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  • 51.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Gardvik, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Bröstcancer och kvinnlig sexualitet: En litteraturstudie om hur kvinnor upplever att bröstcancer förändrar deras sexualitet och sexuella relation.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The reason why the authors conducted this study was that breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women. For most women the diagnosis means that the entire or parts of the breast will have to be removed. For most women the breast represents sexuality and femininity. The aim was to describe how female sexuality and sexual relationship change after breast cancer surgery and subsequent treatment. The method was a qualitative litterature review. The study resulted in three main categories: (1) a changed body – a changed sexuality, (2) a changed sexuality – a changed sexual relationship, (3) emotional changes in sexuality, and thirteen subcategories. The result shows that female sexuality changes physically as well as psychically. Most women experience changes in body image, decreased sexual desire and pleasure. Intercourse becomes painful which makes many women withdraw from their partner. Many women experience difficulties in communicating about their changed sexuality with their partner. The result also shows that sometimes health care providers give poor information to women about plausible side effects due to breast cancer surgery and subsequent treatment. Because many women with breast cancer experience sexual problems nurses should give better information about plausible side effects from the treatment and highlight these problems. Nurses should also enable conversations with women regarding their thoughts concerning their changed sexuality.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sandberg, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av förändrad kroppsuppfatting och sexualitet efter mastektomi: En litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting women. The treatment of breast cancer may lead to forcing the woman to remove her breast. The breast is a symbol of femininity and sexuality for many women. The purpose of this literature-based study is to describe women's experiences of altered body image and sexuality after mastectomy. This may provide a better understanding of the nurse in responding to these breast cancer patients. The method used is a qualitative literature-based method, based on qualitative analysis of 13 articles. The results show that women undergoing mastectomy feel loss of part of the body, loss of sexuality and womanhood and that their bodies and sexuality are changing. Many women feel that their bodies have been mutilated and disfigured which leads to decreased sexual desire. The desire to feel normal again is great and to meet that many women undergoing breast reconstruction or prosthesis wear. Given that many women suffer as a result out of their changing body image and sexuality following a mastectomy, it is important that the nurse has knowledge of women’s experience of altered body and sexuality. The knowledge leads to better response from the nurse to patients' experiences of illness and suffering and to mitigate this as far as possible.

  • 53.
    Andersson, Catarina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Linda, Thomée
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hem ljuva hem?: Upplevelsen av att vara närstående till en människa med demenssjukdom boende på särskilt boende2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Caring for a person with dementia in special care facilities requires resources like personnel, facilities and medicine. It takes adequate educated staff with personal qualities to create a long-lasting relationship with relatives and residents. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the experience of being a relative to a person with dementia living in a nursing home. Method: A literature review was conducted in which ten scientific studies were examined and analyzed according to Friberg (2006). Results: Five themes emerged from the analyses describing relatives’ experiences of nursing home care, activities, surroundings and integrity as well as coping strategies. Conclusions: Personal relations are of outmost importance for the experience of being a relative to a person with dementia living in a nursing home. Education and guiding of staff and relatives might prohibit misunderstandings and may help to avoid conflicts.

  • 54.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Pesonen, John
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av omvårdnaden av närstående i särskilt boende i Västra Götaland år 20102010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: When a senior person has a large need for special care there is an option to relocate to a nursing home. The seniors every day varies there for it is of outmost importance the nursing care staff can support the senior that he maybe adapt to the new situation. Purpose: The purpose with this study is to enlighten how relatives experience their close ones in special nursing home receive good care treatment. Method: A quality approach with empirical elements is used where relatives experiences of care, being part of and recievment was collected with the help of interviews. Results: Three categories Care, Involvment and Recievment with nine sub categories. An important part in care is to create good contact between relatives and nursing care staff to evolve good ways for communication. It was revealed how important it is as a health care patient to feel they’re being looked upon for who they are and they be part of treatment measures and decisions made by nursing care staff. Discussion: The results can contribute to an increased understanding to how relatives experience care is being conducted in a special accommodation. When relatives are made more involved in care, may lead to a better care for care patient in a nursing home. Conclusion: The results which have been concluded could be used in educational purposes when the care of senior people demands that nursing care staff continuously renews their knowledges. This could be of use for the nurse, the relatives and the seniors living in a nursing home.

  • 55.
    Andersson, Helena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lövgren , Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Husdjur i vården på särskilt boende, personalens uppfattningar2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Former studies show that people living in nursinghomes are often suffering from feelings of depression and loneliness. The staff working at the nursing homes is often occuped with daily chores and the time for social interaction with the residents are limited. This results in feelings of desolations and anxiety. Troughout the centuries, man have always depended on pets as a company and comfort. Studies show that general health improves when interaction with animals occur. The purpose of this study was to describe the staff’s opinion of a pet in nursinghomes and what influence or meaning it may have on the care of the residents. A qualitative interview study was made to examen the purpose of the study. Seven assistant nurses were interviewed. Results show that pets have a positive affect on human beings. They often make people around them feel more joyful and relaxed. The residents in nursing homes, who have experienced a pet living with them at the unit, have showed a calming, positive effect in their behaviour. Dogs and cats are among the most popular animals as a company because of the satisfaction of stroking and its friendly nature. Allergy, fear for some animals and the potential risk for the animal to cause injury to it self or others occurs. The authors acknowledge the need for futher research about animals involved in caregiving.

  • 56.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Leyton, Moa
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kan sjuksköterskan hjälpa överviktiga barn och deras familjer : En litteraturöversikt2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Övervikt och fetma hos barn ökar dramatiskt framförallt i västvärlden. Barn som blivit överviktiga i tidig ålder har tecken på sjukdom i många organ och har större risk att förbli överviktiga och sjuka som äldre. Fetma hos barn påverkar livskvaliteten. Syfte: Utifrån aktuell forskning undersöka om sjuksköterskan kan hjälpa överviktiga barn och deras familjer. Metod: Uppsatsen är en litteraturöversikt med både kvalitativa och kvantitativa artiklar som främst söktes i databaserna Cinahl och Medline. Data materialet analyserades enligt Fribergs analysförfarande. Fokus lades vid artiklarnas resultat, diskussioner och konklusioner. Resultat: Sjuksköterskans uppgift är att ta upp problem om barns övervikt med föräldrar. Det känsliga ämnet får inte hindra att vården erbjuder hjälp. Sjuksköterskan kan guida familjen med överviktsproblematik och föra en dialog med motiverande samtal för att familjen skall hitta sin egen väg. Sjuksköterskan kan också diskutera strategier och ge förslag på beteendeförändring. Föräldrar spelar en central roll i barns viktnedgång. Att utbilda och uppmuntra föräldrar påverkar indirekt barnet. Diskussion: Det kan vara svårt för sjuksköterskan att ta upp frågan om övervikt, men då hon gör det skall hon börja att prata med föräldrarna. För att familjen skall kunna göra en positiv beteendeförändring behövs det utbildning inom kost och motion.

  • 57.
    Andersson, Ida-Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Nilsson, Sandra
    University of Skövde.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    How women who have experienced one or more miscarriages manage their feelings and emotions when they become pregnant again: a qualitative interview study2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 262-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate how women who have experienced one or more miscarriages manage their feelings when they become pregnant again.

    Method:  Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 women who were pregnant again after experiencing one or more miscarriages. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach.

    Results: The analysis of the material ended up in five categories: distancing herself from her pregnancy, focusing on her pregnancy symptoms, searching for confirming information, asking for ultrasound examination and asking for professional and social support. Because of their past experience with miscarriage, it could be painful to have another pregnancy terminate in disappointment. Therefore, the women manage their feelings by distancing themselves from their pregnancies. Simultaneously, they are managing their emotions by seeking affirmation that their current pregnancy is normal.

    Conclusion: Generally speaking, women manage their emotions by themselves. They feel isolated with their worries and concerns, and they are in need of the support provided from their intimate circle of friends and family as well as from the staff of the maternity health care ward. Unfortunately, the women do not feel that they get the support they need from the staff, instead they have to rely on their friends, family and partners to help them manage their emotions.

  • 58.
    Andersson, Ingalill
    et al.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Grönberg, AnneMarie
    Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Slinde, Frode
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Bosaeus, Ingvar
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Clin Nutr, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Sven
    Department of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Vitamin and mineral status in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2007In: Clinical Respiratory Journal, ISSN 1752-6981, E-ISSN 1752-699X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Eating problems are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and intake of micronutrients might be lower than recommended. Objective: To study dietary intake, serum and urinary concentration of trace elements and vitamins in elderly underweight patients with established severe COPD. Methods: Outpatients at a university clinic for lung medicine, with COPD, 70-85 years old, with no other serious disease, and with a body mass index (BMI) of similar to 20 kg/m(2) and an FEV(1) of < 50 % predicted were recruited. Body composition and bone density were evaluated with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was studied by a trained dietitian using diet-history interview. Blood and urine samples were analysed for various vitamins and trace elements. Results: Seventeen of 30 recruited patients took part. Osteoporosis or osteopaenia was found in 16 patients. Dietary intake of energy and macronutrients was in line with recommendations for healthy individuals. Intake of protein did not meet recommendations for COPD patients. Intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids was lower than recommended and intake of saturated fatty acids was higher than recommended. Mean intake of vitamin D and folic acid was far below recommendations. Serum concentrations for folic acid and methylmalonate and plasma concentrations for homocysteine were below normal in several patients. Conclusion: Intake of vitamin D and calcium is often low in older COPD patients, which might contribute to osteoporosis. Low intake of folic acid might also be a problem. The results support prophylaxis with calcium, vitamin D and folic acid.

  • 59.
    Andersson, Jan-Otto
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Prehospital smärtbedömning: En litteraturgenomgång2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Patienter med smärta är det vanligaste problemet sjukvårdspersonalen möter inom akutsjukvården.  Att bemöta patientens smärta är en grundläggande arbetsuppgift för sjuksköterskan inom den prehospitala vården. Vårdaren behöver utföra en professionell bedömning av patientens smärta för att utifrån smärtanalysen göra sitt bästa för att lindra eller förhindra lidande och möjliggöra en upplevelse av förändrad hälsa och välbefinnande.

     

    Syftet var att sammanställa tidigare forskning om prehospital smärtbedömning och beslut om smärtomhändertagande.

     

    Metoden som användes var litteraturöversikt. Ur resultatet framkom två teman och åtta undertema. Huvudteman var; att bedöma patientens smärta och att värdera patientens smärta inför beslut om smärtomhändertagande. Utifrån patientens beskrivning och smärtbedömningen som består av smärtskattning, fysiologiska och fysiska förändringar, värderas patientens smärta i relation till vårdarens egen erfarenhet, patientens beteende, kulturella skillnader och samspelet med patienten. Även hela situationen som tiden, risk för att skada och transporten till sjukhus värderas. Prehospital smärtanalys är en komplex bedömning där vårdaren möter patienter vid många olika situationer med varierande smärttillstånd och problematik. Ambulanspersonalen behöver behärska olika former av smärtskattning och sträva efter att ge bedömningen tid och vara nära patienten. Behovet av forskning inom prehospital smärtbedömning är fortfarande stort.

  • 60.
    Andersson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av bemötande från sjuksköterskor på en akutmottagning: En litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A great deal of the reports which arrives to the patient´s committee is about bad encounters. Patients who seek care at an emergency department should not feel inferior or unsafe because of a bad encounter from the nursing staff. A professional and caring encounter will give power and raise the wellbeing within the patient and that must be offered to the patient. A raised feeling of wellbeing might reduce the sense of bad health. The group of patients this study focuses on is the patients which arrive to the emergency department with a non urgent diagnosis. They often experience a lower rate of good encounters than the patients with an urgent diagnosis. The aim of this study was to highlight what´s important for the patient in the nurse-patient encounter in an emergency department. The search for literature was done in databases. A literaturereview was made from articles and an analysis was made where patient’s similarities and differences in the experience of the encounter sought out. The authors found twelve themes presented in possibilities and difficulties so that the patient will experience that the encounter I satisfying. The result shows that if the nurse’s take some time for the patient and gives them information, treats them as individuals and with respect, the patient feel empowerment to handle the situation. It is of importance for the nurse to understand how the patient experiences the encounter. A good encounter from the nurse can make the patient feel a raised wellbeing and a presence of health. This is a possibility for the patient to gain a feeling of better health.

  • 61.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Franzén, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    BVC-sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att möta immigrerade familjer2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 62.
    Andersson, Jimmy
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Söderlund, Tina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Wennerberg, Martina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Yrkesrelaterad stress inom kommunal hemsjukvård ur ett vårdarperspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 63.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Runsten, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av mötet med närstående till patienter med hjärtstopp inom den prehospitala sjukvården2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The encounter between the nurse and relatives is of great significance within healthcare treatment, not the least in prehospital emergency care. Nurses within the ambulance services will in complicated situations meet chocked relatives of patients with cardiac arrest. The aim of the study is to describe nurses’ experiences of the encounter with relatives of patients with cardiac arrest within the prehospital emergency care.

    The collection of data was conducted through interviews with eight nurses within the ambulance services. The informants have rendered encounters they’ve had with relatives of patients with cardiac arrest. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. Thereafter a qualitative content analysis was made on the texts, from where three major themes, and a number of sub themes, emerged. The three major themes were “Communicating with relatives”, “Managing relatives’ reactions” and “Acting ethically correct towards relatives”.

    The result shows that the nurse’s way of communicating affects the encounter. Through a convincing and distinct manner the nurse seeks contact with relatives. This makes it possible to convey calmness to the relatives, and help them comprehend the situation. Sometimes though, relatives can project their grief and despair onto the nurse, who may be accused of not having done enough. It was detected, that relatives may be a second priority in a cardiac arrest-situation where there has only arrived one set of ambulance crew. Through experience the chances to reach a good encounter increases.

  • 64.
    Andersson, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Karlsson, Johnny
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hiv-positivas erfarenheter av möten med vårdpersonal i allmänna vården: En intervjustudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe HIV-carriers’ experiences of encounters with caregivers in the public health care.

    The result is based on experiences of eight respondents. The participants had lived with HIV from three to twenty-three years. The data was collected by qualitative interviews.

    The results show that HIV-carriers have a low trust of the secrecy in the public health care. They experience resistance in form of long wait and of being denied care and treatment. People with HIV mean that caregivers get scared, distant and avoid physical contact after being told about the HIV-diagnosis. HIV-carriers experience that health care staff waste resources and devote themselves in unnecessary protective measures. They also describe afear of contact with the public health care.

    Positive experiences have by the HIV-positive been described as not being given any special treatment due to their illness. If the medical staff is understanding, open minded and don´t ask strange questions it infuses a sense of security. HIV-carriers appreciate encounters where the information about their blood-borne virus are being received with equanimity and does not trigger any negative reactions.

  • 65.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Uggeldahl, Danijela
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av kommunikation med patienter i palliativ hemsjukvård: -en intervjustudie2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    About 90 000 people die every year in Sweden. Some of them die in their homes. In the community, the district nurse has responsibility for palliative care. This study is based on nine interviews with district nurses working in community home care in three different communities. Its aim is to describe district nurses’ experiences of communication with patients in palliative home care. A comprehensive theme evolved which was named The multifaceted communication could be described on the basis of two categories: The simple communication and The difficult communication. The analysis resulted in following seven subcategories: To be successful in communication, Patients’ acceptance of their situation, To be there for the patients, To communicate with patients when relatives are on the same level, Failure in communication, Patients’ lack of acceptance of their situation and Meeting relatives and people close to the patient when they are not on the same level. As student district nurses and authors, we hope that this study will increase the awareness of how district nurses experience communication in palliative care and thereby increase our knowledge and improve communication between district nurses and patients in palliative care.

  • 66.
    Andersson, Kristin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lundblom Bäckström, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans möjligheter att hjälpa kvinnor med bröstcancer att hantera fatigue: En Litteraturbaserad studie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Fatigue is a side effect for women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant therapy. The nurse can through nursing interventions help these women to manage and reduce side effects of fatigue. The concept of empowerment and the Orem theory of self-help can beviewed as a basis for the nurse in nursing. Purpose: To describe how women with breast cancer during adjuvant treatment, manage and reduce symptom of fatigue with the help of nursing care interventions, founded in the concept of empowerment and self-help. Method: Literature-based study based on twelve qualitative and quantitative articles. Results: The incidence of fatigue remains, but different methods can reduce levels. Exercise and movement can alleviate the degree of fatigue. Musclerelaxation exercises resulted in decreased levels and decreased perception of fatigue. A balanced sleep and reduced stress resulted in positive effects on perceived fatigue. Conclusion: There are several of nursing interventions that are possible to implement both for nurses alone and also with other professions. Together can nurses and their patients determine the degree of fatigue and tailor an individual care plan. Exercise program and group interventions with empowerment as a basis can be used to strengthen and help these women manage fatigue.

  • 67.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ekstedt, Lillemor
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av nutritionsåtgärder i palliativt slutskede: en litteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Palliative care requires an ethical and comprehensive view of the patient and his/her needs, and it is essential to create a supportive relationship with the patient while efficiently coordinating with one’s colleagues. It is difficult for nurses to makethe proper decisions about nutritional measures in order for the patient to have a peaceful death. Aim: The aim of this study is to highlight nurses’ experiences with giving, finishing or abandoning nasogastric intubation and parenteral nutrition with patients during the final phase of palliative care. Method: A literature survey was conducted and 10 scientific articles were reviewed and analyzed according to the Friberg (2006) model. Result: Four categories (with ten subcategories) were identified: life quality, ethical aspects, communication, and education. Nurses who create an early dialogue with the patient, relatives, and doctors about nutritional measures during the final phase of life improve individual care and preserve the patient’s autonomy. However, nurses feel insecure when it comes to nutritional measures because of a lack of knowledge about the physiological process in the phase of death. Conclusion: Further education is needed in order for nurses to feel more secure when making measures about nutrition in the final phase of life.

  • 68.
    Andersson, Lena
    et al.
    Centre for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Irene
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nordgren, Lena
    Centre for Clinical Research, Sörmland, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Living with heart failure without realising: A qualitative patient study2012In: British Journal of Community Nursing, ISSN 1462-4753, E-ISSN 2052-2215, Vol. 17, no 12, p. 630-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heart failure is an important problem in Swedish primary healthcare as in the UK. In spite of that little is known about how people with heart failure experience support from primary healthcare. This paper investigates how people with heart failure experience support in primary healthcare. Semi structured interviews were conducted with five men and five women, born 1922-1951. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis in accordance with Graneheim and Lundman (2004). The participants experienced they had not received information about their diagnosis or about the cause of their condition. They had not been informed they had heart failure. Instead the participants believed their symptoms were caused by age, thus being part of normal ageing. They did not experience they needed care or support to cope with illness or disease. Instead their main needs for support in daily life concerned help with practical matters.There is a risk primary healthcare abandons people with heart failure meaning the patients are forced to develop strategies on their own in order to manage symptoms. When inadequately informed there is also a risk they make up their own explanations signifying possible difficulties to handle their health situation.

  • 69.
    Andersson, Lina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Svensson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Det vårdande och icke vårdande mötet med personer som har ett alkoholmissbruk: en litteraturöversikt2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Today, more and more Swedish people are drinking more frequently and in larger quantities. Alcohol abuse is painful for the victim and his family, while being a widespread and costly problem for society. Healthcare professionals are knowledgeable about alcohol and its effects and can therefore play a very important role in the healthcare prevention related to alcohol and substance abuse. AIM: The aim of this study is to describe the care of patients with an alcohol abuse with a special focus on treatment and care relationship. METHOD: A literature review in which nine research articles were analyzed. RESULT: Nurses felt that questions about alcohol consumption were difficult to handle in practice when the questions could be experienced as insulting and bring the patient strong emotions. While patients want to be open about their addiction and, therefore, which they are asked about their alcohol habits. CONCLUSION: To treat and care for people with alcohol abuse can cause special difficulties. The result shows that the balance between the desire to care and to not always believe the patient makes the meeting more difficult. While the health professionals must take the step to dare to ask questions about alcohol consumption.

  • 70.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nilsson, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Svåra samtal - en del av sjuksköterskans vardag: En intervjustudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the daily work of a nurse, talking to patients is part of the nursing care. Communication can be very difficult, and some conversations are harder than others. To make it easier for inexperienced nurses to relate and handle these conversations it’s important to establish what conversations nurses consider difficult and what the most challenging aspects are, and this was the aim of this study. Only a few previous studies describe what nurses consider difficult communication, and none of them focus on what the nurses perceive as the most challenging aspects. A qualitative method was chosen and content analysis was used as an analyze method. The study comprises interviews with six nurses in one hospital in the west of Sweden. The results of the analysis show six main categories which contain six nurses’ descriptions of what they consider to be the most difficult communication. The categories are: communication when the personal chemistry don’t match, hopeful communication when delivering negative notification, communicating with angry patients, sensitive communication, conciliating communication with relatives, and being presence in communication under stress. What all nurses found most challenging was, to be present in the conversation to keep the patients hope and help the patient accept their situation.

  • 71.
    Andersson, Liselotte
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hillberg, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att leva med en livshotande sjukdom: en studie av självbiografier2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A life-threatening disease is a crisis and a suffering. Previous research are focused on terminally ill patients experiences and shows the importance of open communication, to live a active normal life and that peoples apprehension about death is different. The aim of this study was to describe how it is to live with a life-threatening disease in a every day life, based on autobiographies. The study is based on a qualitative approach and a analysis of six autobiographies. The results is presented in five themes. Each theme is described separately with help from quotation from the autobiographies. The results shows that the experiences of living with a life- threatening disease involves a need to live a every day life as it used to be, to get a increased well-being. It even includes a uncertainty future and a constant anxiety and fear. To have someone to share the experience with, a good support and to feel confidence from nursing staff is important. How peoples life situation are influenced by the life-threatening disease and how important it is that nursing staff confirm patients experience are discussed.

  • 72.
    Andersson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Barns upplevelse av rädsla vid vård på sjukhus, samt hur sjuksköterskan kan minska densamma2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When children are hospitalized they will face a new and unknown environment. Many children experience this situation as stressful and with fear. It is important that the nurse is aware of this fact in order to facilitate the hospitalization for the child. The purpose of this study is to investigate the fear that children feel when they are hospitalized, and to investigate the meaning of being well prepared for clinical examinations and procedures. The method used was a literature review. The result is based on fourteen empirical articles published in scientific journals the year 1998 to 2007, and one dissertation from 2002. The articles were screened and read critically. The result indicates that most of the children who are hospitalized feel fear and that this could be reduced by proper behaviour from the nurse. The findings also show the importance for the parents and children to be well prepared, prior to the examination and treatment. The results show that the nurse needs to adapt the behaviour towards the child and the parents due to age and maturity of the child

  • 73.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Omvårdnadsdokumentation - Vad dokumenterar den svenska sjuksköterskan? : En litteraturöversikt2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Nursing documentation has been a legal obligation in Sweden since 1986. Many earlier studies show that the documentation lack comprehensiveness and that the nursing process is not followed. In Sweden many nurses uses the VIPS-model when documenting. VIPS is acronym for the Swedish spelling words Well-being, Integrity, Prevention and Security. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine what and to what extent nurses in Sweden document in the patient-journal. METHOD: A literature review was chosen for this study. RESULT: The result shows that nurses in Sweden document nursing status and interventions the most. There is less documentation about diagnosis, goals, outcome and discharge notes. The comprehensiveness of the patient records is poor and complete documentation occurs rarely. DISCUSSION: Nurses need education to understand the importance of having a clear structure in the patient record following the nursing process. In the future a standardized language can help the nurses to document according to the nursing process by using systems as NANDA and NIC.

  • 74.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Upplevelser av att leva med hjärtsvikt: En litteraturbaserad studie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The majority of the epidemiological studies show that heart failure is increasing all over the Western world. The increase of patients with heart failure increases the need for healthcare to understand how patients live with this disease, which is important in the process for the patients to adjust to the distressing illness experience.Aim: The aim of this study is to describe patient's with heart failure experience how their disease affect their daily life.Method: Literature based study with qualitative research that follows Friberg (2006) method of analyzing which 14 articles were reviewed.Result: Five themes was identified: (1) a new and uncertain situation, (2) changes of patient’s psychological and physical abilities, (3) changes of the social life, (4) adjustment and acceptance of the situation with new meaning and identity, (5) anxiety about death and the unpredictable nature of the disease. Living with heart failure was characterized by distressing symptoms, restrictions in daily life, changes in social life and their identity, and anxiety about death and the unpredictable nature of the disease.Conclusion: The experience of health and quality of life is individual. Distinct information about the disease and self care to the patient is needed for improved control, experience of health and quality of life.

  • 75.
    Andersson, My
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av hot och våld inom akutsjukvård2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An indisputable right for nurses is to have a safe and secure work environment so they can deliver a high quality care. To bring a clear definition of what threat and violence are, is an important part in the work to prevent threat and violence. One part of the problem is that the experience and understanding of threat and violence can be different from one person to another. Aim: The aim of this quality study was to emphasize Nurses experience of threat and violence at workplace. Method: The method used in this study was qualitative interviews in the sense to bring out the nurses experience. Four nurses at four different emergency divisions were interviewed. Results; Two leading categories emerged with 12 subcategories. The leading categories are: nurse’s experience of threat and violence and nurse’s management of threat and violence. Conclusion; This study shows that nurses experience threat and violenc at their workplace and that the increased amount of violence in the society reflects on what happens at the hospitals.

  • 76.
    Andersson, Sten-Ove
    et al.
    Swedish Armed Forces, Centre for Defence Medicine, Box 5155, S-426 05 V Frölunda, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Lars Owe
    Department of Behavioural Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Swedish Armed Forces, Centre for Defence Medicine, Box 5155, S-426 05 V Frölunda, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    The criteria nurses use in assessing acute trauma in military emergency care2007In: Accident and Emergency Nursing, ISSN 0965-2302, E-ISSN 1532-9267, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 148-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency medical care for seriously injured patients in war or warlike situations is highly important when it comes to soldiers’ survival and morale. The Swedish Armed Forces sends nurses, who have limited experience of caring for injured personnel in the field, on a variety of international missions. The aim of this investigation was to identify the kind of criteria nurses rely on when assessing acute trauma and what factors are affecting the emergency care of injured soldiers. A phenomenographic research approach based on interviews was used. The database for the study consists of twelve nurses who served in Bosnia in 1994–1996. The criteria nurses rely on, when assessing acute trauma in emergency care, could be described in terms of domain-specific criteria such as a physiological, an anatomical, a causal and a holistic approach as well as contextual criteria such as being able to communicate, having a sense of belonging, the military environment, the conscript medical orderly and familiarity with health-caring activity. The present study shows that the specific contextual factors affecting emergency care in the field must also be practised before the nurse faces military emergency care situations. This calls for realistic exercises and training programs, where experience from civilian emergency care is interwoven with the knowledge specific to military medical care.

  • 77.
    Andersson, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Med risk för diabetes: Studier av symtom, självskattad hälsa och erfarenheter av att leva med risk för att utveckla typ 2 diabetes2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have a high risk of developing both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. T2DM is a common chronic disease in a global perspective, and it is estimated to continue to grow, which is a serious health problem. It is of significance to increase knowledge about persons with IGT to direct preventive activities more efficiently thus to limit its progression to T2DM.

    Aim: The overall aim was to describe experiences of living with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and to identify self-reported symptoms and bodily sensations associated to prediabetes by the persons themselves. Specific aim were to explore the associations between experiences of sleep, vitality and self-rated health, respectively, and IGT.

    Methods: The design was explorative and descriptive. Participants were randomly selected from a cross-sectional population-based survey in two municipalities in Southwestern of Sweden. Data were collected by means of interviews and a questionnaire about life-style and health.

    Results: Living with prediabetes means living in the borderline between health and type 2 diabetes. Living in the borderline and the balance between opportunities and obstacles were interpreted as a burdensome sense of living with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, although this feeling could be changed so you could see either opportunities or obstacles. Persons with IGT are experiencing symptoms, which they relate to their elevated plasma glucose level associated with IGT. The diagnosis in itself gave them something to relate to because they received confirmation and a possible explanation for their symptoms. In men a statistically significant age-adjusted association was found between self-reported lack of sleep and IGT: It did not weaken after further adjustment for BMI, smoking, education, and leisure time physical activity No such associations were found in females. Corresponding age-adjusted statistically significant associations between low vitality and IGT in both men and women were successively lost with multivariate adjustments. Both men and women with low self-rated health had a worse risk factor profile than those with high self-rated health and a statistically significant crude association between self-rated health and IGT. After controlling for major lifestyles factors and biomedical variables the association remained only in men.

    Conclusions: A special focus must be directed towards persons with prediabetes as they experience both opportunities and obstacles. Although prediabetes is often described as a condition without symptoms, persons with IGT experienced many symptoms, which they related to their IGT. Insufficient sleep and low self-rated health may be a risk factor for IGT in men. A generous sampling of plasma glucose, HbA1c and oral glucose tolerance tests is suggested, even in vague symptoms. There is a link between the measurable (signs) and the perceived in form of symptoms, interpreted as “the guiding feeling”. This should be considered in pedagogical encounters with patients to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes.

  • 78.
    Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy of the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekman, Inger
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy of the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Friberg, Febe
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy of the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Health, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Bøg-Hansen, Erik
    Institute of Medicine, Department of Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy of the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Institute of Medicine, Department of Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy of the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / The Department of primary health care, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The association between self-reported lack of sleep, low vitality and impaired glucose tolerance: A Swedish cross-sectional study2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increased incidence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), are serious public health issues, and several studies link sleeping disorders with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (IR). This study explore how self-reported lack of sleep and low vitality, are associated with IGT in a representative Swedish population. Methods. A cross-sectional survey conducted in two municipalities in South-western Sweden. Participants aged 30-75 were randomly selected from the population in strata by sex and age. Altogether, 2,816 participants were surveyed with a participation rates at 76%. Participants with normal glucose tolerance (n=2,314), and those with IGT (n=213) were retained for analyses. The participants answered a questionnaire before the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Associations for questions concerning sleeping disorders, vitality and IGT were analysed using logistic regression and were expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI. Results: In men a statistically significant age-adjusted association was found between self-reported lack of sleep and IGT: OR 2.4 (95% CI: 1.1-5.4). It did not weaken after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), smoking, education, and leisure time physical activity 2.3 (1.0-5.5, p=0.044). No such associations were found in females. Corresponding age-adjusted associations between low vitality and IGT in both men 2.8 (1.3-5.8), and women 2.0 (1.2-3.4) were successively lost with increasing adjustment. Conclusions: Insufficient sleep seems independently associated with IGT in men, while low vitality was not independently associated with IGT neither in men nor women, when multiple confounders are considered. IGT should be considered in patients presenting these symptoms, and underlying mechanisms further explored. © 2013 Andersson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 79.
    Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekman, Inger
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), Sweden.
    Friberg, Febe
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Health, University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Daka, Bledar
    Insitute of Medicine, Department of Primary Health Care, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Insitute of Medicine, Department of Primary Health Care, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Charlotte A.
    Insitute of Medicine, Department of Primary Health Care, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden / University of Lund, Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, Malmö, Sweden.
    The association between self-rated health and impaired glucose tolerance in Swedish adults: A cross-sectional study2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 111-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To investigate gender differences in the association between self-rated health (SRH) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in subjects unaware of their glucose tolerance. Design. A cross-sectional population-based study. Setting. The two municipalities of Vara and Skovde in south-western Sweden. Subjects. A total of 2502 participants (1301 women and 1201 men), aged 30-75, were randomly selected from the population. Main outcome measures. IGT was regarded as the outcome measure and SRH as the main risk factor. Results. The prevalence of IGT was significantly higher in women (11.9%) than in men (10.1%), (p = 0.029), as was the prevalence of low SRH (women: 35.4%; men: 22.1%, p = 0.006). Both men and women with low SRH had a poorer risk factor profile than those with high SRH, and a statistically significant crude association between SRH and IGT was found in both men (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.8-4.4) and women (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2, p = 0.033). However, after controlling for several lifestyle factors and biomedical variables, the association was attenuated and remained statistically significant solely in men (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.3). Conclusion. The gender-specific associations found between SRH and IGT suggest that SRH may be a better indicator of IGT in men than in women. Future studies should evaluate the utility of SRH in comparison with objective health measures as a potential aid to health practitioners when deciding whether to screen for IGT and T2DM.

  • 80.
    Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ekman, Inger
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Friberg, Febe
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Perceived symptoms in people living with Impaired Glucose Tolerance2011In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, p. Article ID 937038, 9 s.-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to identify symptoms in people with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and describe their experiences of living with the symptoms which they related to their condition. Twenty-one participants, from a cross-sectional population-based study, diagnosed as having IGT, were invited for an interview. The interviews were analyzed in two phases by means of a manifest and latent content analysis. The narratives included seven categories of symptoms (and more than 25 different symptoms) presented by the respondents. This study shows that symptoms such as the patient's own interpretation of different perceptions in the body must be considered, as well as signs and/or objective observations. Symptoms ought to be seen as complementary components in the health encounter and health conversation. The results of this study indicate that health professionals should increase their awareness of the balance between the implicit and the explicit bodily sensations that individuals communicate. Further studies are needed.

  • 81.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Personal development (re-) entering management training: The trend and its consequences in Sweden2005In: Workshop on Trends and Fashions in Management Studies, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Anderstedt, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Johansson, Herman
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser under det första året efter en hjärtinfarkt.: En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The time from symptoms to treatment of women is generally longer because of the ambiguoussymptoms, the woman waits longer before seeking care compared with men. This may be thereason why the woman denies their symptoms when she doesn’t think there is somethingserious, such as a heart attack. The aim of this study is to illustrate women's experiencesduring the first year after an acute myocardial infarction. The chosen method is a literaturebasedstudy of quantitative and qualitative research results which were analyzed and resultedin four themes. The results show that the woman needs support from various instances andpeople in their surroundings. The support given by family and relatives indicates by theinformants to be important, as well as support from the rest of the surroundings such ascolleagues, neighbors, or similar are seen as important. The women also expressed a greatneed for support from health care professionals, which they perceive as poor. The results alsoshow that women use a denial coping strategy in hopes for faster recovery. This denial mayconstitute a risk to the woman's relationships, as well as for the woman's self-esteem, which inturn can contribute to anxiety and depressions.

  • 83.
    Andrada Hamar, Maria
    et al.
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Lund, Sweden / Lund University.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Kärnsjukhuset, Skaraborgs Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Teleman, Pia
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Lund, Sweden / Lund University.
    Etén-Bergqvist, Christina
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Lund, Sweden / Lund University.
    Persson, Jan
    Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Lund, Sweden / Lund University.
    Short-term results of a prospective randomized evaluator blinded multicenter study comparing TVT and TVT-Secur2011In: International Urogynecology Journal, ISSN 0937-3462, E-ISSN 1433-3023, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 781-787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and hypothesis: The aim of this prospective randomized multicenter study was to compare TVT (tension-free vaginal tape) with TVT-Secur in terms of efficacy and safety.

    Methods:  We set out to enrol 280 stress incontinent women with a half time interim analysis of short-term cure and a continuous registration of adverse events. Of 133 randomized women, 126 were operated and 123 (TVT n = 62, TVT-Secur n = 61) available for 2 months follow-up.

    Results: No significant differences were found between groups regarding demographics or grade of incontinence. At 2 months follow-up, subjective cure rate following TVT-Secur was significantly lower than for TVT (72% and 92%, respectively, p = 0.01). Three major complications occurred in the TVT-Secur group: tape erosion into the urethra, a tape inadvertently placed inside the bladder, and an immediate postoperative bleeding from the corona mortis. No major complications occurred in the TVT group. No significant differences were found between groups regarding perioperative bleeding, hospital stay, urge symptoms, or postoperative urinary tract infections. Median time for surgery was 13 and 22 min for TVT-Secur and TVT, respectively (p < 0.0001).

    Conclusions:  In a prospective randomized controlled study, the TVT-Secur procedure had a significantly lower subjective cure rate than the retropubic TVT procedure. Due to this, in addition to three serious complications in the TVT-Secur group, we decided to stop further enrolment after the interim analysis. We discourage from further use of the TVT-Secur.

  • 84.
    Andrén Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Flodén, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser i samband med BB vård på sjukhus: En litteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Postnatal care in western countries has undergone major changes in recentdecades. Despite this, studies show that many women are not satisfied with the care theyreceived after the birth. Objective: The purpose of this literature review is to describewomen's experiences of postnatal hospital care. Method: A literature review based on tenscientific articles in both qualitative and quantitative approach. Result: Four major themesemerged from the analysis of the articles; information, health care organization and healthcare environment, encounter and attitudes and support. It proved to be very many differentfactors that influenced women's experiences of postnatal care. These could be more or lessimportant for different women. Knowledge of this can contribute to health care professionalswith a better understanding of that each woman that recently given birth is a unique individualwith their own specific wants and needs and that postnatal care can not be generalized.Discussion: The postnatal hospital care must be conducted so that it meets the requirement ofgood care. This is to prevent unnecessary care suffering among women that recently givenbirth.

  • 85.
    Aps, R.
    et al.
    University of Tartu.
    Fetissov, M.
    University of Tartu.
    Holmgren, Noel
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kuikka, S.
    University of Helsinki.
    Central Baltic Sea herring: effect of environmental trends and fishery management2011In: Ecosystems and Sustainable Development VIII / [ed] Y. Villacampa & C. A. Brebbia, Southampton: BioMed Central Ltd. , 2011, p. 69-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty is an endemic condition of the Baltic Sea herring (Clupea harengus membras, L) fishery management. It is a condition exacerbated by the fishing fleet overcapacity and consequent exploitation of the herring stock at a level believed to be unsustainable. Some sources of uncertainty are mainly related to biology and fishing technique: the unsolved problem of herring assessment and management units, the recruitment–environment relationship and the reduction in mean weights-at-age, uncertain ageing of fish, the problem of unaccounted fishing mortality caused by the fish selection through the trawl net. Fishing fleet overcapacity is believed to be behind of the regulatory overfishing when setting the Total Allowable Catches (TACs) higher than the scientific advice (decision overfishing) and tolerating the extensive underreporting of catches (implementation overfishing). Two scenarios for the Central Baltic Sea herring fishery management options are constructed and the Bayesian networks are used to represent and update uncertainties encountered in the process of the management related situation assessment. First scenario represents the current status of the fishery management resulting in fishing mortality (F) higher than FMSY – the fishing mortality that corresponds to the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY). The second scenario demonstrates the assumed potential impact of economic incentives (e.g.zoning, individual transferable quotas (ITQs), territorial use rights etc.) on the reduction of excessive fishing capacity and bringing actual fishing mortality closer to FMSY.

  • 86.
    Aps, R.
    et al.
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Fetissov, M.
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Holmgren, Noel
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kuikka, S.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Fisheries management: from linear to collaborative science-policy interface2011In: Management of Natural Resources, Sustainable Development and Ecological Hazards III / [ed] C. A. Brebbia, S. S. Zubir, WIT Press, 2011, p. 3-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The context of fisheries management, according to recent studies, tends to be complex, uncertain and controversial and it cannot be adequately addressed based on work done within the “linear” science-policy interface (SPI). It is believed that moving towards a more participatory and “collaborative” SPI model would favour implementation of more efficient economic incentives to reduce the fishing fleet capacity and bring the actual fishing mortality closer to the levels considered to be sustainable. Focusing the participatory research basically on fish biology and fish stock assessment seems to be too narrow while, on the other hand, it does not embrace many other important issues of contemporary fisheries management. It is suggested that further involvement of stakeholders into the full-scale bio-economic modelling based participatory research would contribute to better understanding of the dynamics of human natural interface concerned and, consequently, would improve the consensus between different interests.

  • 87.
    Arvidsson, D.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Clin Nutr, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Slinde, Frode
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Larsson, S.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Internal Med Respirat Med & Allergology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hulthén, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Clin Nutr, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Energy cost of physical activities in children: Validation of SenseWear Armband2007In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 39, no 11, p. 2076-2084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the validity of SenseWear Pro2 Armband in assessing energy cost of physical activities in children, and to contribute with values of energy costs in an overview of physical activities in children. METHODS: Energy cost was assessed by SenseWear Pro2 Armband in 20 healthy children, 11-13 yr, while lying down resting, sitting playing games on mobile phone, stepping up and down on a step board, bicycling on a stationary bike, jumping on a trampoline, playing basketball, and walking/running on a treadmill at the speeds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 km x h(-1). During these activities, energy cost was also assessed from VO2 and VCO2 measured by Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system, which was used as criterion method. RESULTS: The difference in energy cost between SenseWear Pro2 Armband and Oxycon Mobile was -0.7 (0.5) (P < 0.001) for resting, -2.0 (0.9) (P < 0.001) for playing games on mobile phone, -6.6 (2.3) (P < 0.001) for stepping on the step board, -12.0 (3.7) (P < 0.001) for bicycling, -2.7 (11.9) (P = 0.34) for jumping on the trampoline, and -14.8 (6.4) kJ x min(-1) (P < 0.001) for playing basketball. The difference in energy cost between SenseWear Pro2 Armband and Oxycon Mobile for increasing treadmill speed was 1.3 (3.1) (P = 0.048), 0.1 (2.9) (P = 0.82), -1.2 (2.6) (P = 0.049), -1.6 (3.2) (P = 0.044), -3.1 (3.7) (P = 0.0013), -4.9 (3.7) (P < 0.001), -5.3 (3.7) (P < 0.001), and -11.1 (3.5) kJ x min(-1) (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SenseWear Pro2 Armband underestimated energy cost of most activities in this study, an underestimation that increased with increased physical activity intensity. A table of energy costs (MET values) of physical activities in children measured by indirect calorimetry is presented as an initiation of the creation of a compendium of physical activities in children

  • 88.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Slinde, Frode
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Sven
    Department of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hulthén, Lena
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Energy Cost in Children Assessed by Multisensor Activity Monitors2009In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 603-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Purpose: The SenseWear Pro2 Armband (SWA; BodyMedia, Inc., Pittsburg, PA), the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA; Minisun LLC, Fresno, CA), and the ActiReg (AR; PreMed AS, Oslo, Norway) were compared with indirect calorimetry to determine the ability of these devices to assess energy cost in children during resting and different physical activities. Methods: Fourteen children, 11–13 yr old, wore the SWA, the IDEEA, and the AR during resting, sitting, stationary bicycling, jumping on a trampoline, playing basketball, stair walking, and walking/running along a 50-m track. The Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system (VIASYS Healthcare, Conshohocken, PA) was used as the criterion method for energy cost. Results: For resting and sitting, the three activity monitors showed comparable results, but none of them accurately assessed energy cost for stationary bicycling, jumping on a trampoline, or playing basketball. The IDEEA was the only activity monitor that accurately assessed energy cost for stair walking. Also, the IDEEA showed a close estimate of energy cost across the walking and the running intensities, whereas the SWA accurately assessed energy cost for slow to normal walking but showed increased underestimation of energy cost with increasing speed. The AR overestimated energy cost during walking and during slow running but did not respond to increasing running speed. Conclusions: To be able to capture children’s physical activity, all three activity monitors need to be further developed. Overall, the IDEEA showed the highest ability to assess energy cost in this study, but SWA may be more feasible for use in children under free-living conditions.

     

  • 89.
    Arvidsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Fallgren, Charlotta
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hur familjen till en patient med diagnosen schizofreni kan uppleva sjukdomen och dess inverkan på vardagen2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The diagnosis of schizophrenia has a direct effect on the family of the individual diagnosed. It’s a complex disease with several symptoms which generally debut in the ages between 15-35. The responsibilities of the nurses involve both support and information to both patient and close relatives. In order to fulfil these requirements the nurse must have an understanding of the affect the disease has, not only on the patient but also his or hers close family members. The aim of the study is, by using presently available research, to describe how the family of a patient with the diagnosis schizophrenia could experience the illness and its influence on their everyday-life. The result of a study of 12 scientific articles shows that the relatives experience great worry, stress and burden. They also experience feelings like sorrow and guilt, but still they feel hope. The study shows that there generally is a large waiting time for psychiatric care and that relatives desire for more direct information and support from health care professionals. The result can contribute to a nurses greater understanding of the relatives experiences, feelings and needs.

  • 90.
    Arvidsson, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Therese
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser i samband med hjärtinfarkt2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Myocardial infarction has earlier been regarded as a disease that has struck mainly men. Research has in the recent years indicated that also women suffer from myocardial infarction, although they often show different symptoms compared to men. This

    has caused incorrect diagnosis and treatment of women who suffer from myocardial infarction. Aim: The aim was to describe women’s experiences in relation to their myocardial infarction.

    Method: A literature review was carried out with the intention to describe women’s experiences of myocardial infarction. Scientific articles were sought and four main themes and seven subthemes were identified. Result: The identified themes helped create an image of the women’s needs of support and information following myocardial infarction. It also emerged that the women experienced difficulties managing psychological issues and also that these women experience a suffering. Some affected women tended to hide or minimize their

    symptoms. The lack of adequate information was prominent and was mainly caused by false conceptions that only men suffer from myocardial infarction. Conclusion: The result indicates that the affected women are in great need of support and information in order to cope with their lived situation.

  • 91.
    Aryasetiawan, F.
    et al.
    Research Institute for Computational Sciences, AIST, Tsukuba Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568, Japan / CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan.
    Karlsson, Krister
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Jepsen, O.
    Max Planck Institut für Festkörperforschung, D-705 06 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Schönberger, U.
    Max Planck Institut für Festkörperforschung, D-705 06 Stuttgart, Germany.
    Calculations of Hubbard U from first-principles2006In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 74, no 12, p. Article number 125106-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hubbard U of the 3d transition metal series as well as SrVO3, YTiO3, Ce, and Gd has been estimated using a recently proposed scheme based on the random-phase approximation. The values obtained are generally in good accord with the values often used in model calculations but for some cases the estimated values are somewhat smaller than those used in the literature. We have also calculated the frequency-dependent U for some of the materials. The strong frequency dependence of U in some of the cases considered in this paper suggests that the static value of U may not be the most appropriate one to use in model calculations. We have also made comparison with the constrained local density approximation (LDA) method and found some discrepancies in a number of cases. We emphasize that our scheme and the constrained local density approximation LDA method theoretically ought to give similar results and the discrepancies may be attributed to technical difficulties in performing calculations based on currently implemented constrained LDA schemes.

  • 92.
    Aryasetiawan, F.
    et al.
    Chiba University, Japan.
    Sakuma, R.
    Chiba University, Japan.
    Karlsson, Krister
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    GW approximation with self-screening correction2012In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 85, no 3, p. 035106-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The GW approximation takes into account electrostatic self-interaction contained in the Hartree potential through the exchange potential. However, it has been known for a long time that the approximation contains self-screening error, as is evident in the case of the hydrogen atom. When applied to the hydrogen atom, the GW approximation does not yield the exact result for the electron removal spectra because of the presence of self-screening: the hole left behind is erroneously screened by the only electron in the system that is no longer present. We present a scheme to take into account self-screening and show that the removal of self-screening is equivalent to including exchange diagrams, as far as self-screening is concerned. The scheme is tested on a model hydrogen dimer and it is shown that the scheme yields the exact result to second order in (Uο-Uι)/2t, where Uο andare, respectively, the on-site and off-site Hubbard interaction parameters and t is the hopping parameter.

  • 93.
    Asp, Julia
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Clin Chem & Transfus Med, Inst Biomed, Sahlgrenska Acad, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Jonsson, Marianne
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Clin Chem & Transfus Med, Inst Biomed, Sahlgrenska Acad, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Dellgren, Goran
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Mol & Clin Med, Sahlgrenska Acad, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden / Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiothorac Surg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Anders
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Mol & Clin Med, Sahlgrenska Acad, S-41345 Gothenburg, Sweden / Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiothorac Surg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Comparison of human cardiac gene expression profiles in paired samples of right atrium and left ventricle collected in vivo2012In: Physiological Genomics, ISSN 1094-8341, E-ISSN 1531-2267, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 89-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asp J, Synnergren J, Jonsson M, Dellgren G, Jeppsson A. Comparison of human cardiac gene expression profiles in paired samples of right atrium and left ventricle collected in vivo. Physiol Genomics 44: 89-98, 2012. First published November 15, 2011; doi: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00137.2011.-Studies of expressed genes in human heart provide insight into both physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. This is of importance for extended understanding of cardiac function as well as development of new therapeutic drugs. Heart tissue for gene expression studies is generally hard to obtain, particularly from the ventricles. Since different parts of the heart have different functions, expression profiles should likely differ between these parts. The aim of the study was therefore to compare the global gene expression in cardiac tissue from the more accessible auricula of the right atrium to expression in tissue from the left ventricle. Tissue samples were collected from five men undergoing aortic valve replacement or coronary artery bypass grafting. Global gene expression analysis identified 542 genes as differentially expressed between the samples extracted from these two locations, corresponding to similar to 2% of the genes covered by the microarray; 416 genes were identified as abundantly expressed in right atrium, and 126 genes were abundantly expressed in left ventricle. Further analysis of the differentially expressed genes according to available annotations, information from curated pathways and known protein interactions, showed that genes with higher expression in the ventricle were mainly associated with contractile work of the heart. Transcription in biopsies from the auricula of the right atrium on the other hand indicated a wider area of functions, including immunity and defense. In conclusion, our results suggest that biopsies from the auricula of the right atrium may be suitable for various genetic studies, but not studies directly related to muscle work.

  • 94.
    Audhav, EvA
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Norenius, Csilla
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    SVENSKA TJÄNSTEMÄNS UPPFATTNING OM ORGANISATORISKA STRESSFÖREBYGGANDE STRATEGIER: EN KVALITATIV STUDIE2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psychosocial health is one of the biggest causes of absenteeism among employees. Few studies are designed to investigate prevention activities for stress at the organizational level. EU-OSHA offers recommendation to companies about stress prevention. The purpose of this study was to describe how officials experience EU-OSHA´s recommendation on organizational stress prevention. The study aimed to clarify whether the recommendations may be considered feasible, if there are any obstacles making implementation difficult and what conditions are required to fulfill implementation. The method used had an inductive qualitative approach, in which 16 interviews were conducted at six large Swedish companies. The result showed that the recommendations were considered feasible but they were at times experienced too general and vague. The various conditions and constrains described formed the following theses: Company Culture, Requirements, Control & Support and Knowledge & Skills. Discussion: The recommendations may seem simple but it was found that they do not give practical support to companies. All respondents found them good but sometimes ambiguous and consequently interpreted differently. Moreover, the recommendations are given no particular order of priority. The respondents listed different barriers that made implementation difficult. The conditions needed for a successful implementation seem to depend on good company culture, the possibility to influence and manage your own working environment as well as the chance to turn personal knowledge into practical skills.

  • 95.
    Awe, Julius Adebayo
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, Canada / Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Xu, Mark Chu
    University of Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, Canada .
    Wechsler, Janine
    ScreenCell, Paris, France / Hôpital Henri Mondor, Créteil, France .
    Benali-Furet, Naoual
    ScreenCell, Paris, France.
    Cayre, Yvon E
    ScreenCell, Paris, France / Hôpital Robert Debré and Pierre, Marie Curie University, Paris, France .
    Saranchuk, Jeff
    University of Manitoba, Canada .
    Drachenberg, Darrel
    University of Manitoba, Canada .
    Mai, Sabine
    University of Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, Canada .
    Three-Dimensional Telomeric Analysis of Isolated Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) Defines CTC Subpopulations2013In: Translational Oncology, ISSN 1944-7124, E-ISSN 1936-5233, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 51-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been identified with the potential to serve as suitable biomarkers for tumor stage and progression, but the availability of effective isolation technique(s) coupled with detailed molecular characterization have been the challenges encountered in making CTCs clinically relevant. For the first time, we combined isolation of CTCs using the ScreenCell filtration technique with quantitative analysis of CTC telomeres by TeloView. This resulted in the identification and molecular characterization of different subpopulations of CTCs in the same patient. Three-dimensional (3D) telomeric analysis was carried out on isolated CTCs of 19 patients that consisted of four different tumor types, namely, prostate, colon, breast, melanoma, and one lung cancer cell line. With telomeric analysis of the filter-isolated CTCs, the level of chromosomal instability (CIN) of the CTCs can be determined. Our study shows that subpopulations of CTCs can be identified on the basis of their 3D telomeric properties.

  • 96.
    Axelsson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Styrud, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av teamarbete i hemvård2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nurses today have a supervising role primarily in the community health services. Aim: To illuminate nurse’s experience of team work around the patient in home care. Background: Since Ädelreformen 1992, nurses have become a more prominent employee in the community health care. Working within the community homecare is a challenge because it requires a wide knowledgebase for nurses. Nurses are regulated by laws and constitutions that stresses her role as supervisor and her work for the team interaction. Previous research suggests that teamwork promotes both work colleagues' comfort with each other and the quality of care. Method: Qualitative approach. 10 stories from nurses working in homecare were analyzed with inspiration from Dahlberg`s three analysis phases Results: Six categories emerged in the analysis: Cooperation, Communication, Relation, Responsibility, Shortage of time, Patient. Communication appears to play an important role both as obstacles and as possibilities for teamwork. To see each other's competence and to trust it is important. Lack of cooperation could lead to patients not receiving the care he/she should get emerged in the study. The study suggests that it may be important in the future to highlight teamwork in homecare because there seems to be lack of co-operation between nurses and assistant nurses, which may affect the nursing care.

  • 97.
    Azarm, Asieh
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Effect of oxaliplatin on HCT116 P53+/- colon cancer cells2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Oxaliplatin as an effective chemotherapeutic agent in FOLFOX regimens is using to treat colorectal cancer. In this study we investigate cytotoxicity of Oxaliplatin as single chemotherapeutic agent toHCT116P53+/- to identify molecular mechanism of Oxaliplatin action in induction of apoptosis pathway. Oxaliplatin exposure to HCT116P53+/- colorectal cell lines with deficiency of mismatch repair characteristic resulted to decrease the number of viable cells through apoptosis. Effective Oxaliplatin concentrations (IC50) which inhibit 50% of cell viability were determined using XTT method. Standard curve and time-dependent assay performed to confirm IC50 concentration. Western blot analysis demonstrated relocalization of Bax to mitochondria and induction of intrinsic apoptosis pathway resulted Oxaliplatin exposure. Inactivation of Bax in HCT116P53+/- will result significant reduction in number of viable cells following treatment with Oxaliplatin

  • 98.
    Backhaus, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Berg, Stefan
    Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Trollfors, Birger
    Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Rune
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Persson, Elisabet
    Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Claesson, Bernt E. B.
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Peter
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ek, Elisabeth
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Borås Hospital, Borås, Sweden.
    Rådberg, Gunilla
    Uddevalla Hospital, Uddevalla, Sweden.
    Johansson, Siv
    Halmstad Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ripa, Torvald
    Halmstad Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal isolates from a region in south-west Sweden 1998-20012007In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive disease caused by antibiotic resistant pneumococci is a worldwide problem. All invasive pneumococcal strains in an area of south-west Sweden with 1.7 million inhabitants were collected prospectively during 1998-2001. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by E-test and correlated to serotypes and clinical characteristics. Of 827 strains, 744 (90%) were susceptible (S) to all agents tested and 83 (10%) were indeterminate (I) or resistant (R) to at least 1 agent. 22 isolates (2.7%) were I to penicillin (MIC gt0.06 to ≤1.0 mg/l), but none were R (MIC gt1.0 mg/l). Numbers and proportions of decreased susceptibility against other agents tested were as follows: erythromycin R: 30 (3.6%), clindamycin R: 6 (0.7%), tetracycline R: 16 (1.9%), moxifloxacin R: 1 (0.1%), cotrimoxazole I: 17 (2%) and R: 31(4%). Non-susceptibility to at least 1 agent was not correlated with age, clinical manifestation, underlying diseases and outcome. The serotype distribution differed between non-susceptible and susceptible strains. The serotypes in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine covered 42% of all infections and 73% of those caused by non-susceptible strains. In conclusion, the impact of antibiotic resistance in invasive pneumococcal disease remains limited in south-west Sweden.

  • 99.
    Backlöf, Kalle
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    GROWTH CONDITIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL SETUP FOR BACTERIAL GROWTH AND THE FADING OF PHENOLPHTHALEIN IN ALKALINE SOLUTION2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The whole project consisted of two different parts. The first subproject were running optical density measurements to assist in finding optimal growth conditions and experimental setup for use of E.coli BL21 (DE3) bacteria with the PYCARD gene transformed into them. The transformed bacteria will be used for generating data for modeling. Previous laboratory attempts had problems with timing of the exponential phase when several tests were performed simultaneously. The optimizations of a method for displaying growth include trying out using different medium but also different inoculation ratios between culture and medium to see the effects on growth rate. Results have shown that lysogeny broth together with an inoculation ratio of 1:25 results in rapid absorbance increase in the bacterial growth curves.The second part of the thesis project was to study the kinetics of fading of phenolphthalein in sodium hydroxide solution in order to provide a basis for experiments illustrating this in laboratory environment. Phenolphthalein is used in many different applications such as an active ingredient in some laxatives but the perhaps most common use is as an acid-base indicator of pH. The experiments were performed by mixing alkaline solutions of varying sodium hydroxide concentration together with sodium chloride, then after addition of phenolphthalein to study absorbance variations over time to illustrate the rate law which correlates the rate of color fade to sodium hydroxide concentration. The results have proven that they correspond directly so that increasing the concentration of sodium hydroxide raised the color fading rate just as much in percent.

  • 100.
    Backstrom, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Physiol Unit, Biomed Ctr BMC, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden / Uppsala Univ, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, SE-75236 Uppsala, Sweden .
    Pettersson, Andreas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Food Sci, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Viktoria
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Physiol Unit, Biomed Ctr BMC, SE-75123 Uppsala, Sweden .
    CRF and urotensin I effects on aggression and anxiety-like behavior in rainbow trout2011In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 214, no 6, p. 907-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is central in the stress response but also modulates several behaviors including anxiety-related behaviors and aggression. In this study, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were tested for competitive ability, determined during dyadic fights for dominance, after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of CRF, urotensin I (UI), the non-specific CRF antagonist alpha-helical RF(9-41) (ahCRF) or the CRF receptor subtype 1-specific antagonist antalarmin, when paired with a mass-matched con-specific injected with saline. In addition, isolated fish received the same substances. Plasma cortisol and brain monoamines were monitored in all fish. Most fish receiving CRF showed a conspicuous behavior consisting of flaring the opercula, opening the mouth and violent shaking of the head from side to side. When this occurred, the fish immediately forfeited the fight. Similar behavior was observed in most fish receiving UI but no effect on outcome of dyadic fights was noted. This behavior seems similar to non-ambulatory motor activity seen in rats and could be anxiety related. Furthermore, fish receiving CRF at a dose of 1000. ng became subordinate, whereas all other treatments had no effects on the outcome of dyadic fights. In addition, isolated fish receiving ahCRF had lower brain stem concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, serotonin, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and dopamine. In conclusion, CRF seems to attenuate competitive ability, and both CRF and UI seem to induce anxiety-like behavior.

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