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  • 451.
    Walander, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Eklind, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Carlberger, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Stigh, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Rietz, Andreas
    Scania STC, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Prediction of mixed-mode cohesive fatigue strength of adhesively bonded structure using Mode I data2016In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 66, p. 15-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cohesive zone model is presented for analyzing the fatigue life of an adhesive joint in the range of 104–106 load cycles. The parameters of the model are derived from Mode I double cantilever beam experiments. Fatigue experiments with adhesively joined components from the automotive industry are performed, and the results from the experiments are compared to the results of simulations. The error in the predicted fatigue strength is of the same order as the statistical deviation of the fatigue experiments, indicating that the simulation method produces acceptable predictions of the fatigue strength for applications in e.g. early product development.

  • 452.
    Wallin Johansson, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    KARTLÄGGNING AV VÄRDEFLÖDEOCH IDENTIFIERING AV SLÖSERIERFÖR ÄGGPRODUKTION2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dava Foods in Skara has been the industry for this final year project where they processing egg in different conditions. For this project has the process where they manufacture protein drinks as they sold to the stores been in focus. The main goals for the project were to bring a value streaming map of the current state of the production and suggest improvements based on this map. The second goal was to find which types of wastes that occur and find improvements.

    To create an understanding of the existing process, an analysis was made where the stream was observed. Observations and interviews were used to collect data for the project. The analysis of the exciting process has been based on for the implementation stage.

    During the implementation stage was different tools used to collect data. PDCA has been a tool where was followed during the whole project. The value streaming map has been a central tool which was used to bring out a value streaming map. To collect the times which was needed for the value streaming map a stopwatch was used.

    The project result in different improvement proposal where many of the proposals included was to automate the processes. One solution was to change the operator against a robot cell which would streamline the process which would result in a lower throughput. Change machine was another solution where many stops occur. A full automation concept was suggested to combine these two suggestions, where both a robot and a machine was bought. The last suggestion of the value streaming map was about to just produces one product at a time. Within the wastes were three suggestions given where maintenance was the best solution to reduce the wastes. To determine which one of the suggestions was the best solution a pick chart was used to priority how hard the suggestion was and benefit.

    The conclusion was to purchasing the machine where stops frequently occur. This suggestion would create a higher efficiency in the production at the same time where the condition about price would give the best solution. Improvements of maintenance would also result as the best solution to increase the efficiency for the current machines and reduce the number of stops.

  • 453.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Collaborations towards adaptive manufacturing2012In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE 16th International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD) / [ed] Liang Gao, Weiming Shen, Jean-Paul Barthès, Junzhou Luo, Jianming Yong, Wenfeng Li & Weidong Li, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 14-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new approach for real-time collaborations in adaptive manufacturing, including web-based remote monitoring and control of an industrial robot, and active collision avoidance for human-robot collaborations. It is enabled by using virtual 3D models driven by real sensor data and depth images of human operators. The objectives of this research are to significantly reduce network traffic needed for real-time monitoring over the Internet and to increase the human safety in a human-robot coexisting environment. The results of a case study show that the approach consumes less than 1% of network bandwidth of traditional camera-based methods, and is feasible and practical as a web-based solution.

  • 454.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    International Journal of Manufacturing Research2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 455.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    International Journal of Manufacturing Research2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 456.
    Wenäll, Johan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högskolan i Skövde tränar inför IPMA-certifiering2012In: Projektvärlden, ISSN 1652-3016, no 3, p. 29-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 457.
    Werner, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Materialanalys & optimering av hydrauliska högtryckskopplingar med hjälp av simuleringar2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Optimizing the burst pressure with finite element analysis is done on the FEM ½” coupling at Parker Hannifin AB. The critical components which is the ball cage, guide and plug housing are in focus. A more accurate material analysis is done to make a more real-based data of the material in the coupling.  

    After being in contact with the company that performs the hardening of the component, the entire plug housing is assumed to be hardened. For more information about material data, static pressure test is performed on a coupling. The measured strains from the tests are compared to the strains in the simulations. The tensile strength and hardness coefficient on the guide and ball cage can be adjusted slightly from the tests, but the result has several uncertainties. 

    The number of balls can be reduced, numbers of balls between 15 and 12 are investigated at request from the company. Analysis of how hardening of the material for the guide is done and hardening of the surface for the plug housing. 

    The smallest deformation occurs when hardening the guide. The ball cage clearly demonstrated minor deformations and stresses as the number of balls is reduced from 15 to 12 balls in the coupling. To reduce the burst pressure on the plug housing, it is recommended to harden the surface with a 27 % harder surface than the current. Due to estimated values of material data on hardened surface, more information is needed to determine the thickness needed on the surface of the hardening when having 12 balls in the coupling. 

  • 458.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH Royal Insitute of Technology, Dept of Sustainable Production Development, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Noh, Sang Do
    Sungkyunkwan University, Dept of Industrial Engineering, Suwon, South Korea.
    Bellgran, Monica
    KTH Royal Insitute of Technology, Dept of Sustainable Production Development, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Scania CV, Global Industrial Development, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Smart Factories: South Korean and Swedish examples on manufacturing settings2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 471-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What constitutes a company's capabilities to develop a Smart Factory? South Korean and Swedish perspectives are here illustrated by company examples of smart factory solutions and related strategic aspects of their digitalization. It is concluded that the "smart-factory-capability" of a manufacturing company is integrated with its corporate production systems and includes perspectives on application areas, value adding processes as well as enabling technologies. It is furthermore challenged by the transformational inabilities of legacy systems. By its concrete examples is use and financial benefits, the paper contributes to the definition of the smart factory and its corresponding development scheme. 

  • 459.
    Wingren, Magdalena
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Windscreen study using a free moving headform: An investigation of windscreen behaviour when subjected to headform impact2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pedestrian protection performance becomes more and more in focus for the car manufactures and systems to reduce injury risk are under development. A wider understanding of both the present and the future windscreen performance in free moving headform testing is needed to optimize these systems. The purpose of this thesis was therefore to learn and understand windscreen behaviour when subjected to head impact and to gain knowledge of CAE status for head impact in windscreens from a pedestrian point of view.

    A literature review concluded that there are different ways to model a windscreen. It was found that the computer material models for laminated windscreen glass were not capable of fully representing the behaviour of this material under all impact conditions, particularly the non-linear behaviour after fracture or failure.

    Experimental testing on three different windscreen models, with a free moving headform in a horizontal impactor, has been performed. Test set up was according to Euro NCAP pedestrian testing protocol and three different windscreen angles were tested. The parameter investigated was curvature and HIC and deformation depth on the windscreen were used as evaluation tools. Deformation was measured with a laser positioned behind the windscreen at impact. Film analysis and integration of headform accelerations were used as comparison. The testing concludes that different curvature alone will not have a big influence on HIC and deformation.

     

    Keywords: PVB laminated windscreen, pedestrian, impact, free moving headform

  • 460.
    Wänerberger, Alexander
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Said, Sayyed Hamid
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Lagerstyrning och prognostisering av råmateriallagret2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Production to customer order usually requires keeping a supply warehouse. Increased customer demands for short lead-times require that materials must be in stock. This result in increasing stock levels in a company leads to more capital tied up and simultaneously leads to poorer yields. To avoid keeping a large storage warehouse whilst keeping a good service requires an effective inventory control.

    The purpose of this project is to find out how the demand looks like in the current situation of the company and to develop an appropriate forecasting method and calculation model against a certain pace for inventory control. The methods mentioned in this work are the ABC analysis, calculation of safety stock and forecasting methods.

    The results from this work will answer the objectives of the project aims. A variety of analyzes and experiments shall be used to investigate what type of forecasting method that the company should use. The methods and theories raised in the report also aims to be used by similar companies. The aim of the selected forecasting method is also to lead to a better base, from which better forecast precision is one part in order to improve the inventory management. This has, as far as possible, been put in relation to the working methods used in the company today. Some of the work has been to find out how much demand changes during the lead times, i.e. from the ordering of raw material until the material is in the raw material stock. This has also been used to compare forecasting methods against the present approach.

    Because the company wants to expand its production, a calculation model has also been developed. This model indicates the inventory level to a desired pace, i.e. demand level.

  • 461.
    Xia, Johnny
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    A NEW STUDY OF UNBALANCED PRODUCTION LINE WITH OPTIMIZATION2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project is a continuous research of a topic well-known in the literature, namely, the performance study of unbalanced unpaced production system. In the literature, there were many studies that investigated the statistical outputs of an unbalanced production line using simulation. This project focuses on researching the outputs like average buffer level and idle time that are rarely studied in previous research by using optimization tools from discrete event simulation software FACTS.The models used in the article (Shaaban & McNamara, 2009) have been used as a guideline during the development of the simulation models for this project. Two simulation models were created, each using different discrete event simulation software, namely FACTS analyzer and Plant simulation. Those simulation models fulfills its role in verification & validation stage, with their statistical outputs compared to each other and with Shaaban and McNamara’s results. After verification & validation comes optimization of those simulation models, by using optimization tools from FACTS.The research area expanded during the optimization phase. Originally Shaaban et.al analyzed unbalanced production line with one fixed value of coefficient of variation. In order to expand the view on the properties of an unbalanced production line, three more coefficient variation were added with total of four in this project. As a result, 12 optimization results were created at the end of this project. Each optimization has 30 000 iterations to ensure its convergence.The first step of analysis is done by locating all Pareto-optimal solutions with optimization tools in FACTS. The raw data of all solutions are later transferred and converted into EXCEL files. Using scatter graph and putting all outputs against each other in EXCEL, it creates visual graph that can be used to analyze and to investigate interesting behavior in an unbalanced production line.The analysis on the optimization results showed several interesting behaviors from production line with different settings. One being that if a production line possess worse coefficient of variation than its competition. By raising the inter-stage buffer level of the production line with inferior coefficient of variation, it can achieve the same level, if not greater outputs than its competitor who possess better coefficient of variation. The other interesting behavior are optimization results with highest outputs in regard of either idle time or average buffer level, with deep analyzation using optimization tools from FACTS. Certain operation time pattern and inter-stage buffer pattern could be observed from those results.

  • 462.
    Yousefi, Milad
    et al.
    Department of Production and Transportation Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Yousefi, Moslem
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, Roudehen, Iran.
    Fathi, Masood
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Fogliatto, Flavio
    Department of Production and Transportation Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Patient visit forecasting in an emergency department using a deep neural network approach2019In: Kybernetes, ISSN 0368-492X, E-ISSN 1758-7883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate factors affecting daily demand in an emergency department (ED) and to provide a forecasting tool in a public hospital for horizons of up to 7 days.In this study, first the important factors to influence the demand in EDs were extracted from literature then the relevant factors to our study are selected. Then a deep neural network is applied for constructing a reliable predictor.Although many statistical approaches have been proposed for tackling this issue, better forecasts are viable through employing the abilities of machine learning algorithms. Results indicate that the proposed approach outperforms statistical alternatives available in the literature such as multiple linear regression (MLR), autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), support vector regression (SVR), generalized linear models (GLM), generalized estimating equations (GEE), seasonal ARIMA (SARIMA) and combined ARIMA and linear regression (LR) (ARIMA-LR).We applied this study in a single ED to forecast the patient visits. Applying the same method in different EDs may give us a better understanding of the performance of the model. The same approach can be applied in any other demand forecasting after some minor modifications.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to propose the use of long short-term memory (LSTM) for constructing a predictor of the number of patient visits in EDs.

  • 463.
    Zetterberg, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Into, Camilla
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Transitlager som en strategi i ett globalt distributionssystem2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nuförtiden är det stora flertalet försörjningskedjor internationella till sin karaktär och trenden går alltmer mot fokuserade fabriker. Det innebär att ett fåtal fabriker som var och en fokuserar på ett fåtal produkter tar hand om produktionen för hela världsmarknaden. Då tillverkningen sker på få utvalda platser och marknader världen över ska försörjas ifrån dessa krävs ett globalt distributionssystem som ska klara av att hantera den ökade konkurrensen, kundernas krav på kortare ledtider och den ökade differentieringen av produkter.

    Det finns olika strategier för att hantera ett globalt distributionssystem. Syftet med denna uppsats är att utreda om en transitlagerstrategi kan vara ett konkurrenskraftigt komplement eller alternativ till de mer vanligt förekommande distributionsstrategierna. Studien har gjorts genom att skapa ett teoretiskt ramverk vilket beskriver hur det globala distributionssysteme kan hanteras. Med förutsättningen att företagen idag har ett globalt distributionssystem måste de kunna distribuera sina varor över hela världen och teorin behandlar tre distributionsstrategier för att hantera detta och det är centraliserad distributionsstrategi, decentraliserad distributionsstrategi och transitlagerstrategi. De olika distributionsstrategiernas egenskaper samt för- och nackdelar beskrivs för att avgöra i vilka affärsmiljöer respektive strategi lämpar sig.

    Det teoretiska ramverket behandlar hur företag kan välja mellan och kombinera de olika distributionsstrategierna utifrån deras förutsättningar att produkterna ska nå många marknader från ett fåtal fabriker. För att underlätta valet av distributionsstrategi har en matris konstruerats i ramverket. Matrisen bygger på ett antal utvalda variabler vilka är viktiga att ta hänsyn till. Avslutningsvis när en strategi eller en kombination av strategier är vald ska teorin behandla hur företagen praktiskt kan arbeta med de olika strategierna.

    Empirin kommer att redogöra för två fallstudier där de olika företagen är Etylenaminer och Eka Chemicals. Det kommer att beskrivas hur deras distributionssystem ser ut idag, vilka distributionsstrategier som de använder samt hur de arbetar praktiskt med dem.

    I analysen har det teoretiska ramverket ställts emot den insamlade empirin för att utreda om transitlagerstrategin kan vara ett konkurrenskraftigt komplement till den centrala distributionsstrategin och den decentraliserade distributionsstrategin. Den slutsats som forskningen leder fram till är att det finns mer än ett sätt att strukturera distributionssystemet på och genom det bli framgångsrik på en global marknad. Oavsett vilket distributionssystem ett företag har byggt upp kan transitlagerstrategin utgöra ett bra komplement eller alternativ till den centraliserade distributionsstrategin och den decentraliserade distributionsstrategin för att vinna konkurrensfördelar på marknaderna. Transitlagerstrategin kan bland annat ge upphov till kortare ledtider än vad som kan uppnås med den centraliserade distributionsstrategin och mindre kapitalbindning än vad tillämpningen av den decentraliserade distributionsstrategin ger genom att produkten inte behöver lagras lokalt för att erbjuda kunden korta ledtider. Forskningen visar vidare på att det tar mycket lång tid att utveckla en renodlad transitlagerstrategi men att företagen redan i de tidiga utvecklingsfaserna av strategin kan tillgodogöra sig stora konkurrensfördelar.

  • 464.
    Zhang, Xiaoyang
    et al.
    Faculty of Engineering, Environment and Computing, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Lu, Xin
    Faculty of Engineering, Environment and Computing, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Wang, Sheng
    Faculty of Engineering, Environment and Computing, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Wang, Wei
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Li, Weidong
    Faculty of Engineering, Environment and Computing, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    A multi-sensor based online tool condition monitoring system for milling process2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. 1136-1141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool condition monitoring has been considered as one of the key enabling technologies for manufacturing optimization. Due to the high cost and limited system openness, the relevant developed systems have not been widely adopted by industries, especially Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. In this research, a cost-effective, wireless communication enabled, multi-sensor based tool condition monitoring system has been developed. Various sensor data, such as vibration, cutting force and power data, as well as actual machining parameters, have been collected to support efficient tool condition monitoring and life estimation. The effectiveness of the developed system has been validated via machining cases. The system can be extended to wide manufacturing applications.

  • 465.
    Zia, Muhammad Irfan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Cortés Mora, Felipe
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Automation of packing process2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The design work that precedes the automation of a process is not an easy job. Each one of the variables and possible risks involved in process must be carefully considered before implement the final design as well the requirements in performance and cost. However automate a dangerous, inefficient or just uncomfortable task entails many benefits that make up for the long period of design process. A well automated line will benefit the production with quality, productivity and capacity among other profits. In this project the immediate objective is to automate the “SANDFLEX Hacksaw blades” packaging process in the plant that SNAEurope owns in Lidköping. Actually the packing is completely manual. One operator packs the blades into the boxes meanwhile one more operator loads and unloads the packing station with empty and full boxes respectively. The task is both, tiring and uncomfortable for the operators as well inefficient for the company since the production rate is limited.

    Analyzing and observing carefully product and process, different theories and strategies to achieve the goal were developed. Three are the possible solutions to solve the problem, with different levels of automation and technologies. The robotic solution uses an articulated robot to perform all the tasks; the hybrid solution uses pneumatic devices to pack the blades and an articulated robot to support the station loading and unloading the boxes. Finally the pneumatic solution uses only pneumatic devices, which hold, open and close, push box and blades using airpower; a few sensors detect positions and states, since a PLC coordinates and controls all process. By means of discussing these solutions with the company’s engineers and workers, after a deep literature study and two test of performance, was it possible to select the most suitable solution to accomplish the packaging task. The pneumatic solution is cheap and simple, but at the same time robust and reliable. This design performs the packaging task efficiently and fast. And more important, the operator passes from pack manually the blades to monitor the process.

  • 466.
    Zini, Omar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    A simplified forging simulation tool: validation with finite element method2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the forging industry has a great importance in the fabrication of metallic parts. Therefore, new theoretical models, or modifications to others already existing, continuously appear to improve the process. New investigations culminated, recently, in equations designed to obtain the necessary pressure to forge a part. The purpose is to have a fast, not expensive and efficient alternative to the numerical methods in such calculation. With the double intention of divulgating this new theory created in the University of Málaga (Spain) and confirming its validity, it is interesting to carry out a comparison with the finite element method. In this comparison, geometrical factors relative to the workpiece (part subjected to forging) and the friction coefficient come into play. The goal is then to find validity ranges in the equations for the variables previously mentioned, with the aim to delimit those forging situations in which they could be applied. The implementation of these variables into the commercial FE-code Abaqus is simple, although two aspects arise: the meshing and the correct modeling of the contact between the workpiece and the upper die. The limitation of the Abaqus Student Version (used throughout the analyses) in the allowed number of nodes, prevented performing sufficiently dense meshes. Many alternatives are investigated that, unfortunately, do not show any satisfactory result for the simulation of the process. Performing forging simulations is quite complex and requires a great knowledge in the field and an extraordinary knowledge of how different elements work in large plastic strain. However, this project leaves a collecting data method and a procedure to determine the initial geometry of the workpiece to ensure plastification and to reach a determined shape factor after the forging. The most important is that the way to further analyses has been cleared by confirming the suitability for certain parameters in the simulation (element type, non-linear geometry, contact model, etc.). The recommendation for future simulation efforts is to use ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) adaptive meshing.

  • 467.
    Öberg, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av ett cykelskåp anpassat för stadsmiljö2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project began as an open question in collaboration with a consulting company in product development to develop a more secure parking for bicycles. Therefore, a comprehensive feasibility study was performed to evaluate the bicycle values and to see potential development opportunities for different types of bicycle parking. Blidsberg mekaniska is a company that manufactures bicycle parking and other types of outdoor environment products. They were involved in the work and wanted to expand their range with a new bike box. The designprocess started with a marketreasearch with the aim to analyze cycle parks in a pre-study. During the pre-study demands was researched and formed a requirement specification. The creative work in the development of a new cycle park was helped by many creative methods that generated many concepts that later was compared in a matrix. The final concept was able to compete with the existing solutions. The result was a combination of already existing solutions. The bicycle locker does not take up more space than is necessary for most bicycles to fit in. The bicycle locker is modularly adapted and can therefore be placed more space efficiently in different places. A light indication on the handle indicates whether the bicycle locker is free or occupied and opened with a tag that is scanned on a RFID-reader.

  • 468.
    Öhnström, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Göhlin, Victor
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Förbättring av passivdämpande hörselskydd2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Magnus Öhnström and Victor Göhlin are two design engineer students from the University of Skövde. To obtain their bachelor in engineering they have completed a study for Hellberg Safety to improve the sound dampening effect in their passive earmuffs. The goal is a standard shell that can be optimized for different grades of sound dampening. In order to obtain knowledge a pilot study was performed. This included an analysis of one of the major competitor’s products. In order to reach the goal, the shell, absorber and cushion had to be examined. Modifications made were evaluated with an Acoustic Test Fixture (ATF) located in Hellbergs sound lab. Different modifications were combined, evaluated and sent to Germany for further evaluation. From the given results parts of the shell were further developed.

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