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  • 351.
    Nushair, Ali Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saha, Ananda Kumar
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Rahman, Md. Anisur
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mohanta, Moni Krishno
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hasan, Md. Ariful
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Haque, Md. Fazlul
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Rhizobium sp.CCNWYC119: a single strain highly effective as biofertilizer for three different peas (Pigeon pea, Sweet pea and Chick pea)2018Ingår i: Legume Research An International Journal, ISSN 0250-5371, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 771-777, artikel-id LR-389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhizobium spp. was isolated from root nodules of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.), Sweet pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The isolates ware rod shaped, aerobic, gram negative, motile and non-spore forming. Isolates were positive to Catalase, Citrate utilization, Urea hydrolysis, Congored, Nitrification, Oxidase, Triple sugar iron and MacConkey agar test. The isolates can ferment all nine sugars. Then, the isolates identified as Rhizobium spp. Depending on above results were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing for further confirmation and identification. Surprisingly, theisolates were same strain or member of same cluster of Rhizobium and identified as Rhizobium sp.CCNWYC119 strain based on 16S rRNA sequence (98% similarity). Then, different parameters of soil quality enrichment and plant growth viz.plant height; weight of pods and seeds; number, fresh and dry weight of nodules were studied to test the efficacy of the isolate as biofertilizer. Here, inoculant of Rhizobium sp. isolated from Pigeon pea was used as biofertilizer. The results showed the significant increase of nodulation, enrichment of soil of rhizosphere, plant growth and yield for all three types of inoculated peas as compared with non-inoculated control peas indicating that the isolated strain could be used as a common efficient biofertilizer for Pigeon pea, Sweet pea and Chick pea. It was also found that the isolate grew optimally at temperature 28°C and pH 7.0.Moreover, the isolate was sensitive to the higher concentration of NaCl (>1%) and to antibiotics- Mecillinam, Ciprofloxacin,Cotrimoxazole, Pefloxacin, Ceftazidime and Tetracycline.

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  • 352.
    Nyqvist Ghashghaian, Simon
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neurobiology of Ketamine and Addiction2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic prescription drug and has been used for general anesthesia. The research surrounding this chemical compound has revealed conflicting evidence of its potential use in health care and addiction treatment. On one side, ketamine is a widespread drug of abuse associated with neurocognitive deficits and neurotoxicity, on the other side ketamine has recently been found to have a variety of potential uses, including but not limited to; antidepressant effects, reconsolidation of drug-related memories and disrupting maladaptive rumination. Ketamine’s ability to induce psychedelic and mystic experiences, reconsolidation of memories, antidepressant effects, and its ability to reduce cue-induced drug craving makes it a potentially useful tool in drug abuse therapy. Most of the negative side-effects of ketamine seem to be apparent at high doses and in frequent use but low doses and non-frequent use has a low risk of harm, therefore, careful consideration and extensive research are required before ketamine can be widely used in the public and in health care for treatment strategies. This thesis aims to explore the role of ketamine and its neurobiological effects in the treatment of addiction and depression.

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    fulltext
  • 353.
    O'Hanlon, Carrie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Effects of adiponectin on placental gene expression and nutrient transport2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity during pregnancy (a BMI of 30kg/m2 and over) is a key risk factor for a number of diseases including gestational diabetes. It is thought that mothers who are obese tend to give birth to babies who are large for their gestational age (LGA) and potentially more susceptible further health complications during early childhood and beyond. As approximately 2/3 of women in the USA are entering pregnancy as overweight (BMI > 25) or obese the possibility of creating a vicious cycle of intra-uterine transmission of metabolic disease inherited from the mother to child is a growing problem. Pregnant women with low concentrations of circulating adiponectin (APN) in their first trimester are more likely to develop gestational diabetes than patients with normal levels, implying a causal link to insulin resistivity. Obese pregnant women who have lower APN levels have a difficulty controlling placental homeostasis and this is thought to cause perturbations in the maternal-supply/fetal-demand model leading to excess fetal nutrients. This study aimed to investigate the effects of APN on placental gene expression of nutrient transporters. Results show that over-abundance of circulating APN where both dams and fetuses are APN transgenic, show significantly increased placental estrogen receptor-α expression and lower expression when that same genotype is exposed to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. Over-abundance of APN also appears to normalize expression of SNAT2 and LPL as a deficiency in APN appears to cause reduced SNAT2 expression and compensatory LPL expression. As fetal weights were not increased in obese pregnancies in either strain of dams yet placenta weights generally increased, there appears to be an APN-independent mechanism working in knockout placentas to protect the fetus from excess growth alongside a possible disconnect between mTOR and SNAT2 signalling. In conclusion, there are still undiscovered mechanisms protecting the fetus against overgrowth in mice that don’t produce APN. It is also evident that mice that had higher levels of APN were protected against excess nutrient transport in obese diets and that APN likely ensures optimal concentrations of each nutrient type reach the fetus.

  • 354.
    Olivé, Montse
    et al.
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Neuromuscular Unit, Department of Neurology / CIBERNED, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain.
    Abdul-Hussein, Saba
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Oldfors, Anders
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    González-Costello, José
    Department of Cardiology, Barcelona, Spain.
    van der Ven, Peter F. M.
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Fürst, Dieter O.
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    González, Laura
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Neuromuscular Unit, Department of Neurology.
    Moreno, Dolores
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology, Barcelona, Spain.
    Torrejón-Escribano, Benjamín
    Scientific and Technical Services Facility, Biology Unit, CCiTUB, IDIBELL-University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Alió, Josefina
    Department of Cardiology, Barcelona, Spain.
    Pou, Adolf
    Department of Neurology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ferrer, Isidro
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERNED, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Clinical and Medical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    New cardiac and skeletal protein aggregate myopathy associated with combined MuRF1 and MuRF3 mutations2015Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 24, nr 13, s. 3638-3650, artikel-id 108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein aggregate myopathies (PAMs) define muscle disorders characterized by protein accumulation in muscle fibres. We describe a new PAM in a patient with proximal muscle weakness and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, whose muscle fibres contained inclusions containing myosin and myosin-associated proteins, and aberrant distribution of microtubules. These lesions appear as intact A- and M-bands lacking thin filaments and Z-discs. These features differ from inclusions in myosin storage myopathy (MSM), but are highly similar to those in mice deficient for the muscle-specific RING finger proteins MuRF1 and MuRF3. Sanger sequencing excluded mutations in the MSM-associated gene MYH7 but identified mutations in TRIM63 and TRIM54, encoding MuRF1 and MuRF3, respectively. No mutations in other potentially disease-causing genes were identified by Sanger and whole exome sequencing. Analysis of seven family members revealed that both mutations segregated in the family but only the homozygous TRIM63 null mutation in combination with the heterozygous TRIM54 mutation found in the proband caused the disease phenotype. Both MuRFs are microtubule-associated proteins localizing to sarcomeric M-bands and Z-discs. They are E3 ubiquitin ligases that play a role in degradation of sarcomeric proteins, stabilization of microtubules and myogenesis. Lack of ubiquitin and the 20S proteasome subunit in the inclusions found in the patient suggested impaired turnover of thick filament proteins. Disruption of microtubules in cultured myotubes was rescued by transient expression of wild-type MuRF1. The unique features of this novel myopathy point to defects in homeostasis of A-band proteins in combination with instability of microtubules as cause of the disease.

  • 355.
    Olivé, Montse
    et al.
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Neuromuscular Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERNED, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain.
    Abdul-Hussein, Saba
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Oldfors, Anders
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    González-Costello, José
    Department of Cardiology, Barcelona, Spain.
    van der Ven, Peter F. M.
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Fürst, Dieter O.
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    González, Laura
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Neuromuscular Unit, Department of Neurology.
    Moreno, Dolores
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology, Barcelona, Spain.
    Torrejón-Escribano, Benjamín
    Scientific and Technical Services Facility, Biology Unit, CCiTUB, IDIBELL-University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Alió, Josefina
    Department of Cardiology, Barcelona, Spain.
    Pou, Adolf
    Department of Neurology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ferrer, Isidro
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERNED, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    New cardiac and skeletal protein aggregate myopathy associated with combined MuRF1 and MuRF3 mutations: [Human Molecular Genetics, 24, 13, (2015) 3638-3650] DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddv108 [Erratum]2015Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 24, nr 21, s. 6264-6264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 356.
    Olofsson, Emmie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Children of Divorce: Long-Term Psychological Effects and Neurological Consequences2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has examined what long-term psychological and neurological effects that are apparent in children and adults who have experienced parental divorce. It was predicted that significantly more children and adult children from divorced families would have increased symptoms of mental disorders than children and adult children from married homes e.g., anxiety, depression, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. It was further predicted that parental divorce would negatively affect the neurological system in the offspring. The correlation between children of divorce and negative neurological effects was not found to be true. However, adult children of divorce have significantly lower baseline cortisol levels compared to adult children of marriage. Dysregulated cortisol levels are highly associated with the development of e.g., anxiety, depression, and brain damage. Parental divorce did not only influence how secretion of the hormone cortisol is regulated within adult children of divorce, but how both children and adult children of divorce psychologically adapt postdivorce. Children of divorce have for instance lower general well-being, more symptoms of anxiety and depression, lower self-esteem, and feel more stress than children of marriage. Adult children of divorce are more likely to experience marital discord, getting divorced themselves, anxiety and depression, lower academic performance, and substance abuse, etc. The result of the thesis suggests that children and adult children from divorced families are negatively affected, both psychologically and neurologically, regardless of age. Parental divorce and supplementary effects make it more likely for children and adult children to experience more symptoms of mental disorders.

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    Children of Divorce
  • 357.
    Olowe, Omorinsola
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Temporal Dynamics of Emotion Regulation Strategies: An ERP Study2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Distraction and cognitive reappraisal are two widely used types of emotional regulation strategies that are thought to be reliable when down-regulating our emotions to negative or unpleasant stimuli. Gross‘s process model of emotion generation (Gross, 1998) holds that they differ in the time they intervene in the emotiongenerative process and also how they impact emotional responses when they are used to regulate negative emotions. Distraction which involves attentional deployment is expected to operate earlier than reappraisal that entails meaning evaluation and reevaluation. Cognitive reappraisal encompasses various strategies that are used to regulate our emotions through reinterpretation. Self-focused and situation-focused reappraisal are two of them. The former is considered more efficient and thus would lead to a greater attenuation of the LPPthan the latter. To test this prediction, electrocortical responses to angry faces when using these strategies were measured using the late positive potential (LPP). Twenty four healthy participants were recruited for the study and were cued to down-regulate their emotions using these strategies while angry and neutral facial stimuli were seen on a computer screen. Contrary to prediction, distraction did not modulate the LPP earlier than reappraisal. However, supporting our hypothesis self-focused strategies largely modulated the LPP than situation-focused strategy. The pattern of result suggests that reappraisal might have an influence on the early neural processes of emotion generation and that the subcategories of cognitive reappraisal have a differential effect on emotional regulation.

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  • 358.
    Olson, Emelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Effects on the Hippocampal Volume and Function: Stress and Depression Versus Physical Exercise2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, changes in the human hippocampal volume and function induced by stress, depression and physical exercise are examined. Hippocampus is crucially involved in the acquisition and retrieval of episodic and spatial memory, and hippocampal volume correlates with episodic and spatial memory performance. Hippocampus has substantial plasticity and changes with age, but also in response to experiential factors across life. Stress and, under at least some circumstances, also depression have negative effects on hippocampal volume and memory function. The negative effects are believed to accelerate age-related decline in volume and function, mediated by exaggerated cortisol levels and dysfunction in the HPA-axis. Physical exercise is examined from two perspectives; aerobic and strength exercise. Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume across various ages and decelerates age-related hippocampal degeneration, whereas support for strength exercise-induced effects are mixed and need to be studied further. The positive effects are believed to be mediated by increased BDNF levels and regional cerebral blood volume. Although hippocampal volume normally correlates with hippocampus-dependent memory, studies on exercise-induced changes in human hippocampus-dependent memory have reported inconsistent results. Animal studies have observed both the negative and positive effects on hippocampal volume to relate to changes in neurogenesis, cell proliferation, and dendritic complexity. The negative and positive effects on hippocampal volume have been observed to be non-permanent, suggesting that physical exercise may prevent, attenuate and possibly reverse hippocampal degeneration induced by stress and depression. Further, more studies on sex and age differences, exercise intervention designs and functional values of physical exercise would be of value.

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  • 359.
    Olsson, Björn E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Korsakova, Ekaterina S.
    Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia.
    Anan'ina, Lyudmila N.
    Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia.
    Pyankova, Anna A.
    Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia.
    Mavrodi, Olga V.
    Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, USA.
    Plotnikova, Elena G.
    Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia.
    Mavrodi, Dmitri V.
    Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, USA.
    Draft genome sequences of strains Salinicola socius SMB35T, Salinicola sp. MH3R3–1 and Chromohalobacter sp. SMB17 from the Verkhnekamsk potash mining region of Russia2017Ingår i: Standards in Genomic Sciences, ISSN 1944-3277, E-ISSN 1944-3277, Vol. 12, nr 39, s. 1-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Halomonads are moderately halophilic bacteria that are studied as models of prokaryotic osmoadaptation and sources of enzymes and chemicals for biotechnological applications. Despite the progress in understanding the diversity of these organisms, our ability to explain ecological, metabolic, and biochemical traits of halomonads at the genomic sequence level remains limited. This study addresses this gap by presenting draft genomes of Salinicola socius SMB35T, Salinicola sp. MH3R3-1 and Chromohalobacter sp. SMB17, which were isolated from potash mine tailings in the Verkhnekamsk salt deposit area of Russia. The analysis of these genomes confirmed the importance of ectoines and quaternary amines to the capacity of halomonads to tolerate osmotic stress and adapt to hypersaline environments. The study also revealed that Chromohalobacter and Salinicola share 75-90% of the predicted proteome, but also harbor a set of genus-specific genes, which in Salinicola amounted to approximately 0.5 Mbp. These genus-specific genome segments may contribute to the phenotypic diversity of the Halomonadaceae and the ability of these organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions and colonize new ecological niches.

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  • 360.
    Olsson, H. A. Joakim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    An evaluation of the Integrated Information Theory against some central problems of consciousness2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis evaluates the integrated information theory (IIT) by looking at how it may answer

    some central problems of consciousness that the author thinks any theory of consciousness

    should be able to explain. The problems concerned are the mind-body problem, the hard

    problem, the explanatory gap, the binding problem, and the problem of objectively detecting

    consciousness. The IIT is a computational theory of consciousness thought to explain the rise

    of consciousness. First the mongrel term consciousness is defined to give a clear idea of what

    is meant by consciousness in this thesis; followed by a presentation of the IIT, its origin, main

    ideas, and some implications of the theory. Thereafter the problems of consciousness will be

    presented, and the explanation the IIT gives will be investigated. In the discussion, some not

    perviously—in the thesis—discussed issues regarding the theory will be lifted. The author

    finds the IIT to hold explanations to each of the problems discussed. Whether the

    explanations are satisfying is questionable.

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    Evaluation_of_IIT
  • 361.
    Olsson, Joakim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Narcissism - Brain and Behavior: Self-Views and Empathy in the Narcissistic Brain2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reviews both psychological and neural research in the fields of self-evaluation, self-views and self-enhancement bias. The research has made associations to grandiosity and need for admiration, which are two of the defining characteristics of narcissistic personality disorder. Neural correlates associated with this research are the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posteromedial cortex and anterior insula. Narcissists have been seen to have a decreased form of emotional empathy even though they rate themselves to have higher emotional empathy than they actually have, which is linked to self-enhancement bias and grandiosity. Alexithymia has not gained much attention in relation to narcissism, but research presented suggests that this might need to change. Neural correlates that are associated with lack of emotional empathy and alexithymia are the anterior insula, frontoparalimbic areas and the medial prefrontal cortex. Narcissistic personality disorder is in the DSM-5 specified to be defined by a grandiose sense of self, a need for admiration, and a lack of empathy in either fantasy or behavior. However according to researchers in the field this only covers a part of the spectrum of narcissism. Deficits in the DSM-5 will he highlighted, as well as suggestions on what to do in order to help clarify the definition in DSM-5 and the concept in general.

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  • 362.
    Orio, Alessandro
    et al.
    SLU, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Anders
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Luzenczyk, Anna
    Morski Instytut Rybacki, Poland.
    Berg, Casper
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Ustups, Didzis
    BIOR, Latvia.
    Artemenkov, Dmitriy
    Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, Russia.
    Schade, Franziska
    Thünen-Institut, Germany.
    Kornilovs, Georgs
    BIOR, Latvia.
    Degel, Henrik
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Strehlow, Harry
    Thünen-Institut, Germany.
    Karpushevskiy, Igor
    AtlantNIRO, Russia.
    Horbowy, Jan
    Morski Instytut Rybacki, Poland.
    Raitaniemi, Jari
    Luke Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Boje, Jesper
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    SLU, Sweden.
    Lövgren, Johan
    SLU, Sweden.
    Pönni, Jukka
    Luke Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Hommik, Kristiina
    Öhman, Kristin
    SLU, Sweden.
    Eero, Margit
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Plikshs, Maris
    BIOR, Latvia.
    Casini, Michele
    SLU, Sweden.
    Bergenius, Mikaela
    SLU, Sweden.
    Mosegaard, Henrik
    Holmgren, Noel
    SLU, Sweden.
    Norrström, Niclas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kaljuste, Olavi
    SLU, Sweden.
    Jounela, Pekka
    Luke Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Statkus, Romas
    Lithuania.
    Jonusas, Stanislovas
    European Commission.
    Neuenfeldt, Stefan
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Stoetera, Sven
    Thünen-Institut, Germany.
    Raid, Tiit
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Mildenberger, Tobias
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Gröhsler, Tomas
    Thünen-Institut, Germany.
    Krumme, Uwe
    Thünen-Institut, Germany.
    Amosova, Viktoriia
    AtlantNIRO, Russia.
    Grygiel, Wlodzimierz
    Morski Instytut Rybacki, Poland.
    Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep
    SLU, Sweden.
    Mirny, Zuzanna
    Morski Instytut Rybacki, Poland.
    Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS): 19-26 April 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS) met 19-26 April 2017(Chair: Tomas Gröhsler, Germany and Co-chair: Michele Casini, Sweden), with 41 participants and 9 countries represented. The objective of WGBFAS was to assess the status of the following stocks: Sole in Division 3.a, SDs 20–24; Cod in Kattegat, Cod in SDs 22–24, Cod in SDs 25–32; Herring in SDs 25–27, 28.2, 29 and 32, Herring in SD 28.1 (Gulf of Riga), Herring in SDs 30-31 (Gulf of Bothnia); Sprat in SDs 22–32; Plaice in SDs 21–23, Plaice in SDs 24–25; Flounder in SDs 22–23, in SDs 24–25, in SDs 26+28 and SDs 27+29–32; Brill in SDs 22–32, Dab in SDs 22–32 and Turbot in SDs 22–32. WGBFAS also identified the data needed for next year’s data call with some suggestions for improvements in the data call, and stock-specific research needs.The report contains an introduction with the summary of other WGs relevant for the WGBFAS, the methods used, and ecosystem considerations. The results of the analytical stock assessment or survey trends for the species listed above are then presented with all the stocks with the same species in the same sections. The report ends with references, recommendations, links to Stock Annexes and list of Working Documents.The principle analytical models used for the stock assessments were XSA and SAM. For most flatfishes and cod in SDs 25–32 (data limited stocks), CPUE trends from bottomtrawl surveys were used in the assessment (except plaice in SDs 24–25 for which relative SSB from SAM was used). For the data limited stocks, reference points based on length-based indicators were estimated (except cod in SDs 25-32 for which relative reference points were estimated using the SPiCT model). For cod in SDs 25–32, intersessional work was planned to hopefully allow returning to an analytical stock assessment in the near future. Ecosystem changes have been analytically considered in the following stock assessments: Herring in SD 25–27, 28.2, 29 and 32, and Sprat in SD 22–32, in form of cod predation mortality.

  • 363.
    Ozuemba, Bartholomew
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Masilamani, Twinkle J.
    Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Loiselle, Julie J.
    Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Koenderink, Benjamin
    AMRIC, Health Sciences North, Sudbury, Canada.
    Vanderbeck, Kaitlin A.
    School of Human Kinetics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Knee, Jose
    AMRIC, Health Sciences North, Sudbury, Canada.
    Lariviere, Celine
    Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada / School of Human Kinetics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Sutherland, Leslie C.
    Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada / AMRIC, Health Sciences North, Sudbury, Canada / Division of Medical Sciences, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada / Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Canada / Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    Co- and post-transcriptional regulation of Rbm5 and Rbm10 in mouse cells as evidenced by tissue-specific, developmental and disease-associated variation of splice variant and protein expression levels2016Ingår i: Gene, ISSN 0378-1119, E-ISSN 1879-0038, Vol. 580, nr 1, s. 26-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Expression and function of the two RNA binding proteins and regulators of alternative splicing, RBM5 and RBM10, have largely been studied in human tissue and cell lines. The objective of the study described herein was to examine their expression in mouse tissue, in order to lay the framework for comprehensive functional studies using mouse models. Methods: All RNA variants of Rbm5 and Rbm10 were examined in a range of normal primary mouse tissues. RNA and protein were examined in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts and in denervated and dystonin-deficient mouse skeletal muscle. Results: All Rbm5 and Rbm10 variants examined were expressed in all mouse tissues and cell lines. In general, Rbm5 and Rbm10 RNA expression was higher in brain than in skin. RNA expression levels were more varied between cardiac and skeletal muscle, depending on the splice variant: for instance, Rbm10v1 RNA was higher in skeletal than cardiac muscle, whereas Rbm10v3 RNA was higher in cardiac than skeletal muscle. In mouse brain, cardiac and skeletal muscle, RNA encoding an approximately 17 kDa potential paralogue of a small human RBM10 isoform was detected, and the protein observed in myoblasts and myotubes. Expression of Rbm5 and Rbm10 RNA remained constant during C2C12 myogenesis, but protein levels significantly decreased. In two muscle disease models, neither Rbml 0 nor Rbm5 showed significant transcriptional changes, although significant specific alternative splicing changes of Rbm5 pre-mRNA were observed. Increased RBM10 protein levels were observed following denervation. Conclusions: The varied co-transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation aspects of Rbm5 and Rbm10 expression associated with mouse tissues, myogenesis and muscle disease states suggest that a mouse model would be an interesting and useful model in which to study comprehensive functional aspects of RBM5 and RBM10. 

  • 364.
    Padvitski, Tsimafei
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. CECAD University of Cologne.
    Integrative analysis of age-related changes in the transcriptome of Caenorhabditis elegans2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing is difficult to study because of the complexity and multi-factorial nature of traits that result from a combination of environmental, genetic, epigenetic and stochastic factors, each contributing to the overall phenotype. In light of this challenge, transcriptomic studies of aging organisms are of particular interest, since transcription is an intermediate step that links genotype and phenotype.

    In recent years microarrays have been widely used for elucidation of changes that occur with age in the transcriptome in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, different microarray studies of C. elegans report sets of differentially expressed genes of varying consistence, with different functional annotations. Failures to find a consistent set of transcriptomic alterations may reflect the absence of a specific genetic program that would guide age-related changes but may also, to some extent, be a consequence of a small sample sizes and a lack of study power in transcriptomic researches. To tackle this issue we analyzed RNA sequences of samples from a time-series experiment of normal aging of C. elegans, performing the first, to our knowledge, NGS-based study of such kind. As a result, evidences were collected that promote a union of two competing theories: the theory of DNA damage accumulation and the theory of programmed aging.

    Next, we applied two alternative methods, namely the Short Time-series Expression Mining and the Network Smoothing algorithm, in order to obtain and analyze sets of genes that represent distinct modules of age-related changes in the transcriptome. Besides characterization of age-related changes, we were also interested in assessment and validation of the Network Smoothing algorithm. Generally, results of clustering of smoothed scores are consistent with results of short time-series clustering, allowing robust elucidation of functions that are perturbed during aging.

    At the last phase of the project we questioned if observed changes in the transcriptome can be controlled by specific transcription factors. Thus we used Chip-seq data to predict plausible transcription factor regulators of gene sets obtained using time series clustering and Network smoothing. On the one hand, all predicted transcription factors had documented relevance to aging. On the other hand, we did not achieve gene set specific prediction of transcription factors. In fact, genes with the opposite dynamics were predicted to respond to the same transcription factors. 

    To summarize, we characterized in details age-related changes in the transcriptome of C. elegans, validated the performance of the Network Smoothing algorithm and showed that integration of gene expression with Chip-seq data allows to predict transcription factors that are capable to modulate the lifespan of C. elegans.

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  • 365.
    Parthemore, Joel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    A cognitive semiotic perspective on the nature and limitations of concepts and conceptual frameworks2016Ingår i: Meaning, Mind and Communication: Explorations in Cognitive Semiotics / [ed] Jordan Zlatev, Göran Sonesson, Piotr Konderak, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016, s. 47-68Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Known under the potentially misleading rubric of “knowledge representation” in cognitive science, theories of concepts represent both a subfield within philosophy of mind and an application area for cognitive semiotics. They describe the properties of conceptual thought, typically through a listing of those properties: minimally taken to include systematicity, productivity, compositionality, intentionality, and endogenous control. Beyond that point, most things are up for grabs. Debate rages over such questions as whether concepts are representations or abilities; likewise unclear is whether they are essentially public or largely private, discrete or continuous, stable or dynamic, transparent or translucent or opaque. Cognitive semiotics helps clarify discussion over an inevitably abstract area in a number of key ways: through its grounding in semiotics, showing how concepts both are entwined with language (intrinsically public) and pull apart from it; through its roots in phenomenology, showing how concepts both are and are not representations; through its focus on meaning as a dynamic process, showing how concepts’ relative stability belies an underlying dynamics; through its deep resonance with enactive philosophy, showing how concepts impose seemingly sharp boundaries onto underlying continuities; through its bold refusal to shy away from apparent contradictions and paradox, revealing how concepts both reveal the world and simultaneously hide it from us. As a concrete example, I discuss the conceptual nature of metaphor from a cognitive semiotic perspective. I show how – given the problematic nature of so-called literal meaning – the crucial distinction is not between literal and metaphorical meanings, but between tertiary/novel meanings and primary/secondary ones: between meanings that call attention to themselves and those that do not, where only the former are appropriately termed “metaphors”. The lesson is not that all meaning is metaphorical but rather that the line between metaphor and non-metaphor is pragmatic rather than absolute, conceptual rather than ontological.

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  • 366.
    Parthemore, Joel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Consciousness, semiosis, and the unbinding problem2017Ingår i: Language & Communication, ISSN 0271-5309, E-ISSN 1873-3395, Vol. 54, s. 36-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Any wider discussion of semiosis must address not only how semiosis came about, in terms of evolutionary pressures and requisite cognitive infrastructure, but also – as importantly, and too easily forgotten – how human beings experience and have experienced it, and how that experience reflects (at the same time shaping) its development. Much discussion has focused on resolving how inputs from external sensory modalities combine with internal brain processes to produce unified consciousness: the so-called binding problem. One might wish to distinguish between the coming together of conscious experience in terms of underlying mechanics and the seemingly unavoidable reality that human beings experience a consciousness that is, from the onset, phenomenally unified. The unbinding problem is shown to be potentially just as important to telling the story.

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  • 367.
    Parthemore, Joel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Understanding empathy: Metaphysical starting assumptions in the modeling of empathy and emotions2017Ingår i: Proceedings of AISB Annual Convention 2017: Society with AI / [ed] Joanna Bryson, Marina De Vos, Julian Padget, Bath, UK: The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour (AISB) , 2017, s. 263-267Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has three main purposes: to set out the relationship between empathy and related phenomena, including emotional contagion; to explain how metaphysical starting assumptions regarding the nature of empathy predispose one toward one or another account of these phenomena and toward different interpretations of the same empirical data -- often radically different; and to use recent discussions of empathy in the phenomenological and enactive communities (in particular their rejection of theory of mind accounts) to put forward a radical proposal. In the paradigmatic cases, one feels that one is feeling (at least some substantive portion of) what another person is feeling: “I feel your pain”. But there are certain intense experiences along with certain related but less intense ones where there is, I claim, a single joint experience among two or more individuals. One could call these experiences “extreme” empathy. This is how phenomenologists should, I think, cash out the frequent claim that in many circumstances, one agent “directly” experiences the emotional state of another without requiring the mediation of anything like theory of mind.

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  • 368.
    Patel, Angana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Unraveling the molecular mechanism behind metabolic reprogramming caused by alterations of the enzyme PI3-kinase2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes play a key role in cancer induction and progression. Theydirectly or indirectly regulate critical metabolic pathways, phosphatidylinositol‐3 kinase pathwaybeing frequently activated pathway in cancer. The catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol‐4,5‐bisphosphate 3‐kinase (PI3K), p110α, is the most frequently mutated kinase in human cancer, E542K,E545K, and H1047R mutations being the most common. Expression of hepatic E545K and H1047Rp110α mutants in vivo shows marked and rapid increase in hepatic lipid and glycogen accumulationin mice with developmental (chronic) liver‐specific deletion of p110α, which was not seen in micewhen wildtype p110α is overexpressed. To investigate the logical pathways that could explain thelipid accumulation in mutant expressing mice, RNA sequencing from wildtype, knockout and mutatedmouse livers was performed. Read alignment and count quantification was done using the Rsubreadpackage and the statistical analyses are performed using the DeSeq2 package. Differentiallyexpressed genes were identified with adjusted p‐value of 0.05. Gene ontology analysis wasperformed on the differentially expressed genes using clusterProfiler, an R package to identifyseveral key pathways which were upregulated and downregulated among the different samplegroups. Signaling pathways related to cell cycle processes were mainly upregulated in the mutatedsamples when compared with the wildtype as well as knockout samples while signaling pathwaysrelated to many metabolic processes seem to be downregulated in mutated samples, even thoughthese mutants showed upregulated metabolism by accumulation of lipids and glycogenphysiologically. To confirm the results of gene expression data the results have to be cross validatedwith the gold standard quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

  • 369.
    Patel, Angana Heet
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Unravelingthe molecular mechanism behind metabolic reprogramming caused by alterations of the enzyme PI3-kinase2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes play a key role in cancer induction and progression. They directly or indirectly regulate critical metabolic pathways, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway being frequently activated pathway in cancer. The catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K), p110α, is the most frequently mutated kinase in human cancer, E542K, E545K, and H1047R mutations being the most common. Expression of hepatic E545K and H1047R p110α mutants in vivo shows marked and rapid increase in hepatic lipid and glycogen accumulation in mice with developmental (chronic) liver-specific deletion of p110α, which was not seen in mice when wildtype p110α is overexpressed. To investigate the logical pathways that could explain the lipid accumulation in mutant expressing mice, RNA sequencing from wildtype, knockout and mutated mouse livers was performed. Read alignment and count quantification was done using the Rsubread package and the statistical analyses are performed using the DeSeq2 package. Differentially expressed genes were identified with adjusted p-value of 0.05. Gene ontology analysis was performed on the differentially expressed genes using clusterProfiler, an R package to identify several key pathways which were upregulated and downregulated among the different sample groups. Signaling pathways related to cell cycle processes were mainly upregulated in the mutated samples when compared with the wildtype as well as knockout samples while signaling pathways related to many metabolic processes seem to be downregulated in mutated samples, even though these mutants showed upregulated metabolism by accumulation of lipids and glycogen physiologically. To confirm the results of gene expression data the results have to be cross validated with the gold standard quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

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  • 370.
    Paul, Sudip Kumar
    et al.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh / Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh.
    Islam, Md Shofikul
    Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh.
    Hasibuzzaman, M. M.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Faruk
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Anjum, Adiba
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saud, Zahangir Alam
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Haque, Md Mominul
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Sultana, Papia
    Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Haque, Azizul
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, United States.
    Andric, Klara Biljana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Rahman, Aminur
    The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, SE 701 82, Sweden.
    Karim, M. Rezaul
    Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Bangladesh.
    Siddique, Abu Eabrahim
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Karim, Yeasir
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Mizanur
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Miyataka, Hideki
    Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima, Japan.
    Xin, Lian
    Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Japan.
    Himeno, Seiichiro
    Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Japan.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Higher risk of hyperglycemia with greater susceptibility in females in chronic arsenic-exposed individuals in Bangladesh2019Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 668, s. 1004-1012Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) toxicity and diabetes mellitus (DM) are emerging public health concerns worldwide. Although exposure to high levels of As has been associated with DM, whether there is also an association between low and moderate As exposure and DM remains unclear. We explored the dose-dependent association between As exposure levels and hyperglycemia, with special consideration of the impact of demographic variables, in 641 subjects from rural Bangladesh. The total study participants were divided into three groups depending on their levels of exposure to As in drinking water (low, moderate and high exposure groups). Prevalence of hyperglycemia, including impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and DM was significantly associated with the subjects’ drinking water arsenic levels. Almost all exposure metrics (As levels in the subjects’ drinking water, hair and nails) showed dose-dependent associations with the risk of hyperglycemia, IGT and DM. Among the variables considered, sex, age, and BMI were found to be associated with higher risk of hyperglycemia, IGT and DM. In sex-stratified analyses, As exposure showed a clearer pattern of dose-dependent risk for hyperglycemia in females than males. Finally, drinking water containing low-to-moderate levels of As (50.01–150 μg/L) was found to confer a greater risk of hyperglycemia than safe drinking water (As ≤10 μg/L). Thus the results suggested that As exposure was dose-dependently associated with hyperglycemia, especially in females. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

  • 371.
    Pendharkar, Sonal
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brandsborg, Erik
    Bifodan AS, Hundested, Denmark.
    Hammarström, Lennart
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marcotte, Harold
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Kärnsjukhuset, Skaraborg hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Vaginal colonisation by probiotic lactobacilli and clinical outcome in women conventionally treated for bacterial vaginosis and yeast infection2015Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 15, s. 1-12, artikel-id 255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the colonisation by lactobacilli and clinical outcome in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (R-VVC) receiving antibiotic or anti-fungal treatment in combination with the probiotic EcoVag(R) capsules. Methods: A total of 40 Scandinavian women diagnosed with BV or VVC on the basis of Amsel's criteria or clinical symptoms were consecutively recruited in two pilot open label clinical trials. In trial I, women with BV were treated with clindamycin and metronidazole followed by vaginal EcoVag(R) capsules, containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus DSM 14870 and Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 14869, for 5 consecutive days after each antibiotic treatment. In trial II, women were recruited in three groups as follows: women with BV receiving clindamycin and metronidazole treatment together with a prolonged administration of EcoVag(R) (10 consecutive days after each antibiotic treatment followed by weekly administration of capsules for next four months), women with R-VVC receiving extended fluconazole and EcoVag(R) treatment, and women receiving extended fluconazole treatments only. The difference in frequency of isolation of EcoVag(R) strains or other lactobacilli between groups was compared by Fisher's exact test. Results: The 6-month cure rate for BV was 50 % in trial I while both the 6- and 12-month cure rates were 67 % in trial II. The 6- and 12-month cure rates for VVC were 100 % and 89 % in women receiving fluconazole and EcoVag(R), and 100 % and 70 % in women receiving fluconazole only. The frequency of isolation of any Lactobacillus species during the course of the study was associated with cure of BV in trial I and II, whereas the frequency of isolation of EcoVag(R) strains was significantly associated with the cure of BV in trial II only. As previously observed, a change in sexual partner was associated with relapse of BV with an Odds ratio of 77 (95 % CI: 2.665 to 2225). Conclusions: The study suggests that the treatment with antibiotics or anti-fungal medication in combination with EcoVag(R) capsules provide long-term cure against BV and R-VVC as compared to previous reports.

  • 372.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Personality Neuroscience and Dark Values2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality neuroscience offers a new theory of the biological basis of personality traits. It involves the use of neuroscientific methodologies to study individual differences in behavior, motivation, emotion, and cognition. Personality psychology has contributed much in identifying the important dimensions of personality, but relatively little to understanding the biological sources of those dimensions. In recent years, personality psychology has become the foundation for the study of personality disorders, and by extension, neuroscience. First, I provide a theoretical foundation for the neuroscience of normal and abnormal personality traits. Second, I conduct two empirical studies on deviant personality traits captured by the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and relate them to universal human values. Study I shows that darker personalities endorse values that are self-enhancing, and that justify self-serving behavior. Study II investigates the relationship between the aforementioned constructs and empathy based on the idea that empathy is an important moderating factor of dark traits. In the discussion, suggestions for future studies in neuroscience are presented, as well as some limitations relating to the constructs.

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  • 373.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Finland.
    Searching for Machiavelli but Finding Psychopathy and Narcissism2019Ingår i: Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, ISSN 1949-2715, E-ISSN 1949-2723, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 235-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Machiavellianism is a psychological construct reflecting individual differences in manipulative and strategic thinking, pragmatic morality, and a cynical outlook on life. A recent stream of research has shown that Machiavellianism and psychopathy seem to be redundant constructs and that measures of Machiavellianism do not correspond well with theoretical expectations. In the present study, I juxtapose multiple measures of Machiavellianism against normal (i.e., the five-factor model and HEXACO) and abnormal (e.g., narcissism, psychopathy, impulsivity, and personality dysfunction) personality traits in an online sample (N = 591). Using Goldberg’s (2006) Bass–Ackwards approach, I investigate whether typical Machiavellian traits can be found anywhere in the construct hierarchy by comparing the levels of the hierarchy with expert-rated five-factor model prototypes of Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and external correlates. Our results indicate that measures of Machiavellianism mostly reflect psychopathy and narcissism. The implications of these results are discussed, including what the future may hold for Machiavellianism.

     

  • 374.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Lilienfeld, Scott O.
    Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States of America / School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Social status as one key indicator of successful psychopathy: An initial empirical investigation2019Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 141, s. 209-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder that researchers have subdivided into two types: successful and unsuccessful. Nevertheless, little headway has been made regarding how to conceptualize and operationalize success. We consider various accounts of success from the existing literature and make the case for a two-dimensional view of successful psychopathy. Specifically, we contend that successful psychopathy can be conceptualized with two conditions in mind: (a) high social status and (b) lack of serious antisocial behavior. We emphasize that high social status, best described using socioeconomic status (SES), has been largely overlooked in the literature. We tested this idea using a sample of 591 participants who received measures of the triarchic model of psychopathy (i.e., boldness, meanness, and disinhibition), SES, and personality dysfunction. The results demonstrated that, as predicted, the putatively adaptive features of psychopathy (i.e., boldness) were positively related to SES and personality functioning. In contrast, the putatively maladaptive psychopathy features disinhibition and meanness were negatively related to personality functioning, and disinhibition was negatively related to SES. The relevance of boldness to psychopathy and the benefits of conceptualizing success as a continuous variable are discussed.

  • 375.
    Persson, Björn N.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Blekinge Center of Competence, Region Blekinge, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Current Directions in Psychiatric Classification: From the DSM to RDoC2019Ingår i: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa, Cham: Springer, 2019, 1, s. 253-268Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 376.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dark and bright values: The Dark Triad and empathy relating to universal values2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an emphasis on self-enhancing values in present-day society. Empathy is shown to be declining and callousness increasing.This two-study research set out to analyze dark personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and brightpersonality traits (emotional and cognitive empathy), and their predictive validity on universal value types. Using a sample ofSwedes and Americans (N = 385), the Dark Triad (SD3) correlated significantly with all value types (Schwartz’s 10 values), forminga sinusoid pattern which aligned with the circumplex value model. Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated withthe self-enhancing values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the self-enhancing valuesHedonism and Power. Using a middle-aged US sample, cognitive and emotional empathy (IRI) were positively related to the selftranscendingvalues of Universalism and Benevolence and negatively with the self-enhancement values of Achievement and Power.In addition, both the dark and bright personality traits explained significant variance over the basic Big Five traits in universal values.Given the complex of values accounted for, we argue that these results account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values” andself-transcending “bright values”. This research highlights that certain universal values of individual and societal relevance can bepredicted by personality traits.

  • 377.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University West, Sweden.
    Dark values: The dark triad in Schwartz’ value types2016Ingår i: Independent in the heard: Inclusion and exclusion as social processes: Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014 / [ed] Robert Thornberg & Tomas Jungert, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, s. 82-96Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 378.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Empathy and Universal Values Explicated by the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis2016Ingår i: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 156, nr 6, s. 610-619Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research reports that empathy is on the decline in present-day society together with an increasing trend in self-enhancing values. Based on the empathy-altruism hypothesis we investigated whether these constructs are interlinked, by analyzing the relationships between emotional and cognitive empathy and 10 universal values. In the first study, using a middle-aged US sample, the results showed that empathy was strongly and positively related to altruistic values and negatively to self-enhancing values in a pattern which aligned with the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In a second confirmation study, these findings were replicated and extended, while also controlling for the Big Five personality traits, to discount that empathy is only captured by basic personality. Only emotional empathy, not cognitive empathy, accounted for up to 18% additional variance in altruistic values, which further confirmed the emphasis on feelings, as postulated by the empathy-altruism hypothesis.

  • 379.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / University West, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Revisiting the Structure of the Short Dark Triad2019Ingår i: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 3-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decade, extensive interest has been directed toward the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), popularly assessed by the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Nevertheless, relatively little research has been conducted on the SD3's factor structure. We investigated the SD3's psychometric properties in three studies with three independent samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses ( N1 = 1,487; N2 = 17,740; N3 = 496). In all three studies, Machiavellianism and psychopathy items displayed large general factor loadings, and narcissism larger specific factor loadings. In subsequent studies, two- and three-factor models fitted the data similarly, with the best fitting model being a bifactor model with items from Machiavellianism and psychopathy modelled as one specific factor, and narcissism as a second specific factor. On this basis, we suggest that the SD3 does not seem to capture the different mental processes theorized to underlie the similar behaviors generated by Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Additionally, we recommend the use of a single SD3 composite score, and not subscale scores, as subscales contain small amounts of reliable variance beyond the general factor.

  • 380.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.
    Garcia, Denilo
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Testing construct independence in the Short Dark Triad using Item Response Theory2017Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 117, s. 74-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) is a popular construct for describing socially aversive personality traits. In recent years, the Short Dark Triad (SD3; Jones & Paulhus, 2014) has become a popular measure for assessing the Dark Triad constructs. However, recent research has called the supposed dissimilarity between the Dark Triad constructs into question. In particular, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that a distinction between Machiavellianism and psychopathy may not be tenable. In order to investigate this issue further, we analyzed the SD3 in a large sample (N = 1983) using Item Response Theory. We establish item response parameter estimates for each Dark Triad construct and further test whether the Dark Triad constructs can be modelled together. Results show that Machiavellianism and narcissism could not be modelled together, but the combinations Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and narcissism and psychopathy, yielded acceptable model fit. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of how the Dark Triad constructs may be interpreted and studied in the future.

  • 381.
    Persson, Emma
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Developing a web based tool for identification of disease modules2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex diseases such as cancer or obesity are thought to be caused by abnormalities in multiple  genes and cannot be derived to one specific location in the genome. It has been shown that  identification of disease associated genes can be made through looking at interaction patterns in a  protein‐protein interaction network, where the disease associated genes are represented in clusters,  or disease modules. There are several algorithms developed to infer these disease modules, but  studies have shown that the reliability of the results increase if multiple algorithms are used and a  consensus module is derived from them. MODifieR is an R package developed to combine the results  of multiple  disease module inferring algorithms and has proven to provide a stable result. To  increase usability of the R package and make it available not only for users with programmatic skills,  MODifieR Web was developed as a web based tool with a graphical user interface. The tool was built  using Angular and .NET core, invoking the MODifieR R package in the backend. The interface requires  input in the form of an expression matrix and a probe map from the user, easily uploadable in a  drag‐and‐drop  interface.  It  gives  the  user  the  possibility  to  analyze  data  using  seven  different  algorithms and provide results as gene lists and visualizes the consensus module in a network image.  MODifieR Web is a first version of an application that is a novel contribution to the existing tools for  identification of disease modules, although in need of further improvements to be able to serve a  greater  pool  of  users  in  a  more  effective  way.  The  tool  is  available  to  try  out  at   http://transbioinfo.liu.se/modifier#/home and the source code is released as an open‐source project  in Github (https://github.com/emmape/MODifieRProject).  

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  • 382.
    Pettersson, Patrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    EXEKUTIVA FÖRMÅGOR OCH PROKRASTINATION2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    De exekutiva förmågorna möjliggör avancerade kognitiva processer. Prokrastination är vår benägenhet att fördröja en planerad handling trots att fördröjningen förvärrar situationen. Denna uppsats har utforskat om det finns ett konceptuellt samband mellan konstrukten. Orsaken till prokrastinaton tros hänga samman med bristande självreglering som är sammanlänkat med de exekutiva förmågorna. Det finns ett glapp mellan intentionen och handlandet hos de som prokrastinerar. Impulsivitet tycks ligga bakom denna skillnad. Prokrastinerande individer väljer det njutningsfulla i stunden framför långsiktiga fördelar. Indikationer tyder på att de hämmande mekanismerna inom de exekutiva förmågorna inverkar i reglerandet av impulsiviteten. Individer med högre förmåga att hämma impulser är bättre på att följa sina intentioner. Direkta studier mellan de exekutiva förmågorna och prokrastination behövs för att stärka kausala samband.

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  • 383.
    Pettersson, Tove
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Correlates of Body Dissatisfaction in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: Examining the similarities between diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and body dissatisfaction2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Body dissatisfaction (BD) is a condition derived from negative thoughts and feelings about one's body and is a core symptom of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). Beingdissatisfied with one’s body is highly present in women and to some extent men. This might be a result of a skewed ideal in combination with social influences. In recent year, research on neurobiological risk factors as well as neuroscientific and cognitive mappings of AN and BD have gained traction, particularly when it comes to studies using neuroimaging- techniques and cognitive tests. Studies have identified brain regions (insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parietal cortex, amygdala, dorsolateral and orbitofrontal areas of the prefrontal cortex) associated with the processing of body shape as well as dysfunctional processing of self-image and body satisfaction. Structural imaging studies of AN patients using CT and MRI have, in many cases, found reduced cerebral volume, increased spinal fluid (CSF) and enlarged ventricles. Usually, food and water restriction has been seen as the cause, and structural deficits in AN patients have shown to improve with weight gain after long-term recovery.

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  • 384.
    Pieslinger, Johan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Social punishment: Evidence from experimental scenarios2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Punishment is the act of penalizing an individual as a response to a transgression. This thesis will deal with punishment in experimental game scenarios and in experimental criminal punishment scenarios, along with their different adaptations. The aim will be to provide an overview of both psychological and neurological underpinnings of punishment by reviewing existing literature. While punishment ought to deter transgressions and promote cooperative behavior, internal neural reward-related systems seem to be a driving factor of the desire to punish wrongdoings. Decisions on whether a transgressor is guilty and deserves punishment is mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex with an emphasis on the ventromedial parts. External influences affect the behavioral output and its underlying neural signatures of punishment. Social context such as peer pressure and in-group bias emphasize the importance of theory of mind related areas when conducting punishment.

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  • 385.
    Pieslinger, Johan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Social threat processing and emotional arousal: Associations between the Late Positive Potential and aggressive tendencies2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Aggressive behaviour can be defined as actions that are believed and intended to cause harm to another individual that does not desire to be the target of such actions. Different situations can warrant aggressive behaviour, such as when an individual is posed with a threat. Aggressive behaviour is one of the ways individuals can deal with threats arising from their environments, and furthermore, aggressive behaviour can also be used to deal with social threats that arise from the interaction between two members of the same species. Aggressive behaviour is correlated with higher emotional arousal, and individuals that illustrate aggressive tendencies should be more sensitive to arousal when confronted with a social threat. This thesis acts upon this notion by hypothesizing that individuals who score higher on a tendency for aggression measurements should exhibit higher emotional arousal when exposed to a cue of social threat. Cues of social threats are thought to be induced by exposing the participant to either an angry face or a face with a high facial width to height ratio. The emotional response is measured with electroencephalography, more specifically looking at the late positive potential. No support for the hypothesis was found between high and low aggression groups. The facial width to height ratios proposed nature of being a cue of social threat becomes contested as the results were conflicting regarding the robustness of the facial width to height ratio’s effect. Even if there were no statistically significant differences found between the two groups, it might not be subject for dismissal as the sample population could be considered a low aggression population overall.

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  • 386.
    Pinto, Nuno Alexandre
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Lucid Dreaming and Consciousness: A Theoretical Investigation2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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  • 387.
    Plan, Alexsandra
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Cultural Differences in Optimism, Pessimism and Eudaimonic Well-Being from a Neurobiological Perspective2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis provides a theoretical overview, including a neurobiological perspective, of well-being (WB), eudaimonic well-being (EWB), optimism, pessimism and cultural differences between Western and Eastern societies.  In addition, an empirical study investigated these concepts in Japanese and Swedish participants. Definitional problems and scarce neurobiological findings are two current problems to date within research on WB, EWB and cultural differences especially when looking at comparisons between Europe and East Asia. Interpretations and conclusions are therefore hard and tentative to make as more research is yet needed. This thesis empirical part therefore investigated the association between these concepts. In the best of the authors knowledge have this type of explorative study never been done before. 142 Swedish participants and 68 Japanese participants between the ages of 20 to 40 answered the self-reporting questionnaires; revised life orientation test (LOT-R), psychological well-being scale (SPWB) and the minimalist well-being scale (MWBS). The findings demonstrate that Swedish people report higher levels of optimism compared with Japanese people whom in turn report higher levels of pessimism when measured with LOT-R. Findings further demonstrate that Swedish people report higher levels of EWB when measured with SPWB. In comparison do Japanese people report higher levels of EWB when measured with MWBS. A difference was found in response pattern between MWBS and SPWB. And last did the findings suggest correlations in total scores of MWBS, SPWB and LOT-R but not within all sub-dimensions. Discussion of the results, limitations of the thesis and suggestions for future research concludes the thesis.

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    Cultural Differences in Optimism, Pessimism and Eudaimonic Well-Being from a Neurobiological Perspective
  • 388.
    Pokrzywa, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Department of Clinical and Medical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Norum, Michaela
    Department of Clinical and Medical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lengqvist, Johan
    Proteomic Core Facility, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ghobadpour, Mehrnaz
    Department of Clinical and Medical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Abdul-Hussein, Saba
    Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moslemi, Ali-Reza
    Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Developmental MYH3 Myopathy Associated with Expression of Mutant Protein and Reduced Expression Levels of Embryonic MyHC2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikel-id e0142094Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    An essential role for embryonic MyHC in foetal development has been found from its association with distal arthrogryposis syndromes, a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by congenital contractions. The latter probably result from severe myopathy during foetal development. Lack of embryonic muscle biopsy material and suitable animal models has hindered study of the pathomechanisms linking mutations in MYH3 to prenatal myopathy.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    We determined the pathomechanisms of developmental myopathy caused by recurrent p.Thr178Ile MYH3 heterozygosity, using patient-derived skeletal muscle cells in culture as an experimental disease model to emulate early embryonic development. These cultured cells were processed for discrimination and quantitative analysis of mutant and wild-type MYH3 alleles and MyHC transcripts, real-time RT-qPCR, sequence analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot, and proteomic assessments. Involvement of the ubiquitin proteasome system was investigated in patients with p.Thr178Ile mutations in MYH3 and MYH2. We found equal overall expression of mutant and wild-type MyHC mRNAs and proteins. Compared to the controls, however, expression of embryonic MyHC transcripts and proteins was reduced whereas expression of myosin-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase (MuRF1) was increased. We also found delayed myofibrillogenesis and atrophic myotubes but structured sarcomeres.

    CONCLUSION:

    In conclusion, this study suggests that developmental p.Thr178Ile MYH3 myopathy is associated with a combined pathomechanism of insufficient dosage of functional embryonic MyHC and production of mutant protein.

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  • 389.
    Postigo Peláez, Miguel Ángel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Construction of a Fusion Gene: to anchor a truncated version of the inflammatory receptor NLRP3 to the cell membrane2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammasomes are a group of protein complex that regulate inflammation throughcomplex signal transduction, although their specific mechanisms and structures have notbeen fully described. As the protein that kickstarts assembly of a type of inflammasome,NLRP3 is a key regulator of inflammation and may play a relevant role in the developmentof inflammatory diseases. In this project it has been attempted to perform a Gene Fusionbetween a segment of NLRP3 and regions of Toll-Like Receptor 4 by means of overlapextensionPCR, a technique that employs hybrid primers to create an overlap between bothsequences that can be filled by a polymerase, causing them to merge. Results suggest GeneFusion was successful, however cloning and expression of the construct have not beenachieved so far. If expressed as a fusion protein, the added transmembrane domain willanchor two domains of NLRP3 to the membrane, allowing more precise study of thecomposition and functionality of the inflammasome. Removal of the terminal domain ofNLRP3 will help determine its implication and relevance in the assembly process of theprotein complex.

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  • 390.
    Pour Akaber, Shirin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Identification of DEGs in B cells of patients with common variable immunodeficiency and healthy donors2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a rare primary immune deficiency (1:25000) in which patients have a reduction in antibody production and very low titres in one or more of their Ig isotypes, (IgG, IgA and sometimes IgM). This disease can cause different symptoms such as: bronchiectasis, chronic lung disease and even autoimmunity, polyclonal lymphocytic infiltration, lymphoma and death. The underlying causes of CVID are still largely unknown but studies show that different factors like primary B-cell dysfunctions, defects in T cells and antigen-presenting cells are involved. Quantitative analysis of gene expression is of high importance in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this diseases´ genome regulation. Next-generation RNA-seq has enabled researchers to analyse both coding and non-coding regions of RNA, and therefore has made it possible to identify differentially expressed genes in large-scale data, especially in polygenic diseases like CVID. The aim for this study was to identify the differentially expressed genes between CVID patients and healthy donors to identify important genes and molecular mechanisms underlying this diseases´ genome regulation. For this matter, whole genome RNA-seq analysis was performed on RNA isolated from sorted peripheral blood naïve and CD27bright memory B cells from healthy donors (n=7) and CVID patients (n=5). The RNA-seq data for the samples was collected and undergone several bioinformatical and analytical steps to be processed. After quality control and trimming, the data files were assembled to the human genome. Then, the transcriptomic data of the CVID patients was compared with the healthy donors to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). From this study, it was found that PAX5, ETS1, POU2AF1, SPIB, BACH 2, EBF1 and PRDM1 play an important role on regulation of the B cells and especially this disease. Also, the Ikaros family, toll-like receptors and a number of chemokine and cytokine receptors were found out to have high importance regarding CVID.

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  • 391.
    Pradip, Arvind
    et al.
    Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden / Novo Nordisk A/S, Stem Cell Development, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Steel, Daniella
    Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden / Horizon Discovery Ltd, Cambridge Research Park, Cambridge, UK.
    Jacobsson, Susanna
    Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacogenetics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden / AstraZeneca R&D, GMD CVMD GMed, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Björquist, Petter
    Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden / Novo Nordisk A/S, Stem Cell Development, Bagsværd, Denmark / NovaHep AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Inger
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacogenetics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden.
    High Content Analysis of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Hepatocytes Reveals Drug Induced Steatosis and Phospholipidosis2016Ingår i: Stem Cells International, ISSN 1687-9678, Vol. 2016, artikel-id 2475631Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatotoxicity is one of the most cited reasons for withdrawal of approved drugs from the market. The use of nonclinically relevant in vitro and in vivo testing systems contributes to the high attrition rates. Recent advances in differentiating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into pure cultures of hepatocyte-like cells expressing functional drug metabolizing enzymes open up possibilities for novel, more relevant human cell based toxicity models. The present study aimed to investigate the use of hiPSC derived hepatocytes for conducting mechanistic toxicity testing by image based high content analysis (HCA). The hiPSC derived hepatocytes were exposed to drugs known to cause hepatotoxicity through steatosis and phospholipidosis, measuring several endpoints representing different mechanisms involved in drug induced hepatotoxicity. The hiPSC derived hepatocytes were benchmarked to the HepG2 cell line and generated robust HCA data with low imprecision between plates and batches. The different parameters measured were detected at subcytotoxic concentrations and the order of which the compounds were categorized (as severe, moderate, mild, or nontoxic) based on the degree of injury at isomolar concentration corresponded to previously published data. Taken together, the present study shows how hiPSC derived hepatocytes can be used as a platform for screening drug induced hepatotoxicity by HCA.

  • 392.
    Putnik, Martina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Ljusföroreningars påverkan på fladdermöss: Sambandet mellan fladdermössarters antal och ljusföroreningar i Stockholm2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    På grund av den globalt snabba tillväxten av mänskliga samhällen har mängden artificiellt ljus ökat. Artificiella ljuset hotar fladdermössens överlevnad på grund av de störningar som ljuset orsakar i fladdermössens födosökande, parning, habitat samt deras cirkadianska system. Syftet med denna studie är att se om det finns ett samband mellan förekomsten av fladdermöss och ljusföroreningar i Stockholms län samt om förekomsten av ljusopportunistiska respektive ljuskänsliga fladdermöss skiljer sig vid olika grader av ljusföroreningar. I studien delades Stockholm i tre stycken zoner: zon 1 har mest ljusföroreningar, zon 2 har mindre, och zon 3 har minst. Styrkan på ljusföroreningar mättes med Sky Quality Meter version L vid 15 stycken fladdermusinventeringar i vardera zonen. Fladdermusarterna delades in i två grupper, ljusopportunistiska och ljuskänsliga. Resultatet av studien visar ingen signifikant interaktion mellan fladdermusgrupp och zonindelningens påverkan på fladdermusandel. Ljusföroreningarna indikerar ingen signifikant påverkan på fladdermössantal. Variablerna ljusförorening, avstånd till väg och järnväg samt molnighet har ingen signifikant påverkan på fladdermössantalet.

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  • 393.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. The Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Can Bohmian Quantum Information Help us to Understand Consciousness?2016Ingår i: Quantum Interaction: 9th International Conference, QI 2015, Filzbach, Switzerland, July 15-17, 2015, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, Emmanuel Pothos, Springer Publishing Company, 2016, s. 76-87Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores whether David Bohm’ s proposal about quantum theoretical active information, and the mind-matter scheme he developed on the basis of it, can help us to explain consciousness (Bohm and Hiley 1987, 1993; Bohm 1989, 1990 ; Pylkkänen 2007 ). Here it is important to acknowledge that other researchers in philosophy of mind and consciousness studies have also made use of the concept of information in their theories of mind and consciousness. For example, Dretske (1981 ) and Barwise and Seligman (1997 ) have explored the possibility that information in the sense of factual semantic contents (i.e. information as meaningful data that represents facts correctly or incorrectly) can be grounded in environmental information (i.e.information as mere correlation, e.g. the way tree rings carry information about age). For Dretske this was an important part of his attempts to give a naturalistic account of sensory experiences, qualia and consciousness. During recent years the notion of information has been used to explain consciousness most notably by David Chalmers (1996 ), as well as by Giulio Tononi and his co-workers (Tononi and Koch 2014 ; Oizumi, Albantakis and Tononi 2014 ). The strategy of this paper will be to first describe Bohm’ s mind-matter scheme, and then to briefl y consider Chalmers’  and Tononi et al.’ s ideas in the light of this scheme.

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  • 394.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Can quantum analogies help us to understand the process of thought?2014Ingår i: Mind and Matter, ISSN 1611-8812, E-ISSN 2051-3003, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 61-91Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • 395.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, Finland & Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Consciousness in the light of quantum theory2016Ingår i: Consciousness: Integrating Eastern and Western Perspectives / [ed] Prem Saran Satsangi, Stuart Hameroff, Vishal Sani, Pami Dua, New Delhi: New Age Books , 2016, s. 23-34Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the theme “quantum approaches to consciousness” by considering the work of one of the pioneers in the field. The physicist David Bohm (1917-1992) not only made important contributions to quantum physics, but also had a long-term interest in interpreting the results of quantum physics and relativity in order to develop a general world view.  His idea was further that living and mental processes could be understood in a new, scientifically and philosophically more coherent way in the context of such a new world view. This paper gives a brief overview of different – and sometimes contradictory - aspects of Bohm’s research programme, and evaluates how they can be used to give an account of topics of interest in contemporary consciousness studies, such as analogies between thought and quantum processes, the problem of mental causation, the mind-body problem and the problem of time consciousness. 

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  • 396.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Helsinki.
    Fundamental Physics and the Mind – Is There a Connection?2015Ingår i: Quantum Interaction 2014: 8th International Conference, QI 2014, Filzbach, Switzerland, June 30 - July 3, 2014. Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Harald Atmanspacher, Claudia Bergomi, Thomas Filk, Kirsty Kitto, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, s. 3-11Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in the field of quantum cognition (Pothos and Busemeyer 2013; Wang et al. 2013) suggest a puzzling connection between fundamental physics and the mind. Many researchers see quantum ideas and formalisms merely as useful pragmatic tools, and do not look for deeper underlying explanations for why they work. However, others are tempted to seek for an intelligible explanation for why quantum ideas work to model cognition. This paper first draws attention to how the physicist David Bohm already in 1951 suggested that thought and quantum processes are analogous, adding that this could be explained if some neural processes underlying thought involved non-negligible quantum effects. The paper next points out that the idea that there is a connection between fundamental physics and the mind is not unique to quantum theory, but was there already when Newtonian physics was assumed to be fundamental physics, advocated most notably by Kant. Kant emphasized the unique intelligibility of a Newtonian notion of experience, and this historical background prompts us to ask in the final part of the paper whether we can really make sense of any quantum-like experience (whether experience of the empirical phenomena in the external worldor the inner worldof psychological phenomena). It is proposed that intelligibility is a relative notion and that, regardless of initial difficulties, quantum approaches to cognition and consciousness are likely to provide valuable new ways of understanding the mind.

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  • 397.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Henry Stapp Vs. David Bohm on Mind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics2019Ingår i: Activitas Nervosa Superior: Journal for Neuroscience and Cognitive Research, ISSN 1802-9698, Vol. 61, nr 1-2, s. 48-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper briefly discusses some of David Bohm’s views on mind and matter and suggests that they allow for a stronger possibility for conscious free will to influence quantum dynamics than Henry Stapp’s approach.

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  • 398.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Is there room in quantum ontology for a genuine causal role of consciousness?2017Ingår i: The Palgrave Handbook of Quantum Models in Social Science: Applications and Grand Challenges / [ed] Emmanuel Haven and Andrei Khrennikov, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, s. 293-317Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Western philosophy and science have a strongly dualistic tradition regarding the mental and physical aspects of reality, which makes it difficult to understand their possible causal relations. In recent debates in cognitive neuroscience it has been common to claim on the basis of neural experiments that conscious experiences are causally inefficacious. At the same time there is much evidence that consciousness does play an important role in guiding behavior. The author explores whether a new way of understanding the causal role of mental states and consciousness could be provided by the ontological interpretation of the quantum theory (Bohm and Hiley, Phys. Rep. 144:323–348, 1987; Bohm and Hiley, The undivided universe: An ontological interpretation of quantum theory. Routledge: London, 1993). This interpretation radically changes our notion of matter by suggesting that a new type of active information plays a causal role at the quantum level of reality. The author thus considers to what extent the alleged causal powers of consciousness involve information, and then moves on to consider whether information in (conscious) mental states can be connected to the information at the level of quantum physics. In this way he sketches how quantum theory might help to throw light upon one of the grand challenges facing the social sciences and the humanities, namely the question of whether consciousness plays any genuine causal role in the physical world.

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  • 399.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum Theories of Consciousness2018Ingår i: The Routledge Handbook of Consciousness / [ed] Rocco J. Gennaro, Taylor & Francis, 2018, 1, s. 216-231Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a brief historical introduction to quantum theory, and shows that the theory opens up some radically new ways of thinking about the place of mind and consciousness in nature. Quantum theory is all about learning, on the basis of scientific experiments, to question the "obvious" truths about the nature of the physical world and to come up with more coherent alternatives. The chapter considers the famous two-slit experiment. It explores what the different interpretations of quantum theory say about situations like the two-slit experiment, and also considers what kind of theories of mind and consciousness some interpretations have inspired. The attempt to explain mind and consciousness in terms of the quantum theory involves heavy speculation. The advances in quantum biology, while not giving direct support to quantum brain theory, perhaps make a biologically grounded quantum theory of consciousness seem less inconceivable.

  • 400.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum theory, active information and the mind-matter problem2015Ingår i: Contextuality from Quantum Physics to Psychology / [ed] E. Dzhafarov, S. Jordan, R. Zhang and V. Cervantes, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2015, s. 325-334Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bohm and Hiley suggest that a certain new type of active information plays a key objective role in quantum processes. This paper discusses the implications of this suggestion to our understanding of the relation between the mental and the physical aspects of reality.

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