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  • 351.
    Pettersson, Emil
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Pettersson, Emil
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utmattningsberäkning av hydraulikkopplingar: Metoder och beräkningar gällande utmattningsteorier2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the fatigue life of two components in different hydraulic quick couplings. The crack which initiates the fatigue failure usually occurs in the bottom of one of the threads. Thus, the threads in the coupling are carefully investigated. A few different approaches for determining the fatigue life are studied for each component. CAD (Computer Aided Design) models for both components are created and analyzed with FEM (Finite Element Method). By analyzing these components with FEM the stresses and the strains are calculated. These values for stress and strain are used to determine the fatigue life for the different components. The first component is suffering from high cycle fatigue. Four different approaches for high cycle fatigue are investigated. These four are Wöhler-curve, Haigh-diagram, von Mises fatigue criterion and Mises-Sines fatigue criterion. It was found that all of them but the von Mises fatigue criterion give a good approximation of the fatigue life. von Mises fatigue criterion does not consider the midstress, which can be a reason for this. The three other approaches indicate that the component will be suffering from fatigue, but will be relatively close to infinite life. The Wöhler-curve indicates that the component will withstand about 470 000 loading cycles. Compared to the experimental tests where the component withstands about 700 000 loading cycles, it can be said that the approach is a good estimation of the fatigue life. Approximated material data are used. For further work it is essential to obtain experimental material data for better approximation of the fatigue life. The second component is suffering from low cycle fatigue, which means that different approaches are needed. The approaches are originally from Coffin-Manson and Morrow. A total of four low cycle fatigue criterion have been studied. The first one is made by CoffinManson and takes the plastic strain in to account, the second is made by Morrow and takes both the elastic and the plastic strain in to account.  The third is a modification of Morrow’s criterion, and will consider the midstresses as well. The fourth is a simplification of Morrow’s criterion where more common material parameters are used. These four have been compared and it can be seen that the CoffinManson criterion gives the best approximation of the reality. The Coffin-Manson criterion gives an approximation of 50 000 loading cycles to fatigue failure which, compared to that the experimental tests suffered from fatigue failure after about 40 000 loading cycles, is a good estimation of the fatigue life.

  • 352.
    Phalén, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Lövgren Berg, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av displayställ för kreativa leksaker2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During spring 2016, the engineering students Kajsa Phalén and Emelie Lövgren Berg, at the University of Skövde, developed a product in cooperation with the toy company Strawbees. The company wants to sell their creative toys in stores and therefore wants to develop a sales display stand that will carry the products. A basic feasibility study has been done to define a target group of customers and other stakeholders. The feasibility study also covers marketing strategies in shops and studies were carried out to increase understanding of the target group needs. Market analysis of competitors gave inspiration from existing solutions of the problem and a collage over color codes and idioms gave the result the feeling that the company wants to convey.

    The number of products that the display stand would wear was a major focus in the beginning of the concept generation. Combinations of how the products can be placed laid the foundation for the design of the display stand. Through analysis of how competitors solved the visual design for the display stand some visual themes were created. The developed designs together with visual themes and the feeling that the company wants to convey created various concepts. The new concepts were analyzed for how they would fit into its natural environment, a toy store. Because of some shortcomings the number of concept could be limited to only two, who later became prototypes. These prototypes were tested in real size together with the products that the display stand would accommodate. A concept could then be determined and developed in detail as to the best way to reach up to the demands and wishes of the company.

  • 353.
    Popov Popov, Nikita
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Design and preliminary finite element analysis of structural frame of a double base for an infant child restraint system.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Child restraint systems (CRS) are used for protection of the child in case of car accident. These systems have been found to have a difficult installation process that in many cases can cause greater loads on the child and as a consequence can lead to an increased risk of injury and a reduction in safety. The problems are even more significant in cases of families with two or more children and in small cars with lack of available space. Misuse and its causes are identified from literature as well as from surveys and market research. The design guidelines are gathered from existing CRS designs. Currently available automotive and CRS fastening systems are studied. A specific methodological approach is used for project development. A new concept for a child restraint system is introduced. The main aims are the design proposal of a double ISOFIX base for two children, reduction in the misuse of the CRS, improving the user experience and achieving technological, societal and environmental contributions. The second aspect is to verify the structure of the double base by means of preliminary finite-element analysis using the case of a frontal collision in accordance to current approval testing procedures. Al 2024 is chosen for design by the material selection performed in order to optimize the structure in relation to strength and weight. The finite-element preliminary static analysis is performed employing shell elements. The results are analysed with respect to the mesh convergence. In addition a linearized buckling check is carried out. Finally, the achieved results are discussed in comparison with initial assumptions and goals and future work is suggested.

  • 354.
    Porteiro Paraponiaris, Yanni
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Mateos Rodríguez, Arturo
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Product Development of Material Supply: Implementation of Karakuri Kaizen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The industry 4.0 is continuously aiming to produce faster, increasing quality, and strictly using what is necessary to achieve efficiency enhancement. Within the wide list of methods used to reach this target, robot automation is usually used, although is expensive and rigid. Alternatively, a Japanese cheap automation philosophy called "Karakuri", is being introduced by Volvo GTO to manage this goal. This thesis relies on this philosophy, which takes profit of the existing energy, like gravity, to put in motion mechanisms, in order to reduce costs and improve the production efficiency by developing a semi-automated material handling system. The design method followed, the Scrum, divides the thesis in several phases of development, presenting a fully developed solution at the end of each one and iteratively increasing the level of definition along the process, to finally provide a solution suitable to be implemented. 

  • 355.
    Porteiro Paraponiaris, Yanni
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Mateos Rodríguez, Arturo
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Product development of material supply: Implementation of Karakuri Kaizen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to stream line the material handling tasks between assembly stations, by implementing a low-cost automation system, reducing costs and time and increasing the efficiency. The methods used to design such a system are Karakuri and SCRUM. The Karakuri low cost system is to rely on the existing energy, like the potential energy of the components, to put the mechanism in motion. The SCRUM method is to divide the study in different phases of development and to present a fully developed solution the end of each phase. Also to increase the level of definition along the duration of the thesis and to finally yield a factory-ready solution, suitable to be implemented. As a conclusion, the thesis demonstrates how automation is possible without high implementation costs and inflexibility characteristics of the commonly used robots.

  • 356.
    Potros, Bashar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Framställning av mätmetod för att upptäcka defekta luftmunstycken: Framställa en säker och tillförlitlig mätmetod för att mäta mängd vatten i 50 provrör2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To detect defective air nozzles, Ecco Finishing AB in Skara has developed a new test equip-ment to replace an unreliable and uncertain existing test machine. Ecco Finishing AB wants to find a reliable and safe measurement method that will measure the amount of water in 50 test tubes. The overall goal of the thesis is to find a precise and repeatable measurement method for level measurement of fluid in the test tubes. Two measurement methods were evaluated that are most suitable for level measurement, vision systems and measurement by weighing. The reason for the choice of these two measurement methods is the test tubes of the test equipment, and that there are many measuring points and because of the small test tubes. Twenty experiments for vision systems and twenty experiments for weighing method were made to evaluate and describe pros and cons. The experiments of vision systems and weighing were first made in the laboratory phase and then tested on the company's existing test equipment. The results of measurements were saved in an Excel sheet used to evaluate collected data. The evaluations were compared to set goals, reliability, accuracy, repeatabil-ity, automatic reporting of results and time of measurement. Vision systems are recom-mended for continued work and implementation on the existing test equipment.

  • 357.
    Pérez Romero, Roberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Muñoz García, Marina
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Design of a Test Rig for a Novel Joining Method2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development of an experimental setup in order to study a novel assembly method based on knurling. The assembly method is used as an alternative to the ordinary lathing process. The idea arises from the necessity of finding a new method of manufacturing work-pieces which would not generate turnings during the process, as well as having the possibility of hollowing the work-piece in order to reduce its weight and save costs. The resultant design is a combination of electro-mechanical tensile test machinery, available in the market and a designed part. The test rig is composed by the machinery, which performs the principal functions of movement and force and two clamping devices for fixing the two work-pieces during the assembly. The clamping is designed to allow fixing different sizes and shapes of the work-piece as well as to let the clamp orientate the work-piece. By gathering information through a market research and literature review, different design methodologies are applied in order to find the most suitable design. Thereafter, the final design is modelled and simulated in Pro/Engineer Wildfire 5.0 in order to analyse its most critical zones and to enhance the reliability of the design. It is concluded that the design fulfils the requirements established and contributes to the development of the novel assembly method. However, some parts may be refined, and as future work, the test rig could be prototyped and tested as well as implemented in the Company.

  • 358.
    Quesada Díaz, Raquel
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Horseshoe Bending Machine: Bending Mechanism2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Horseshoes are manufactured metal plates developed in an extensive assortment of materials and shapes and their main function is to protect the horse’s hooves and legs against abrasion and rupture. After a certain period of time the horseshoes are lost, worn out, or the hoof needs to be treated. Horseshoeing is a repetitive time consuming process for the farrier who has to heat the horseshoe inside a forge until it reaches the required temperature and shape it with a hammer until it fits perfectly to the horses’ hoof. The main goal of this project is to develop a horseshoe bending machine able to shape the horseshoe so its shape fits perfectly the horse’s hoof. The calculation of the bending force needed to be applied to the horseshoe in order to provoke a plastic deformation will be done with Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The bending force is then used to design and dimension each element of the bending mechanism so that it may be able to resist the stresses and prevent the parts from collapsing during its working life span. A study of the springback effect will be done followed by the analysis of the hertzian contact stresses between the rollers and the horseshoe. In addition, a clamping system is selected to constrain the movements of the horseshoe during the bending process. This machine will reduce the final user’s horse maintenance costs at the same time that makes the fitting process easier and less demanding, which will improve the farrier’s working life span and quality.

  • 359.
    Quesada Díaz, Raquel
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Support component reusability by integrating augmented reality and product lifecycle management2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an ever changing market that expands continuously and where innovations cycles become shorter, there is an important increase of the renewal frequency of the electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and vehicles. This makes the manufacture of EEE and vehicles a fast-growing source of waste in terms of used products. The immense amount of information generated by all these technological products which are currently in the market must be managed throughout the whole life cycle of the products. The problem is to provide information about the technological product’s reusability in the recycling process given the colossal complexity of many products and the lifespan of operation. This includes instructions about the components qualifications as elements in a new product. Technologies such as augmented reality (AR) combined with product lifecycle management (PLM) systems can provide the platform for an information system that provides the necessary information and support for the decommissioning process of EEE and vehicles at the end of their life cycle.

    The present project describes the framework of integration between AR and PLM with the purpose of recycling a technological product at the end of its life cycle. The proposed method of integration could be considered to constitute both an innovation and a possible improvement if compared with the current approach. It is believed that the development of a method that addresses the issue of integration between AR and PLM could provide with a secure, efficient management of stored data related to various products and their properties related to the recycling process at the end-of-life of the product. The result of this approach is an AR-PLM system architecture which assists the circular economy’s recycling process by the use of visual information superimposed on the physical technological equipment.

  • 360.
    Rang-Roslund, Pontus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Munguia Velazquez, Guillermo
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Development of an Intuitive Interface Structure for Ergonomic Evaluation Software2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the spring semester of 2018 a product development project has been carried out at the University of Skövde by two Design Engineering Students, Pontus Rang-Roslun, and Guillermo Munguía Velazquez, in cooperation with the project group for Smart Textiles for Sustainable Work Life at the University of Skövde as they are now focusing to develop a web-based software for ergonomists and work leaders/coaches. The aim of the project is to design the interface for the software.

    The project carried out literature review focused on basic principles of usability, cognition, user interaction, human-computer interaction, user experience and ergonomic evaluation methods. In order to uncover user needs, interviews and observations were performed, and inputs and outputs of the management information were analyzed. Based on the gathered information, concepts were generated and evaluated through formative evaluation. The final iteration brought a flexible and usable interface for ergonomic evaluations

  • 361.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology / Industrial Development Scania CV.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Dynamic wrist exposure analysis of a digital human model2012In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, CRC Press, 2012, p. 3944-3953Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation and visualisation software such as digital human modelling (DHM) tools have been designed to predict and evaluate ergonomics within a virtual environment. Today’s DHM tools typically include observation-based evaluation methods, initially designed for visual observation. Direct measurement techniques enable assessment of quantitative data similar to the information derived from the DHM. Such technique allows detailed and time-dependent risk aspects to be considered in the ergonomics evaluation. No methods in commercial DHM software calculate time-dependent information, which is shown as an important risk factor in the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD). This paper presents and discusses an ergonomics assessment approach based on the theory of a dose-response relationship between exposure and the risk of arising injury. The focus of the approach presented is on the wrist-joint.

  • 362.
    Rhén, Ida-Märta
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Forsman, Mikael
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Keyvani, Ali
    Robotics and Automation, Virtual Manufacturing AB, Göteborg.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Global Strategy and Process Development, Volvo Car Corporation, Manufacturing Engineering, Göteborg.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje / Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ergonomic risk assessment in DHM tools employing motion data: Exposure calculation and comparison to epidemiological reference data2018In: International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, ISSN 1742-5549, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 31-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital human modelling (DHM) allows ergonomic risk assessment to be performed at early stages of design and development. Such assessment is typically based on observational methods, which do not take advantage of the potential of DHM tools to provide precise posture and motion data. This paper describes and illustrates an alternative assessment approach employing DHM tools, inspired by risk assessment based on direct measurements. A literature survey established a reference database of epidemiological associations between exposure and wrist-related disorders. This approach is illustrated by a DHM simulation of a car assembly task. Wrist posture and motion were simulated and compared to the database, predicting the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders on the basis of direct measurements.

  • 363.
    Rodríguez Moronta, Francisco Manuel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Segurola Lucas, Judith
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Comparison of ASTM and BSI Standards for the calculation of fracture energy of adhesives: Design of a fixture and testing of DCB specimens2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Modern synthetic structural adhesives are finding a place in the drive to improve the fuel efficiencyof automobiles through weight reduction of the structure. One of the most important properties ofthe adhesives used in this type of joining is the fracture energy.A literature study is carried out to gain a broader understanding of the methods used for thedetermination of the fracture energy of adhesives. One of the most common experimental methodsrelies on the use of the Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) test specimen. International standards for theDCB test are studied. Prediction of the fracture energy using Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics andthe J-integral approach, a closed form solution and finite element methods are also seen. Differencesin these methods are attributed in part to the nonlinear behaviour of the adhesive being studied. It isdecided to use the results of a non-standard DCB test and the 40% error calculated by a theoreticalstandard method as a point of reference.A comprehensive comparison of the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) and BritishStandard Institution (BSI) standards for the determination of the fracture energy of adhesives isundertaken. Limitations and overlaps in the standards are identified. A DCB specimen isrecommended and an experimental procedure that satisfies elements one or both standards issuggested along with several small additions such as using a wire to assist in the application of theadhesive and the use of cameras to track the crack growth. In addition, a new fixture to allow testingof the recommended DCB specimen according to the standards is designed and manufactured.Materials for the preparation of tests specimens are ordered and, based on available laboratorytime, a single DCB test specimen is made for the purposes of testing a rubber-based automotivestructural adhesive. The specimen is tested using the recommended experimental procedure usingthe new fixture. The data produced during the test are collected and interpreted using themethodology proposed in the BSI standard for the calculation of the fracture energy of the selectedrubber-based adhesive. Several challenges found during this process are identified. The fractureenergy determined from the standard-based experiment ranges from 140 J/m2 to 1380 J/m2depending on the methodology used.The values of the fracture energy determined from the standard-based DCB experiment are thencompared to the fracture energy seen with the nonstandard-based experiment and to the standardbasednumerical test seen in the literature. It is shown that when simple beam theory method isused the difference in the results found in the standard-based experiment and nonstandard-basedexperiment can be confirmed to lie within the 40% error observed in the literature.Finally, the contributions of the project are summarized and recommendations for future work aremade. In particular, the lack of information given in the BSI standard when calculating the fractureenergy and the need for multiple test specimens are required by the standard, must be addressed inorder to support the obtained results and conclusions.

  • 364.
    Ros García, Adrián
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Bujalance Silva, Luis
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Laser welding for battery cells of hybrid vehicles2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report is an overview article, as a result of our investigation at the field of laser welding applied to electromobility cells manufactured in an aluminium housing. This project was proposed by the University of Skövde in collaboration with ASSAR Centre. The key results presented are based on the study of the following parameters: laser type and power, shielding gases, welding modes, patterns and layout. The conclusions of the project define the final selection of each parameter in order to achieve minimum defects and optimal electrical performance by minimizing the contact resistance.

  • 365.
    Ruiz Castro, Pamela
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. student.
    Seating Comfort Analysis for Virtual Driver Research2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a rapid growth in the vehicle industry market, companies are expected to provide comfortable and safer products, improving with every new model. Hence, the interest on developing Digital Human Modelling (DHM) tools that are focused on their needs.

    The aim of this project is to suggest a standard seating posture that could be used with ergonomic software like IMMA, to address the research an initial literature study was performed to understand existing methods used in the industry and previous posture studies.

    In order to visualize the extent of the topic, it was required to acquire information from the vehicle industries and make an investigation on preferred postures by real drivers.

    Comparisons are made between the different categories of observed vehicles, and literature found for ideal postures. The results were also used to implement suggestions for the ergonomic IMMA software development

  • 366.
    Ruiz Castro, Pamela
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ramsen, Håkan
    Volvo Trucks, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bjursten, Jenny
    Volvo Trucks, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Industrial Development, Scania, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Virtual Simulation of Human-Robot Collaboration Workstations2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume V: Human Simulation and Virtual Environments, Work With Computing Systems (WWCS), Process Control / [ed] Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander, Yushi Fujita, Springer, 2019, Vol. 822, p. 250-261Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The constant call in manufacturing for higher quality, efficiency, flexibility and cost effective solutions has been supported by technology developments and revised legislations in the area of collaborative robots. This allows for new types of workstations in industry where robots and humans co-operate in performing tasks. In addition to safety, the design of such collaborative workstations needs to consider the areas of ergonomics and task allocation to ensure appropriate work conditions for the operators, while providing overall system efficiency. The aim of this study is to illustrate the development and use of an integrated robot simulation and digital human modelling (DHM) tool, which is aimed to be a tool for engineers to create and confirm successful collaborative workstations. An assembly scenario from the vehicle industry was selected for its redesign into a collaborative workstation. The existing scenario as well as potential collaborative concepts are simulated and assessed using a version of the simulation tool IPS IMMA. The assembly use case illustrates the capabilities of the tool to represent and evaluate collaborative workstations in terms of ergonomics and efficiency assessments.

  • 367.
    Ruiz Redondo, Jone
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Araujo Castillo, Thelma
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Design of the interior of a refrigerator and a freezer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project aimed to design the interior of a Super Premium refrigerator and a freezer of Electrolux directed to a Chinese market. To carry out this, the user and its environment was analysed in detail in order to get as much information as possible to obtain a successful design. The market was also analysed to see the competitive products that other brands could have. Taking into account all the information collected in the analysis some innovative concepts were proposed and from these concepts a solution was obtained which met all the objectives. This final product fits with the daily life of the user. In addition, it gives a touch of innovation to the market of household appliances.

  • 368.
    Ruiz-Amurrio, Maria
    et al.
    MGEP, Dept Mecan Prod & Ind, Arrasate Mondragon, Spain.
    Elorza, Unai
    MGEP, Dept Mecan Prod & Ind, Arrasate Mondragon, Spain.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Zabaleta-Etxebarria, Noemi
    MGEP, Dept Mecan Prod & Ind, Arrasate Mondragon, Spain.
    Identification of the factors which influence employee commitment using systems thinking = Identificación de factores que influyen en el compromiso de los empleados utilizando pensamiento sistemico2018In: DYNA, ISSN 0012-7361, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 504-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In our increasingly globalised economy, managing continuous change and remaining competitive has become a central issue for organisations in the industrial sector. Building a sustainable competitive advantage through effective decision making and the use of decision making tools has been widely studied [1,2]. The success of a company will be dependent on the skills of the workers, their capacity for learning, and adapting to special and evolving client necessities. Culture change via, communication and participation are the elements of change identified for engineering companies [3]. Thus, the main objective of this research is to understand the behaviour of commitment, the variables that influence it and the variables that are influenced by it. Commitment is considered a key factor due to its influence on performance. The methodology that was followed was based on the modelling methodology proposed by Sterman [4]. The first step was the problem definition, the second step was data collection. The purpose was to define the feedback loops of which the conceptual model (CM) is composed. Thirdly, conceptual model definition was developed. As a result, the outcome that is achieved through this research is a conceptual model. The main function of this model is to facilitate the understanding of the behaviour of commitment through Systems Thinking tools. This research contributes to both Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) and Systems Thinking (ST) fields of study. The most notable contribution for ST is the fact of combining more than one input source (Literature + Group Model Building + prior research) for the conceptual model definition. The combination of these input sources for an ST model is not common in the scientific community. Moreover, the use of ST in SHRM is limited.

  • 369.
    Ryttman, Tobias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Tillaéus, Nathalie
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Omkonstruktion av justerskruv i expanderbar duschstång2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor degree project in integrated product development was carried out at the University of Skövde in collaboration with Ericsindustrier in Töreboda. The report describes the methodology and the process that has been carried out in the project to achieve all the stated objectives. The scope was determined to be a redesign of an adjusting screw placed in an expandable shower rod. The shower rod is considered an important part of Ericsindustrier's product range.

    The reason for the need of a reconstruction was the number of components and the components assembly. The component number was required to be minimized by using DFx principles where the same material was sought throughout the product. Decreased quality and lower durability were defined as critical areas since Ericsindustrier wanted to maintain customer satisfaction and the product must hold for at least 200 N after the redesign.

    A five-stage model formed the basis of the project structure where the design process began with a preliminary study. The focus was on information gathering, observations and mapping of the current situation. The generation phase was imbued with methodology to explore solution space. This included, among other things, brainstorming, morphological matrix and sketching. In the project, prototypes had a great impact as they functioned as both generation and evaluation of solutions. They have also acted as communication with companies and users throughout the process. Iterations have characterized the whole process to achieve a product development. In order to maintain a user-centred design, the project included several user tests.

    The feet of the shower rod and the two pipes that form the shower rod itself were identified as separate problems. These issues have been discussed with the company. Concept selection was carried out according to the wishes of the company, tests, DFx principles and discussions until it ended in a final concept. This concept met the required requirements and needs. Therefore, it was an affordable, high quality and environmentally friendly product.

  • 370.
    Rösiö, Carin
    et al.
    Jönköping University School of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Srikanth, Karthik Banavara
    Jönköping University School of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Shetty, Savin
    Jönköping University School of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Towards an assessment criterion of reconfigurable manufacturing systems within the automotive industry2019In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 28, p. 76-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase changeability and reconfigurability of manufacturing systems, while maintaining cost-efficiency and environmental sustainability they need to be designed in accordance to the need for change. Since companies often need to convert existing manufacturing systems to handle variation, implementation of reconfigurable manufacturing systems calls for an analysis of the current system to understand to what extent they fulfil reconfigurability characteristics. This requires an assessment of the needs for reconfigurability as well as assessment of the existing ability to reconfigure the manufacturing system. Although a lot of reconfigurable manufacturing system assessment models are proposed in theory there is an evident knowledge gap pertaining to what extent the existing systems in the industry are in achieving reconfigurability. The purpose with this paper is to propose an assessment criterion for existing manufacturing systems to measure reconfigurability and their readiness to change with respect to products and volume variations. Based on a literature review of existing reconfigurability assessment models and a case study within the automotive industry, a criterion is developed and tested to analyze how reconfigurable a system is and to decide which parameters that need more attention to achieve higher degree of reconfigurability. © 2019 The Authors.

  • 371.
    Sachdeva, Nitin
    et al.
    Department of Operational Research, University of Delhi, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, Delhi, India.
    Singh, Ompal
    Department of Operational Research, University of Delhi, Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, Delhi, India.
    Kapur, P. K.
    Amity University, Noida, India.
    Galar, Diego
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Multi-criteria intuitionistic fuzzy group decision analysis with TOPSIS method for selecting appropriate cloud solution to manage big data projects2016In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 316-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today technology that learns from data to forecast future behavior of individuals, organizations, government and country as a whole, is playing a crucial role in the advancement of human race. In fact, the strategic advantage most of the companies today strive for are use of new available technologies like cloud computing and big data. However, today's dynamic business environment poses severe challenges in front of companies as to how to make use of the power of big data with the technical flexibility that cloud computing provides? Therefore, evaluating, ranking and selecting the most appropriate cloud solution to manage big data project is a complex concern which required multi criteria decision environment. In this paper we propose a hybrid TOPSIS method combined with intuitionistic fuzzy set to select appropriate cloud solution to manage big data projects in group decision making environment. In order to collate individual opinions of decision makers for rating the importance of various criteria and alternatives, we employed intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging operator. Lastly sensitivity analysis is performed so as to evaluate the impact of criteria weights on final ranking of alternatives.

  • 372.
    Safa, Niloufar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Designing of frazil ice test rig2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large part of electricity in Sweden is produced by hydropower plants, which are a safe and pollution-free source for electricity production. In the cold season, when the temperature of water decreases to below zero, water can be frozen and different types of ice will be generated. Frazil Ice is one type of ice that is made by turbulent water. This type of ice flows into rivers and blocks trash racks. Trash racks prevent the entrance of different things such as leaves, woods, stones and fishes into the turbines, but when they are blocked by the ice, water cannot go through them, thus turbines cannot work.

    Träbena is a hydropower station located at the Ätran River in south Sweden, and it suffers from frazil ice problems during the winter. To solve this problem, a heating system has been installed on the trash rack to melt frazil ice. Currently, the heating system works manually, but for energy saving, an automatic switch has been designed with a capacity sensor to detect the frazil ice thus turning the heating system either on or off. A test rig should be designed to test the sensor’s performance as well as to discover the best program for that sensor.

    In this research, following certain constraints such as cold store and trash rack dimensions, a test rig has been designed to test the frazil ice detector, using different variables such as temperature and water flow. The model of the test rig has been evaluated by static analysis, and water flow has been simulated to show how the water becomes turbulent in the test rig.

  • 373.
    Saha, Ujjal kumar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Avdic, Adis
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Simulating a tensile test of a carbon fiber composite test specimen in ABAQUS2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims at providing a numerical tool for the efficient design of the multidirectional carbon fiber reinforced composite material by means of finite element simulations. Abaqus/ CAE v 6.9-1 software has been used to establish a 3D model for simulation of the tensile test on the composite specimen. The aim of this analysis of multidirectional carbon fiber reinforced composite is to predict the strain and stress distribution in different plies through thickness. Tensile test experiment was carried out and the result was analyzed by ARAMIS to calculate the young’s modulus, stress, loads and strain of the composite specimen. The numerical model was compared against the result obtained from tensile test experiment to arrive at meaningful results for validation. This is done in order to understand the mechanical strength and strain at failure of the composite material. In this work three types of CFRP composite specimens are used, all have same 15 no. of ply but stacked in different orientation. It is found out that mechanical strength, failure load and strain differ slightly depending on this different ply orientation. A series of different modeling technique has also been done to verify the best modeling technique.

    The micromechanics of composite material is complex and the experimental predictions are time consuming and expensive. Though using FEM frequently solves the problem.

  • 374.
    Saiegh, Gabi
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Zaki, Alaa
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Intern logistik, industriella projekt med utvald processutrustning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En förstudie av produktionen på ett företag gjordes med syfte att kartlägga produktionen på pastöriseringsavdelningen och därefter skapa ett förbättringsförslag. Målet med projektet är att arbeta fram två förbättringsförslag på åtgärder för att minska slöseriet på pastöriseringsavdelningen, ta fram en standard avseende arbetssättet i pastöriseringsavdelningen och jämföra det nya arbetssättet med det tidigare samt att ta fram ett förbättringsförslag avseende arbetssättet i orderhanteringen. Projektet är ett examensarbete på trettio högskolepoäng och skrivs på Högskolan i Skövde vårterminen 2016 för institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap med inriktning automatisering och ledarskap. Författarna av denna rapport fick uppdraget från Dava foods i Skara. Projektet gjordes för att utveckla den befintliga produktionsprocessen. En värdeflödesanalys genomfördes för att se hur mycket tid av produktionen som utnyttjas. Det som störde produktionen var väntan som uppstod mellan de olika processerna i produktionskedjan. Enligt de teorier som studerades såsom Lean production är väntan ett slöseri. Med enkla metoder som tillämpning av dragande system, mellanlager till pacemaker-stationen och användningen av det föreslagna reservationsprogrammet skulle slöseriet kunna minskas. Effekten av detta skulle bli att operatören får mer tid att planera produktionen och att maskinerna kan utnyttjas bättre.

    Pastörerna är tillgängliga för produktionen under hela arbetstiden och för att använda den tiden maximalt krävs det standarder så att alla operatörer använder samma reservationsprogram. Resultatet blir ett jämnt och stabilt flöde samt en mer effektiv resursanvändning. Kravspecifikationerna i projektet har varit en bas för lösningar och förbättringsförslag. En pilotstudie utfördes för utvärderingsskedet.

    Detta projekt resulterade i ett förslag till en omorganisering i produktionsupplägget när det gäller orderhanteringen samt ett omstrukturerat mellanlager för att skapa ett kontinuerligt flöde genom en station som innebär en flaskhals för produktionen. Den nya Excelfil som skapades av författarna kan resultera i en tidsreducering och en minskad arbetsbörda för orderavdelningen. Denna lösning ska bidra till minskat tidsslöseri i form av onödiga rörelser. Ett förslag på tillämpning av 5S kan, om det implementeras, resultera i ökad ordning och reda på pastöriseringsavdelningen, en förutsättning för att stödja produktionens process.

  • 375.
    Sales, Stephanie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Wahlin Eriksson, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    SPIRO: Utvärdering av produktutvecklingsprocess med fallstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    LundbergDesign has designed a concept of a luminaire for ateljé Lyktan which they intend to manufacture. To develop this luminaire, was supposed to be the main task for the bachelor thesis. A parallel task was to evaluate ateljé Lyktan’s recently implemented product development process, FPM, which they obtained from their sister company, Fagerhult. The main task for the thesis was changed due to delays in the luminaire project, which had problems finding a supplier for a part. Instead, the evaluation of the development process was now the main focus, and the luminaire project was used as a case study of the process. For evaluating the process two methods were considered of which one was chosen, PAIN. The process was first drawn as a process map and then analyzed activity by activity with, among other, interviews of staff and SIPOC. The outcome from the analyses resulted in a "should be"- process map and recommendations. During the analysis opinions from the staff was taken under consideration and general recommendations, that not directly concern the process, are also a part of the result. All analyses, apart from being based on literature studies, are also based on the staff’s experience of the process within the company. The process has not been performed more than a few times and the results are affected by this. The analyses of the phases are varying in depth depending on the students’ experience in the product development process, the case study, and the company’s own experience of the process.

  • 376.
    Salimi, Saeed
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Application of cohesive modeling in joining technology: Thick adhesive layers and rivet joints2012Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis summarizes the development of cohesive modeling of joints. It presents some new developments regarding the effects of non-zero thickness of adhesive layers and a novel approach of using the concept of cohesive modeling to characterize the failure behavior of rivet joints. The failure behavior of a thick adhesive layer loaded in mode I (peel), mode II (shear) and mixed-mode are studied. Analytical relations are derived for the energy release rate of DCBa-, ENFb- and MCBc-tests for pure peel, shear and mixed modes of loading, respectively. Consequently, cohesive laws are derived from the energy release rate. The results are used to predict the failure of three sets of TRBd-tests with similar and dissimilar adherents bonded with a thick layer of adhesive and loaded in mixed mode. Moreover, a model to characterize the failure behavior of rivet joints is investigated and presented. Data from DCB-, ENF- and MCB-experiments are evaluated and used to simulate and predict the failure behavior of TRB-tests. The results of simulations are verified by the results of three sets of TRB-experiments. To this end, sixteen TRB-experiments are carried out in this work. The main achievement of this thesis is validating the use of cohesive modeling to model adhesively bonded joints with dissimilar adherents bonded with a thick layer of adhesive. The proposed model for studying the failure behavior of rivet joints is also found to show good agreement with numerical analyses. a Double Cantilever Beam b End Notch Flexure c Mixed-mode Cantilever Beam d Tensile Reinforced Bending.

  • 377.
    Salomonsson, Kent
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Meso-Mechanical Modeling and Analysis of Adhesive Layers2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with the modeling, simulation and analysis of adhesive layers. By use of an in situ scanning electron microscopy study it is found that the adhesive studied in the present thesis has a very complex structure with two different compounds, a mineral and an epoxy/thermoplastic blend. A representative volume element (RVE) model is developed to study the behavior of the adhesive layer at the meso-level. It is a continuum model where interface finite elements are implemented at the boundaries of the continuum elements in order to enable crack initiation and propagation of micro cracks. On a structural level, two deformation modes, modes I and II, dominate the behavior of thin adhesive layers. With the RVE it is possible reproduce experimental stress-deformation relations from both modes. However, in a real structure, mixed mode loading usually occur. A range of mode mixes is studied, using the RVE, from an un-loaded state until fracture of the layer. The results indicate that the behavior of the interface elements dominate for mode mixes close to mode I and plasticity in the continuum elements dominates for mode II dominated mode mixes. Furthermore, effects of large root curvatures of the adherends is analyzed numerically by simulating plastically deforming double cantilever beam specimens using the finite element model. The developed RVE is implemented in the models to simulate the behavior of the adhesive layer. By this methodology, virtual experiments can be analyzed with extreme detail. It is shown that in-plane straining of the adhesive layer significantly influences the strength of adhesive joints at large plastic strain of the adherends. There is a never ending need in industries to minimize computational time. To this end, an interphase finite element for structural analyses is developed. The element considers in-plane straining of the adhesive layer due to large curvatures of surrounding substrates.

  • 378.
    Salomonsson, Kent
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Meso-Mechanical Modeling of Thin Adhesive Layers2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A thin adhesive layer is analyzed using a representative volume element (RVE). The RVE is comprised by, both continuum and interfacial finite elements. The interface elements allow for crack initiation and crack propagation. To obtain realistic results from the RVE simulation, an in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study is performed. Results from the SEM study show that the adhesive has a very complex structure with two different compounds, a mineral and an epoxy/thermoplastic blend.

    The RVE is subjected to two different load cases, peel and shear. An evolutionary algorithm is used to calibrate the numerical model to experimental results. The simulation results are compared to experimental results to verify the numerical model. The simulations show good agreement with the experimental results for both the peel and shear experiments.

  • 379.
    Salomonsson, Kent
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Stigh, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    On the apparent influence of the adherends on the fracture toughness of adhesive layers2007In: Interface design of polymer matrix composites: mechanics, chemestry, modelling and manufacturing, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A detailed model of experiments with the double cantilever beam specimen is set up. Analysis of the model shows that an experimentally deduced apparent increase of fracture energy with severely deforming adherends is due to contributions of in-plane straining of the adhesive layer to the fracture energy. An analysis with the J-integral confirms the result.

  • 380.
    Samuelsson, Lina N.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bäbler, Matthaus U.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Moriana, Rosana
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    A single model-free rate expression describing both non-isothermal and isothermal pyrolysis of Norway Spruce2015In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 161, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strictly isoconversional rate expression has been derived for pyrolysis of biomass. This rate expression, derived from non-isothermal thermogravimetric experiments using heating rates 2-10 K/min, can successfully predict the conversion rates of experimental data at heating rates 1-100 K/min and quasiisothermal experiments at 539-650 K. The methodology used is based on an extension of the incremental integral method by Vyazovkin (2001). Being able to derive an intrinsic reaction rate expression from non-isothermal data, without any assumption regarding the chemical processes present, opens up for the possibility to model industrial pyrolysis reactors, with a variety of temperature profiles.

  • 381.
    Samuelsson, Lina Norberg
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Moriana, Rosana
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bäbler, Matthäus U.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Ek, Monica
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Engvall, Klas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Model-free rate expression for thermal decomposition processes: The case of microcrystalline cellulose pyrolysis2015In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 143, p. 438-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the possibility to derive a completely model-free rate expression using isoconversional methods. The Friedman differential method (Friedman, 1964) and the incremental integral method by Vyazovkin (2001) were both extended to allow for an estimation of not only the apparent activation energy but also the effective kinetic prefactor, defined as the product of the pre-exponential factor and the conversion function. Analyzing experimental thermogravimetric data for the pyrolytic decomposition of microcrystalline cellulose, measured at six different heating rates and three different initial sample masses (1.5-10 mg), revealed the presence of secondary char forming reactions and thermal lag, both increasing with increased sample mass. Conditioning of the temperature function enables extraction of more reliable prefactors and we found that the derived kinetic parameters show weak dependence on initial sample mass. Finally, by successful modeling of quasi-isothermal experimental curves, we show that the discrete rate expression estimated from linear heating rate experiments enables modeling of the thermal decomposition rate without any assumptions regarding the chemical process present. These findings can facilitate the design and optimization of industrial isothermal biomass fed reactors.

  • 382.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    Dept of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    How an enlarged maintenance function affects the performance of industrial maintenance and maintenance services2013In: International Journal of Strategic Engineering Asset Management (IJSEAM), ISSN 1759-9733, E-ISSN 1759-9741, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 265-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many companies struggle with maintenance work established by pre–requisites during installation, start–up and use of plants, systems and machines. In search for improvements in existing maintenance organisations, it is easy to conclude that they look like and is a direct consequence of previous engineering decisions and activities. Maintenance work, however, only exists in the operation phase with weak coupling to what created it. Using an empirical knowledge base, several examples of this narrow view on maintenance is given along with the consequences it results in today. By linking together activities in the establishment life–cycle phase with the operation phase it is shown how an enlarged maintenance function could improve the situation. Using references to the leading actors creating the frontier today it is illustrated where most companies could be tomorrow. The paper hopefully will contribute to how maintenance processes and activities are being designed, set–up and carried out.

  • 383.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Management of factory and maintenance information for multiple production and product life-cycle phases2014In: / [ed] B.K.N.Rao, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance is crucial for future manufacturing systems. An extended local knowledge is essential to increase precision and efficiency, but also for improvements of the maintained object itself. Approaches exist that closes the loop from end-user to vendor, but intra loops are not so well developed.

    This article discusses ways to interconnect and manage data and knowledge flow between work processes in user and vendor life-cycles. It aims to inspire improvements in existing approaches, closer connections between producer and customer, between users, and improved quality of maintenance work via factory-, company-, or group-wide data and knowledge about similar types of equipment.

  • 384.
    Sandvik, Victor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Rudervall, Nicolás
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av displayhållare för plåtbearbetningsmaskin2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    CIDAN Machinery Sweden AB, originally AB Göteneds Mekaniska Verkstad, has manufactured machines for sheet metal processing and parts for industry that are equipped with various control panels or control boxes. The company now wants to explore possibilities for improvement, both in cost as function and design regarding these control boxes. The aim of the degree project is to explore the possibility of designing a control box that will replace three existing models and lead to a more economically viable product with improvements in areas such as manufacturing, assembly, usability and sustainable development. The controlbox also has the requirement to use the existing electronics.

    During the prestudy, Quality Function Deployment was implemented as a method of working with customer and quality-oriented design. Steps included observations and interviews with the target group, analysis of existing design with a failure modes and effects analysis and a study of alternative materials to identify and weigh customer needs that can be linked to technical specifications. The information gathered resulted in a requirement specification that the new product would meet. Concept development initiated with an analysis of the company's product identity. Subsequently, the control box was divided into partial functions and suggestions for sub-solutions were generated. A morphological matrix was used to produce six complete solutions that were then evaluated and screened depending on how well they met the needs. Finally, one of two further developed concepts was considered to have the greatest potential and would best meet the specification.

    The result was a control box that fulfills the requirements and replaces two of three existing models, with improvements in environment, cost and productidentity. A full scale prototype was finally made in collaboration with the company which showed that the final concept could be manufactured.

  • 385.
    Scepanovic, Dorotea
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utformning av informativt styrmedel för förbättrad källsortering i lägenheter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report is about a degree project within integrated product development, written and performed at University of Skövde. The project has been performed in cooperation with Skövde’s largest landlord AB Skövdebostäder. The project aims to develop an informative instrument, more specifically a handbook, in order to encourage their tenants to improve their waste sorting. The landlord is actively working towards a sustainable development and wants to increase the level of tenants' involvement within their ecological residential area. Reasons why the sorting behavior needs to be improved is because the tenants currently make unacceptable mistakes which goes against the landlord’s visions. The development process began with a pre-study, this to find out what the handbook should contain and highlight in order to accommodate tenants' limitations and repetitive failures of waste sorting. The gathered information from the pre-study provided a basis for what the handbook should inform and fulfill. The next phase of the development process contained a focusing on how to deliver messages in a way to capture the tenant’s attention and interest of the handbook, by looking into the aspects of visual communication. Developing a handbook means that the instrument is based on information. Changing intentions will be voluntarily and the changing potential will happen at a slow pace compared to administrative or economical instruments that instead can give immediate effect. The conclusion is that the handbook has a potential to stimulate a positive attitude for waste sorting, but if the desired behavior should be performed 

  • 386.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Information Fusion processes in Prognostics and Health Management2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Fusion plays important role in Prognostics and Health Management, where data and informations from different sources need to be combined, analyzed and finally used or presented for proper maintenance decisions. The objective of this paper is to outline and analyzed the relation between Information Fusion process and data/information processing in Prognostics Condition Based Maintenance. The Data Fusion Information Group Model (DFIGM) is presented as well as distinction between two levels of information fusion: (1) low-level information fusion (LLIF), which addresses the signal processing, object state estimation and characterization, and (2) high-level information fusion (HLIF) focused on control and situational understanding. All this processes are aligned with condition based maintenance processes from data acquisition and processing, through diagnostics, prognostics, up to health management. Presented work is one of the first steps in the research project toward improvements in Condition Based Maintenance with focus on its implementation in the manufacturing industry.

  • 387.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Toward Predictive Maintenance in a Cloud Manufacturing Environment: A population-wide approach2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research presented in this thesis is focused on improving industrial maintenance by using better decision support that is based on a wider range of input information. The core objective is to research how to integrate information from a population of similar monitored objects. The data to be aggregated comes from multiple disparate sources including double ball-bar circularity tests, the maintenance management system, and the machine tool’s controller. Various data processing and machine learning methods are applied and evaluated. Finally, an economic evaluation of the proposed approach is presented. The work performed is presented in five appended papers.

    Paper I presents an investigation of cloud-based predictive maintenance concepts and their potential benefits and challenges.

    Paper II presents the results of an investigation of available and potentially useful data from the perspective of predictive analytics with a focus on the linear axes of machine tools.

    Paper III proposes a semantic framework for predictive maintenance, and investigates means of acquiring relevant information from different sources (i.e., ontology-based data retrieval).

    Paper IV presents a method for data integration. The method is applied to data obtained from a real manufacturing setup. Simulation-based evaluation is used to compare results with a traditional time-based approach.

    Paper V presents the results from additional simulation-based experiments based on the method from Paper IV. The aim is to improve the method and provide additional information that can support maintenance decision-making (e.g., determining the optimal interval for inspections).

    The method developed in this thesis is applied to a population of linear axes from a set of similar multipurpose machine tools. The linear axes of machine tools are very important, as their performance directly affects machining quality. Measurements from circularity tests performed using a double ball-bar measuring device are combined with event and context information to build statistical failure and classification models. Based on those models, a decision-making process is proposed and evaluated. In the analysed case, the proposed approach leads to direct maintenance cost reduction of around 40 % compared to a time-based approach.

  • 388.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Diego, Galar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. KTH.
    Asset management evolution: from taxonomies toward ontologies2015In: Maintenance, Condition Monitoring and Diagnostics, Maintenance Performance Measurement and Management / [ed] Sulo Lahdelma and Kari Palokangas, Oulu, Finland: POHTO , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the evolution that can be observed in Asset Management in modelling approach. Most traditional Condition Monitoring systems use hierarchical representations of monitored the integration of data from disparate source toward context awareness and Big Data utilization there is a need to include and model more complicated dependencies than hierarchical. Ontology based modelling is gaining recently on popularity in the domain of Condition Monitoring and Asset Management.

  • 389.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Galar, Diego
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Big data in maintenance decision support systems: aggregation of disparate data types2016In: Euromaintenance 2016 ConferenceProceedings, 2016, p. 503-512Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is need to obtain reliable information on current and future asset health status to support maintenance decision making process. Within maintenance two main sources of data can be distinguished: Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) for asset registry and maintenance work records; and Condition Monitoring Systems (CM) for direct asset components health state monitoring. There are also other sources of information like SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) for process and control monitoring that can provide additional contextual information leading to better decision making. However data produced acquired and processed and in those system are of disparate types, nature and granularity. This variety includes: event data about failures or performed maintenance work mostly descriptions in unstructured natural language; process variables obtained from different types of sensors and different physical variables from transducers, acquired with different sampling frequencies. Indeed, condition monitoring data are so disparate in nature that maintainers deal with scalars (temperature) through waveforms (vibration) to 2D thermography images and 3D data from machine geometry measuring. Integration and aggregation of those data is not a trivial task and requires modelling of knowledge about those data types, their mutual dependencies and dependencies with monitored processes. There are some attempts of standardisation that try to enable integration of CBM data from different sources. The conversion of those amount of data in meaningful data sets is required for better machine health assessment and tracking within the specific operational context for the asset. This will also enhance the maintenance decision support system with information on how different operational condition can affect the reliability of the asset for concrete contextual circumstances.

  • 390.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Galar, Diego
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Context Awareness in Predictive Maintenance2016In: Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective / [ed] Uday Kumar, Alireza Ahmadi, Ajit Kumar Verma & Prabhakar Varde, Springer, 2016, p. 197-211Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance of assembly and manufacturing equipment is crucial to ensure productivity, product quality, on-time delivery, and a safe working environment. Predictive Maintenance approach utilizes the condition monitoring (CM) data to predict the future machine conditions and makes decisions upon this prediction. Recent development in CM leads to context aware approach where in parallel with CM measurements also data and information related to the context are gathered. Context could be operational condition, history of machine usage and performed maintenance actions. In general more obtained information gives better accuracy of prediction. It is important to track operational context in dynamically changing environment. Today in manufacturing we can observe shift from mass production to mass customisation. This leads to changes from long series of identical products to short series of different variants. Therefore implies changing operational conditions for manufacturing equipment. Moreover, where asset consist of multiple identical or similar equipment the context aware method can be used to combine in reliable way information. This should allow to increase accuracy of prediction for population as a whole as well as for each equipment instances. Same of those data have been already recorded and stored in industrial IT systems. However, it is distributed over different IT systems that are used by different functional units (e.g. maintenance department, production department, quality department, tooling department etc.). This paper is a conceptual paper based on initial research work and investigation in two manufacturing companies from automotive industry.

  • 391.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Gandhi, Kanika
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Diagnosis of machine tools: assessment based on double ball-bar measurements from a population of similar machines2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. 1327-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented work is toward population-based predictive maintenance of manufacturing equipment with consideration of the automaticselection of signals and processing methods. This paper describes an analysis performed on double ball-bar measurement from a population ofsimilar machine tools. The analysis is performed after aggregation of information from Computerised Maintenance Management System,Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition, NC-code and Condition Monitoring from a time span of 4 years. Economic evaluation is performedwith use of Monte Carlo simulation based on data from real manufacturing setup.

  • 392.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Gandhi, Kanika
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    School of Engineering Science, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Galar, Diego
    Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    Context preparation for predictive analytics – a case from manufacturing industry2017In: Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, ISSN 1355-2511, E-ISSN 1758-7832, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 341-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to exemplify and discuss the context aspect for predictive analytics where in parallel condition monitoring (CM) measurements data and information related to the context are gathered and analysed.

    Design/methodology/approach

    This paper is based on an industrial case study, conducted in a manufacturing company. The linear axis of a machine tool has been selected as an object of interest. Available data from different sources have been gathered and a new CM function has been implemented. Details about performed steps of data acquisition and selection are provided. Among the obtained data, health indicators and context-related information have been identified.

    Findings

    Multiple sources of relevant contextual information have been identified. Performed analysis discovered the deviations in operational conditions when the same machining operation is repeatedly performed.

    Originality/value

    This paper shows the outcomes from a case study in real word industrial setup. A new visualisation method of gathered data is proposed to support decision-making process.

  • 393.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Gandhi, Kanika
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Integration of events and offline measurement data from a population of similar entities for condition monitoringIn: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an approach for integration of data from different sources and from a population of similar monitored entities is presented with evaluation procedure based on multiple machine learning methods that allows selection of a proper combination of methods for data integration and feature selection. It is exemplified on the real-world case from manufacturing industry with application to double ball-bar measurement from a population of machine tools. Historical data from the period of four years from a population of 29 similar multitask machine tools are analysed. Several feature selection methods are evaluated. Finally, simple economic evaluation is presented with application to proposed condition based approach. With assumed parameters, potential improvement in long term of 6 times reduced amount of unplanned stops and 40% reduced cost has been indicated with respect to optimal time based replacement policy.

  • 394.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Mohammed, Abdullah
    Royal Institute of Technology 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Production Engineering Royal Institute of Technology 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Minimising Energy Consumption for Robot Arm Movement2013In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Manufacturing Engineering and Technologies / [ed] Andreas Archenti, Antonio Maffei, Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013, p. 125-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimising the energy consumption of robot movements has been one of the main focuses for most of today’s robotic simulation software. This optimisation is based on minimising a robot’s joints movements. In many cases, it does not take into consideration the dynamic features. Therefore, reducing energy consumption is still a challenging task and it involves studying the robot’s kinematic and dynamic models together with application requirements. The primary focus of this research is to develop an optimisation model to reduce the energy consumption in robotic applications. An energy optimisation module reported in this paper was developed using Matlab. By solving the kinematics and dynamics equations of the robot, the module is able to optimise towards the minimum energy consumption of the robot’s movements. Moreover, placement of the targets in robot’s working area that minimise the energy consumption can be suggested. The results show the value of the reported approach as a tool for energy efficient robot path planning.

  • 395.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Sandberg, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    Department of Production Engineering Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Next Generation Condition Based Predictive Maintenance2014In: Proceedings of The 6th International Swedish Production Symposium 2014 / [ed] Johan Stahre, Björn Johansson, Mats Björkman, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance of assembly and manufacturing equipment is crucial to ensure productivity, product quality, on-time delivery, and a safe working environment. Predictive Maintenance is an approach that utilises the condition monitoring data to predict the future machine conditions and make decisions upon this prediction. The main aim of the presented research is to achieve an improvement in condition based Predictive Maintenance through the Cloud-based approach with usage of the largest information content possible. The objective of this paper is to outline the first steps of a framework to handle and process maintenance, production and factory related data from the first life-cycle phase to the operation and maintenance phase.

  • 396.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cloud-enhanced predictive maintenance2018In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 99, no 1-4, p. 5-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance of assembly and manufacturing equipment is crucial to ensure productivity, product quality, on-time delivery, and a safe working environment. Predictive maintenance is an approach that utilises the condition monitoring data to predict the future machine conditions and makes decisions upon this prediction. The main aim of the present research is to achieve an improvement in predictive condition-based maintenance decision making through a cloud-based approach with usage of wide information content. For the improvement, it is crucial to identify and track not only condition related data but also context data. Context data allows better utilisation of condition monitoring data as well as analysis based on a machine population. The objective of this paper is to outline the first steps of a framework and methodology to handle and process maintenance, production, and factory related data from the first lifecycle phase to the operation and maintenance phase. Initial case study aims to validate the work in the context of real industrial applications.

  • 397.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Predictive Maintenance of Machine Tool Linear Axes: A Case from Manufacturing Industry2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 17, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sustainable manufacturing, the proper maintenance is crucial to minimise the negative environmental impact. In the context of Cloud Manufacturing, Internet of Things and Big Data, amount of available information is not an issue, the problem is to obtain the relevant information and process them in a useful way. In this paper a maintenance decision support system is presented that utilises information from multiple sources and of a different kind. The key elements of the proposed approach are processing and machine learning method evaluation and selection, as well as estimation of long-term key performance indicators (KPIs) such as a ratio of unplanned breakdowns or a cost of maintenance approach. Presented framework is applied to machine tool linear axes. Statistical models of failures and Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) are built based on data from a population of 29 similar machines from the period of over 4 years and with use of proposed processing approach. Those models are used in simulation to estimate the long-term effect on selected KPIs for different strategies. Simple CBM approach allows, in the considered case, a cost reduction of 40% with the number of breakdowns reduced 6 times in respect to an optimal time-based approach.

  • 398.
    Senington, Richard
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Software containers as a generic foundation for iec 61499 distributed control systems2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, p. 273-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is predicated that in the future factories will be more dependent upon complex distributed control software, where execution and communication occur at the edge of the system, close to the machines that are involved in the manufacturing process. This introduces the problem of how to effectively design, deploy and manage such systems. The IEC 61499 function block standard has been given as one way to solve this problem, proposing applications made from a number of modular event driven blocks that encapsulate algorithms potentially in any programming language. At the same time the Internet of Things and Cloud computing fields have encountered the similar problem of encapsulating, managing and distributing scalable applications, and have been investigating software containers as a solution. This paper proposes to combine these two approaches using containers to enable easy distribution and management of software modules on manufacturing devices while taking advantage of the IEC 61499 application model to enable an application orchestration tool. It describes the properties of container technology that can support the creation of function block like components and the proposal is supported by a prototype version of such a system which has already been implemented.

  • 399.
    Shingu, Patrick
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Garcia Cabrera, Miguel
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Analysis of fan blade attachment2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work is based on the analysis of a fan blade attachment whereby a complete 3D model is presented by a partner company. The acceptability of a new design regarding the mechanical loads consisting of dividing the hub into two parts instead of using a solid hub is studied. From the model some critical parameters for the attachment of the blade with respect to the stresses are chosen such as the rotational speed, fillet size of the blade and the neck size of the blade. Parametric studies of these parameters are carried out in order to suggest the new design. Bearing in mind that a safety factor of 2 is the prerequisite, based on the analysis performed on ANSYS Workbench, it is suggested from the preliminary design that the axial fan can operate in two specific scenarios consisting of a rotational speed of 1771 rpm and a rotational speed of 1594 rpm. Using this set of parameters, a suggestion is drawn up on the blade fillet which will give lower stress. Blade fillet size of 30 to 35mm is recommended while a size of 45mm is recommended on the neck of the blade. A modal analysis is performed in order to find at what frequency will the model be vibrating and a lowest and critical frequency of 16.8 Hz is obtained. Finally, a fatigue analysis of some interesting areas is performed in order to determine the numbers of cycles before fatigue failure occur. It is recommended to use the rotational speed since these speeds have offered a High Cycle Fatigue results.

  • 400.
    Simonsson, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Proszowski, Natlia
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Metod på ett nytt materialhanteringssätt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet är utfört på AB Furhoffs Rostfria som är ett specialistföretag inom tillverkning och bearbetning av egenutvecklade produkter i rostfritt stål och tillverkar VVS-produkter, storkök, diskbänkar samt har en legotillverkning. Företaget arbetar ständigt med att effektivisera sin produktion samtidigt som nya produkter utvecklas. Därför har de satt igång ett projekt som ska leda till ökad produktion och omsättning utan att öka sin fabriksyta eller öka personalstyrkan. För att lyckas krävs det att den interna materialhanteringen blir effektivare.

     

    Syftet och huvudmålen var att ta fram en metod för ett nytt materialhanteringssätt samt utforma monteringsstationer med hänsyn till ergonomi, effektivitet och kvalitetssäkring. Utöver detta skulle en lämplig layout över VVS-monteringen formas. För att säkerställa att projektet skulle uppnå syftet och huvudmålen applicerades en PDCA-modell på examensarbetet. Relevanta teori- och litteraturstudier genomfördes för att ta fram rätt metoder för att samla in data.

     

    Efter ett utstuderat nuläge fastställdes att personalen frekvent letar, hämtar och plockar produkter samt emballering och packning av färdigställda produkter tog lång tid att utföra. Det resulterade i att personalen utförde mycket nödvändiga men icke-värdeskapande aktiviteter. Personalen använde inte heller sin arbetsplats på korrekt sätt utifrån ett ergonomiskt samt effektivt perspektiv. VVS-monteringens layout förde med sig fler nackdelar än fördelar.

     

    Det utformade förslaget är framtaget utifrån resultat av empiriska studier som sedan kopplats mot de teoretiska studierna. Ett layoutförslag har tagits fram som kan reducera onödiga transporter samt rörelser genom att placera monteringsplatser samt lager på ett strategiskt vis. Kittning medför många fördelar som effektiviserar och jämnar ut produktionsflödet och skapar en stabil produktion. En prototypskiss för en lämplig och effektiv kitt-vagn har tagits fram för företaget att fortsätta utveckla efter egna förutsättningar

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