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  • 351.
    Björegren, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Karlsson, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Förskollärares syn på små barnsspråkutveckling: Återupprepa tills barnet erövrar det!2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are two teacher students that have found it to be very interesting to study children inthe ages between one and three and their language development in preschool. We havechosen two put our focus on the gathering as a forum for linguistic development.During our trainee work of our education we have seen that preschool teachers look atthe gathering in different ways, and that they don´t always see it as a pedagogical tool tohelp children in with their linguistic development. When the amount of childrenincreases in the ward it can be difficult teach child the attention needed to stimulate thechild`s language development, we want to draw attention to the gathering. We chose toobserve three pre-school teachers and conduct interviews with these three, we selectedthree trained preschool teachers with varying lengths of work experience. We wanted tosee how they acted in the gatherings and find out what they did to promote children'slanguage development in the gathering. What we saw during our observations was thatthere were both singing and playing, but the pre-school teachers did not see thecollection as a tool but more as a way to entertain and inform children. We have studiedwhat is written about the gathering as an educational tool for children's languagedevelopment and found that it can advantageously utilize the gathering by playing wordgames, reading, and let the children talk to their friends in a way that the pre-schoolteacher would. Here they have the opportunity to step in and control what they wanttheir children to take part and practice but do so in a way that is fun for the kids. Wehave discussed and compared our results with what previously researchers andphilosophers have written. We want to encourage this study to see the collection as atool that has great potential in today's pre-school work, and that it is important not toforget the very youngest children just by having gathering that focus on the olderchildren, but working with collections of all ages.

  • 352.
    Björk, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Skoglund, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kundlojalitet: påverkas lojaliteten hos en person med synskador av en dagligvarubutiks butiksmiljö i val av butik?2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att behålla lojala kunder är viktigt för många företag och butiker då de lojala kunderna anses vara mer lönsamma än att rekrytera nya. Det har under senare år ägnats mycket tid att förstå vad som påverkar kunders lojalitet. Uppsatsens undersökning bygger på att beskriva hur lojaliteten hos en person med synskador påverkas av dagligvarubutikernas butiksmiljö i val av butik. Personer med funktionsnedsättning fråntas ofta möjligheter som för andra kunder är självklara genom brister i butiksmiljön. Konsumenterna går till de butiker som inte försvårar deras sätt att utföra sin handel. I och med att kunden också registrerar ett helhetsintryck över företagets värderingar, beteenden och synliga faktorer påverkar detta i valet av butik.

    Uppsatsen har till syfte att genom kvalitativa undersökningsmetoder, öppna individuella intervjuer och butiksobservationer undersöka om lojaliteten hos en person med synskada påverkas av en dagligvarubutiks butiksmiljö i val av butik. Syftet är vidare att beskriva hur personerna påverkas och analysera detta med utgångspunkt från Dick & Basus lojalitetsindelning (Dick AS & Basu, K 1994). I ett större perspektiv syftar uppsatsen till att fungera som underlag och/eller inspiration till butiker som har intresse av att arbeta med butiker som är tillgängliga och anpassade för alla samhällets individer, framförallt synskadade personer.

    Utifrån de resultat studien producerat har vi kommit fram till att svaret på vår undersökning visar sig vara att butikernas miljö spelar roll, i form av att förenkla urvalet av butik vid konsumtion av dagligvaror. Efter att ha analyserat svaren från intervjuerna kan vi konstatera att service från besök i butikerna är det primära i butiksmiljön som påverkar beteendet hos en person med synskada. En god, hjälpsam och kunnig personal tycks vara det som spelar störst roll i beteendet av lojalitet för de synskadade utifrån vår studie. Butiksmiljön spelar också en stor roll, då det är en avgörande faktor i val av butik.

  • 353.
    Björk, Sanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Klang Schönborg, Rebecka
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Miljöanpassade inköp: Tre familjeägda företags drivkrafter, hinder och arbetssätt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate is changing and extreme weather are more common now than before, and as a reaction of that the environment has become more important to take in to consideration then before. The environment is spoken about on media every day and we are reminded to take care of it just as often. Companies have the most impact on the environment and therefore it is important that they care for it as well. The hardest struggle for companies is that they always search for economic growth but simultaneously should not harm the environment more than necessary, and in this matter the purchase function has a possibility to influence by purchase products that has been made in a more environmentally friendly way. 

    The aim of this study is to examine how companies works with environmental purchasing, which forces drives the environmental purchasing forward, what obstacles are there to slow down the development rate and what possible methods are there for the purchasing function to become more environmentally friendly. These questions are also our problem questions which will be answered in the end of this study. We chose to interview three family owned businesses in different sizes that all seemed in the steel industry so we could make a fair comparison between the companies and our theoretical framework and between themselves. We found some common denominator in forces and obstacles among the companies. We also found differences, one company wanted to become more environmentally friendly to show it up for customers – it’s an external force. Another force was to work with the company’s environmental goals – an internal force and which approach the companies used to purchase more environmentally friendly was highly dependent on company size.

  • 354.
    Björk Stiernström, Gabriel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Video tutorials for artists in the entertainment industry: A comparative study of what makes a video tutorial effective2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research explores video tutorials for concept artists in the entertainment industry. Through websites such as Gumroad tutorials are today being sold and the problem is that there is no guarantee of the quality of the tutorials and people simply have to rely on the description of the product. The research question is: What is an effective video tutorial for concept artists in the entertainment and game industry and what elements contribute to what makes it effective? Five video tutorials were created based on a comparative study, and discussed during qualitative interviews with novice and proficient artists. The results say that parallels can be drawn between a person's proficiency, the content and the structure of the tutorial. If you understand these parallels you are able to create effective tutorials for specific audience groups.

  • 355.
    Björkgren, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johansson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Läxan som ett medierande redskap: En kvalitativ studie om samarbetet mellan skola och hem ur ett lärarperspektiv2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to take part of and analyze teachers´ experiences of cooperation with legal guardians concerning the support to students in their process of doing homework. We aimed to identify factors of importance for cooperation between schools and homes and look into teachers´ visions to develop this. The study is based on qualitative interviews with six active primary teachers. We have utilized a socio-cultural and social-ecological perspective in our interpretation on the empirical material. The result shows that the teachers believe that there is a significant importance to have this cooperation between schools and home regarding homework. Homework is presented as a mediating tool for cooperation where the students´ surrounding world, school and home are brought together. Homework as a mediating tool is a tool colored by our culture and is used for communication. Important factors for the cooperation between schools and homes are

    clearness and approach, which means providing information, giving homework on time, having open communications and transparency.

  • 356.
    Björkholm, Viktor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Jakt på gamifcation: En stuide om påverkan av gamification2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Hunters report in vildata.se. Viltdata.se is owned by the Jägareförbundet. In recent hunting seasons, report rates in the country have decreased. Gamification means to introduc motivationtechniques usually found in videogames to futher motivate users to use the system.

    Research Question: What impact can a gamified Viltdata.se have on hunters to report in Viltdata?

    Purpose: Gamification may be an appropriate way to increase reporting in Viltdata, but investigating how gamification affects users is required. The purpose of the study is to identify and analyze how gamification affects hunters who uses Viltdata. Can gamification be a convenient way to increase reporting to wild data.

    Method: In the study, a qualitative study is conducted in the form of an experiment and qualitative study in the form of interviews. Participants are hunters who previously used wildlife data. The collected material during the studys is compared with previous research done on gamification.

    Conclusion: After analysis of materials from experiments, interviews and previous research there is enough evidence to claim that gamification works and can be received with a good attitude of the user.

  • 357.
    Björklund, Carina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Jonsson, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ett arbete som präglas av ständig oro och stor försiktighet: en kvalitativ socialpsykologisk studie om lärarnas erfarenheter av ekonomisk utsatthet i skolan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A societal problem in Sweden is that more and more families are living in poverty. This study has its startingpoint in the term relativepoverty which implies that poverty is related to the social context of the individual. The study is based on a teacher's perspective, with the aim of gaining a deeper understanding of how teachersrespond topupils living in financial vulnerability, and how the pupil´s self-esteem might be strengthen by the teachers’ treatment. Symbolic interactionism constitutes the theoretical framework. With help of the concepts loocking-glass-self and the generalized other, it explains how the student's self-esteemmight be strengthened. The study is of a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews as a tool. The studies sample consists of 11 teachers’working at the lower and middle schoolsseven different municipalities in Sweden. The result shows that the teachers´ responses can be demonstrated on the basis of two head themes; how the teacher perceive and respond an individual pupil and how they respond towards the social environment. The first theme is characterized by an overall teachers ‘concern over the pupils who lived in poverty, and a work that requires great caution toward these pupils. The second theme includesa normalizing and inclusive daily work to create an inclusive and supporting milieu.

     

  • 358.
    Björlin, Nadia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Maliqaj, Denis
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Emotionella och identitetsskapande fördelar: Innebörden av fördelarna enligt varumärkeskonsulterna2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På senare år har de emotionella och identitetsskapande fördelarna blivit starkt eftertraktade i varumärken. Att som företag inneha ett varumärke, vars produkter enbart innehar funktionella fördelar, är inte längre konkurrenskraftigt. Därför är det extra viktigt att betona de emotionella och identitetsskapande fördelarna i varumärkets värdeerbjudande. Genom denna utveckling, har varumärkeskonsulternas kunskaper blivit allt mer eftertraktade, då dessa förstår hur konsumenten tänker och hur arbetet skall utformas för att attrahera konsumenterna med fördelarna som hjälp.

    Syftet med studien har varit att redogöra för vad innebörden av de emotionella och identitetsskapande fördelarna är för konsumenter. Detta har gjorts med hjälp av att intervjua sex stycken ledande varumärkeskonsulter med mångårig erfarenhet inom detta verksamhetsfält. Kvalitativa undersökningar i form av telefonintervjuer har gjorts med varumärkeskonsulterna, som klargjort hur innebörden av fördelarna påverkar konsumenten genom andra varumärkesbegrepp. Resultatet har pekat på att de emotionella och identitetsskapande fördelarna definieras olika och har olika användningsområden för den enskilde konsumenten. De emotionella fördelarna ämnar att framkalla känslor inom konsumenten gentemot det valda varumärket. Att fördelarna är introverta och icke-verbala, exemplifieras av att en konsument köper ett par Calvin Klein-kalsonger för att få en känsla av fräschör, trots att plagget inte kan beskådas av omgivningen.

    De identitetsskapande fördelarna betonar istället de sociala aspekterna av varumärkesnyttjandet. Fördelarna är självexpressiva och extroverta, alltså skall de nyttjas av konsumenten för att uttrycka dennes identitet mot omgivningen. Att dessa skall nyttjas i en social kontext för att visa vad konsumenten vill stå för och identifiera sig med, är innebörden av fördelarna för konsumenten. En konsument som exempelvis köper en Porsche för att uppvisa sig själv i en eftertraktad bil med syftet att upplevas mer fysiskt attraktiv, är signifikativt för detta. 

    Slutsatsen som kan dras är att de emotionella och identitetsskapande fördelarna är svårdefinierade men viktiga enligt varumärkeskonsulter för att nå ut till dagens konsument. Konsumenter vill numera ha en emotionell koppling till sina köp och därför är det extremt viktigt att betona båda fördelarna i ett varumärkes värdeerbjudande. Det har aldrig varit så aktuellt och avgörande att som företag arbeta med de emotionella och identitetsskapande fördelarna, som det är idag. 

  • 359.
    Björn, Jenny-Ann
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Thörnqvist, Angelica
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Vilken enskild faktor har störst påverkan vid val av dagligvaruhandel?2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many daily purchasing decisions involve purchases for the home and for our daily living. Food, toilet paper and other necessary goods are often purchased at the same store over and over again. For what reason do we return to the store to perform the purchase of what can count as the most regular products we use?This paper focuses on finding differences and similarities between men's and women's shopping behavior and for which reasons they choose to shop at the grocery stores that they have chosen as their primary.To answer the question if men and women indicate the same factor as the most influential factor in the choice of grocery store we conducted two surveys on each 72 respondents. A study was conducted in municipalities with populations between 1,000 - 30 000. Another study was conducted in large cities with populations over 30 000.Based on these studies we have concluded that there are some similarities between male and female shopping behavior, as both men and women believes that the location is the single most influential factor and that the store should be close to home, but also the differences that men are not as price sensitive as women or that they prefer to spend less time in the grocery stores.

  • 360.
    Björserud, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lärares uppfattningar av individanpassad undervisning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the curriculum (Lgr11) and Education Act (SFS 2010:800) is the teacher's assignment to individualize their education. These policy documents are clearer about the individualized education than previous policy documents have been. My experience was that this wasn´t done fully as it should. With this as background, I wanted to investigate teachers' understanding of individualized education. This made my purpose to examine and study the teachers' different conceptions of individualized education. This, I chose to do through a qualitative approach to interview data collection techniques. The study was based on phenomenography. The study has four active teachers interviewed. The results showed two different conceptions of individualized education: Individually tailored teaching as a general principles of teaching and individualized education as a utopia. What became clear in the results is that the category Individually tailored teaching as a general principle of teaching is the category most frequently occurring in the empirical material. The teachers expressed that they use a lot of individualized education as a general principle of teaching. Before the study, I assumed that teachers in the greater would see the personalized education as a utopia, as something they wanted to work with, but felt they had time, resources or opportunities. When analyzing the relationship between the different positions, was it clear that the category Individually tailored teaching as a general principle of teaching can be seen in a student perspective as more developed than the category Individually tailored teaching as a utopia.

  • 361.
    Bladelius, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Dubbla yrken: En intervjustudie om vilka kompetenser som är betydelsefulla för yrkeslärare2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Instructors who have to deal with sharing her knowledge of the industry so that students are enabled to perform the craft. They also have an educational role to teach and instruct in the craft. Program goals emphasize aspects is the ability to carry out the profession. How to deal with professional teachers of their dual roles, they feel that they have dual roles? Purpose of this study is to examine what skills trainers in the hotel - and restaurant program is experiencing significant to become a professional instructors. This is an interview where I chose to interview three instructors in the hotel - and restaurant program. The results indicate that as instructors is to have expertise in two professions, and industry expertise, and teaching vocational skills. The first three aspects of teacher stress has been linked to the industry, and about the importance of basic skills and work experience, to be stress problem solver as well as curiosity and interest in own professional development. The other two are more related to the educational challenge and about being flexible and well-prepared and the importance of good student and parental contact. At the same time be noted that these competencies also overlap, according to the analysis of their evidence. They do not feel that they have dual roles, they feel that there is a role to be instructors of dual and wide areas of expertise.

  • 362.
    Blagrove, Mark
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Hale, Sioned
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Lockheart, Julia
    Swansea College of Art, University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Swansea, United Kingdom / Goldsmiths, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Carr, Michelle
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Jones, Alex
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, dreams are a novel but realistic simulation of waking social life, with a mixture of characters, motivations, scenarios, and positive and negative emotions. We propose that the sharing of dreams has an empathic effect on the dreamer and on significant others who hear and engage with the telling of the dream. Study 1 tests three correlations that are predicted by the theory of dream sharing and empathy: that trait empathy will be correlated with frequency of telling dreams to others, with frequency of listening to others’ dreams, and with trait attitude toward dreams (ATD) (for which higher scores indicate positive attitude). 160 participants completed online the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire. Pearson partial correlations were conducted, with age and sex partialled out. Trait empathy was found to be significantly associated with the frequency of listening to the dreams of others, frequency of telling one’s own dreams to others, and attitude toward dreams. Study 2 tests the effects of discussing dreams on state empathy, using an adapted version of the Shen (2010) state empathy scale, for 27 pairs of dream sharers and discussers. Dream discussion followed the stages of the Ullman (1996) dream appreciation technique. State empathy of the dream discusser toward the dream sharer was found to increase significantly as a result of the dream discussion, with a medium effect size, whereas the dream sharer had a small decrease in empathy toward the discusser. A proposed mechanism for these associations and effects is taken from the robust findings in the literature that engagement with literary fiction can induce empathy toward others. We suggest that the dream acts as a piece of fiction that can be explored by the dreamer together with other people, and can thus induce empathy about the life circumstances of the dreamer. We discuss the speculation that the story-like characteristics of adult human dreams may have been selected for in human evolution, including in sexual selection, as part of the selection for emotional intelligence, empathy, and social bonding.

  • 363.
    Blake, Christopher
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Östman, Britt-Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Relationer och projekt: En studie av det mellanmänskliga i det rationella2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Projects are often spoken of in the terms of rational systems. However, some researchers point out the relevance of viewing projects as sets of relationships. Little is published about what aspects of relationships that are important for the managing of projects. We have argued for the necessity of such research. With previous research, our case study and interviews we indentified communication, responsibility, cooperation, togetherness and trust as important relational aspects in projects.

    The overall perceived success for projects in this case, was increased with the adoption of new agile methods. These new methods clearly favored communication and togetherness. We wish to present a perspective that will view projects as people and their relationships.

  • 364.
    Blixt, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johansson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    MAGISKT MED LÄSSTUND: En studie om pedagogers och barns uppfattningar om läsning i förskolan2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are intrested in what role the children’s book has in preschool and if the teachers and the children had some thoughts on why reading matters. Because of this, we attempted to find out the teachers’ and the childrens’ opinions on reading in preschool and if, and how, they differ. We did a qualitative study and we interviewed six teachers and 18 children. Our study is based on the social cultural perspective. The teachers used the children’s book as a tool to further various facets of the childrens’ knowledge, for example language development, fantasy and factual knowledges. The children, on the other hand, thought that they read in preschool just for fun. Something that the teachers and the children agreed on was that it’s the teachers that choose the books at the organized reading times. But the children were allowed to choose books when they were the initiators of the reading during the free times.

  • 365.
    Blomquist, Yohan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Savas, Emel
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Spång, Michaela
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ledarskapsstilar: En jämförelse av ledarskapsstilar inom privat och offentlig sektor2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport fokuserar på vilka skillnader och likheter det finns mellan ledarskapsstilar inom privat och offentlig sektor. Rapporten använder sig av ett statistiskt underlag som tagits fram med hjälp av beteendeprofileringsverktyget Interpersonal Dynamics Inventory (IDI). Dessutom har ett flertal intervjuer genomförts med utvalda ledare inom privat och offentlig sektor. Rapporten undersöker vilka ledarskapstilar som finns och vilka som är vanligast förekommande. Rapporten tar även upp viktiga faktorer som skiljer den privata sektorn från den offentliga.

    Syftet med denna rapport är att identifiera skillnader och likheter vad gäller ledarskapsstilar inom privat och offentlig sektor. Dessutom redogör rapporten för ett antal orsaker som bidrar att det finns skillnader och likheter mellan de båda sektorerna. Den teoretiska referensramen utgår från teorier som fokuserar på traditionella ledarskapsstilar och vad som omfattas av privat respektive offentlig sektor, dessa jämförs i sin tur med statistik och intervjuer.

    Undersökningen visade att skillnaderna mellan privat och offentlig sektor inte var stora vad gäller ledarskapsstilar. Samma typ av ledarstil var vanligast bland chefer oavsett vilken sektor som granskades.

  • 366.
    Blomstrand, Evelyn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Eklund, Ellen
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Rollen som pappa i fokus: En kvalitativ socialpsykologisk studie om mäns upplevelser av rollen som pappa2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish society is characterized of an ongoing gender equal debate where the government through social policy measures is actively working on equating men and women. There have been many changes about how fatherhood and the father's role is portrayed in the society which results in new attribute to the father’s role. This qualitative study aims to describe how men experience their role as a father in contemporary time. The study uses ten semi-structured interviews as an instrument. Role-takingand socialization, norms and gender roles and role-conflict, social normsand gender roleis constituted as theoretical framework. The sample consists of men who have children born after the latest revision of parental leave insurance 2016-01-01 and are cohabiting with the child’s mother. The data were analyzed by using a phenomenological analysis. The result showed that the men perceived their role as a father as being characterized by responsibility, participation and equal to the other parent. The men perceived that it took time to socialize in to the role as a father were the social environment, norms and also their own fathers role affected them when taking on the role as a father. The traditional gender roles are changing which results in transformed attitudes from the social environment where mainly the employers supporting approach was described to encourage the respondents to take out parental leave. 

  • 367.
    Bobar, Amela
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Caperman, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The phenomenon of motivation within an employment & staffing company: A qualitative study at Proffice2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study concerns motivation to work and aims to contribute to a better understanding about the area. Motivation is however complex to understand. The complexity can be illustrated by, still to date there exists no single accepted definition about the meaning of motivation. As long as motivation means different things it will be a difficult area to study.

    Since individuals have different needs and are motivated by different factors, makes the area even more complex to study. Since money makes it possible to acquire different things and satisfy some of the human needs, it is also considered by some to be motivating, why we chose to include wage in our study as well.

    The study has been applied to an employment & staffing companym, to contribute with a better understanding about motivation in this kind of company in practice since the working conditions differ somewhat from a traditional employment where individuals work directly for their employer.

    Problem area: -What motivates individuals to work for an employment & staffing company?

    - What effect does the wage have on employee motivation in an employment & staffing company?

    Purpose: The purpose with the study is to gain a better understanding about motivation to work and the relationship between wage and motivation in an employment and staffing company.

    Method: We chose to conduct a qualitative study at Proffice where we interviewed four permanently employed consultants.

    Conclusions: Individuals have different needs and are motivated by different things which makes it difficult to draw general conclusion about motivation. The individuals in this particular study were pleased with the variation of jobs since it allowed them to develop and learn new things which in turn can be motivating. The factors that the individuals were unsatisfied with were the lack of security with the employment and the social relations to colleagues and employer, aspects that in turn can have a negative effect on motivation when not satisfied.

    Despite that the majority of the individuals in the study were dissatisfied with the wage it did not seem to have a negative effect on their performance since they would not been able to remain for such a long time at their current mission if they had not performed well at the job. Although the dissatisfaction seemed to have a negative effect on motivation to stay within the employment & staffing company in the long run.

    Recommendations for further studies: Further studies on the subject could be performed using other methods to conduct the research since the results are very much dependent on the methods used. Another approach could be to include respondents from other offices. Since we only included permanently employed respondents the study could also be further developed by involving probationary employed.

  • 368.
    Bodegård Gustafsson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Big Data Arkitekturer: En studie om tekniska och organisatoriska för- och nackdelar vid val av Big Data arkitektur.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The explosion of social media, the use of smartphones and the fact that people are always online today leads to a constant increase in data-production. This data is not just large but it also has a high velocity and variety, which makes it hard for conventional systems, like relational databases, to handle. This data, that cannot be handle with conventional methods, is called Big Data and the study in this report is looking into different ways to handle Big Data and more specific:

    What pros and cons are there, concerning technological and organizational aspects, for a company or organization to change from a relational database to a Big Data solution based on the same technology (the relational model) or to change to an implementation of MapReduce?

    There are several technologies that can handle Big Data on the market today. One of these are Apache Hadoop, which is a distributed files system (DFS) that uses a programming model called MapReduce. There are also other systems based on classic database systems, like relational database systems (RDBMS), for example Postgres-XL, a Big Data solution based on PostgreSQL.

    The study in this report will explore pros and cons for a company which is already using relational database systems to make the change to a similar technology like Postgres-XL or if they should make the change to a newer technology like an implementation of MapReduce, for example Apache Hadoop. To look into this a number of organizational and technological aspects have been identified and then used to evaluate an implementation of Mapreduce and a parallell database based on the relational model in a case study and a literature-study.

    From an organizational point-of-view this study shows that it in many ways is better för a company or organization to keep using the relational model and therefore make the change to for example Postgres-XL, while it from a technological perspektiv is better to make the change to an implementation of MapReduce like Apache Hadoop. However the technological and organizational pros and cons do often cancel each other out and therefore the question of which technology is preferable depends on whether the company or organization think that the organizational or technological aspect are more important. 

  • 369.
    Boers, Börje
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    100 years and older: responsible ownership in long-lived family firms2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of responsible ownership in long-lived family firms. Theoretically, the paper draws on responsible ownership. Responsible ownership is suggested as an alternative conceptualization of social responsible behavior in family firms. Empirically, the study draws on in depth case studies from Germany and Sweden. The study focuses on responsible ownership behavior towards two key stakeholders, i.e. employees and the home community. Thereby the study contributes to further the understanding of responsible ownership of family firms.

  • 370.
    Boers, Börje
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Go East! How family businesses choose markets and entry modes when internationalising2016In: International Journal of Globalisation and Small Business, ISSN 1479-3059, E-ISSN 1479-3067, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 333-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the choices of foreign markets, international market selection (IMS), and the respective entry modes, entry mode selection (EMS), for family firms internationalisation by using in-depth case studies of two family-owned newspaper companies. These decisions are studied from the Uppsala-stage model perspective. The purpose is to understand how and why family firms choose IMS and EMS when internationalising from a risk perspective. This study shows that IMS and EMS can at times be the consequence of one decision which may be the result of opportunistic behaviour. The decision reflects the risk preferences of owning families when selecting markets and entry modes. The explored family firms use contrasting approaches as they choose IMS and EMS according to different logics. Psychic distance leads to certain international market selection, but there is not a given preference for low distance. Instead, the entry mode selection reflects the dominant risk perception of the owning families. A preference for direct entry modes corresponds to the owning families risk perception and need for control. Accordingly, IMS and EMS are two steps, but the order of these is not given, i.e. after an entry mode is chosen this may be applied irrespective of the market to be entered. Business model and acquisition are highlighted as alternative entry modes, giving control to family firms. Thereby, this study expands those prior and increases the understanding of the peculiarities of family firm internationalisation.

  • 371.
    Boers, Börje
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Heteronormativity and the family firm: Will we ever see a queer family business?2017In: Gender and Family Entrepreneurship / [ed] João J. Ferreira, Vanessa Ratten, Veland Ramadani, Robert D. Hisrich, Leo-Paul Dana, London and New York: Routledge, 2017, 1, p. 171-182Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 372.
    Boers, Börje
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Internationalization of regional newspaper companies: two examples2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Newspaper companies and other media companies are under pressure as their traditional business model is challenged. Some companies try to compensate by entering new markets, i.e. to internationalize. This strategy increases their presence in old and new media markets and segments. This paper problematizes how two family owned newspaper companies internationalize from two perspectives, i.e. an ownership perspective and an industry perspective. Empirically, the paper draws on two examples of family owned newspaper companies. Semi-structured interviews with owners, managers and editors have been conducted domestically and in the respective foreign market. Archival data has been used to complement the interviews. Both companies started as regional newspaper companies and have reached leading positions in their distribution area. Whereas one company entered the Eastern European market in the 1990s the other company focused on domestic expansion and small scale, international joint ventures in the later 2000s. From an ownership perspective it becomes visible that the family owners are initiating and supporting the internationalization process. In one company, an owner manager was in charge for the internationalization process which can be seen as a success factor. In the other company, the owners were not actively involved which is reflected in the relatively poorer results. From a newspaper industry perspective the study shows that synergies are possible by syndication of content across languages within the same industry as well as business models (printing).These perspectives contribute to the developing body of literature in the field of media management on internationalization and ownership.

  • 373.
    Boers, Börje
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Learning to professionalize: handling tensions in a family owned newspaper business2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at understanding the professionalization process of a Swedish family owned newspaper from a generational perspective. Professionalization is a much debated topic within the family business field. Family ownership is still common in the Nordic countries.  But the consequences and implications are not well understood and despite its presence the issue of family ownership is rarely discussed in the academic field. Media studies discuss professionalization but mostly focusing on the journalistic profession. Ownership and ownership transition have only recently been discussed.

     Empirically, the paper draws on an in depth case study of a family owned newspaper company. Semi-structured interviews with owners, managers, board members, and editors have been conducted. The interviews were complemented with secondary material, e.g. annual reports and biographies. Four generations are discussed with regards to professionalization processes.  The study shows that competence and learning are factors influencing the professionalization process across generations.  Competence is divided into cultural and formal competence. Learning is categorized as experiential learning which increases over generations. Formal competence and structures become important, increasing the risk for alienation between the owners and the business.  Professionalization of ownership structures and roles has consequences for family, ownership and business. The paper contributes to the limited research on family ownership in media management research.

  • 374.
    Boers, Börje
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Jönköping International Business School.
    The codetermined family business: a paradox?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work in progress paper introduces codetermination as phenomenon to the family business field. The study aims at exploring the role of employee-representatives in boards of non-listed family businesses and thereby contributes to understanding ownership and governance processes in family businesses.

  • 375.
    Boers, Börje
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    The codetermined family business: a paradox?: Comparing cases from Sweden and Germany2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this comparative case study is to understand codetermination in two family firms. Empirically, this study draws on an interpretive case study of two family businesses. Its findings extends earlier research, by exploring and introducing the phenomenon of codetermination in the family business literature. Theoretically, the study draws on the control-collaboration paradox which helps understanding the phenomenon of codetermination. Findings highlight the need for professional governance structures in order to facilitate cooperation between family owners, the management, and employee representatives.

  • 376.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Work-family interface: coping strategies in growing family SMEs2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SMEs may be more vulnerable because of their limited resources (Falkner & Hiebl, 2015). SMEs’ success is often dependent on their owner managers, e.g. their attitude towards growth may differ substantively (Achtenhagen, Naldi, & Melin, 2010; Jaouen & Lasch, 2015). For instance, Davidsson argued that not all small firm owners are willing to grow because they, e.g., fear that growth will endanger employee well-being and the owners will lose control (Davidsson, 1989, 1991). The ability of owner managers to follow a growth strategy may in part also be dependent on how the owner manager is able to handle its life outside the business (Jennings & McDougald, 2007), e.g. the family embeddedness (Aldrich & Cliff, 2003).

    More recent research has called for studies investigating, e.g. the work–family (WF) interactions in businesses run by male and female entrepreneurs (Adkins, Samaras, Gilfillan, & McWee, 2013; Ahl, 2006). Extant research has started looking at motives and constrains of female entrepreneurs in regards to the work family interface (Adkins, et al., 2013; Ahl, 2006).

    Research on work family interface is, in line with other areas, dominated by studies investigating the US-context, disregarding other contexts (Shaffer, Joplin, & Hsu, 2011). More and more researchers have called for further research on the interface between family and work life (Jaskiewicz, Combs, Shanine, & Kacmar, 2017; Nguyen & Sawang, 2016; Powell & Eddleston, 2017; Powell, Greenhaus, Allen, & Johnson, 2018). Therefore, we offer a new angle by investigating male entrepreneurs who can be considered successful in a Swedish context. Success in this context refers to a sustainable growth strategy in regards to growing the business considerably in both turnover and number of employees over a period of five years.

     Purpose/topic of research

    The purpose of this study is to understand the work-family interface in small, growing family firms by answering the following research questions:

    Which coping strategies are used to address conflicts in the work family interface?How do these strategies support work/life –balance and how to do they influence firm growth?

    Research method

    The authors of this study conducted a research project on SMEs which, after a period of stable performance in terms of turnover and number of employees, grew with 50% in bother turnover and number of employees over a consecutive period of five years. The study was conducted in the southwest of Sweden.

    For this paper and purpose we selected three companies where the respondents had expressed that work-life-conflicts played a role for being able to focus on and execute a growth strategy.

    The figures concerning turnover and number of employees were taken from the publicly available annual reports. The collection of this data was executed in 2017 and included annual reports from 2000 to 2016.

    As part of the general study, the selected companies were interviewed. Before the interviews were conducted, the interviewees were contacted by email and afterwards by telephone. In this first telephone conversation, the general purpose of the study was explained. In the following face-to-face interviews the respondents, usually owner-managers, were interviewed, using a structured interview guideline. The guideline entailed open questions and scaled questions concerning reasons for growth, performance, change in ownership and management, entrepreneurial orientation, employee concerns, justice and equality.

     Theories used Coping strategies

    The literature has come up with plenty of coping strategies that deal with how individual deal with issues that bothers them. In this study we draw on research with a connection to entrepreneurship and growth (Jennings & McDougald, 2007).

     Coping has been defined in psychological terms by Lazarus and Folkman (1984) as “constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing”. Coping is expending conscious effort to solve personal and interpersonal problems, and seeking to master and minimize stress (Weiten & Lloyd, 2008). Psychological coping mechanisms are usually termed coping strategies or coping skills. Unconscious strategies are commonly excluded. The term coping generally refers to adaptive or constructive coping strategies. However, some coping strategies can also be considered maladaptive. Maladaptive coping can be described as non-coping. Furthermore, the term coping commonly refers to reactive coping. This contrasts with proactive coping, in which a coping response aims to head off a future stressor. Coping responses are partly controlled by personality, but also by the social context, particularly the stressful environment (Carver & Connor-Smith, 2010).

    On growth

    “Most firms start small, live small and die small” (Davidsson 2010, p. 23[BB1] ). Growth is not the norm, and the main reason that most firms do not grow is that they operate in mature industries and serves local markets (Davidsson 2010). For those firms that do grow the entrepreneur often plays an important role. Factors such as motivation, education, management experience, number of founders have been proven to influence growth in a positive direction. However, there is a lack of research regarding how different factors related to work-life balance affects firm growth.

    Growth is usually defined as an increase in the amount of some measurable outcome, e.g. sales or employment (Cyron & Zoellick, 2018)(Cyron & Zoellick 2018, Davidsson 2010).

     Contribution of research

    The research contributes insights on which and how male entrepreneurs use coping strategies to address conflicts in the work family interface.

    Findings reveal the complex role of family which can both be an origin but also a solution to these conflicts.

    The study further contributes to the ongoing debate concerning growth intension and growth ambition in the entrepreneurship literature. Especially in small family firms, growth is not only hindered by limited resources. At the same time, resources and obstacles for growth are complex.

  • 377.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    A founder's heritage: the development of organizational identity2019In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 73-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to understand how a former family firm strategically makes use of the founder's legacy to preserve its organizational identity. Following a single case study approach, it draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data. We show how central organizational activities are affected by a founder's heritage long after the formal exit has taken place, illustrating the central, enduring, and distinctive elements of organizational identity a founder has. Regardless of ownership forms, the family company founder's legacy is used to legitimize new owners and maintain the organization's identity. However, centripetal moves complicate the preservation of the organizational identity, whereas a high focus on value leveraging in another ownership form opens up for centrifugal approaches which strengthen the entrepreneurial dimension of organizational identity.

  • 378.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    A founder’s heritage: the development of psychological ownership2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesIs a founder “leaving” an organization by selling it, or are there aspects of the founder left even though, the founder does not have a formal occupation or ownership in the organization?Will there be a legacy of the founder and how will this affect the psychological ownership? What is the founder’s heritage from a psychological ownership perspective?The purpose is to understand the consequences of a business sale of the founder and from a psychological ownership perspective.

    Prior WorkDrawing on the work of psychological ownership and founder heritage, the work combines important literatures to shed light on an important empirical phenomenon, i.e. the exit of a founder/entrepreneur and its consequences for the organization.

    ApproachThis study follows a single case study approach and draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data.

    ResultsWe show how central activities are affected by a founder’s heritage over long time after the formal exit has taken place. We illustrate the development of a founder’s psychological ownership before and after he has formally sold the legal ownership.

    Implications and ValueThe paper aims at contributing to the entrepreneurial and founder exit-literature by adding a process perspective. Unlike it is sometimes assumed in the entrepreneurship literature is an exit not necessarily a clear-cut and once and for all decision. The paper contributes also psychological ownership literature by highlighting its continuity after the formal sale of the legal ownership and its consequences for the organization.

  • 379.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future. CeFEO@JIBS.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Family business, resilience and regional culture: Examples from Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines two regions in the south west of Sweden. A number of factors which are of significant importance in creating resilient family businesses as well as regions are identified. The study is based on a literature investigation and on 60 interviews of leaders in business and communities. Thereby, the study contributes to the scarce literature on resilience in family businesses and the interdependence with regional culture. Resilience in this paper refers to a particular type of economic and structural crisis which has not been considered before. We highlight similarities and differences of two regions in Sweden which have distinct regional cultures. These cultures support the development of resiliency. However, owning families as facilitators for organizational resilience play the central role. Their closeness and involvement in the business allows them to act fast and take decisions quickly which makes them more resilient.

  • 380.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Family businesses as venture capitalists: the exception that proves the rules?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 381.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Remembering the Founder in Times of Ownership and Leadership Changes2016In: RENT Proceedings 2016, Antwerp, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Is a founder “leaving” an organization by selling it, or are there aspects of the founder left even though, the founder does not have a formal occupation or ownership in the organization?

    What are the motives of a founder to sell his organization? Will there be a legacy of the founder and how will this affect the organization’s identity? By questioning ‘who were we?’ or ‘who have we been?’ the relevance of organizational history becomes apparent. But how does this work in practice when a founder is not any longer part of the dominant coalition of the organization?

    The purpose is to understand the heritage of a founder, and the consequences for the organizational identity when the founder exits.

    Prior Work

    Drawing on the work of entrepreneurial exit and organizational identity, including imprinting, the work combines important literatures to shed light on an important empirical phenomenon, i.e. the exit of a founder/entrepreneur.

     

    Approach

    This study follows a single case study approach and draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data.

     

    Results

    We show how central activities are affected by a founder’s heritage over long time after the formal exit has taken place. We illustrate this by analyzing the consequences of changes in ownership and leadership after the founder’s exit. The founder becomes an artefact which allows to signal continuity and discontinuity depending on the different owners’ perspectives.

     

    Implications and Value

    The paper aims at contributing to the entrepreneurial and founder exit-literature by adding a process perspective. Unlike it is sometimes assumed in the entrepreneurship literature is an exit not necessarily a clear-cut and once and for all decision. The paper contributes also to the organizational identity literature by highlighting the central role a founder can have for an organization.

  • 382.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Brunninge, Olof
    University of Jönköping.
    Giving Up The Family Name While Staying A Family Business: The Family Business As Acquirer2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 383.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Brunninge, Olof
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Going private: A socioemotional wealth perspective on why family controlled companies decide to leave the stock-exchange2017In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 74-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose is to understand the process of ‘going private’ decisions in family firms by applying a socioemotional wealth (SEW) perspective, specified in the following research questions: how do socioemotional wealth considerations influence owning families’ decisions to delist their publicly-listed companies? How do socioemotional wealth considerations change after the delisting of a firm? Based on case studies of two family firms, we elaborate upon the balancing of socioemotional and financial wealth considerations by the family owners, the assessment of which changes over time. Ultimately, we propose that the experiences from being listed can lead to the reevaluation of financial, as well as socioemotional, wealth considerations. By delisting, the companies reclaim independence and control, and the identity as a private family-owned firm becomes once again pronounced. We develop the SEW-perspective by viewing the decision to delist as a mixed gamble, in that owning families have to weigh personal and financial losses against SEW gains, thereby indicating how SEW-considerations change over time. We find that owning families are willing to sacrifice current SEW, accepting current financial losses for prospective increased SEW. Additionally, in this study we extend the argument that decisions to leave the stock market are tradeoffs between competing factors.

  • 384.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Brunninge, Olof
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Going private: Why family controlled, publicly-listed companies decide to leave the stock-exchange2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 385.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Melin, Leif
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Family business: A duality perspective on organizational identity in family businesses2015In: Proceedings IFERA 2015, Hamburg: Hamburg Institute of Family Owned Business , 2015, p. 107-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational identity has become a popular topic in family business research. Yet, there is little research accounting for the peculiarities of family businesses. Organizational identity research is dominated by the view of Albert and Whetten (1985) and the question of what organizational identity is. Little attention has been devoted to understand how organizational identity is constructed in family businesses. We draw on case studies and use a dualities perspective. This perspective builds on three dualities which are common to family businesses, i.e. formality-informality, independence-dependence, and historical paths-new paths.

  • 386.
    Boers, Qiuhong
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Boers, Börje
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    The Construction of a Professional Identity of a Female Entrepreneur2018In: Knowledge, Learning and Innovation: Research Insights on Cross-Sector Collaborations / [ed] Vanessa Ratten, Vitor Braga, Carla Susana Marques, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 113-122Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of professional identity of an entrepreneur involves many factors. In this chapter, the case study of a Chinese female immigrant entrepreneur in Sweden illustrates the complexity of professional identity which intertwines with the gender identity and the cultural identity in all levels from personal, professional and socio-cultural. The methods of participant observation and discourse analysis are used. The results reflect the impacts of gender and culture factors in the construction and communication of professional identity, which can contribute to the integration process of Chinese immigrants in Sweden.

  • 387.
    Bofacher, Emilia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Andreasson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Hållbart Inköp: En kvalitativ studie av hur svenska möbelföretag tillämpar CSR i sitt inköpsarbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is today a well-known subject and has influenced industries while it has been fundamental for logistical structures. The purpose of this paper is to study how the purchasing division, within the furniture industry, can contribute to the increasing development of sustainability in the community. This study encompasses four Swedish companies, where the authors of this essay examine the present situation. Furthermore, the authors examine which short-term achievements and long-term goals respective company has, in the aim of accomplishing sustainable purchasing. Based on this study’s literature, sustainable purchasing benefits several parties within the supply chain and in the society. This essay’s scientific research also points at the issues of sustainable work in progress that is identified at the suppliers. A big scale of this study's company’s suppliers is located in highrisk countries, which means that those countries does not address the same working conditions as in other countries. The earlier scientific research of this study also implies that companies needs to take an environmental and economical responsibility. In those cases, companies need to integrate with their supply chain in regard to CSR work, beyond their internal work efforts. A fundamental concept in the work for sustainability is CSR, which contains an economic, environmental and social responsibility. The relation between these CSR-factors and the work it entails, manage companies to accomplish sustainable purchasing. The authors of this paper have analyzed the difficulties with sustainable work, and from that manage to point out possible improvements. The theoretical frame of reference highlights theories that can be used as strategies for the development work towards sustainable purchasing. The purpose of the empirical material is to examine how the companies purchasing strategies are outlined and contributes to the economic, environmental and social work. The practical work at these companies of this study reflects the theories. Some of them has the potential to work with the theories in a larger extension. The result of this study is that the companies experience the same difficulty, which is to integrate suppliers and sub-suppliers in the work of CSR, to accomplish sustainable purchasing. Since there are contrasts between countries, culturally and legally, the companies collaborate with external parties to create policys. These policys are aimed to apply as a common interest for all involved parties in the supply chain. In addition to these policys, the urge to integrate the supply chain, comes from the companies internal interests. By interacting the suppliers and make them understand which effect they can have on the climate, they can develop closer cooperation to achieve a sustainable purchase.

  • 388.
    Bohm, Maria
    University of Skövde.
    Arbetsprocessen för musikvideon till Black Bride2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 389.
    Bolin, Irina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Magnusson, Sandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Den kreativa personligheten: En socialpsykologisk studie om femfaktormodellens personlighetsdrag och dess samverkan med konstnärlig kreativitet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate personality and it’s potential causality with artistic creativity. The five-factor model was used to investigate the personality traits openness, extraversion and neuroticism. Creativity is described by earlier research and artistic creativity creates the basic of this study. A short pilot-study was performed to evaluate the understanding of the instrument for creativity, that had been translated earlier from english to swedish. The sample used consisted of 89 respondents, who participated in an online-survey posted at a facebook-group named “studenter vid högskolan i Skövde”. The results showed that the personality trait openness predicts artistic creativity. The results of the personality traits extraversion and neuroticism did not show any predictability of artistic creativity. However, the results showed that the facet gregariousness from the personality trait extraversion predicts the artistic creative domain of dance, while the personality trait neuroticism and the facet depression predicts the artistic creative domain creative writing. Thereby the following conclusion could be made: several respondents of this study are expressing themselves in an artistic creative way and what kind of artistic creative expressions they use is defined by the personality of the person.

  • 390.
    Bolin, Joakim
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ljung, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Målstyrning i skolan: En fallstudie i gymnasieskolan2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problemformulering: År 1990 fastställdes beslut om den s.k. ansvarsprincipen för skolan. Syftet med denna ansvarsprincip var att tydliggöra ansvarsfördelningen inom skolan samt att målstyrning skall användas. Staten skall se till att utbildningen i landet är likvärdig och av hög kvalitet genom att sätta nationella riktlinjer och mål. Kommunerna har stor frihet att själva utveckla skolverksamheten inom de lagar och riktlinjer som fastställts av regering och riksdag. Skolenheterna i sin tur skall forma innehållet och strukturen för skolarbetet, utifrån de nationella målen och riktlinjer samt de förutsättningar som råder inom kommunen. Lärare och rektorer skall även bryta ner de övergripande målen och precisera de till sin egen verksamhet. Denna decentralisering av skolan har komplicerat styrningen av skolan ytterligare. Skolan formas idag av nationella politiker, kommunala politiker och professionella aktörer. Dessa mål, normer och styrsignaler från olika håll kan vara svåra att förena och det leder till skilda tolkningar. Utifrån detta har vi kommit fram till följande problemformulering.

    Hur tolkas och prioriteras komplexa mål som fastställs av stat och kommun på de olika nivåerna inom den kommunala skolan?

    Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att analysera hur man inom den kommunala skolans olika hierarkiska nivåer, från utbildningschef till lärare, tolkar, prioriterar och praktiserar de övergripande mål och riktlinjer som fastställs av stat och kommun.

    Metod: Syftet med vårt arbete var att analysera och öka förståelsen för det valda ämnet. En kvalitativ studie syftar till att erhålla en djupare förståelse. Vi har valt att göra en fallstudie då fallstudier används för att skaffa sig djupgående insikter om en viss situation och hur de inblandade personerna tolkar denna. Vi valde att intervjua personer från samtliga hierarkiska nivåer inom gymnasieskolan för att se hur de upplever målstyrning och tolkar mål.

    Slutsats: Tolkningen och prioriteringarna av mål styrs i stor utsträckning av den politiska, administrativa och professionella logik som finns i skolan. Dessa logiker har olika sätt att se på skolan och kommer att påverka på vilket sätt prioriteringar och tolkningar av målen görs. Dessa tolkningar mellan logikerna sker både på individnivå och på organisatorisk nivå. Vilket leder till att skolan är komplex. Utfallet av dessa tolkningar och prioriteringar kan ses som en förhandlad ordning och en socialt konstruerad praktik.

    Förslag till vidare forskning: Utifrån vårt arbete anser vi att följande vore intressanta ämnen att utreda ytterligare. Vad är det kommuner vill med skolan? Viljan borde vara att göra den attraktiv för att få in resurser, samtidigt som ska ge en utbildning som möter de statliga kvalitetskraven. Var går pengarna skolan får i form av elevpeng och liknande? Går alla pengar till skolan eller går det till andra former av kommunal verksamhet?

  • 391.
    Bolund, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Åhlfeldt, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Värdering till Verkligt Värde: Utlåning till allmänheten inom banksektorn2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: IFRS 13 deals with the valuation and the disclosure requirements of fair value valuation, which is a market-based value. The banking sector is an organization that gets clear implications with the difficulties to value their financial assets to fair value. One financial asset that banks have is their lending, a loan portfolio. Small banks get more requests of loans with high risk and to avoid a misjudgment of the loan portfolio, they should do a risk assessment. If one bank does this risk assessment incorrectly it could put the bank in a worse scenario and lose equity.

    Purpose: The purpose with the study is to examine the differences between some small banks valuation to fair value of loans to the public. The purpose is also to illustrate problems and opportunities with the banks risk assessments to the bank sector and to external parts.

    Methods: The investigation has been based on a qualitative method with four personal interviews and two telephone interviews with the financial managers in smaller banks. One telephone interview was also carried out with an accountant to get more understanding over the rules and regulations and to get an accountants approach to fair value.

    Conclusion: With the risk in mind, the banks are dealing with the valuation by ensuring the loans as much as possible. There is no difference in treating the risk whether it’s a loan to a business or a consumer. However, the banks are seeing greater risk with loans given to a business because they don’t have any security. Security and the ability to return loans is everything for the banks when it comes to dealing with the risks of lending.

    Loans to the public are by the banks valued to fair value in two ways. Two of the banks value their loans to the public correctly according to IAS 39, while four banks don’t use this way of valuation. The reason for these differences is the clear interpretation conflict on what fair value really is. This points to the complication for smaller banks to apply these rules and that they will turn to larger banks for help. This is how the banks possibly are to become institutionalized over time.

  • 392.
    Boman, Alexandra
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Elvin, Nora
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURES AND TRUST IN CORPORATIONS: A study of listed corporations in Sweden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades, major changes have been noticed in annual reports. For instance, annual reports have become more comprehensive. Today, corporations can partly decide what to include in their annual reports. This is called voluntary disclosures. Furthermore, corporations chose to disclose pictures, narratives and other graphics material in their voluntary disclosures. This, to give an image of the corporation. Moreover, voluntary disclosures could impact shareholders’ trust towards corporations. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate whether shareholders trust is affected by the voluntary disclosures in annual reports. 

     

    The purpose of this study is therefore to examine in what way shareholders have increase trust in corporations based on the voluntary disclosures, including marketing aspects, that corporations publish in their annual reports. Furthermore, corporations view of the voluntary disclosures in their annual reports connected to shareholders trust are also examined.

     

    This study was conducted with a qualitative research method. The empirical findings were collected through semi-structured interviews with both shareholders and listed corporations in Sweden. During these interviews, both shareholders and corporations answered questions regarding their view of the annual report, its voluntary disclosures and trust.

     

    After completing this study, the authors identified parts of the voluntary disclosures that shareholders consider more interesting in trust purposes. For instance, more information about the CEO and managers increase trust among shareholders. Moreover, all shareholders emphasized that transparency and honesty were two factors that have a positive effect on trust. This is something the corporations showed awareness of. They disclose succinct and informativevoluntary disclosures rather than increasingly comprehensive.

  • 393.
    Boqvist, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Woo Hagebratt, Therese
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Men jag då?: En kvalitativ studie om informella vårdgivare till personer med psykisk ohälsa2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely known that mental illness is a current and growing problem. There is however a group of people who are strongly connected to this phenomenon that do not receive enough attention - the relatives. This qualitative and phenomenological study aims to describe what it is like to be a relative/informal caregiver to someone with a mental illness, which expectations they have on them and how they perceive the support from society. Ten relatives from Sweden were interviewed to answer the purpose of the study and the research questions. During the analysis seven themes emerged: experience of the situation, to support the dependant, impact on the relative, role, own support, the treatment from others and satisfaction with the support. The result revealed that the relatives’ every-day life becomes restricted and that they could experience worry, shame/guilt, exhaustion and a loss of appetite. They also take a lot of responsibility and support their dependants through dialogues and being there. The treatment from others is mostly positive but it can also be negative. The relatives also have several self-help strategies, where some get support from friends and/or seeks help from the health care. The social support is both satisfactory and dissatisfactory. The conclusion is that it is very burdensome to be a relative, and that the healthcare should do more for them than they are currently doing.

  • 394.
    Borgklint, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Söderberg, Michael
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Bitcoin och banker: En studie om bankens syn på kryptovalutan Bitcoin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Satoshi Nakamoto is the group or person behind the cryptocurrency Bitcoin. The purpose of the currency was to make it possible to send money fast, anonymously and without involvement of third party, banks or national bank.

    Purpose: The purpose of our study is to be able to answer our theoretical questions through our empirical research. The authors of this study want to investigate how the bank’s attitude looks like if the currency becomes increasingly popular that companies and individuals begin to make transactions without their involvement.

    Methodology: To make it possible to answer our purpose, we have chosen an abductive method. Our data collection is from semi-structured qualitative interviews from relevant persons on banks. In our analytical part of the study we explain our collected data with help from our theoretical framework. In order to obtain qualified assessments, the study has used the delfi method.

    Conclusion: Our conclusion was that Bitcoin does not pose a threat against the banks since they can copy the technology behind it right away and as well because the bank’s core business is not about making transactions. The transaction technology Bitcoin relies on, in combination with a legitimate currency (for example the E-krona), has a possibility to be used by banks in the future.

  • 395.
    Borgström, Juliana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Cyclical Women: Menstrual Cycle Effects on Mood and Neuro-Cognitive Performance2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During roughly forty years of a woman’s life-span, the fertile female human body prepares itself monthly for the possibility of pregnancy. Science has shown that the fluctuation of the sex steroids progesterone and estrogen have a crucial role in the female body's physiology, determining the menstrual cycle and its general phases. This biological dance of hormones governing the cycle influences a lot of physical, mental and cognitive aspects of life for a fertile ovulating woman. Although the question of whether these changes also affect women's cognitive performance is still unclear, some evidence has been gathered that could bring us closer to answers. Recent research findings show that this hormonal interplay might have a significant role in cognitive and psychological development - modulating brain activity, cognitive performance, higher cognition, emotional status, sensory processing, appetite and more. This thesis aims to uncover to what extent the menstrual cycle affects brain functions, neurobiology, mood, well-being and cognitive performance in menstruating cisgender women.

  • 396.
    Bossius, Annika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Leijon, Frida
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Visselblåsning: Visselblåsarsystemets roll för finansiell styrning och kontroll2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Whistleblowing systems are now being introduced within EU on a broad scale. April 16th, 2019 the European Parliament approved an EU Whistleblower Protection Directive. The new law must be transformed to national law by the member states, and legal entities with 50 employees or more must get ready to comply with the new law.

    Minimizing risks of financial irregularities is a key issue for companies and where a whistleblower system is expected to contribute. Bribes, accounting offenses and fraud can affect the credibility of corporate accounts and if a crime is discovered, the company's existence could be at stake. Serious consequences may be that investors and shareholders lose their capital and employees can lose their jobs.

    Internal control systems are present to fulfill the goals for efficiency and productivity in the business, reliable financial reporting and compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Models for internal control prescribes that employees and other stakeholders must be able to safely warn about suspicion of financial crime.

    Purpose: In this report we analyze if the introduction of a whistleblower system can help to minimize the risks of financial crime and contribute to the company's work with internal control.

    Method: The empirical material used in the study has been collected with a qualitative method and 10 people have been interviewed with semi-structured interviews. The respondents work in various ways close to whistleblowing with knowledge about prevention of economic crime.

    Analysis and Conclusion: The analysis indicates that a whistleblower system can contribute to the company's work with internal control and to a correct accounting and safer reporting of the company's results, especially in a preventive stage. Most respondents also highlighted the importance of corporate culture and its impact on the whistleblower system's efficiency.

  • 397.
    Brage, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Ivarsson, Kajsa
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Kommunikationseffekter från reklam om konsumtionslån: Skillnader utifrån generationstillhörighet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies indicate an attitude change to consumer loans, where consumption loans become an increasingly socially accepted solution. It is also testified that the amount of consumer loans has increased in recent years. Part of the problem highlighted, is also that aggressive marketing could contribute to this attitude change. Earlier studies and reports testify that age is an aspect that plays a role in how vulnerable different groups are, which makes it an important subject to investigate. Based on the problem background, the question is formulated.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to describe which communication effects that can be distinguished from advertising on consumer loans, and which attitudes for consumer loans that can be distinguished. Whether generation affiliation affects communication effects from advertising on consumer loans and consumption loans in itself.

    Method: Through a qualitative method, empirical data were collected, this in the form of 16 interviews. The interviewees consisted of consumers from Generation Y, Generation X and Generation Baby boomer.

    Conclusion: The study shows that there are variations regarding how the different generations relate to advertising regarding consumer loans and its attitudes towards taking consumer loans. Generation Y seems to be more vulnerable as they do not seem to have an equally strong attitude to the subject, compared to the older generations. In the interviewees who participate in the study, there are no direct indications that consumption loans would be an accepted solution, which does not indicate an attitude change.

  • 398.
    Brandt Heedman, Ulrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Leijon, Erika
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    "Det är dubbelt så kul som svenska och alla andra ämnen": Elevers förhållningssätt till matematikundervisning i relation till läroplanen2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the autumn of 2011 the Swedish Government decided to make an investment in mathematics in schools, due to declining student performance, as seen from an international perspective. The investment focused on, for example, more hours of instruction in class, and competence development for teachers. With this investment in mind, we have chosen to study the question of why pupil performance becomes worse, from the pupils' perspective. For example, do they find the teaching of mathematics meaningful?

    The study aims to explore the attitudes of pupils in fourth grade towards mathematics teaching and its relevance in their daily lives. Furthermore, the study aims to compare these attitudes with the mission expressed regarding the subject of mathematics and mathematics teaching in the curriculum. Because of the new curriculum, we have chosen to compare the aim of mathematics teaching with the pupils’ responses. The data collection was done through group interviews and the analysis was done using qualitative content analysis. To support our analysis we have used three concepts: perceptions, experience and meaningfulness.

    The result shows that pupils perceive mathematics as something very positive. They can also see meaningfulness in mathematics, but mostly as a knowledge that will be used in the future. The pupils get experience in mathematics through their own work in a book, or through work in pairs. The result also shows that pupils' perceptions highly correspond with the aims of the mathematics teaching in the curriculum. Finally, we discuss the result supported by our theoretical concepts. For example, we discuss why the pupils' positive view of mathematics changes during the time they go to school. We also discuss how students come to the conclusion that mathematics is important in the future.

  • 399.
    Bredesen, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Höydahl Anderberg, Hanna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Jag vill att mitt barn ska bli accepterat precis som det är: Mammor till barn med autism om känslor och upplevelser kring omgivningens bemötande2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human differences are often addressed with prejudices and stereotypical perceptions,but it is important to understand that no one is their disability, but a unique individualwith a unique personality. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understandingof how mothers of children with autism experienced, and emotionally and behaviorallydealt with how the public responded to the children. The results of the study were linkedto Goffman's theories about face, stigma and counter strategies to stigma. The study hada qualitative phenomenological focus and was based on semistructured interviews with10 mothers of children with autism. The result showed that mothers of children withautism experienced both negative and positive responses towards the children. Negativeresponses led to negative emotions, while positive responses led to positive emotions.However, one could see a majority of negative receptions. How the mothers dealt withnegative response from the environment was expressed in defending or helping herchild, alternatively leaving the social interaction. Finally, it was found that at a microlevel there was still a lot to do to promote the sense of acceptance for differences insociety.

  • 400.
    Bridfelt, Nathalie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Olivares Neira, Maddelyn
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kundservice: I mindre butiker2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption in today’s society is increasing and competition between stores today is tougher than ever. For a smaller store it can be a crucial factor to differentiate itself in the current market by understanding the customer’s needs and provide distinctive customer service, in order to create a good opportunity for a long-term and profitable future. This report deals with customer service with a focus on the personal interaction with customers in smaller stores that are independent and not part of a retail chain and operates on a surface which is easy to overview. Our assumption is that these stores perhaps handle customer service in a different way than major leading retail chains in Sweden. The report aims to determine what expectations customers have regarding customer service in smaller stores in compare to what the store managers and store employees characterizes as great customer service. The report also aims to compare conducted interviews with selected and relevant theories in the field of customer service and customer care. With this we will also be able to see where any differences and similarities between what theory claims should be done in a store to maintain good customer service, in compare to practical application. Presentation of the results from the interviews have been conducted in the form of empiricist where this material is then analyzed and compared with all of the respondents attitude towards customer service in relation to the selected theory. The final section of the report discuss conclusions based on conducted analysis in which the authors own opinions and theories are used to explain the reasons for the respondents opinions and potential differences, but also where the views are consistent. . The result of the report state that customers have different needs and expectations of what according to them is good customer service. We also noted that stores that have been analyzed only follow theories of customer care and service to a certain degree, as they formed their customer service through experience. It cannot be concluded that this is the case for all smaller shops, because the investigation has been conducted on a local level, but we can still draw the conclusion that every customer requirements is different during the personal meeting, but that smaller independent stores with a customer focus have good conditions for store managers and employees to reach and live up to customer expectations. This could be a result of small stores being able to create a personal relationship with the customer, which leads to the store recognizing their customers, learn what they value and what their needs are.

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