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  • 401.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Philosophy, History and Art Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum Theory and the Place of Mind in the Causal Order of Things2019Ingår i: Quanta and Mind: Essays on the Connection between Quantum Mechanics and the Consciousness / [ed] J. Acacio de Barros, Carlos Montemayor, Springer, 2019, s. 163-171Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The received view in physicalist philosophy of mind assumes that causation can only take place at the physical domain and that the physical domain is causally closed. It is often thought that this leaves no room for mental states qua mental to have a causal influence upon the physical domain, leading to epiphenomenalism and the problem of mental causation. However, in recent philosophy of causation there has been growing interest in a line of thought that can be called causal antifundamentalism: causal notions cannot play a role in physics, because the fundamental laws of physics are radically different from causal laws. Causal anti-fundamentalism seems to challenge the received view in physicalist philosophy of mind and thus raises the possibility of there being genuine mental causation after all. This paper argues that while causal anti-fundamentalism provides a possible route to mental causation, we have reasons to think that it is incorrect. Does this mean that we have to accept the received view and give up the hope of genuine mental causation? I will suggest that the ontological interpretation of quantum theory provides us both with a view about the nature of causality in fundamental physics, as well as a view how genuine mental causation can be compatible with our fundamental (quantum) physical ontology.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2021-09-20 00:01
  • 402.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The crisis of intelligibility in physics and the prospects of a new form of scientific rationality2017Ingår i: On the Human Condition: Philosophical Essays in Honour of the Centennial Anniversary of Georg Henrik von Wright / [ed] Ilkka Niiniluoto & Thomas Wallgren, Helsinki: The Philosophical Society of Finland , 2017, s. 373-399Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 403.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies & The Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    The quantum epoché2015Ingår i: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, ISSN 0079-6107, E-ISSN 1873-1732, Vol. 119, nr 3, s. 332-340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The theme of phenomenology and quantum physics is here tackled by examining some basic interpretational issues in quantum physics. One key issue in quantum theory from the very beginning has been whether it is possible to provide a quantum ontology of particles in motion in the same way as in classical physics, or whether we are restricted to stay within a more limited view of quantum systems, in terms of complementary but mutually exclusive phenomena. In phenomenological terms we could describe the situation by saying that according to the usual interpretation of quantum theory (especially Niels Bohr's), quantum phenomena require a kind of epoche (i.e. a suspension of assumptions about reality at the quantum level). However, there are other interpretations (especially David Bohm's) that seem to re-establish the possibility of a mind-independent ontology at the quantum level. We will show that even such ontological interpretations contain novel, non-classical features, which require them to give a special role to phenomenaor appearances, a role not encountered in classical physics. We will conclude that while ontological interpretations of quantum theory are possible, quantum theory implies the need of a certain kind of epoche even for this type of interpretations. While different from the epoche connected to phenomenological description, the quantum epochenevertheless points to a potentially interesting parallel between phenomenology and quantum philosophy.

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  • 404.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of History, Philosophy, Culture and Art Studies & Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The role of Eastern approaches in David Bohm's scientific-philosophical odysseia2017Ingår i: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, ISSN 0079-6107, E-ISSN 1873-1732, Vol. 131, s. 171-178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 405.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Weak vs. Strong Quantum Cognition2015Ingår i: Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics (IV): Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics - 2013 / [ed] Hans Liljenström, Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015, s. 411-418Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades some cognitive scientists have adopted a program of quantum cognition. For example, Pothos and Busemeyer (PB) argue that there are empirical results concerning human decision-making and judgment that can be elegantly accounted for by quantum probability (QP) theory, while classical (Bayesian) probability theory fails. They suggest that the reason why QP works better is because some cognitive phenomena are analogous to quantum phenomena. This naturally gives rise to a further question about why they are analogous. Is this a pure coincidence, or is there a deeper reason? For example, could the neural processes underlying cognition involve subtle quantum effects, thus explaining why cognition obeys QP? PB are agnostic about this controversial issue, and thus their kind of program could be labeled as “weak quantum cognition” (analogously to the program of weak artificial intelligence as characterized by Searle). However, there is a long tradition of speculating about the role of subtle quantum effects in the neural correlates of cognition, constituting a program of “strong quantum cognition” (SQC) or “quantum cognitive neuroscience”. This paper considers the prospects of SQC, by briefly reviewing and commenting on some of the key proposals. In particular, Bohm and Hiley’s active information program will be discussed.

  • 406.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Helsinki.
    Hiley, Basil
    University of London.
    Pättiniemi, Ilkka
    University of Helsinki.
    Bohm's approach and individuality2015Ingår i: Individuals Across the Sciences / [ed] Guay, A. and Pradeu, T., Oxford University Press, 2015, s. 226-249Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     Ladyman and Ross (LR) argue that quantum objects are not individuals (or are at most weakly discernible individuals) and use this idea to ground their metaphysical view, ontic structural realism, according to which relational structures are primary to things. LR acknowledge that there is a version of quantum theory, namely the Bohm theory (BT), according to which particles do have denite trajectories at all times. However, LR interpret the research by Brown et al.  as implying that "raw stuff" or haecceities  are needed for the individuality of particles of BT, and LR dismiss this as idle metaphysics. In this paper we note that Brown et al.'s research does not imply that haecceities are needed. Thus BT remains as a genuine option for those who seek to understand quantum particles as individuals. However, we go on to discuss some problems with BT which led Bohm and Hiley to modify it. This modified version underlines that, due to features such as context-dependence and non-locality, Bohmian particles have a very limited autonomy in situations where quantum effects are non-negligible. So while BT restores the possibility of quantum individuals, it also underlines the primacy of the whole over the autonomy of the parts. The later sections of the paper also examine the Bohm theory in the general mathematical context of symplectic geometry. This provides yet another way of understanding the subtle, holistic and dynamic nature of Bohmian individuals. We finally briefly consider Bohm's other main line of research, the "implicate order", which is in some ways similar to LR's structural realism.

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  • 407.
    Pålsson, Jonatan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neural Correlates of Lucid Dreams: The Role of Metacognition and Volition2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Dreams play an important role in consciousness studies, because of their ubiquitous presence but ambiguous nature. Dreams can be divided into two categories: non-lucid dreams and lucid dreams (i.e., dreams in which the dreamer knows he is dreaming). Lucid dreams are experiences with features of both waking and dreaming consciousness. In this essay, I review the differences in neural correlates between non-lucid dreams and lucid dreams. While both types of dreams share similar neural substrates, lucid dreams are especially accompanied by more activation in prefrontal areas. These areas are known to be involved in functions of secondary consciousness such as metacognition and volition. These findings are also echoed by verbal reports from lucid dreams. While the relationship metacognition and volition and lucid dreams is not yet fully clear, it seems that increased activation of metacognition and volition cause the dreamer to realize he is dreaming. Based on previous literature, I offer a conceptualization of dreams, in which a continuous variable, lucidity, can measure the degree to which metacognition and volition vary across dream types. I suggest that the transition between non-lucid and lucid dreams is a two-step process. The implications of this are discussed.

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  • 408.
    Radek, L.
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallionpää, R. E.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku,Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Karvonen, M.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku,Finland.
    Scheinin, A.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Maksimow, A.
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Långsjö, J.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Department of Intensive Care, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere,Finland.
    Kaisti, K.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vahlberg, T.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Biostatistics, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, H.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku,Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Dreaming and awareness during dexmedetomidine- and propofol-induced unresponsiveness2018Ingår i: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 121, nr 1, s. 260-269Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Experiences during anaesthetic-induced unresponsiveness have previously been investigated by interviews after recovery. To explore whether experiences occur during drug administration, we interviewed participants during target-controlled infusion (TCI) of dexmedetomidine or propofol and after recovery. Methods: Healthy participants received dexmedetomidine (n = 23) or propofol (n = 24) in stepwise increments until loss of responsiveness (LOR1). During TCI we attempted to arouse them for interview (return of responsiveness, ROR1). After the interview, if unresponsiveness ensued with the same dose (LOR2), the procedure was repeated (ROR2). Finally, the concentration was increased 1.5-fold to achieve presumable loss of consciousness (LOC), infusion terminated, and the participants interviewed upon recovery (ROR3). An emotional sound stimulus was presented during LORs and LOC, and memory for stimuli was assessed with recognition task after recovery. Interview transcripts were content analysed. Results: Of participants receiving dexmedetomidine, 18/23 were arousable from LOR1 and LOR2. Of participants receiving propofol, 10/24 were arousable from LOR1 and two of four were arousable from LOR2. Of 93 interviews performed, 84% included experiences from periods of unresponsiveness (dexmedetomidine 90%, propofol 74%). Internally generated experiences (dreaming) were present in 86% of reports from unresponsive periods, while externally generated experiences (awareness) were rare and linked to brief arousals. No within drug differences in the prevalence or content of experiences during infusion vs after recovery were observed, but participants receiving dexmedetomidine reported dreaming and awareness more often. Participants receiving dexmedetomidine recognised the emotional sounds better than participants receiving propofol (42% vs 15%), but none reported references to sounds spontaneously. Conclusion: Anaesthetic-induced unresponsiveness does not induce unconsciousness or necessarily even disconnectedness.

  • 409.
    Radpour, Ava
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Dual-Process Theory of Moral Judgments: A Way of Explaining Why VMPFC Patients Make More Utilitarian Judgments in Relation to Harmful Situations2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Joshua Greene’s dual-process theory, our moral judgments are processed in one of two systems in the brain referred to as the emotional (quick, unconscious) and rational (slow, conscious) system. The reason for why people tend to answer differently in the footbridge dilemma compared to the trolley dilemma is because the emotional system is dominating over the rational system. Research has demonstrated that patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage make more utilitarian judgments in moral dilemmas in relation to harmful situations. According to the dual-process theory, this is because the emotional system has been impaired which results in that the only working system is the rational system. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how the dual-process theory tries to explain why our moral judgments tend to differ in some moral dilemmas. This thesis will also look at how the dual-process theory tries to explain why patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage make utilitarian judgments in relation to harmful situations. This thesis will sustain that the dual-process theory have gained strong empirical support, especially from the research that has been made on patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage. This thesis will also argue that some modifications needs to be made on the dual-process theory in order to make it stronger. 

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  • 410.
    Rahm, Olivia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Variations in Sex Differentiation: The Neurobiology of Gender Dysphoria2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review paper was to investigate variations in sex differentiation, andalso, examine what neurobiological underpinnings there are to gender identity andgender dysphoria. In addition, the most extreme form of gender dysphoria,transsexuality, will be described from a neurobiological perspective but also discussedin terms of the classification from DSM-5. One theory considered on how genderidentity originates is the fact that the sexual differentiation of the brain and thedifferentiation of sexual organs develop during different time periods. Alterationswere displayed in a demonstration of male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male(FTM) transsexuals that showed reversed results in cell number in a part of thehypothalamus, acronymized INAH-3 and reversal volume results in another region,acronymized BSTc. Likewise, differences in grey matter in the right putamendepended upon their natal gender. It can be concluded that there is biologicalevidence for sex differentiation and indications that lead science into consideringbiological components for gender dysphoria. This conclusion suggests for futureresearch questions focused more on the possible genetic factors of gender identity,also, consider larger sample sizes and more replications. There is still incompleteknowledge of what exactly constitutes an individual’s gender identity.

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  • 411.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Örebro University.
    Bioremediation of Toxic Metals for Protecting Human Health and the Ecosystem2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metal pollutants, discharged into the ecosystem as waste by anthropogenic activities, contaminate drinking water for millions of people and animals in many regions of the world. Long term exposure to these metals, leads to several lethal diseases like cancer, keratosis, gangrene, diabetes, cardio- vascular disorders, etc. Therefore, removal of these pollutants from soil, water and environment is of great importance for human welfare. One of the possible eco-friendly solutions to this problem is the use of microorganisms that can accumulate the heavy metals from the contaminated sources, hence reducing the pollutant contents to a safe level.

    In this thesis an arsenic resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA, a chromium resistant bacterium Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA and a nickel resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 were isolated and studied. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of these isolates are 500 mM sodium arsenate, 5.5 mM potassium chromate and 9 mM nickel chloride, respectively. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy analyses revealed that after 120 h of exposure, the intracellular accumulation of arsenic in B1-CDA and chromium in B2-DHA were 5.0 mg/g dwt and 320 μg/g dwt of cell biomass, respectively. However, the arsenic and chromium contents in the liquid medium were reduced to 50% and 81%, respectively. The adsorption values of BA2 when exposed to nickel for 6 h were 238.04 mg of Ni(II) per gram of dead biomass indicating BA2 can reduce nickel content in the solution to 53.89%. Scanning electron micrograph depicted the effect of these metals on cellular morphology of the isolates. The genetic composition of B1-CDA and B2-DHA were studied in detail by sequencing of whole genomes. All genes of B1-CDA and B2-DHA predicted to be associated with resistance to heavy metals were annotated.

    The findings in this study accentuate the significance of these bacteria in removing toxic metals from the contaminated sources. The genetic mechanisms of these isolates in absorbing and thus removing toxic metals could be used as vehicles to cope with metal toxicity of the contaminated effluents discharged to the nature by industries and other human activities.

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  • 412.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Cloning and characterization of an Arabidopsis thaliana arsenic reductase gene (ACR2) 2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid existing everywhere in the nature. It is toxic to most organisms and considered as human carcinogen. Arsenic contamination leads to severe health problems with diseases like damage of skin, lung, bladder, liver and kidney as well as central nervous system. It is very likely that too much chemicals such as cadmium and arsenic in the consumed foods can also lead to increased birth defects like spinal bifida. In some regions of South-East Asia, like Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand and India, arsenic contamination of human population via either food chain or drinking water is now considered as a national threat for mankind. As arsenic can be found everywhere in nature it may come in contact with food chain very easily through either water or cultivated crops. In South-East Asia the major cultivated crop is rice and it is the staple food for people in many countries like Bangladesh, Burma and Thailand. Cultivation of rice plants requires water either from rainfall or irrigation. Irrigated water in some regions of South-East Asia is highly contaminated with arsenic and by this way arsenic is accumulated in the rice corn which consumed not only by human but also by animals, birds and fishes. In order to avoid arsenic contamination in human food it is essential to find out a way to inhibit arsenic uptake in cultivated plants. Alternatively, we can also find out a way to metabolize arsenic "in plant". In my experiment I have used Arabidopsis thaliana as a model plant to isolate an arsenic reductase (ACR2) gene. This gene has been reported to be involved in metabolism, transport and sequestration of arsenic in plants. My thesis works include studies of the ACR2 gene based on characterization of the corresponding SALK mutants. All plants were exposed to arsenics under in vitro conditions. It was observed that the SALK mutants were more sensitive to arsenics in comparison with the wild type control plants. ACR2 gene was cloned from the genomic DNA of A. thaliana by using Phire Plant Direct PCR kits using database sequences as primers. The amplified product was first ligated to the vector pKOH152 and then transferred to E. coli DH5α competent cells. Recombinant bacterial colonies were screened by colony PCR to confirm the insertion of ACR2. The band (1.3 kb) obtained in gel image indicates that the ACR2 gene was cloned successfully. For further confirmation of these results the cloned gene should be sequenced.

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    Thesis Molecular Biology
  • 413.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Microbial bioremediation and characterization of Arsenic resistant bacteria2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid existing everywhere in the nature. It is toxic to most organisms and considered as human carcinogen. Arsenic contamination leads to severe health problems with diseases like damage of skin, lung, bladder, liver and kidney as well as central nervous system. As arsenic can be found everywhere in nature it may come in contact with food chain very easily through either water or cultivated crops. My thesis works include studies of bioremediation of arsenic by microorganisms. In this experiment the test organisms were collected from the Hazaribagh tanning industrial area of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The whole laboratory works were performed with two types of bacterial strains. Genomic DNA isolation and restriction digestion of genomic DNA, plasmid DNA isolation, Growth response to different concentrations of Arsenic, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), plasmid degradation procedures were carried out during this experiment. The MIC value for amoxicillin of these test organisms was 300 μg/ml and they are able to degrade 5 mM arsenite (AsIII) and 40 mM arsenate (AsV). Though the experiment was carried out with two bacterial strains but by observing all experimental data such as restriction digestion, growth response to the arsenic before and after treated with ethidium bromide and minimum inhibitory concentration it can be concluded that these two strains were not different. These bacteria are able to survive in high concentration of antibiotics and arsenic (AsV and AsIII). Loss of plasmid resulted no growth on media containing arsenic. These results support that plasmid contains important genes that are responsible for surviving bacteria in stress conditions.

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    Thesis Biomedicine
  • 414.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nahar, Noor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jass, Jana
    The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Olsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Complete genome sequence of Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA: a bacterium that accumulates arsenics2016Ingår i: Genome Announcements, ISSN 2169-8287, E-ISSN 2169-8287, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id e00999-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report the genomic sequence and genetic composition of an arsenic resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed that the genome size is ~4.5 Mb encompassing ~80% of the chromosomal DNA.

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  • 415.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Örebro Universitet.
    Nahar, Noor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro Universitet.
    Desale, Prithviraj
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Kapadnis, Balu P.
    University of Pune, India.
    Hossain, Khaled
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    Iona College, New Rochelle, New York, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Isolation and characterization of a Lysinibacillus strain B1-CDA showing potential for bioremediation of arsenics from contaminated water2014Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 49, nr 12, s. 1349-1360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to identify and isolate arsenic resistant bacteria that can be used for removing arsenic from thecontaminated environment. Here we report a soil borne bacterium, B1-CDA that can serve this purpose. B1-CDA was isolated fromthe soil of a cultivated land in Chuadanga district located in the southwest region of Bangladesh. The morphological, biochemicaland 16S rRNA analysis suggested that the isolate belongs to Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)value of the isolate is 500 mM (As) as arsenate. TOF-SIMS and ICP-MS analysis confirmed intracellular accumulation and removalof arsenics. Arsenic accumulation in cells amounted to 5.0 mg g¡1 of the cells dry biomass and thus reduced the arsenicconcentration in the contaminated liquid medium by as much as 50%. These results indicate that B1-CDA has the potential forremediation of arsenic from the contaminated water. We believe the benefits of implementing this bacterium to efficiently reducearsenic exposure will not only help to remove one aspect of human arsenic poisoning but will also benefit livestock and native animalspecies. Therefore, the outcome of this research will be highly significant for people in the affected area and also for humanpopulations in other countries that have credible health concerns as a consequence of arsenic-contaminated water.

  • 416.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Örebro University.
    Nahar, Noor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Comparative genome analysis of Lysinibacillus B1-CDA, a bacterium that accumulates arsenics2015Ingår i: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646, Vol. 106, nr 6, s. 384-392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, we reported an arsenic resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA, isolated from an arsenic contaminated lands. Here, we have investigated its genetic composition and evolutionary history by using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Lysinibacillus genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of ~ 4.5 Mb in size encompassing ~ 80% of the chromosomal DNA. We found that the set of ordered contigs contains abundant regions of similarity with other Lysinibacillus genomes and clearly identifiable genome rearrangements. Furthermore, all genes of B1-CDA that were predicted be involved in its resistance to arsenic and/or other heavy metals were annotated. The presence of arsenic responsive genes was verified by PCR in vitro conditions. The findings of this study highlight the significance of this bacterium in removing arsenics and other toxic metals from the contaminated sources. The genetic mechanisms of the isolate could be used to cope with arsenic toxicity.

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  • 417.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Örebro University.
    Nahar, Noor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Data in support of the comparative genome analysis of Lysinibacillus B1-CDA, a bacterium that accumulates arsenics2015Ingår i: Data in Brief, ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 5, s. 579-585Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a part of our long term project on bioremediation of toxic metals and other pollutants for protection of human health and the environment from severe contamination. The information and results presented in this data article are based on both in vitro and in silico experiments. In vitro experiments were used to investigate the presence of arsenic responsive genes in a bacterial strain B1-CDA that is highly resistant to arsenics. However, in silico studies were used to annotate the function of the metal responsive genes. By using this combined study consisting of in vitro and in silico experiments we have identified and characterized specific genes from B1-CDA that can be used as a potential tool for removal of arsenics as well as other heavy metals from the contaminated environment.

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  • 418.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Örebro Universtitet.
    Nahar, Noor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Jass, Jana
    The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Alam Saud, Zahangir
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, New York, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium (VI) by a soil borne bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA2015Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 50, nr 11, s. 1136-1147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromium and chromium containing compounds are discharged into the nature as waste from anthropogenic activities, such as industries, agriculture, forest farming, mining and metallurgy. Continued disposal of these compounds to the environment leads to development of various lethal diseases in both humans and animals. In this paper, we report a soil borne bacterium, B2-DHA that can be used as a vehicle to effectively remove chromium from the contaminated sources. B2-DHA is resistant to chromium with a MIC value of 1000 µg/mL potassium chromate. The bacterium has been identified as a Gram negative, Enterobacter cloacae based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene analysis. TOF-SIMS and ICP-MS analyses confirmed intracellular accumulation of chromium and thus its removal from the contaminated liquid medium. Chromium accumulation in cells was 320 µg/g of cells dry biomass after 120 h exposure and thus it reduced the chromium concentration in the liquid medium by as much as 81%. Environmental scanning electron micrograph revealed the effect of metals on cellular morphology of the isolates. Altogether, our results indicate that B2-DHA has the potential to reduce chromium significantly to safe levels from the contaminated environments and suggest the potential use of this bacterium in reducing human exposure to chromium, hence avoiding poisoning.

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    Rahman et al., 2015
  • 419.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nahar, Noor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Investigation on Arsenic-Accumulating and Arsenic-Transforming Bacteria for Potential Use in the Bioremediation of Arsenics2017Ingår i: Handbook of Metal-Microbe Interactions and Bioremediation / [ed] Surajit Das, Hirak Ranjan Dash, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2017, s. 509-519Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, arsenic-accumulating and arsenic- transformingbacterial strains that can be employed as a sourcefor cost-effective and eco-friendly bioremediation of arsenicsfrom contaminated environments have been reviewed. Thischapter demonstrates that many naturally occurring bacterialstrains like B1-CDA have the potential for reducing arseniccontent in contaminated sources to safe levels. Therefore,the socioeconomic impact of this kind of microorganisms ishighly significant for those countries, especially in the developingworld, where impoverished families and villages aremost impacted. Therefore, this discovery should be consideredto be the most significant factor in formulating nationalstrategies for effective poverty elimination. Besides humanarsenic contamination, these bacterial strains will also benefitlivestock and native animal species, and the outcome ofthese studies is vital not only for people in arsenic-affectedareas but also for human populations in other countries thathave credible health concerns as a consequence of arseniccontaminatedwater and foods.

  • 420.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nahar, Noor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Olsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune-411033, India.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Khaled
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Genome analysis of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA: A bacterium resistant to chromium and/or other heavy metalsIngår i: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 421.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nahar, Noor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Olsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA: a Chromium-Resistant Bacterium2016Ingår i: Genome Announcements, ISSN 2169-8287, E-ISSN 2169-8287, Vol. 4, nr 3, artikel-id e00483-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, we reported a chromium-resistant bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, isolated from the landfills of tannery industries in Bangladesh. Here, we investigated its genetic composition using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Enterobacter genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of ~4.21 Mb in size.

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  • 422.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Olsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jass, Jana
    The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D.Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune-411033, India.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, NY 10801, USA.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Genome Sequencing Revealed Chromium and Other Heavy Metal Resistance Genes in E. cloacae B2-Dha2017Ingår i: Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology, E-ISSN 1948-5948, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 191-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The previously described chromium resistant bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, was isolated from leather manufacturing tannery landfill in Bangladesh. Here we report the entire genome sequence of this bacterium containing chromium and other heavy metal resistance genes. The genome size and the number of genes, determined by massive parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Enterobacter genomes, are predicted to be 4.22 Mb and 3958, respectively. Nearly 160 of these genes were found to be involved in binding, transport, and catabolism of ions as well as efflux of inorganic and organic compounds. Specifically, the presence of two chromium resistance genes, chrR and chrA was verified by polymerase chain reaction. The outcome of this research highlights the significance of this bacterium in bioremediation of chromium and other toxic metals from the contaminated sources.

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  • 423.
    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Functinal analysis of an arsenic reductaseregulatory arsC gene (Gene ID: 1254) isolatedfrom Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic is a metalloid compound and it has become a severe threat to human health and environment when exceeding their maximum permissible limit of 0.01 mg/L in drinkingwater. Arsenic is a toxic and carcinogen substance which acts as an inhibitor for oxidativephosphorylation in our body and as a result, many diseases like skin cancer, stomach pain,kidney failure, cardiovascular disease etc can be found in human. So removal of arsenic from contaminated area is of great importance for human welfare. The main objective of this study was to functional analysis of arsC gene found in Lysinibacillus sphaericus which was capable of removing arsenic from arsenic contaminated LB medium. The Iterative Threading Assembly Refinement (I‐TASSER) tools were used to predict the secondary structure,molecular and biological annotation and 3D structure of arsC protein. Based on these analyses the function of this gene was predicted. The arsC gene was isolated from L.sphaericus and transferred to an arsC‐deficient strain of Escherichia coli MG 1655. RT‐PCR, colony PCR and blue white screening methods were used to confirm the insertion of this gene into this strain. Both transgenic and non‐transgenic strains of E.coli were exposed to arsenic stress and their tolerance and growth were studied. The transgenic strain was found to be more tolerant and could grow better when exposed to arsenics. These results suggest that the arsC gene of Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1‐CDA can be used as a potential candidate for genetic engineering to efficiently remove arsenics from contaminated sources like soil,water or industry effluents.

  • 424.
    Rahman, Motiur
    et al.
    Plant Breeding & Gene Engineering Lab., Dept. of Botany, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Ahmed, Bulbul
    Plant Breeding & Gene Engineering Lab., Dept. of Botany, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh / Dept. of Chemistry, Biochemistry & Physics, University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres, Quebec, Canada.
    Islam, Rafiul
    Plant Breeding & Gene Engineering Lab., Dept. of Botany, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Monzur
    Plant Breeding & Gene Engineering Lab., Dept. of Botany, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    A Biotechnological Approach for the Production of Red Gerbera (Gerbera Jamesonii Bolus)2014Ingår i: Nova Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, ISSN 2292-793X, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 1-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An in vitro propagation of a red Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) variety was achieved by culturing flower bud, leaf segments and flower stalk segments of 80 days old field grown plants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentration (1.0-6.0 mg/l) of 6-benzyl adenine (BA) in combination with single concentration (1.0 mg/l) of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Lower concentration of BA (1.0 and 2.0 mg/l) with NAA induced the explants to form callus. On the other hand when the explants were cultured in higher concentration (5.0 mg/l) of BA produced shoots and 5.0 mg/l BA with 1.0 mg/l NAA was found to be the best for shoot proliferation of the three explants optimum response was obtained from flower buds. Further multiplication of shoots occurred upon transfer of shoot clumps to BA containing MS medium. Regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or indole-3-buteric acid (IBA) and maximum frequency (81%) of rooting with highest number (4) of roots per shoot was achieved in MS medium fortified with 0.3 mg/l IBA. The rooted shoots were acclimatized and successfully established in soil under natural environment with maximum 84% survivability.

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  • 425.
    Rai, Vijeta
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Screening of large collection of compounds for anti-human parainfluenza virus type-2 activity and evaluation of hit compounds2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Human parainfluenza virus type-2 (HPIV-2) is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that can cause severe respiratory disease known as laryngotracheobronchitis or croup-like disease in children. No specific vaccine or an antiviral drug is currently approved for treatment of HPIV-2 infections. In this project, a library of 14400 diverse compounds had been screened for anti-HPIV-2 activities in cultures of African green monkey kidney cells. All compounds that inhibited the virus induced syncytium-forming activity in these cells were considered as hit compounds. Three hit compounds showed moderate anti-HPIV-2 activity characterized by the IC50 values of 20 µM and selectivity indices of approximately 5. This suggests that the antiviral activity of these compounds was due to targeting activities of cellular rather than viral components. Another hit compound, referred to as compound 5, showed anti-HPIV-2 activity that was manifested as a reduction of area of the virus-induced plaques in cells at not cytotoxic concentrations. Interestingly, this compound did not inhibit initial infection nor the virus production in infected cells as revealed by the time-of-addition assay. Moreover, it showed no direct the virus-inactivating (virucidal activity) against HPIV-2 particles. However, relatively short pre-treatment (4 hours) of the cells with compound 5 prior to the virus infection was sufficient for its plaque size-reducing activity suggesting that anti-HPIV-2 activity of compound 5 was due to targeting activities of cellular rather than viral components. Further studies are needed to elucidate the anti-HPIV-2 mechanism of activity of hit compounds identified in the present study.

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    vijeta rai
  • 426.
    Railo, Henry
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for fast emergence of visual consciousness2015Ingår i: Neuroscience of Consciousness, ISSN 2057-2107, Vol. 1, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental unsettled dispute concerns how fast the brain generates subjective visual experiences. Both early visual cortical activation and later activity in fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace correlate with conscious vision, but resolving which of the correlates causally triggers conscious vision has proved a methodological impasse. We show that participants can report whether or not they consciously perceived a stimulus in just over 200 ms. These fast consciousness reports were extremely reliable, and did not include reflexive, unconscious responses. The neural events that causally generate conscious vision must have occurred before these behavioral reports. Analyses on single-trial neural correlates of consciousness revealed that the late cortical processing in fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace (∼300 ms) started after the fastest consciousness reports, ruling out the possibility that this late activity directly reflects the emergence of visual consciousness. The consciousness reports were preceded by a negative amplitude difference (∼160–220 ms) that spread from occipital to frontal cortex, suggesting that this correlate underlies the emergence of conscious vision.

  • 427.
    Rakesh, Dessy
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Role of EZH2 in regulating MET proto-oncogene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesenchymal–epithelial transition factor (c-MET) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) naturally activated by the binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and was shown to regulate many essential cellular processes including cell proliferation, motility, invasion, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. According to the recent ChIP sequencing data on EZH2 using CLL samples from the current lab, MET gene was shown to be direct target of EZH2 in CLL. In this study, we investigated if EZH2 is regulating the MET gene expression through histone methyl transferase activity (H3K27me3) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).We performed down-regulated of EZH2 using siRNA and analyzed the expression levels of both EZH2 and MET gene at mRNA and protein levels using Real time-quantitative PCR, and western blot analysis respectively. In addition, we also analyzed if MET gene is regulated by DNA methylation using Pyrosequencing method. Our analysis showed that EZH2 directly regulated MET gene expression and DNA in the LINE1 region located at intron 2 regulates MET promoter, using CLL cell lines. Moreover, treatment of CLL cell with DNA methyl inhibitor drug, 5’-Deoxy 2’Azacytidine (DAC) drug induces the MET expression in CLL cell lines. Finally, this study shows that MET gene is regulated by both hypermethylation at intronic region and EZH2 binding on gene promoter resulting in gene silencing.

  • 428.
    Ramchandra Desai, Suchita
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Development of an immunoassay panel to predict aseptic implant loosening2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    During our lifetime, our bones constantly go through remodelling to maintain the skeletal system. This is done by osteoblasts that deposit new bone tissue, osteoclasts that remove the bone matrix and mechanosensing osteocytes. In case of bone implants, increased resorption by osteoclasts due to inflammation (inflammatory osteolysis) leads to aseptic implant loosening. This study focuses on how to detect these inflammatory resorbing cells at an early stage and prevent their activity with appropriate medication. To achieve this, we differentiated classical monocytes into macrophage-like cells, osteoclasts(OCs) and foreign body giant cells (FBGC) and their secretome was studied to identify specific biomarkers. Previously, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) was studied as an important biomarker for OCs and macrophages. An ELISA to separate and quantitate the two TRAP isoforms was used to distinguish the resorbing OCs from inflammatory FBGCs on the basis of the isoform ratio. This assay gave high levels of 5b isoform for osteoclastic stimulation and high 5a levels for the inflammatory stimulation. Also, different aminothiazole inhibitors were tested which were shown to be efficient drugs in inhibiting inflammatory osteolysis by reducing osteoclast formation and resorption in sub-micromolar concentration. Further to apply this study to patient samples, an immunoassay panel can be developed which will help detect TRAP and multiple biomarkers like CTX specific to aseptic loosening simultaneously. This will help in early, efficient and accurate diagnosis of inflammatory osteolytic bone loss and provide us with an accurate diagnosis and sufficient time for appropriate treatment.

     

  • 429.
    Ramos Knudsen, Sofia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Correlates of Bilingual Language Control: Lifelong Bilingualism and its Mitigating Effects on Cognitive Decline2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Speaking a second language requires the ability to keep the two languages apart so that language interference can be avoided, allowing the target language to be used fluently. As such, cognitive control systems are used more extensively in bilinguals compared to monolinguals, a process referred to as bilingual language control (BLC). In the past few decades, the cognitive and structural effects of this lifelong language control experience have been of great interest among researchers within the field of cognitive neuroscience. The present thesis reviews current knowledge on the neural correlates of bilingual language control in high proficient bilingual speakers who actively use both languages in their everyday lives. Language proficiency and frequency of use are important aspects to consider since they both modulate brain activity and structure. Indeed, some studies fail to provide this information. Neuroimaging studies reveal consistent brain activity in a network of cortical and subcortical areas in bilingual speakers during non-verbal and verbal executive control tasks. These brain areas include the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), inferior parietal lobes (IPLs), basal ganglia (BG) and the cerebellum. Research also indicates that bilingualism serves as a protective variable against age-related cognitive decline. Studying the effects of lifelong bilingualism on the brain has therefore proven to be important since it can influence an individual’s ability to cope with age decline at a cognitive level. 

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  • 430.
    Rantil, Claes
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Placebo Analgesia and the Role of Expectancy on Pain Perception2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Expectancy in placebo analgesia is proposed to be one of the major mechanisms influencing placebo analgesic responses. Still, little is known of how these effects mediate pain perception. The notion of strong belief in placebo efficacy, i.e. placebo expectancy, was investigated by reviewing placebo analgesia literature, and other relevant studies. Placebo suggestions seem to involve reduced averseness of the impending stimulus, and not cognitively demanding tasks such as executive attention. Converging evidence has shown that positive and negative mood changes can affect both pain intensity and pain unpleasantness, which are both elements of subjective pain. Positive mood mostly seem to affect pain unpleasantness, whereas negative mood changes affect both pain intensity and pain unpleasantness, suggesting that there are two different ways that placebo expectancies can influence pain. One problem with functional imaging research in the realm of placebo analgesia is that activity is not compared with expectancy ratings. Therefore, the neural correlates of placebo expectancies, i.e. placebo belief, are largely unknown. Some findings suggest that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in placebo analgesia. It is suggested that placebo analgesia is opioid dependent, seeing that expectancy induced analgesia is naloxone reversible. However, it probably acts through different mechanisms than administered opioids, seeing as placebo analgesia can be site-specific. 

  • 431.
    Redgård, Nicklas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    FOOD FOR BURNOUT PATIENTS: A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Dietary Polyphenols on Neurogenesis2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-related psychological ill health has increased dramatically in Europe. A diagnosis equivalent to occupational burnout can be found in the Swedish version of the tenth edition of the “International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems" by the World Health Organization. The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare lists treatment suggestions including a section of self-care that recommended something that could be translated to “a sensible diet” (“vettig kost”) without providing evidence for what could constitute a sensible diet. By using the hypothesis of burnout being a stress-mediated decrease in neurogenesis which in turn decrease the ability to cope with stress, this article systematically reviews the efficacy of dietary polyphenols on neurogenesis in rodents to evaluate if dietary polyphenols could constitute a part of a sensible diet for burnout patients. Dietary polyphenols significantly increased various parts of neurogenesis, in rodents subjected to stressors, in some cases demonstrating effect sizes comparable to antidepressants. Adverse effects have been observed in extremely high doses and young rodents not exposed to induced stressors with a putative high level of neurogenesis. 

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  • 432.
    Rego, José
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Temporal Distancing and Emotion Regulation: An ERP Study2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Reappraisal is a cognitive emotion regulation strategy that induces a reduction in the arousal response elicited by both unpleasant and pleasant stimuli.One form of reappraisal is that of temporal distancing. Temporal distancing is the cognitive tool that allows the individual to perceive the stimuli in a broader temporal perspective.Reappraisal’s impact on the arousal response can be measured by assessing the amplitude of the event-related potential (ERP) component the late positive potential(LPP), a centro-parietal slow-wave ERP beginning around 350 ms post-stimulus and sustaining for up to several seconds. The aim of this study was to test various temporal-related perspectives in order to see their effect on the LPP. The analysis of the data suggests that a decrease in the amplitude of the LPP in response to emotionally unpleasant facial stimuli corresponds to adopting a temporal distancing strategy, regardless of the exact temporal distance chosen.

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  • 433.
    Rehn, Therese
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Handlin, Linda
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Keeling, Linda J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dogs' endocrine and behavioural responses at reunion are affected by how the human initiates contact2014Ingår i: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 124, s. 45-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 434.
    Retz, Carolina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Andersson, Sofie
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital.
    Karlsson, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Quicker identification of Gram-positive cocci in clusters in patients with suspected sepsis2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sepsis is the primary cause of death from infection. Globally, an estimated 18 million people die from sepsis annually, exceeding deaths caused by HIV/AIDS, breast cancer, and prostate cancer combined1. Early sepsis diagnosis and targeted antimicrobial (AM) therapy reduce the length of intensive care for patients and cost by 30%2. The current gold standard, using blood cultures (BC), takes 12-72 h to detect pathogens in the blood and even longer to identify the exact pathogen and its AM susceptibility for optimal therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether the QuickFISHTMBC test (AdvanDx, Woburn, MA) could be robust, timesaving and specific in the clinical microbiology laboratory setting, for identification of the pathogens causing life-threatening bloodstream infections.

  • 435.
    Retz, Karolina
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde.
    Andersson, Sofie
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde .
    Andersson, Carl
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Svensson, Kristina
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde .
    Ljungström, Lars
    The Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden .
    Enroth, Helena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde .
    Tilevik, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Evaluation of the QuickFISH and the Sepsityper assays for early identification of etiological agents in bloodstream infection in a clinical routine setting2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 436.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Finland.
    Biological naturalism and biological realism2018Ingår i: The Routledge Handbook of Consciousness / [ed] Rocco J. Gennaro, New York: Taylor & Francis, 2018, 1, s. 188-201Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarizes the main principles of Biological Naturalism (BN) and Biological Realism (BR), and analyzes some of their similarities and differences. It contrasts the biological approach represented by BN and BR with another currently influential approach: information theories of consciousness, especially the Information Integration Theory. John Searle appears to accept the two main components of the supervenience relationship between consciousness and the brain: there can be no difference in conscious states without a corresponding difference in the underlying brain states (the covariance principle), and the conscious states owe their existence to the underlying brain states (the principle of ontological dependency). BN fails to offer a coherent account of how the first-person ontology of consciousness is related to the third-person ontology of neurophysiology. Searle suggests that BN solves (or dissolves) the philosophical mind-body problem, but this turns out to be a mere promissory note.

  • 437.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Finland.
    Foundations of Consciousness2018Bok (Refereegranskat)
  • 438.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Hard to See the Problem?2015Ingår i: Journal of consciousness studies, ISSN 1355-8250, E-ISSN 2051-2201, Vol. 22, nr 3-4, s. 52-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 439.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    The future of consciousness science: From empirical correlations to theoretical explanation2015Ingår i: The Constitution of Phenomenal Consciousness: Toward a science and theory / [ed] Steven M. Miller, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, s. 260-270Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 440.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Department of Psychology/Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Department of Psychology/Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Department of Psychology/Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    What is an altered state of consciousness?2009Ingår i: Philosophical Psychology, ISSN 0951-5089, E-ISSN 1465-394X, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 187-204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘‘Altered State of Consciousness’’ (ASC) has been defined as a changed overall pattern of conscious experience, or as the subjective feeling and explicit recognition that one’s own subjective experience has changed. We argue that these traditional definitions fail to draw a clear line between altered and normal states of consciousness (NSC). We outline a new definition of ASC and argue that the proper way to understand the concept of ASC is to regard it as a representational notion: the alteration that has happened is not an alteration of consciousness (or subjective experience) per se, but an alteration in the informational or representational relationships between consciousness and the world. An altered state of consciousness is defined as a state in which the neurocognitive background mechanisms of consciousness have an increased tendency to produce misrepresentations such as hallucinations, delusions, and memory distortions. Paradigm examples of such generally misrepresentational, temporary, and reversible states are dreaming, psychotic episodes, psychedelic drug experiences, some epileptic seizures, and hypnosis in highly hypnotizable subjects. The representational definition of ASC should be applied in the theoretical and empirical studies of ASCs to unify and clarify the conceptual basis of ASC research.

  • 441.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    The Avatars in the Machine: Dreaming as a Simulation of Social Reality2016Ingår i: Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century / [ed] Thomas Metzinger & Jennifer M. Windt, MIT Press, 2016, s. 1295-1322Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 442.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Turun yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
    The Simulation Theories of Dreaming: How to Make Theoretical Progress in Dream Science2016Ingår i: Open MIND: Philosophy and the Mind Sciences in the 21st Century / [ed] Thomas Metzinger & Jennifer M. Windt, MIT Press, 2016, s. 1341-1348Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 443.
    Ringdahl, Karolina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Växtsamhällets sammansättning i äldre genuina rikkärr jämfört med nybildade rikkärr2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I arbetet jämförs två nyare rikkärrsmiljöer i ett nedlagt kalkstensbrott, Rustsäters stenbrott, med två äldre genuina rikkärr i ett hävdat naturreservat, Österplana hed och vall, på Kinnekulle i Götene kommun. Kärlväxternas artsammansättning och frekvens i lokalerna i stenbrottet, Brottet övre och Brottet nedre samt referenslokalerna Österplana norra och Österplana södra, är utgångspunkt för jämförelser och diskussion kring hur succession mot rikkärr kan underlättas - samt vilka skötselåtgärder som kan vara aktuella för detta syfte. Rikkärr är en prioriterad naturtyp som hyser karaktäristiska och specialiserade kärlväxter, mossor och mollusker. Största hotet idag är habitatförlust till följd av dikning eller igenväxning. I Sverige finns några exempel där man återskapat historiska rikkärr genom borthyvling av matjord. Inventeringar visar att en basal rikkärrsflora finns efter fyra till fem år, men det tar mellan 20-30 år innan det nyskapade kärret ses som ett genuint rikkärr. Kunskap om hur rikkärr etableras på helt ny mark är bristfällig.Under arbetet noterades karaktärsarter för rikkärr i samtliga lokaler. Arter som indikerar igenväxning noterades främst i lokalerna i stenbrottet. Deras förekomst ses som en indikation på att båda lokalerna i stenbrottet på sikt kan behöva röjas och eventuellt hävdas. Ytterligare inventeringar och vassröjning ges som förslag på skötselåtgärder.

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  • 444.
    Riquelme Medina, Ignacio
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Lubovac-Pilav, Zelmina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis for Identifying Modules and Functionally Enriched Pathways in Type 1 Diabetes2016Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikel-id e0156006Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex disease, caused by the autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing pancreatic beta cells, resulting in the body?s inability to produce insulin. While great efforts have been put into understanding the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the etiology of the disease, the exact molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. T1D is a heterogeneous disease, and previous research in this field is mainly focused on the analysis of single genes, or using traditional gene expression profiling, which generally does not reveal the functional context of a gene associated with a complex disorder. However, network-based analysis does take into account the interactions between the diabetes specific genes or proteins and contributes to new knowledge about disease modules, which in turn can be used for identification of potential new biomarkers for T1D. In this study, we analyzed public microarray data of T1D patients and healthy controls by applying a systems biology approach that combines network-based Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) with functional enrichment analysis. Novel co-expression gene network modules associated with T1D were elucidated, which in turn provided a basis for the identification of potential pathways and biomarker genes that may be involved in development of T1D.

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  • 445.
    Rischer, Katharina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Can Frontal Alpha Asymmetry Predict the Perception of Emotions in Music?2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Resting frontal alpha asymmetry was measured with an electroencephalogram in 28 volunteers to predict the evaluation of emotions in music. Sixteen music excerpts either expressing happiness, sadness, anger or fear were rated by the participants with regard to conveyed mood, pleasantness and arousal. In addition, various variables of music background were collected. The experiment started with the assessment of current mood, followed by the evaluation of the music excerpts, and finished with the assessment of the participants’ approach and withdrawal behaviour. The results showed that each music excerpt was specic for the intended mood except for music of the category anger which obtained also high ratings for fear. These music excerpts were also the only ones for which a difference in ratings between relatively more left-active and right-active participants could be observed. Partly against expectations, left-dominant volunteers perceived music excerpts of the category anger to express more fear and anger than right-active participants. Results are interpreted within the behavioural inhibitionand approach model of anterior brain asymmetry.

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  • 446.
    Riveiro, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lebram, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Andersson, Christian X.
    Takara Bio Europe, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Astra Zeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Interactive visualization of large-scale gene expression data2016Ingår i: Information Visualisation: Computer Graphics, Imaging and Visualisation / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Mark W. McK. Bannatyne, Fatma Bouali, Remo Burkhard, John Counsell, Urska Cvek, Martin J. Eppler, Georges Grinstein, Wei Dong Huang, Sebastian Kernbach, Chun-Cheng Lin, Feng Lin, Francis T. Marchese, Chi Man Pun, Muhammad Sarfraz, Marjan Trutschl, Anna Ursyn, Gilles Venturini, Theodor G. Wyeld, and Jian J. Zhang, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, s. 348-354Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present an interactive prototype that aids the interpretation of large-scale gene expression data, showing how visualization techniques can be applied to support knowledge extraction from large datasets. The developed prototype was evaluated on a dataset of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. The visualization approach presented here supports the analyst in finding genes with high similarity or dissimilarity across different experimental groups. By using an external overview in combination with filter windows, and various color scales for showing the degree of similarity, our interactive visual prototype is able to intuitively guide the exploration processes over the large amount of gene expression data.

  • 447.
    Rodriguez, David Alcala
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The synergistic effect of ketone bodies and vitamin D on pancreas cancer cells.2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer is one of the biggest burdens for modern societies. Its diagnosis causes grief to patients and relatives and despite the research on the area incidences keep increasing. Pancreatic cancer is the 14th most common cancer type worldwide it tops for the 4th one in cancer related deaths in Europe. A large proportion of the patients die within a year after the clinical diagnosis. Cancer cells suffer from faulty cell respiration and exhibit an increased usage of glucose, the so-called Warburg effect, that allows them to boost their growth rate, survival and proliferation. This metabolic pathway consisting of an aerobic glycolysis to produce pyruvate, followed by lactate fermentation could be a therapeutic target. Reducing the glucose intake and feeding cancer with ketone bodies, a bypass to the cancer metabolism, could reduce cancer growth by limiting their energy source. On the other hand, vitamin D has shown beneficial effects when treating cancer. Outcomes from trials have shown that cancer could be inhibited or delayed by dietary supplements of vitamin D. Here we hypothesise that the treatment of pancreas cancer cells with ketone bodies together with vitamin D reduces cell proliferation. In vitro culture of Panc1 cells treated in combination with 1,25-vitamin D has shown significant effects, both for sodium-3-hydroxybutyrate and lithium-acetoacetate (p<0,01). Findings show that a ketogenic approach to fight cancer is very promising, but foremost totally normal for the organism. 

  • 448.
    Roje, Blanka
    et al.
    Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Croatia.
    Elek, Anamaria
    Bioinformatics Group, Division of Molecular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Palada, Vinko
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Bom, Joana
    Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, Oeiras, Portugal.
    Iljazović, Aida
    Helmholtz Institute for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Šimić, Ana
    Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Croatia.
    Sušak, Lana
    Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Croatia.
    Vilović, Katarina
    Department of Pathology, University Hospital Split, Croatia.
    Strowig, Till
    Helmholtz Institute for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Vlahoviček, Kristian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Bioinformatics Group, Division of Molecular Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Terzić, Janos
    Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Split School of Medicine, Croatia.
    Microbiota alters urinary bladder weight and gene expression2020Ingår i: Microorganisms, E-ISSN 2076-2607, Vol. 8, nr 3, artikel-id 421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the effect of microbiota on the transcriptome and weight of the urinary bladder by comparing germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) housed mice. In total, 97 genes were differently expressed (fold change > ±2; false discovery rate (FDR) p-value < 0.01) between the groups, including genes regulating circadian rhythm (Per1, Per2 and Per3), extracellular matrix (Spo1, Spon2), and neuromuscular synaptic transmission (Slc18a3, Slc5a7, Chrnb4, Chrna3, Snap25). The highest increase in expression was observed for immunoglobulin genes (Igkv1-122, Igkv4-68) of unknown function, but surprisingly the absence of microbiota did not change the expression of the genes responsible for recognizing microbes and their products. We found that urinary bladder weight was approximately 25% lighter in GF mice (p = 0.09 for males, p = 0.005 for females) and in mice treated with broad spectrum of antibiotics (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, our data indicate that microbiota is an important determinant of urinary bladder physiology controlling its gene expression and size.

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  • 449.
    Roos, Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Speech Comprehension: Theoretical approaches and neural correlates2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This review has examined the spatial and temporal neural activation of speech comprehension. Six theories on speech comprehension were selected and reviewed. The most fundamental structures for speech comprehension are the superior temporal gyrus, the fusiform gyrus, the temporal pole, the temporoparietal junction, and the inferior frontal gyrus. Considering temporal aspects of processes, the N400 ERP effect indicates semantic violations, and the P600 indicates re-evaluation of a word due to ambiguity or syntax error. The dual-route processing model provides the most accurate account of neural correlates and streams of activation necessary for speech comprehension, while also being compatible with both the reviewed studies and the reviewed theories. The integrated theory of language production and comprehension provides a contemporary theory of speech production and comprehension with roots in computational neuroscience, which in conjunction with the dual-route processing model could drive the fields of language and neuroscience even further forward.

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    Speech Comprehension: Theoretical approaches and neural correlates Magnus Roos
  • 450.
    Roubinet, Eve
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Malsher, Gerard
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Staudacher, Karin
    Mountain Agriculture Research Unit, Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Traugott, Michael
    Mountain Agriculture Research Unit, Institute of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Ekbom, Barbara
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    High Redundancy as well as Complementary Prey Choice Characterize Generalist Predator Food Webs in Agroecosystems2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 8054Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Food web structure influences ecosystem functioning and the strength and stability of associated ecosystem services. With their broad diet, generalist predators represent key nodes in the structure of many food webs and they contribute substantially to ecosystem services such as biological pest control. However, until recently it has been difficult to empirically assess food web structure with generalist predators. We utilized DNA-based molecular gut-content analyses to assess the prey use of a set of generalist invertebrate predator species common in temperate agricultural fields. We investigated the degree of specialization of predator-prey food webs at two key stages of the cropping season and analysed the link temperature of different trophic links, to identify non-random predation. We found a low level of specialization in our food webs, and identified warm and cool links which may result from active prey choice or avoidance. We also found a within-season variation in interaction strength between predators and aphid pests which differed among predator species. Our results show a high time-specific functional redundancy of the predator community, but also suggest temporally complementary prey choice due to within-season succession of some predator species.

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