optimal front for complex supply chain problems. In order to detect evident and hidden structures, characteristics and properties of the Pareto-optimal solutions, this work utilizes Parallel Coordinates, Clustering and Innovization, which are three different types of tools for post-optimal analysis and facilitators of discovering and retrieving knowledge from the Pareto-optimal set. The developed SD-MOO interface and methodology are then verified and validated through two academic case studies and a real-world industrial application case study. While not all the insights generated in these application studies can be generalized for other supply-chain systems, the analysis results provide strong indications that the methodology and techniques introduced in this thesis are capable to generate knowledge to support academic SCM research and real-world SCM decision making, which to our knowledge cannot be performed by other methods.

  • 57.
    Aspehed, Anne-Marie
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Ger användarnas delaktighet vid förändringsarbete ökad acceptans: vilken påverkan har användbarhet och lättanvändhet2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka vilka faktorer som påverkat acceptansen hos användare, inom den kommunala verksamheten, vid införande av ett datoriserat system. Med acceptans menas att användarna ska kunna utföra sina arbetsuppgifter på ett bra och lätt sätt. Studien har gjorts utifrån användarnas perspektiv.

    Genom att genomföra en intervjuundersökning på ett flertal kommuner där användarna använder systemet Vabas/Duf, har undersökts hur användarnas upplevda acceptans påverkas av faktorerna delaktighet, användbarhet och lättanvändhet, vid införande av ett datoriserat system. Delaktigheten vid införandet av ett system innefattar även information och utbildning.

    Resultatet från undersökningen visade att delaktigheten ökade användarnas acceptans. Ingen avgörande slutsats kunde däremot dras mellan acceptans och faktorerna användbarhet och lättanvändhet, då resultatet från de båda grupperna inte visade någon märkbar skillnad.

  • 58.
    Asplund, Emil
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Integration av affärssystem och e-handelssystem2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar ett tämligen outforskat delområde inom elektroniskt handel, nämligen integration av affärssystem och e-handelssystem. Huvudfrågan i denna rapport går ut på att undersöka hur företag har integrerat sitt affärssystem med sitt e-handelssystem. För att besvara huvudfrågan delades den upp i tre delfrågor. Dessa sökte besvara dels på vilken nivå inom Enterprise Application Integration som företagen hade integrerat systemen, dels vilka integrationstekniker företagen använder för att integrera systemen samt dels vilka effekter integrationen medfört för företagen. För att besvara problemställningen utfördes telefonintervjuer med fyra företag. Resultatet av undersökningen var att samtliga företag hade integrerat på Enterprise Application Integrations datanivå, vilket även var den nivå de hade börjat med att integrera. De integrationstekniker som användes varierade. Det var dock inte särskilt vanligt att använda nyare integrationstekniker. Integrationen medförde genomgående positiva effekter för företagen, även om vissa problem kvarstod. Inga större nya problem uppkom dock.

  • 59.
    Asthorsson, Kjartan
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Evaluation of view maintenance with complex joins in a data warehouse environment2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Data warehouse maintenance and maintenance cost has been well studied in the literature. Integrating data sources, in a data warehouse environment, may often need data cleaning, transformation, or any other function applied to the data in order to integrate it. The impact on view maintenance, when data is integrated with other comparison operators than defined in theta join, has, however, not been closely looked at in previous studies.

    In this study the impact of using a complex join in data warehouse environment is analyzed to measure how different maintenance strategies are affected when data needs to be integrated using other comparison operators than defined in a theta join. The analysis shows that maintenance cost is greatly increased when using complex joins since such joins often lack optimization techniques which are available when using a theta join. The study shows, among other things, that the join aware capability of sources is not of importance when performing complex joins, and incremental view maintenance is better approach than using recomputed view maintenance, when using complex joins. Strategies for maintaining data warehouses when data is integrated using a complex join are therefore different than when a theta join is used, and different maintenance strategies need to be applied.

  • 60.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Chou, Chien
    Institute of Education, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan.
    Digital Citizenship: Innovations in Education, Practice, and Pedagogy2018In: Educational Technology & Society, ISSN 1176-3647, E-ISSN 1436-4522, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 3p. 152-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are still disparities in technology-access despite economic pressures and widespread promises to overcome them. The induced digital gap defines the degree of digital citizenship for which, unified policies have yet to be drawn at various educational levels to reduce that gap. The quest for a broad participation to develop digital citizenship competencies needs further investigations into innovative educational approaches, pedagogical methods, and routine practices that foster digital literacy, and narrows the digital divide. This special issue accumulates original theoretical and empirical research contributions across contemporary digital citizenship perspectives. The final selection of the papers explores digital citizenship concepts such as ethics, digital literacy and participation, in various contexts to develop opportunities for a wider engagement in social actions. The international perspectives of contributing authors shed lights on digital citizenship prospects across unique contexts among different nations. 

  • 61.
    Augustsson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Varför väljer företag/organisationer att använda en Application Service Provider (ASP)?2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Outsourcing är en företeelse som, trots att den egentligen är relativt gammal, fått sitt genombrott under 1990-talet. En Application Service Provider (ASP) är en ny typ av företag som bygger vidare på konceptet för outsourcing. Genom att anlita en ASP kan ett företag/organisation få tillgång till applikationer utan att behöva köpa licenser eller hårdvara.

    Det finns flera anledningar till att ett företag/organisation väljer att använda sig av ASP. Genom att intervjua företag/organisationer som använder ASP har en undersökning gjorts om vilka anledningar, så kallade faktorer, som varit avgörande då beslutet att anlita en ASP togs. Utgångspunkten för undersökningen har varit anledningar som ASP-marknaden och dess analytiker menar är orsaker till att ASP väljs. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att de faktorer företagen uppgett varit avgörande för beslutet att anlita en ASP i stor utsträckning överensstämmer med de kända anledningar ASP-marknaden och dess analytiker presenterat.

  • 62.
    Augustsson, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Argumentera för den agila metoden: Att stärka argumentationen till beställaren i förespråkandet av agil projektmetodik2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet är att identifiera svårigheter med att argumentera för den agila projektmetodiken till en beställare. Arbetet har även till syfte att ge rekommendationer på hur en organisation kan stärka sin argumentation för den agila metoden ut mot beställaren. För att uppnå arbetets syfte har den kvalitativ forskningsintervju och en litteraturgenomgång tillämpats. Resultatet visade att svårigheterna är att alla yrkesroller internt inom organisationen inte har en och samma definition över vad den agila metoden innebär. Den nuvarande agila modellen ansågs också av flertalet respondenter inte vara tillräckligt utarbetad. Det behövs utbildning, engagemang och en skräddarsydd prissättningsmodell som är anpassad efter den agila metoden för att stärka argumentationen om val av den agila projektmetodiken.

  • 63.
    Aulenius, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Användandet av IT-strategi, för- och nackdelar.2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Informationsteknik (IT) är en marknad som förändras snabbt. Att investera i IT kan därför vara kritiskt. Att ha en strategi för hur satsningar på IT ska göras kan minska risken för felinvesteringar på IT men strategin kan även ge andra fördelar. Att ha en IT-strategi innebär dock inte automatiskt att den ger fördelar. IT-strategin bör även användas. Det finns nämligen organisationer som har en IT-strategi men som inte använder den. Det viktiga är inte att ha en IT-strategi utan snarare hur den används.

    Syftet med studien är att berika kunskapen om hur en IT-strategi bör användas samt att ge en bild av vilka för- och nackdelar användandet av en IT-strategi kan ge. För att kunna erhålla kunskap om detta har intervjuer med organisationer som har en IT-strategi genomförts. Resultatet visar på att en IT-strategi bör användas som underlag vid diskussion för att bidra med hjälp till problemlösning. IT-strategin bör inte ses som en problemlösare i sig. Vidare visar resultatet att användandet av en IT-strategi kan ge nackdelar, men att det inte gör det för de intervjuade organisationerna. Däremot visar resultatet att användandet av en IT-strategi ger en del fördelar. Fördelar i form av att det blir ett stöd i arbetet, det ger en tydlighet, det underlättar beslutsprocessen samt att det skapar säkrare investeringar på IT.

  • 64.
    Axelsson, Peter
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Hur kan XML underlätta e-handel?2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har inriktats mot XML och dess användning på Internet. Frågeställningen lyder: "Kan underhållet av presenterad information på WWW förbättras eller förenklas med hjälp av XML för ett e-handelsföretag?" Det som förväntades av detta arbete är att se om XML kan ersätta HTML och underlätta för personalen vid uppdateringar av e-handelsplatsen. Bakgrunden till arbetet är att underhållet av en webbhandelsplats i dagens läge kräver mycket manuellt arbete och kostar mycket pengar. Går det att minska det manuella arbetet kan pengar sparas. Till grund för arbetet ligger en litteraturstudie.

    Kortfattat var resultatet följande:

    ·Kraven på serverprestanda kan sänkas m.h.a. XML.

    ·Tiden som läggs på uppdateringar av innehåll och utseende av webbplatser kan minskas.

    ·Kopplingen mellan befintligt affärssystem och webbhandelplats kan förenklas.

    ·Svaret på problemformuleringen är ja. XML ger ovan nämnda förbättringar och detta motiverar till att byta från ett HTML-baserat system till ett XML-baserat.

  • 65.
    Backlund, Alexander
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    CASE-verktyg och hypertext: att hantera anteckningar1998Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete har jag försökt att besvara frågan om hur hypertext kan nyttjas för att förbättra hanteringen av anteckningar i UCASE-verktyg. Detta har inte minst varit motiverat av de goda erfarenheter andra forskare har haft av CASE-verktyg med hypertextfunktionalitet.

    För att kunna besvara frågan har jag först utarbetat ett ramverk med krav på hanteringen av anteckningar i CASE-verktyg utifrån bl. a. anteckningarnas och dokumentationens roll i systemutvecklingsprocessen.

    Detta ramverk har sedan använts för att utvärdera två UCASE-verktygs hantering av anteckningar. Utifrån denna utvärdering har sedan möjliga förbättringar föreslagits.

    Som ett resultat av detta har jag funnit att det sannolikt finns vissa brister i UCASE-verktygs hantering av anteckningar. Inte minst förefaller möjligheten att koppla anteckningar till andra anteckningar och objekt i modeller att vara begränsad. Jag har därför föreslagit att sådan funktionalitet ska införas med hjälp av hypertext.

  • 66.
    Backlund, Alexander
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    The Application of Living Systems Theory to the Analysis of Organisations1999Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Living systems theory provides a conceptual model the use of which might help to improve the understanding of an organisation and its problems, thus helping analysts to find solutions to these problems. A method to guide the application of living systems theory to the analysis of organisations is needed. In this work, a number of methods based on living systems theory are analysed, and a method for analysing organisations that consists of nine steps based on fundamental living systems theory concepts and, to some extent, the aforementioned methods is proposed. The steps of the method range from the initial problem, i. e. the reason to undertake the analysis, to the evaluation of the final solution. The method is iterative - the analyst will have to go back and forth between the steps of the method - and is also supposed to be continually applied. Together with this method a number of description techniques are proposed. Several of these description techniques are graphical, which will hopefully enhance readability and maintainability.

  • 67.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Introducing New IT Project Management Practices: a Case Study2004In: AMCIS 2004 Proceedings, 2004, p. 784-792Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of information systems development (ISD) projects calls for improved project management practices. This, together with an endeavor to improve the success rate of ISD projects, has served as drivers for various efforts in process improvement such as the introduction of new development methods. An ISD method may be perceived as a means for managing projects. Commercial development methods are typically combined with in-house methods for managing parts of the development process. In this paper we investigate in what way in-house methods and commercial methods are combined and used in an ISD project. In order to get a better understanding for how these issues are actually dealt with in the daily work, we have followed a project with a focus on how the group and the individuals implement the managerial decision to introduce a new development method.

  • 68.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    The Use of Patterns in Information System Engineering2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this dissertation are to investigate the use and usefulness of patterns in Information Systems Engineering and to identify future areas of research. In order to do this there is a need to survey different types of patterns and find a common concept of patterns. A pattern is based on experience found in the real world. A text or a model or a combination of the both can describe the pattern. A pattern is typically described in terms of context, forces, problem, and solution. These can be explicitly expressed or implicitly found in the description of the pattern.

    The types of patterns dealt with are: object-oriented patterns; design patterns, analysis patterns; data model patterns; domain patterns; business patterns; workflow patterns and the deontic pattern. The different types of patterns are presented using the authors' own terminology.

    The patterns described in the survey are classified with respect to different aspects. The intention of this analysis is to form a taxonomy for patterns and to bring order into the vast amount of patterns. This is an important step in order to find out how patterns are used and can be used in Information Systems Engineering. The aspects used in the classification are: level of abstraction; text or model emphasis; product or process emphasis; life cycle stage usage and combinations of these aspects.

    Finally an outline for future areas of research is presented. The areas that have been considered of interest are: patterns and Information Systems Engineering methods; patterns and tools (tool support for patterns); patterns as a pedagogical aid; the extraction and documentation of patterns and patterns and novel applications of information technology. Each future area of research is sketched out.

  • 69.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Heldal, Ilona
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Collaboration Patterns in Mixed Reality Environments for a New Emergency Training Center2013In: Proceedings UKSim-AMSS Seventh European Modelling Symposium on Computer Modelling and Simulation EMS2013, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 483-488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training actors from public safety agencies (PSA), e.g. emergency medical services, fire departments, police departments involves different technologies and communication and collaboration activities. New technologies promise better support, not only for training, but also for logging relevant information for future analysis and learning. However, choosing the right technologies, defining proper set-ups for the training activities, and identifying premises for long-term use of technical facilities is both difficult and time consuming. Applying earlier lessons from evaluating work in Virtual Environments (VEs) [1], our aim is to develop a better understanding of the impact of new technologies by identifying collaboration patterns influencing training. Collaboration is examined via social, technical, and task related interaction, distinguishable in the different phases of training, from starting an alarm to ending the emergency activities. Our main results illustrate the benefits of (1) building scenarios, and training whole activity chains for certain rescue or other emergency activities, (2) using simulations for better understanding physical places, the task, and (3) distinguishing technical, social and task focused characteristics for factors influencing emergency focused collaboration. Moreover, the results also contribute to understanding the benefits of considering specific simulation technologies when training for emergency and rescue activities.

  • 70.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Jonasson, Ingi
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Patterns as a means for managing knowledge in the information systems engineering process2002In: Proceedings of the Baltic Conference, BalticDB&IS 2002, Institute of Cybernetics at Tallin Technical University , 2002, p. 15-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Wangler, Benkt
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Toms, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ontology driven business processes integration – a position paper2004In: Proceedings of the CAiSE*04 workshops: Enterprise Modelling and Ontologies for Interoperability, 2004, p. 280-283Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Batofi, Sardar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Grafiska Designens verkan på högskolestudenter gällande tilliten till nyhets webbplatser: Denna rapport handlar om hur den grafiska designen på en nyhets webbplats påverkar Högskolestudenters tillit till webbplatsen, och hur det påverkar trovärdigheten på artiklar som återfinns på webbplatsen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This review is about how the graphic design on a news site influences college students' trust towards the site and how it affects the credibility to the articles from the student's perspective. The review was conducted on the basis of a triangular research method. A quantitative and a qualitative method was used, the collection techniques used during the review were a survey and interviews. The purpose of the survey was to understand what factors affect users' trust in a news site and article credibility. The motivation for this review is that truthless news are spread across social media and that many people do not realize that the news is truthless and choose to share it with their circle on social media. This is something that needs to be processed and fixed. 

  • 73.
    Beischer, Martin
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Kvalitet Konceptuella Modeller: ett ramverk1999Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet handlar om konceptuella modeller. En modell är en abstraktion av en vald del av verkligheten i vilken det är möjligt att fokusera på och lyfta fram det som anses viktigt och bortse från det som inte är viktigt. En konceptuell modell är en sådan abstraktion av ett informationssystem.

    De konceptuella modellerna är de modeller som ska ligga till grund för design och implementation av informationssystemet, men de ska också ligga till grund för diskussion med övriga intressenter till det kommande informationssystemet. Detta ställer stora krav på de konceptuella modellerna eftersom de både måste vara avancerade nog för att ligga till grund för designen och implementationen och enkla nog för att kunna ligga till grund för diskussion med intressenterna. Att denna tvådelade inriktning krävs beror oftast på att de flesta intressenter inte har lika stor kunskap inom detta område som de experter som har tagit fram och dessutom arbetar med de konceptuella modellerna.

  • 74.
    Benaissa, Samir
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Hitta en metod som stöd vid mätning av konsekvenser vid driftstopp i ett företags eller organisations kritiska IT-system.2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens företag och organisationer blir alltmer beroende av informations- och kommunikationsteknologi. Att använda IT-stöd är ett måste för att klara av den hårda konkurrens som råder på marknaden. IT är för de allra flesta företag ett viktigt hjälpmedel. IT är av stor betydelse vid lagerstyrning, leverantörsanalyser, beställningssystem, produktionsstyrning, orderbehandling, datorstödd konstruktion, ruttplanering och projektplanering. I och med införsel av IT ökar sårbarheten på företaget och organisationer avsevärt. Därmed blir företag och organisationer alltmer sårbara vid driftstopp i dessa IT-stöd.

    Organisationer och företag vet oftast vad som händer och vilka avdelningar som påverkas vid ett driftstopp men inte hur de ska mäta konsekvenserna, exempelvis förluster i tid eller pengar.

    Detta arbete bygger på en undersökning som gjorts genom en fallstudie där intervjuer använts som teknik för att samla information. Totalt femton intervjuer har genomförts på två företag. Resultatet av undersökningen visar en framtagen metod som stöd vid mätning av konsekvenser vid driftstopp i ett företags eller organisations kritiska IT-system. Sammanfattningsvis innebär den framtagna metoden nya möjligheter inte bara för att mäta konsekvenser av driftstopp utan även möjligheten att kunna följa upp förändringar som görs i system, kunna jämföra olika system sinsemellan eller att kunna föra statistik på frekvensen kring antalet driftstopp samt kunna se hur allvarliga driftstoppen är grafiskt. Genom att göra schablonmässiga mallar för olika konsekvenser t.ex. olika typer av kostnader går dessa att integrera i metoden för att få fram olika typer av kostnader.

  • 75.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Transaktionshantering i RDB2 V0.9711997Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten belyser arbetet med att välja ut en transaktionsstrategi för RDB2 version 0.97. Arbetet med att välja ut denna transaktionsstrategi fokuseras på de två strategierna tvåfaslåsning samt tidsstämpelalgoritm.

    Ett flertal varianter av dessa transaktionsstrategier har identifierats, vilka sammanbinder olika för och nackdelar hos strategierna. De egenskaper som en transaktionsstrategi bör uppfylla för att väljas är:

    att lösa verifierings problemen: förlorade uppdateringar, temporära uppdateringar, felaktiga summeringar samt upprepade läsoperationer

    att vara fri från deadlocks

    att ha en acceptabel effektivitet nivå,

    att möjliggöra testning av problemen ovan, dvs användar initierade transaktioner skall vara möjligt att införa.

    Den strategi som valdes var en variant av tvåfaslåsning, nämligen multiversion. Denna variant löser inte problemet med förlorade uppdateringar men samtliga övriga verifieringsproblem. Varianten skulle, enligt [EN94], vara fri från deadlock, detta visades vara ett tvivelaktigt påstående. I avseende på effektivitet ansågs denna multiversion tvåfaslåsning vara en av de effektivaste av de tillgängliga varianterna, dessutom finns det möjlighet att implementera användar initierade transaktioner vilket möjliggör testning av verifierings problemen praktiskt.

    Då det inte lyckades att fullständigt integrera transaktionsstrategin i RDB2 V0.97 fanns det ingen möjlighet att testa dessa påståenden praktiskt. Denna testning skedde då endast på en teoretisk nivå, där resultaten visades vara goda.

    Slutsaten av detta projekt var att denna metod var den mest lämpade att integrera i RDB2 V0.97, då detta inte kunde verifieras praktiskt.

  • 76.
    Bengtsson, Erik
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Analoga representationer vid verksamhetsbeskrivningar1997Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag påpekas mer och mer att användaren skall vara delaktig vid utvecklandet av in-formationssystem. Ett systemutvecklingsprojekt kan generellt sägas ha ett antal faser: En förstudie, en genomförandedel och någon form av efterarbete. Fokus i denna rap-port riktas mot förstudien där det görs en analys av problemdomänen. Eftersom beslut som tas i senare delar av projektet är väldigt beroende av hur väl problemdomänen är beskriven är det viktigt att mycket tid läggs ned på att se till att denna beskrivning är korrekt. För att kunna beskriva problemdomänen har systemutvecklaren en mängd beskrivningstekniker till sin hjälp. En typiskt beskrivningsteknik är uppbyggd av ett antal rektanglar, cirklar, romboider etc som kan vara svåra för en lekman att lära sig och förstå. När problemdomänen är beskriven måste användaren verifiera att detta är korrekt gjort. Om användaren inte är väl insatt i hur beskrivningsteknikerna är upp-byggda får denne svårt att göra en korrekt verifiering. Denna rapport diskuterar huru-vida en beskrivningsteknik uppbyggd på analoga representationer kan vara mer för-delaktig än en traditionell (symbolisk) beskrivningsteknik. En minnestest har utförts, med målet att undersöka om analoga representationer underlättar förståelse i jämförel-se med symboliska representationer. Innan försöket genomfördes gjordes ett antagan-de att förståelse och minne har ett starkt samband. Testet misslyckades med att visa någon signifikant skillnad mellan symboliska och analoga representationer. Orsaken till försökets utfall diskuteras i de senare delarna av rapporten.

  • 77.
    Berg, Jonas
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Distansarbete: räcker lagstiftningen/krävs avtal?1998Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar distansarbete som arbetsform. Inriktningen på rapporten är hur den svenska lagstiftningen och avtal kan används vid arbetsformen. Rapporten inleds med en genomgång av begreppet distansarbete och de olika former av distansarbete som finns. Vad rapporten avser med distansarbete är att en arbetstagare arbetar hemma hel- eller deltid med stöd av data- och telekommunikation. Arbetstagaren arbetar med en uppkoppling mot företaget, där han eller hon kan hämta och skicka information.

    Vidare går rapporten igenom fakta som berör frågeställningar som; vilka kan arbeta hemma?, vilka personliga förutsättningar underlättar för att arbeta på distans?, vilka är motiven för att företag inför distansarbete?.

    Argument som är för och emot distansarbete tas upp. Argumenten är uppdelade i fördelar och nackdelar för den enskilde individen och företaget. Det följer också en diskussion om hur samhället påverkas av att människor börjar att arbeta på distans.

    Den problemformulering och de frågeställningar som rapporten behandlar är:

    - Hur kan den befintliga lagstiftningen användas vid arbetsformen distansarbete?

    - Vad säger lagen om distansarbete?

    - Vilka lagar berörs av arbetsformen?

    - Vad säger fackföreningarna om distansarbete?

    - Vad kan behöva regleras genom avtal mellan arbetstagare och arbetsgivare?

    Det följer en redovisning över vilka möjliga metoder det finns för att lösa frågeställningarna. Jag valde att söka information genom en litteraturstudie samt med intervjuer. Intervjuundersökningen genomfördes för att få fram fackföreningarnas uppfattning om distansarbete som arbetsform.

    Vidare följer en analysdel där jag analyserar de fakta jag fått fram genom litteraturstudien och intervjuerna. Analysdelen bearbetar en lag i taget och till sist fackföreningarnas åsikter om distansarbete.

    Mina slutsatser av examensarbetet är att den lagstiftning som nu reglerar distansarbete som arbetsform kan användas. Det finns luckor i lagstiftningen som behöver regleras med avtal mellan arbetsgivare och arbetstagare. Anledningen till att luckorna finns är att lagstiftningen är skriven för en arbetstagare med fast arbetstid, fast arbetsplats och kan kontrolleras av arbetsgivaren.

  • 78.
    Bergfeldt, Niclas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hansson, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Evolutionary pressure on developing simple languages2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for studying the origin and development of language has increased greatly in the last decades. For a language to be developed the production and understanding of it must co evolve, otherwise the users will not be able to understand each other. Here, we show that the co-evolution of language production and understanding promotes the development of an efficient language, where the efficiency is measured in terms of number of symbols needed to transmit a message and distinguish it from other possible messages. We also show how agents evolve a very simple language in order to solve the task at hand, even though the simplicity is never enforced in any way.

  • 79.
    Bergfeldt, Niklas
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Cooperative Robotics: A Survey2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation aims to present a structured overview of the state-of-the-art in cooperative robotics research. As we illustrate in this dissertation, there are several interesting aspects that draws attention to the field, among which 'Life Sciences' and 'Applied AI' are emphasized. We analyse the key concepts and main research issues within the field, and discuss its relations to other disciplines, including cognitive science, biology, artificial life and engineering. In particular it can be noted that the study of collective robot behaviour has drawn much inspiration from studies of animal behaviour. In this dissertation we also analyse one of the most attractive research areas within cooperative robotics today, namely RoboCup. Finally, we present a hierarchy of levels and mechanisms of cooperation in robots and animals, which we illustrate with examples and discussions.

  • 80.
    Bergfeldt, Niklas
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Överföring av program från värddator till målmiljö1999Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete tar upp olika överföringstekniker för att uppdatera ett program på en målmiljö. De tre överföringstekniker som analyseras är moduluppdelning, patchning och komprimering. En litteraturstudie har genomförts för att ta fram för- och nackdelar med de olika teknikerna och för att beskriva hur de fungerar. En praktisk applicering av överföringsteknikerna har även gjorts på ett specifikt PLC-system för att se vad dessa kan göra för uppdateringstiden i denna miljö. Resultatet av arbetet visade att moduluppdelning är att föredra i de fall där uppdelning av programmet är möjlig. Patchning är däremot mest lämpad då varje uppdatering av programmet är mycket liten och det således inte skiljer mycket mellan de olika versionerna av programmet. Komprimering är att föredra då det ofta är frågan om stora modifieringar i programmet eftersom komprimering ger en näst intill konstant vinst sett ur procentuell synvinkel, även om denna vinst endast är runt 50%.

  • 81.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University.
    Using a mixed-methods assessment approach in a gaming-simulation environment to increase resilience2018In: Proceedings of the 36th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE 2018), ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 1-4, article id 20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures for fuel, food, transport and the payment system become inceasingly entangled. Disruptions in the payment system can quickly lead to cascading effects and even the responses of actors in the various sectors are interrelated, which can cause escalation if the collaborative responses are not well-aligned. Our contribution to the track of Human Factors and simulation discusses how gaming-simulation can be used as a training environment where groups of practitioners can learn to develop in-depth understanding of system behaviour (i.e. cascading effects of disruptions) and learn how to develop collaborative resilience across many different critical infrastructures. More specifically, our paper focuses on the development and application of a mixed-methods assessment approach in the simulation-game. The assessment method captures qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of resilience and team-work. It can be used to assess the value of our simulation-game and to increase insight in what collective resilience actually implies.

  • 82.
    Bergman, Stig
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Användarmedverkan inom systemutveckling1998Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användarmedverkan inom systemutveckling står för att användaren av olika artefakter antas medverka i utvecklingen av dessa artefakter och interaktionen mellan artefakten och människan. Begreppet systemutveckling syftar på utveckling av datorsystem.

    Vissa vetenskapsmän och forskare hävdar att användare och systemutvecklare inte förstår varandra och att det fokuseras enbart på artefakten (datorn) och inte på människan. Detta faktum skulle medföra att användare av olika artefakter inte medverkar på ett genuint sätt i utvecklingen av dessa system.

    Vilka orsakerna är till att det ser ut som det gör enligt källorna i ovanstående stycke är svårt att spekulera i. Men tre områden har studerats översiktligt och dessa områden är kommunikationsprocessen, attityder, syften och mål.

    Antagandet som gjorts är att kunna påvisa att det existerar en förhållandevis bättre förståelse, än vad källorna hävdar, mellan användare och systemutvecklare tack vare att de befinner sig i en och samma organisation och på så vis erhållit en bättre förståelse för varandras verksamhetsområde.

    Undersökningen har utförts på Volvo Östra Fabriken. Försökspersonerna består av hela avdelning M3 Lager Hög/Låd. Populationen är på så sätt begränsad och utgörs inte av hela Volvo Östra Fabriken. Därför går inte resultatet att generalisera över hela företaget utan enbart till avdelning M3 Lager Hög/låd.

    Svarsfrekvensen var oväntat låg. 12% av försökspersonerna svarade inom begärd svarstid. Efter påtryckningar och ytterligare svarstid slutade svarsfrekvensen på 36%. Varför svarsfrekvensen blev så låg är svårt att svara på. Flera olika orsaker kan ha påverkat viljan till att svara på enkäten vilket har nämnts i rapporten.

    Resultatet av undersökningen utföll så att någon förståelse och entydighet mellan användare och systemutvecklare kunde inte fastslås. Snarare visade undersökningen att åsikterna mellan användarna och systemutvecklarna om man lyckats att nå förståelse och samarbete uppvisade olika uppfattningar. Systemutvecklarna å sin sida menade att förklara och beskriva användarnas verksamhetsområde inte var några problem men var tveksamma om användarna förstod arbetssättet. Användarna å sin sida ansåg att det var svårt att förstå systemutvecklarnas språk och beskrivningstekniker och samtidigt ansåg användarna att de hade svårt att beskriva sitt eget verksamhetsområde. Systemutvecklarna fordrade ingen mer utbildning medan användarna ansåg att omfattande utbildning krävdes för egen del. Användarna ansåg även att de inte fick medverka i utvecklingsarbetet i tillräcklig grad.

    Användaren av olika artefakter är experten inom verksamhetsområdet och skall därför medverka i utvecklingen av systemen för att erhålla en bättre anpassning till användaren än vad som gäller idag. Graden och formen av medverkan är inte tillräcklig som det ser ut nu.

  • 83.
    Bergqvist, Emil
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Auditory displays: A study in effectiveness between binaural and stereo audio to support interface navigation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses if the change of auditory feedback can improve the effectiveness of performance in the interaction with a non-visual system, or with a system used by individuals with visual impairment. Two prototypes were developed, one with binaural audio and the other with stereo audio. The interaction was evaluated in an experiment where 22 participants, divided into two groups, performed a number of interaction tasks. A post-interview were conducted together with the experiment. The result of the experiment displayed that there were no great difference between binaural audio and stereo regarding the speed and accuracy of the interaction. The post-interviews displayed interesting differences in the way participants visualized the virtual environment that affected the interaction. This opened up interesting questions for future studies.

  • 84.
    Bergqvist, Emil
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Spatial orientation & imagery: What are the gender differences in spatial orientation and mental imaging when navigating a virtual environment with only auditory cues?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the gender differences in spatial orientation and mental imagery when navigating a virtual environment with only auditory cues. A prototype was developed for an iPod Touch device to evaluate possible gender difference in performance of orientation. A sketch map task was conducted to externalize the participants’ mental representation they achieved from the environment. Questionnaires were used to collect data on previous video game experience, spatial orientation self-assessment and spatial anxiety. A post-interview was conducted to gather qualitative information from the participants on how they experienced the experiment and to collect some background about them. In total, 30 participants (15 females, 15 males) with tertiary education participated in the experiment. The result indicates that there are gender differences in time to complete the tasks in the virtual environment. In the sketch map task, there were no gender differences in how well they sketch and externalize their mental representation of the environment. The post-interview showed tendencies that there are possible gender differences in vividness of mental imagery.

  • 85.
    Bergström, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thesis Proposal: A Method for Information Classification2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the highly digitalized world in which we live today, information and information systems have become key assets to organizations.  These assets need to be managed properly because it is difficult to safeguard assets that an organization does not know exist and does not know the value they offer. In an Information Security Management System (ISMS), asset management is an important activity as it aims at identifying, assigning ownership and adding protection to information assets. Within asset management, one activity is information classification that has the objective to ensure that information receives an appropriate level of protection in accordance with its importance to the organization. In practice, this is usually done using a classification scheme, and the result is handled as input to the risk analysis. Information classification is a well-known practice for all kind of organizations, both in the private and public sector, and is included in different variants in standards such as ISO/IEC 27002, COBIT and NIST-SP800.

    However, information classification has received little attention from academia, and many organizations are struggling with the implementation. Little is known about the reasons behind why it is problematic, and how to address such issues. Furthermore, the existing methods, described in, e.g., standards do not provide a coherent and systematic approach to information classification. The short descriptions in standards, and literature alike, leave out important aspects needed for many to adopt any kind of information classification. For instance, there is a lack of detailed descriptions regarding (1) overview of procedures, and concepts, (2) which roles are involved in the classification, and how they interact, (3) how to tailor the method for different situations and (4) a framework that structures and guides the classification. If information classification is not implemented in an organization, the organization might not know what information they possess, what the value of the information is, but even if it is implemented, an unclear approach can lead to information being under or overvalued, which, in turn, lead to under or overprotected information.

    This thesis aims to increase the applicability of information classification by devising a method for information classification in ISMS that draws from established standards and practice. In order to address this aim, a Design Science Research (DSR) study has been performed in five cycles. The contributions so far include an identification of issues and enablers for information classification and propose a component-based method for information classification. Furthermore, eighth design principles underpinning an information classification method are presented. Additionally, an outline for further research is provided, where the objectives are to further develop the method by addressing the context around information classification (the risk analysis and security controls), and by adding usage views to the method. Finally, a security declaration as an addition to the information classification method is outlined as a complement for tying security controls to the information classification scheme. 

  • 86.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Reference Implementations - Usages And The Quest For A Definition2014In: EURAS Proceedings 2014: Cooperation among standardisation organisations and the scientific and academic community / [ed] Ivana Mijatovic, Kai Jakobs, Aachen: Wissenschaftsverlag Mainz , 2014, p. 17-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a systematic literature review performed to investigate if there is a prevailing definition of reference implementation in the standards community, and how reference implementations are referenced to be used within the standards community. The literature review targets all electronically available core journals and conferences in the field, and the results are classified according to a framework introduced in the paper. We found that there is one definition that focuses on conformance testing, but the results from the literature review show more uses of reference implementations such as when developing standards, when implementing them, and when developing products.

  • 87.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Anteryd, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Informationsklassificering och säkerhetsåtgärder2016Report (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Bergström, Karl Viktor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Agil Regelefterlevnad: Agila tankesätt för Compliance & PCI DSS2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Regulatory compliance is an important and growing topic that requires companies to adapt to rules and regulations. All organizations that want to be active in the business market must follow and adapt to these rules regardless of company size and capital. The consequences of not following the regulations are to a large extent fines or increased transaction costs.

    This study focuses on the usefulness of agile approaches in compliance and specifically PCI DSS regulations. PCI DSS is a framework that regulates the credit card payment system used by an organization. All security involving customer data during a card payment is also included in this ruleset.

    To execute the research on how agile methods function within compliance, a qualitative research strategy has been implemented. Empirical material has been collected through interviews with the company CGI. The respondents in this inquiry work in the compliance sector and have great knowledge of the subject.

    The result of the study show that respondents view agile methods within compliance projects in a positive light. That the obstacles experienced in these projects can be alleviated with the help of agile tools such as morning meetings and structured responsibilities.

  • 89.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Management of Rules in Object-Oriented Databases1994In: Proceedings of the Baltic Workshop on National Infrastructure Databases: Problems, Methods and Experiences, 1994, Vol. 1, p. 78-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new approach to associating rules with events in object-oriented database systems. In it we propose a new run time mechanism, which associates rules with specific event definitions. This provide a basis for indexing rules by event definitions, which reduces rule checking to a minimum. The proposed subscription mechanism is general, in that it can be applied to both primitive events and composite events. Both rules and events are represented as first class objects. This architecture has been adopted in the ACOOD2 prototype on top of ONTOS.

  • 90.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Reactive Object-Oriented Databases and CIM1994In: Database and Expert Systems Applications: 5th International Conference, DEXA '94 Athens, Greece, September 7–9, 1994 Proceedings / [ed] Dimitris Karagiannis, Berlin: Springer, 1994, , p. 10p. 769-778Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper propose a simple and powerful approach to associating rules with events in reactive object-oriented database systems. In it we propose a new run time subscription mechanism, which associates rules with specific event definitions. This brings optimization considerations - when to fire a rule - to the language level. The proposed subscription mechanism reduces rule checking to a minimum. It can be applied to both primitive and composite events. Both rules and events are represented as first class objects. This architecture has been adopted in the ACOOD2 prototype on top of ONTOS.

  • 91.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Admyre, Marco
    RuleCore, Sweden.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Fleet Management System Based on Complex Event Processing2014In: DSS 2.0 – Supporting Decision Making with New Technologies / [ed] Gloria Phillips-Wren, Sven Carlsson, Ana Respício, Patrick Brézillon, IOS Press, 2014, p. 241-252Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Calestam, Bengt
    UNISYS AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Graphical notations for active rules in UML and UML-A2003In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active rules (i.e., event condition action rules, triggers) have been put forward as a technique for reacting to important events, and thereby avoiding polling or embedding rule processing in applications. Despite the promises of active rules technology, the usage of active rules is low in practice. It has often been claimed (by database researchers) that the reason why few active rules applications have been built is due to the lack of support in analysis and design phases. Hence, there are very few notations or guidelines available for software engineers who develop active rules applications.In this paper, we propose modelling templates for UML state-charts and UML-A statecharts for how software engineers can capture the fundamentals of active rules. By following the proposed modelling templates and notations for active rules, it will be easier for software engineers to develop applications that rely on active rules technology.

  • 93.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Chakravarthy, Sharma
    University of Florida, Gainsville, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Extending Active Capability Mechanisms for Context Based Subscriptions1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest has increased recently in synthesizing solutions to CIS problems by using results from the database and distributed AI communities. Such synthesis is not without its difficulties; results do not always transfer seamlessly to a new, complex domain. In this paper we highlight the difficulties encountered in our attempts to use event detection and subscription mechanisms (proposed in current active databases) for the problem of efficient result sharing in CIS. A solution to such problems is described, in the form of a refined, context based subscription mechanism.

  • 94.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Chakravarty, Sharma
    University of Florida, Gainsville, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Coordination Among Agents Using Reactive Rules1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordination and collaboration are naturally used by groups for carrying out activities and solving problems that require cooperation. However, getting a set of computer agents to do that same has been a problem -- primarily addressed by the AI community and recently by the database community as workflow and process management problems (e.g. in business processes, electronic commerce, logistics).

    Not surprisingly, the problem has been addressed at different levels of abstraction by the two communities. Coordination protocols (both static and dynamic) as well as task and result sharing have been investigated by the AI community; system level support as well as specification and execution of relaxed notions of transaction (sometimes termed an activity) have been addressed by the database community. It is evident that combining the two will provide an effective unified solution for a class of problems that require cooperation. This paper classifies problems addressed in the AI and database literature according to degree of coordination and collaboration. It reports on work done by the authors in utilising the reactive paradigm to synthesize, from the yechniques in these areas, a common framework for the support of multi-agent problem solving, workflow, and process management. In addition to resolving the terminology used by different groups, task sharing is used to demonstrate the approach described. It is accomplished by creating either static or dynamic plans that are coordinated by ECA rules -- both pre-defined and dynamically created. The paper details the applicability of ECA rules in this domain, their adequacy, and a prototype implementation.

  • 95.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Forsberg, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Stein, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Svahn, Thomas
    Advectas AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Becoming a data-driven organisation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations seeking competitive advantage in the age of big data often adopt the strategy of becoming data-driven. The paper describes research in progress with an organisation pursuing this strategy. Initial results from literature study and preliminary interviews are outlined, including a two layer factor model and prototype maturity model. The next research steps are also explained.

  • 96.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Issues in Active Real-Time Databases1996In: Active and Real-Time Database Systems (ARTDB-95): Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Active and Real-Time Database Systems, Skövde, Sweden, 9–11 June 1995 / [ed] Mikael Berndtsson, Jörgen Hansson, London: Springer, 1996, p. 142-157Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active databases and real-time databases have gained increased interest in recent. Both active and real-time databases are considered as important technologies for supporting non-traditional applications such as computer integrated manufacturing (CIM), process control and air-traffic control. These applications are often event driven and need to react to events in a timely and efficient manner. In this paper we address the problem of merging active databases and real-time databases. Active real-time database is a fairly new area, in which very little research has been carried out so far. However, the use of active real-time database applications has a great potential. In this paper we address several issues and open questions such as semantics, assignment of time constraints and rule selection, which need to be considered when designing active real-time databases.

  • 97.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Logical Events and ECA Rules1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach to support event-condition-action rules and logical events in an object-oriented environment. Previous approaches in active object-oriented databases support either traditional event-condition-action rules or logical events. We see the need to integrate these two concepts in order to efficiently support specialization of events.

  • 98.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    On Developing Reactive Object-Oriented Databases1992In: IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin, Vol. 15, no 1-4, p. 31-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the ongoing work in Reactive Object-oriented Database Systems between the Departments of Computer Science in the University of Exeter(UK) and the University of Skovde(Sweden). The group is currently designing a monitoring system based on a reactive object oriented database with the objective of supporting efficient interaction between the active DBMS and applications (including intelligent systems). Initial work has centered on a prototype reactive object-oriented system built on top of ONTOS, a commercial OODBMS which has C++ as its base language. The prototype is referred to as ACOOD (ACtive Object Oriented Database system). We briefly discuss this prototype, showing how reactive behaviour has been incorporated into a full OODBMS albeit with some restrictions. We also outline our plans for its future extensions, and how these are motivated.

  • 99.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Foster, Lou
    Valparaiso University, USA.
    Systematic Treatment of Events and Rules1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current prototype Active Object-Oriented database systems introduce powerful event and rule specification languages. We contend that this is not in general done in a uniform and integral manner. We present a modified design for an ACtive Object-Oriented DBMS (ACOOD) currently under development at the University of Skovde. The design emphasises the key concepts being investigated, namely Events and Rules as 1st Class (ER1C). It is important because it addresses the key issue of inheritance, something not prominent in current prototype systems with a fully developed event specification system. Key features in the design are that it has a unifying concept of primitive event and of behaviour, and achieves uniformity and power with respect to inheritance. It further relates this to event specification languages for composite events, guaranteeing orthogonality of features. The paper emphasises modeling concepts, and the design is therefore of relevance to all active, object-oriented database systems. It seeks to explore the wider implications and underpinnings of current active O-O suggestions rather than enriching event and/or rule specification languages.

  • 100.
    Bernedixen, Jacob
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Automated Bottleneck Analysis of Production Systems: Increasing the applicability of simulation-based multi-objective optimization for bottleneck analysis within industry2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies constantly need to explore new management strategies and new methods to increase the efficiency of their production systems and retain their competitiveness. It is of paramount importance to develop new bottleneck analysis methods that can identify the factors that impede the overall performance of their productionsystems so that the optimal improvement actions can be performed. Many of the bottleneck-related research methods developed in the last two decades are aimed mainly at detecting bottlenecks. Due to their sole reliance on historical data and lackof any predictive capability, they are less useful for evaluating the effect of bottleneck improvements.

    There is an urgent need for an efficient and accurate method of pinpointing bottlenecks, identifying the correct improvement actions and the order in which these should be carried out, and evaluating their effects on the overall system performance. SCORE (simulation-based constraint removal) is a novel method that uses simulation based multi-objective optimization to analyze bottlenecks. By innovatively formulating bottleneck analysis as a multi-objective optimization problem and using simulation to evaluate the effects of various combinations of improvements, all attainable, maximum throughput levels of the production system can be sought through a single optimization run. Additionally, post-optimality frequency analysis of the Pareto-optimal solutions can generate a rank order of the attributes of the resources required to achieve the target throughput levels. However, in its original compilation, SCORE has a very high computational cost, especially when the simulation model is complex with a large number of decision variables. Some tedious manual setup of the simulation based optimization is also needed, which restricts its applicability within industry, despite its huge potential. Furthermore, the accuracy of SCORE in terms of convergence in optimization theory and correctness of identifying the optimal improvement actions has not been evaluated scientifically.

    Building on previous SCORE research, the aim of this work is to develop an effective method of automated, accurate bottleneck identification and improvement analysis that can be applied in industry.

    The contributions of this thesis work include:

    (1) implementation of a versatile representation in terms of multiple-choice set variables and a corresponding constraint repair strategy into evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithms;

    (2) introduction of a novel technique that combines variable screening enabled initializationof population and variable-wise genetic operators to support a more efficient search process;

    (3) development of an automated setup for SCORE to avoid the tedious manual creation of optimization variables and objectives;

    (4) the use of ranking distance metrics to quantify and visualize the convergence and accuracy of the bottleneck ranking generated by SCORE.

    All these contributions have been demonstrated and evaluated through extensive experiments on scalable benchmark simulation models as well as several large-scale simulation models for real-world improvement projects in the automotive industry.

    The promising results have proved that, when augmented with the techniques proposed in this thesis, the SCORE method can offer real benefits to manufacturing companies by optimizing their production systems.

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