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  • 351.
    Fagerlind, Magnus G.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Webb, Jeremy S.
    Univ Southampton, Sch Biol Sci, Southampton SO16 7PX, Hants, England .
    Barraud, Nicolas
    Univ New S Wales, Ctr Marine Bioinnovat, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia / Univ New S Wales, Sch Biotechnol & Biomol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia .
    McDougald, Diane
    Univ New S Wales, Ctr Marine Bioinnovat, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia / Univ New S Wales, Sch Biotechnol & Biomol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia / Nanyang Technol Univ, Adv Environm Biotechnol Ctr, Singapore 639798, Singapore .
    Jansson, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Patric
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Harlen, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kjelleberg, Staffan
    Univ New S Wales, Ctr Marine Bioinnovat, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia / Univ New S Wales, Sch Biotechnol & Biomol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia / Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore Ctr Environm Life Sci Engn, Singapore 639798, Singapore .
    Rice, Scott A.
    Univ New S Wales, Ctr Marine Bioinnovat, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia / Univ New S Wales, Sch Biotechnol & Biomol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia / Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore Ctr Environm Life Sci Engn, Singapore 639798, Singapore .
    Dynamic modelling of cell death during biofilm development2012In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, ISSN 0022-5193, E-ISSN 1095-8541, Vol. 295, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofilms are currently recognised as the predominant bacterial life-style and it has been suggested that biofilm development is influenced by a number of different processes such as adhesion, detachment, mass transport, quorum sensing, cell death and active dispersal. One of the least understood processes and its effects on biofilm development is cell death. However, experimental studies suggest that bacterial death is an important process during biofilm development and many studies show a relationship between cell death and dispersal in microbial biofilms. We present a model of the process of cell death during biofilm development, with a particular focus on the spatial localisation of cell death or cell damage. Three rules governing cell death or cell damage were evaluated which compared the effects of starvation, damage accumulation, and viability during biofilm development and were also used to design laboratory based experiments to test the model. Results from model simulations show that actively growing biofilms develop steep nutrient gradients within the interior of the biofilm that affect neighbouring microcolonies resulting in cell death and detachment. Two of the rules indicated that high substrate concentrations lead to accelerated cell death, in contrast to the third rule, based on the accumulation of damage, which predicted earlier cell death for biofilms grown with low substrate concentrations. Comparison of the modelling results with experimental results suggests that cell death is favoured under low nutrient conditions and that the accumulation of damage may be the main cause of cell death during biofilm development. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 352.
    Fagerlind, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nilsson, Patric
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Harlén, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Karlsson, Sandra
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Rice, Scott A.
    Sch. of Biotech. and Biomol. Sci., University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia / Ctr. Mar. Biofouling and Bio-Innov., University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
    Kjelleberg, Staffan
    Sch. of Biotech. and Biomol. Sci., University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia / Ctr. Mar. Biofouling and Bio-Innov., University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.
    Modeling the effect of acylated homoserine lactone antagonists in Pseudomonas aeruginosa2005In: Biosystems (Amsterdam. Print), ISSN 0303-2647, E-ISSN 1872-8324, Vol. 80, no 2, p. 201-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacterium that causes serious illnesses, particularly in immunocompromised individuals, often with a fatal outcome. The finding that the acylated homoserine lactone quorum sensing (QS) system controls the production of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa makes this system a possible target for antimicrobial therapy. It has been suggested that an N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL) antagonist, a QS blocker (QSB), would interfere efficiently with the quorum sensing system in P. aeruginosa and thus reduce the virulence of this pathogen. In this work, a mathematical model of the QS system in P. aeruginosa has been developed. The model was used to virtually add 3O-C12-HSL antagonists that differed in their affinity for the receptor protein and for their ability to mediate degradation of the receptor. The model suggests that very small differences in these parameters for different 3O-C12-HSL antagonists can greatly affect the success of QSB based inhibition of the QS system in P. aeruginosa. Most importantly, it is proposed that the ability of the 3O-C12-HSL antagonist to mediate degradation of LasR is the core parameter for successful QSB based inhibition of the QS system in P. aeruginosa. Finally, this study demonstrates that QSBs can shift the system to a low steady state, corresponding to an uninduced state and thus, suggests that the use of 3O-C12-HSL antagonists may constitute a promising therapeutic approach against P. aeruginosa involved infections.

  • 353.
    Fagerlind, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. The School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Rice, Scott A.
    The School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, and The Center for Marine Biofouling and Bio-Innovation, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Nilsson, Patric
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Harlén, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    James, Sally
    The School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Charlton, Timothy
    The School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, and The Center for Marine Biofouling and Bio-Innovation, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Kjelleberg, Staffan
    The School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, and The Center for Marine Biofouling and Bio-Innovation, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    The Role of Regulators in the Expression of Quorum-Sensing Signals in Pseudomonas aeruginosa2003In: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 1464-1801, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 88-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quorum-sensing systems provide Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a sensitive regulatory mechanism that allows for the induction of several phenotypic genes in a cell density fashion. In this work, a mathematical model of the acylated homoserine lactones regulatory network system in P. aeruginosa has been developed. It is the first integrated model to consider both quorum-sensing systems. The model has allowed us to disentangle the complex behavior exhibited by the system as the concentration of extracellular OdDHL is increased. At either low or high levels of extracellular OdDHL, the bacterium remains in an uninduced or induced state, respectively. At moderate levels, the behavior is characterized by several states. Here, the bacteria can switch suddenly from an uninduced to an induced phenotype in response to small changes in the concentration of extracellular OdDHL. Additionally, we have been able to address the roles of RsaL and Vfr as regulators of the quorum-sensing system. An important result from this analysis suggests that RsaL will increase the concentration of extracellular OdDHL required to induce the system, and it is a key regulator of the inhibition of the quorum-sensing system under low cell densities. Most importantly, our results suggest that Vfr has strong regulatory effects on the system as an increased affinity between the LasR/OdDHL complex, and the lasR promoter leads to significant qualitative changes in induction patterns. We also show experimental data that demonstrate that Vfr is required for signal production in the early phase of growth, but that in the latter stages of growth, the vfr mutant is able to synthesize wild-type levels of signal.

  • 354.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Buskerud University College, Drammen, Norway / Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Benchmarking by the RAFAELA Patient Classification System: a Descriptive Study of Optimal Nursing Intensity Levels2009In: Connecting Health and Humans: Proceedings of NI2009 - the 10th International Congress on Nursing Informatics / [ed] Kaija Saranto, Patricia Flatley Brennan, Hyeoun-Ae Park, Marianne Tallberg and Anneli Ensio, IOS Press, 2009, p. 25-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the RAFAELA system is that the personnel resources should be in balance with the patients' caring needs, i.e. when the nursing intensity per nurse is on the optimal level of the unit. The RAFAELA system consists of three parts: the OPCq (Oulu Patient Classification Qualisan) instrument for measuring the nursing intensity, registration of the daily nursing resources and the PAONCIL (Professional Assessment of Optimal Nursing Care Intensity Level) method. The aim of this paper is (1) to describe the structure of benchmarking with the RAFAELA system and (2) to present comparisons of optimal nursing intensity levels in Finnish hospitals by using data from RAFAELA benchmarking reports in 2001. Totally 86 wards from 14 different hospitals in Finland took part in the study, the optimal nursing intensity had been decided for 53 wards. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The avarage workload was on adult wards 25.2 NCI points per nurse. The optimal NCI was exceeded during 48% of the days and under during 22% of the days. An imbalance between nursing intensity and personnel resources clearly affects the care quality and the results. Benchmarking with the RAFAELA system provides nurse managers with many opportunities in their decision processes in human resource management.

  • 355.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Developing the scope of practice and education for advanced practice nurses in Finland2009In: International Nursing Review, ISSN 0020-8132, E-ISSN 1466-7657, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 269-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The reorganization of Finnish healthcare services has required a restructuring of the areas of responsibility between healthcare professionals.

    Aim: To describe the need for Advanced Practice Nurses in Finland and the development process of a Master's programme in Health Promotion, Advanced Clinical Care.

    Methods: The study consisted of a survey of nurse managers (24) and focus group interviews with clinical nurse specialists (46).

    Findings: The expanded role includes advanced clinical skills and responsibility for health prevention and promotion, education, supervision, leadership, research and development.

    Conclusions: The legislation, scope and models have to be supported and further developed to promote the full scope of advanced practice.

  • 356.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Dialektik som metod och förhållningssätt i vårdvetenskaplig forskning2008In: X Nationella vårdvetenskapliga konferensen: Vårdvetenskap i hälsans och vårdandets tjänst, Åbo Akademis Förlag, 2008, p. 39-44Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 357.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Buskerud University College, Drammen, Norway / Lovisenberg Deaconale, University College, Oslo, Norway.
    Evidence-based human resource management: a study of nurse leaders' resource allocation2009In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 415-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims The aims were to illustrate how the RAFAELA system can be used to facilitate evidence-based human resource management.

    Background The theoretical framework of the RAFAELA system is based on a holistic view of humankind and a view of leadership founded on human resource management.

    Methods Nine wards from three central hospitals in Finland participated in the study. The data, stemming from 2006–2007, were taken from the critical indicators (ward-related and nursing intensity information) for national benchmarking used in the RAFAELA system. The data were analysed descriptively.

    Results The daily nursing resources per classified patient ratio is a more specific method of measurement than the nurse-to-patient ratio. For four wards, the nursing intensity per nurse surpassed the optimal level 34% to 62.2% of days. Resource allocation was clearly improved in that a better balance between patients' care needs and available nursing resources was maintained.

    Conclusions The RAFAELA system provides a rational, systematic and objective foundation for evidence-based human resource management.

    Implications for nursing management Data from a systematic use of the RAFAELA system offer objective facts and motives for evidence-based decision making in human resource management, and will therefore enhance the nurse leaders' evidence and scientific based way of working.

  • 358.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kliniska expertsjukskötare2008In: Epione, Sjuksköterskeföreningen i Finland , 2008, p. 21-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 359.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Positive life orientation - an inner health resource among older people2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 349-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As pertains to life orientation, the study's conceptual framework demonstrates the importance of close relationships, meaning in life, and the strength of individuals to look forward and make plans for future. The aim of this study is to discover, in relation to background factors such as language, living situation, and culture, how people aged 65 and 75 experience life orientation. The study is a population-based cross-sectional survey with its material taken from 3,370 questionnaires which included the six-question Life Orientation scale. The SPSS static program, version 14.0, was used for all calcuations and the Chi-squared test was applied to determine if any significant differences between the groups existed. As seen in this study, most respondents aged 65 (85%) and 75 (73.2%) experienced a high degree of positive life orientation, clearly expressing a zest for life (93.5%), overall satisfaction with their lives (88.4%), and feelings of being needed (83.7%). Lower scores were given for never/seldom being depressed/sad (55.3%) and never/seldom feeling lonely (71.8%). Approximately every second respondent (51.9%) had plans for the future. A clear decreasing trend was seen in all questions for respondents aged 75 in comparison to those aged 65: only ``are you satisfied with life?'' showed no significant differences. Language/culture seems to clearly affect experiences of life orientation and well-being. Additionally, older people living alone reported significantly more negative response to all dimensions of life orientation. Positive life orientation is an important inner health resource for older. Accordingly, health promotion for older people should focus on facilitating the maintenance of important and close relationships and should include supporting older people's need to be needed.

  • 360.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Salmela, Susanne
    Åbo Akademi University.
    Leading change: a challenge for leaders in Nordic health care2010In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 613-617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to describe personnel's attitudes to change processes between a regional hospital and the primary health care centre as well as investigate these results with regards to theories pertaining to change and leading change. Background: Leadership has three crucial dimensions: focusing on personnel, results/key processes and the ethical base of activities. Methods: A survey was conducted in 2003 using a comprehensive questionnaire. The total sample consisted of the personnel (n = 899) at the two organizations (answering rate was 68.8%). The data were analysed descriptively. Results: Approximately two-thirds of the respondents understood why the merger was occurring. Only one-third expressed that they had received sufficient information regarding the merger. In total 67% felt that the merger would create conflict while approximately one-fourth expressed uncertainty. Despite such negative responses, approximately two-thirds felt there were advantages to the merger. Significant differences were seen between the groups. Conclusions: In times of change personnel expect leaders to focus on dialogue with their personnel and to anchor the vision of the change process amongst the personnel. Implications for nursing management: By identifying the 'prison of thought' and creating an atmosphere where reflection and discussion are valued the nurse leader can help prevent resistance to change.

  • 361.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, Norway.
    Wikblad, Annika
    Svenska University of Applied Sciences, Vaasa, Finland.
    Nilsson, Jenny
    Svenska University of Applied Sciences, Vaasa, Finland.
    An integrative research review of preventive home visits among older people: is an individual health resource perspective a vision or a reality?2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 558-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has two aims: (i) to explore and evaluate the health-promoting effect of preventive home visit (PHV) by analysing the activities conducted during the PHV and the reported results, and (ii) to critically analyse if PHV is characterized by an individualized health resource perspective. The material was compiled through a systematic literature search in the databases Ebsco, CINAHL, Medline, Science Direct and CSA from the period 1984 to 2004. The result of the systematic database search was a total number of 49 scientific research articles, of which 18 are included in this study. The analysing method was a four-step integrating research review. The review describes the following content concerning (i) activities during home visits: screening, observation and evaluation, guidance, support, referral to care and other services, follow-up and individual aim; (ii) positive effects: reduced mortality, improved ability to function, improved life quality, improved subjective health, fewer admittances for care, older people's experiences of home visits and increased knowledge on health and (iii) unclear/negative effects: admittance to care, no effect on mortality, unaffected ability to function, unaffected general health and uninfluenced life quality. PHVs had been implemented based on an individual perspective in a total of 13 studies out of 18. The focus on sickness was surprisingly clear, and in 10 studies out of 18 a health resource perspective was lacking. The effects of PHVs have been questioned. Despite this, current research results imply that this method has a positive affect on older people's health and well-being. This form of care must still be developed to include extensive screenings and interventions, as well as a health resource perspective where the starting point during every home visit is the older person's individual needs and wishes.

  • 362.
    Fahlgren & Pettersson, Stina & Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kommunsjuksköterskans omvårdnadsdokumentation om bensår i hemsjukvård: En granskning av patientjournaler.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, approximately 50 000 people suffers from slow-healing leg ulcers. The number of municipal registered nurses ́ has decreased in recent years. The municipal registered nurses ́ often hold function as an advisory consultant for the nursing staff and without participating in nursing care. This documentation is based on second-hand information from the nursing staff. Purpose: The aim was to investigate how municipal registered nurse care documents about leg ulcers in patients in home care practice. Method: An audit of patient journals was chosen to investigate how municipal registered nurse ́ care documents about leg ulcers in patients in home care practice. Results: The results are presented in five themes: contact cause, health and medical history, skin functions alternatively skin / tissue, skin action alternatively action / prescription skin / tissue and Ulcer case record. Beneath these themes the assessment of documentation was into incomplete, partially complete and complete. The result shows that the municipal registered nurse often documents in chronological order and not applying to the nursing process. The results also showed that the old documentation was not completed in the journal, which meant that it was difficult to follow a course of treatment. Discussion: The result shows that documentation in home care failures in many ways. Municipal registered nurse works as a consultant and is not involved in daily care. The documentation is based on second-hand information from the nursing staff and resulting in the documentation of leg ulcers is poor. Patient journals documentation was divided into different keyword, which means that it was difficult to follow the nursing process.

  • 363.
    Fahlgren, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Persson, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder för att förebygga och minska risken för fallskador på särskild boende: En litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Falls are common and can lead to hip fractures and earlier need ofinstitutionalization. A health promoting and preventive perspective is an important concernin public health. Aim: The aim of the study was to examine how the nurse can prevent andreduce the risk of fall injures at older people living in residential care. Method: This workwas a literature study on earlier research materials. Results: The most important measureis to identify older people with risk factors for falls. This means that it is important toattentive older people with cognitive impairment, history of falls, urinary incontinence,depressed mood, low BMI and older persons with needs of help in daily physical activities.Other measures are for example to have regular medicine reviews, to create conditions forthe older to carry hip protections, to inform and teach the care employers, to inform theolder and his relative about risks and measures. Conclusion: Further research is neededregarding nurses care measures to prevent and decrease fall injuries in residential care inorder to reach a good result within the subject. Improved assessment and measures, moresupport and understanding of the managers would give more clear routines, the costs forsociety would decrease and most important it would decrease the suffering that fall injuriescauses elderly residents.

  • 364.
    Falck, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Genomic Alterations in Experimental Endometrial Adenocarcinoma2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 365.
    Falck, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Genomic and genetic alterations in endometrial adenocarcinoma2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The most frequently diagnosed cancer of the female genital tract is cancer of the endometrium (endometrial cancer), ranking fourth among the invasive tumors that affect women in Europe and North America. As most other cancer types, endometrial cancer is a complex genetic disease influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.

    The human population is genetically heterogeneous and studies of complex diseases in human are proven to be difficult. By using a model system such as the BDII rat, some of the obstacles related to the study of complex diseases can be avoided. The BDII rat strain is prone to spontaneously develop endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC) and more than 90% of the virgin females develop EAC during their lifetime. Development of EAC tumors in BDII rats is comparable in pathogenesis and histopathological properties to that of human.

    The aims of this thesis were i/ to characterize EAC in the BDII rat experimental model system by analyzing structural and numerical chromosome aberrations, ii/ to evaluate the importance of the genetic set-up in EAC development, and iii/ to determine the impact of genomic and genetic alterations on the functionality of candidate genes in rat EAC and in human endometrial tumors of different FIGO grades.

    Non-random numerical and structural aberrations that could contribute to tumor formation were identified, and evidence that the genetic background had a significant influence on the genome make-up of tumor cells was provided. Certain genes (Gpx3/GPX3, Met/MET, Phf5a/PHF5A, and Gja1/GJA1) were selected for further analysis and aberrant expression of some of them were found in both rat and human EACs. By separating EAC cell lines according to the genetic cross background, for two of the genes (Phf5 and Met), we showed that the expression pattern differed significantly between different cross backgrounds, which clearly pinpoint the importance of using animal models as a complement to clinical studies in identification of cancer-related genes.

  • 366.
    Falck, Eva
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Behboudi, Afrouz
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    The impact of the genetic background on the genome make-up of tumor cells2012In: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, ISSN 1045-2257, E-ISSN 1098-2264, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 438-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the most common form of malignancy in the female genital tract, ranking as the fourth leading form of invasive tumors that affect women. The BDII inbred rat strain has been used as a powerful tumor model in studies of the genetic background of EAC. Females from the BDII strain are prone to develop tumors with an incidence of more than 90%. Development of EAC in BDII female rats has similarities in pathogenesis, histopathological, and molecular properties to that of human, and thus represents a unique model for analysis of EAC tumorigenesis and for comparative studies in human EACs. In a previous study, a set of rat EAC cell lines derived from tumors developed in female crossprogenies between BDII and nonsusceptible rat strains were analyzed by spectral karyotyping (SKY). Here we present an analysis with specific focus on the impact of different genetic backgrounds on the rate and occurrence of genetic aberrations in experimental tumors using data presented in the previous report. We could reveal that the ploidy state, and the abundance and type of structural as well as numerical change differed between the two genetic setups. We have also identified chromosomes harboring aberrations independent of genetic input from the nonsusceptible strains, which provide valuable information for the identification of the genes involved in the development of EAC in the BDII model as well as in human endometrial tumors. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 367.
    Falck, Eva
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Hedberg, Carola
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Biomed, Dept Med & Clin Genet, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Behboudi, Afrouz
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    SKY analysis revealed recurrent numerical and structural chromosome changes in BDII rat endometrial carcinomas2011In: Cancer Cell International, ISSN 1475-2867, E-ISSN 1475-2867, Vol. 11, p. 20-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Genomic alterations are common features of cancer cells, and some of these changes are proven to be neoplastic-specific. Such alterations may serve as valuable tools for diagnosis and classification of tumors, prediction of clinical outcome, disease monitoring, and choice of therapy as well as for providing clues to the location of crucial cancer-related genes. Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy of the female genital tract, ranking fourth among all invasive tumors affecting women. Cytogenetic studies of human ECs have not produced very conclusive data, since many of these studies are based on karyotyping of limited number of cases and no really specific karyotypic changes have yet been identified. As the majority of the genes are conserved among mammals, the use of inbred animal model systems may serve as a tool for identification of underlying genes and pathways involved in tumorigenesis in humans. In the present work we used spectral karyotyping (SKY) to identify cancer-related aberrations in a well-characterized experimental model for spontaneous endometrial carcinoma in the BDII rat tumor model. Results: Analysis of 21 experimental ECs revealed specific nonrandom numerical and structural chromosomal changes. The most recurrent numerical alterations were gains in rat chromosome 4 (RNO4) and losses in RNO15. The most commonly structural changes were mainly in form of chromosomal translocations and were detected in RNO3, RNO6, RNO10, RNO11, RNO12, and RNO20. Unbalanced chromosomal translocations involving RNO3p was the most commonly observed structural changes in this material followed by RNO11p and RNO10 translocations. Conclusion: The non-random nature of these events, as documented by their high frequencies of incidence, is suggesting for dynamic selection of these changes during experimental EC tumorigenesis and therefore for their potential contribution into development of this malignancy. Comparative molecular analysis of the identified genetic changes in this tumor model with those reported in the human ECs may provide new insights into underlying genetic changes involved in EC development and tumorigenesis.

  • 368.
    Falck, Eva
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Karlsson, Sandra
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Loss of Glutathione peroxidase 3 expression is correlated with epigenetic mechanisms in endometrial adenocarcinoma2010In: Cancer Cell International, ISSN 1475-2867, E-ISSN 1475-2867, Vol. 10, p. 46-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) is one of the key enzymes in the cellular defense against oxidative stress and the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, (MET) has been suggested to be influenced by the GPX3 gene expression. In a previous microarray study performed by our group, Gpx3 was identified as a potential biomarker for rat endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC), since the expression was highly downregulated in rat EAC tumors. Herein, we have investigated the mRNA expression and Gpx3 and Met in rat EAC by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the methylation status of Gpx3. In addition we have examined the expression of GPX3 and MET in 30 human EACs of different FIGO grades and 20 benign endometrial tissues. We found that the expression of GPX3 was uniformly down regulated in both rat and human EAC, regardless of tumor grade or histopathological subtype, implying that the down-regulation is an early event in EAC. The rate of Gpx3 promoter methylation reaches 91%, where biallelic methylation was present in 90% of the methylated tumors. The expression of the Met oncogene was slightly upregulated in EACs that showed loss of expression of Gpx3, but no tumor suppressor activity of Gpx3/GPX3 was detected. Preliminary results also suggest that the production of H2O2 is higher in rat endometrial tumors with down-regulated Gpx3 expression. A likely consequence of loss of GPX3 protein function would be a higher amount of ROS in the cancer cell environment. Thus, the results suggest important clinical implications of the GPX3 expression in EAC, both as a molecular biomarker for EAC and as a potential target for therapeutic interventions.

  • 369.
    Falck, Eva
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Expression patterns of PHF5A/Phf5a and GJa1/Gja1 in rat and human endometrial cancer2013In: Cancer Cell International, ISSN 1475-2867, E-ISSN 1475-2867, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer of the female genital tract in the western world. Studies of complex diseases can be difficult to perform on human tumor samples due to the high genetic heterogeneity in human. The use of rat models is preferable since rat has similarities in pathogenesis and histopathological properties to that of human.

    A genomic region including the highly conserved Phf5a gene associated to development of EAC has previously been identified in an association study. PHF5A has been suggested to acts as a transcription factor or cofactor in the up regulation of expression of Gja1 gene in the presence of estrogen. It has earlier been shown that the Phf5a gene is down regulated in rat EAC derived cell lines by means of expression microarrays.

    We analyzed the expression of Phf5a and Gja1 by qPCR, and potential relations between the two genes in EAC tumors and non-malignant cell lines derived from the BDII rat model. In addition, the expression pattern of these genes was compared in rat and human EAC tumor samples.

    Changes in expression for Phf5a/PHF5A were found in tumors from both rat and human even though the observed pattern was not completely consistent between the two species. By separating rat EAC cell lines according to the genetic background, a significant lower expression of Phf5a in one of the two cross backgrounds was revealed, but not for the other. In contrast to other studies, Phf5a/PHF5A regulation of Gja1/GJA1 was not revealed in this study.

  • 370.
    Fant, Sanna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Uppföljning av hotade och sällsynta växtarter på och kring Mösseberg, Falköping2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mösseberg is a plateau mountain with an interesting nature and with a great variety of habitats and plant species. In this project the inventory has been performed in meadows, dry grasslands, gullies, scree slopes, wetlands and broad-leaved deciduous forests. This project aims to perform an inventory of 25 threatened and rare plant species in the municipality of Falköping, because of a sub target in the conservation program of Falköping. It is also a follow-up of an honours thesis performed in 2008. The project also surveyed how the plant species status had changed from previous years, what the reason to the changes are and what management actions that can improve the species’ status in the future. Of the 25 focal species that were included in the inventory of 2011, 22 species were found. The highest species richness was found in habitat D, Bestorpskärret, with large amounts of the five focal species that grow here. The results of the inventory in 2011 are both positive and negative. Most focal species were found, some species have increased in number and a small number was not found at all. Some species occur in very small numbers.

    According to Västergötlands Flora (Bertilsson et al 2002) the greatest threats today are overgrowth, eutrophication, pesticides, draining and acidification. Examples of these have been seen during the inventory, especially over-growth due to un-managed meadows and eutrophication. Also, some of the populations are quite small. There are a number of problems with small populations, like decreased adaptability and survivability.

    The future of threatened vascular plant species in Falköping vary from habitat to habitat. Some areas are prioritized and managed very well while others are threatened by overgrowth. If management recommendations are followed, the probability for a positive change is quite high for several species. But some plant populations are so small that the future of these is critical even if management recommendations are followed. In Falköping, the economy and the distribution of resources is limiting for conservation and management actions. Management actions would also be better if the team carrying out the work had more knowledge about the nature and specific needs of the species. 

  • 371.
    Fasth, Jeanette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Flöjt, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Borderline personlighetsstörning ur ett livsvärldsperspektiv: en litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Borderline personality disorder (BPS) is a psychiatric diagnosis which is characterized by emotional instability and relation problems. Both family members and health care personnel express difficulties in contact with persons with BPS. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and highlight research and autobiographies that describe how people with BPS perceive their life world. For this study a combination of two methods was used, a literature review of empirical studies and analysis of autobiographies. Four themes shows in the result: how they experience their affects, to live with emotional pain. Their view of relationships, how they experience the diagnosis as helpful or not and their contact with healthcare. The results can be applied to clinical practice by viewing deliberate self harm as a coping strategy for emotional pain and by meeting the patient with respect, understandning and a confirming attitude. Helping the person to find better strategies to handle emotional pain is also a way to apply the results of this study on clinical practice.

  • 372.
    Faundes Espinoza, Felipe
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Söderquist, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av mötet med sjuksköterskor på akutmottagningar2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The emergency department is mainly in charge of the emergency care of troubled and unstable patients in case of acute illness or injury. This study demonstrated that patients who seek care in emergency departments often feel inferior, ignored and forgotten by the nurse. It is therefore essential that the nurse practise the kind of nursing, which brings out a feeling of security and safety for the patient. The purpose of this study was to describe patients' experiences of the encounter with the nurse at the emergency department. The aim was answered through a literature study in which 12 qualitative articles were analyzed. Four themes were revealed from the analysis; A sense of abandonment, The sense of uncertainty, Unaddressed needs and Confidence in the profession. The results of this study may increase knowledge among nurses, a knowledge that can be applied in nursing care performed at the emergency department to enhance the experience of the patient in the encounter with the nurse.

  • 373.
    Feldhahn, Magdalena
    et al.
    University of Tübingen, Center for Bioinformatics, Applied Bioinformatics, Sand 14, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Dönnes, Pierre
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Schubert, Benjamin
    University of Tübingen, Center for Bioinformatics, Applied Bioinformatics, Sand 14, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Schilbach, Karin
    University Children's Hospital, Department of, Hematology/Oncology, Hoppe-Seyler Str. 1, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.
    Rammensee, Hans-Georg
    University of Tübingen, Department of Immunology, Auf der Morgenstelle 15, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany.
    Kohlbacher, Oliver
    University of Tübingen, Center for Bioinformatics, Applied Bioinformatics, Sand 14, 72076 Tübingen, Germany / University of Tübingen, Quantitative Biology Center, Tübingen, Germany.
    miHA-Match: Computational detection of tissue-specific minor histocompatibility antigens2012In: JIM - Journal of Immunological Methods, ISSN 0022-1759, E-ISSN 1872-7905, Vol. 386, no 1-2, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allogenic stem cell transplantation has shown considerable success in a number of hematological malignancies, in particular in leukemia. The beneficial effect is mediated by donor T cells recognizing patient-specific HLA-binding peptides. These peptides are called minor histocompatibility antigens (miHAs) and are typically caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms. Tissue-specific miHAs have successfully been used in anti-tumor therapy without causing unspecific graft-versus-host reactions. However, only a small number of miHAs have been identified to date, limiting the clinical use.

    Here we present an immunoinformatics pipeline for the identification of miHAs. The pipeline can be applied to large-scale miHA screening, for example, in the development of diagnostic tests. Another interesting application is the design of personalized miHA-based cancer therapies based on patient-donor pair-specific miHAs detected by this pipeline. The suggested method covers various aspects of genetic variant detection, effects of alternative transcripts, and HLA-peptide binding. A comparison of our computational pipeline and experimentally derived datasets shows excellent agreement and coverage of the computationally predicted miHAs.

  • 374.
    Fetah, Alija
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Mutations E688K and G569R within the NALP3 gene, associated with development of hereditary auto inflammatory disorders   2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Different mutations within the NALP3 gene are thought to be associated with development of several types of hereditary auto inflammatory disorders such as neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disorder (NOMID) and muckle-wells syndrome (MWS). In this work two separate mutations E688K and G569R were supposed to be constructed by site-directed mutagenesis in the cloned wild type NALP3 genes and further expressed in bacterial and mammalian host cells for functional studies in protein -protein interaction models.

  • 375.
    Fjell, Nilani
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Janine, Samira
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Johansson, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hur upplever sjuksköterskor vårdmöten med patienter från annan kulturell bakgrund: en litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sweden has become a multicultural society the last decades. A good communication is an important aspect in nursing. If patient and nurse can‟t communicate with each other, it may lead to unnecessary suffering for the patient and a trying situation for the nurses. The cultural aspects can affect the encounter and the communication with a patient from a different culture. Earlier studies show the importance of knowledge about other cultures among the nurses. AIM: The purpose of the study is to describe nurses‟ experience in the encounter with patient from a different culture background. METHODS: A qualitative literature study is designed to find an answer to the purpose of the study. RESULTS: Three main categories were found; Culture competence acknowledges communication difficulties and cultural obstacle in the nursing encounter. The main problem in all the study was language barriers. Nurses experienced that they didn´t give the same individual care to those patient who couldn´t speak the language. Nurses also expressed that they had little knowledge about the patients‟ culture. CONCLUSION: The nurses need more knowledge about other cultures, be open-minded and show respect for others thoughts and values. It´s need for more research about cultural competence and more resources as nurses and translators and employment of more nurses with foreign background.

  • 376.
    Floberg Klamberg, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Landesund, Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av livsstilsförändringar: i samband med diagnosen diabetes typ 2 - En litteraturbaserad studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes has in recent years increased dramatically worldwide. An unhealthy lifestyle habit such as improper diet and physical inactivity plays a major role. Making a lifestyle change to prevent disease or to decrease symptoms may be perceived as setbacks. PURPOSE: The aim of this literature-based study is to elucidate patients' experiences of the lifestyle changes that involve the diagnosis of diabetes type 2. METHOD: The study was conducted as a literature-based study and the result is based on twelve research articles. FINDINGS: Three categories were identified from the analysis: A strenuous change in life, strength for self-responsibility and increased will through support. CONCLUSION: Patients experience unsatisfying support. It is important how the support is given from family and care-professionals and it plays a huge role in the patient’s way to a healthier lifestyle. The importance of respect, listening, and confirming the struggle is essential for the patient’s wellbeing.

  • 377.
    Folkeson, Li
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Morén, Cecilia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Stenholm, Lovisa
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av hur bröstcancer påverkar deras livssituation: - En litteraturöversikt2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer diagnoses among women. Approximately 7 000 Swedish women are diagnosed with the disease every year. Despite the amount of breast cancer diagnoses the prognosis are good and 75 percent of the women survives from the disease during a 10 year period. The aim of this study was to shed light on women’s experiences of how breast cancer affects their life situation. The method was a literature review. The analyse resulted in three main themes and seven subthemes. The main themes became: Transition from healthy to sick, Existential changes and The impact of health care providers. The results showed that women with breast cancer lose their identity and these losses lead to feelings of fear and suffering. Their life perspective changed and they realized what’s important in life. They now focus on relationships and their own interests.   Furthermore, our result showed that women experience support from relationships and health care providers as important.

  • 378.
    Folkesson, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Svensson, Maja
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av sjukdomen amyotrofisk lateralskleros: En studie av självbiografier2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    About 200 persons become ill annually with the illness amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which can be seen as an increase in the last 30 years. Falling ill in an incurable illness contributes to both physical and psychological suffering. It is important to understand the patient’s experiences of the illness and this is a field where there is little or no information available. The aim of this study was to describe the patients’ experiences of living with ALS from autobiographies. A qualitative content analysis described by Lundman and Hällgren Graneheim was performed. The data material consisted of seven autobiographies. From the data material patient’s feelings and experiences of the illness ALS was discerned in terms of six categories with associated subcategories. The categories were; difficulties of the emerging illness, thoughts about death, sadness, lack of self esteem, to feel deserted and to reach insight into their own illness. The informants described experiences differently due to individual variations of illness. To eventually be able to see positive moments despite the illness was significant. No one knows better than the patient how the most appreciated nursing care should be. Therefore it is of importance to listen to patients’ own experience of the illness. The experiences of the illness varied but similarities could be seen where many experiences were recurrent among most informants.

  • 379.
    Forsblad, Carin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hulldin, Charlotte
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att leva med bröstcancer: en litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer disease among women in the world and the risk to get sick in Sweden before the age of 75 is one out of 10. When an individual get stroke by a disease life drastically changes from healthy to sick over night. Getting a breast cancer diagnosis often means you have to remove part of or the whole breast, and the procedure is complimented by treatments and medical products. Living with a disease is a unique individual experience and the patient’s experiences of suffering are related to feeling of the disease and the diagnosis. That means that a person isn’t sicker than he experiences himself to be. To be able to meet a patient’s basic and specific caring needs, the nurse must be aware of individual experiences of a disease, which this study result shows. The aim of this study is to describe women’s different experiences of living with breast cancer. The authors used a qualitative literature method based on Friberg (2006), analysing qualitative research and compiling it to a new result. The result shows individual experiences of living with breast cancer and it’s described in two categories;  suffering and  maturation and nine subcategories; threatened self-image, powerless, menopause, need of information, discomfort and pain, loneliness, destroyed future, spirituality and inner strength. As the result shows, every individual lived experience of an episode is a mirror of women’s life situations and where they were in life before getting a diagnosis. The result also shows that women somehow became strengthened through illnesses, grew as human beings and therefore reprioritize what’s important in life. The work of a nurse should focus on seeing women’s individual experiences and needs and through that support them through their coping strategies to reach their inner strength.

  • 380. Forss, Kim
    et al.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Maclean, Gaynor
    Sida supported infant and young child feeding networks: An evaluation of activities, achievements and aspirations2007Report (Other academic)
  • 381.
    Fransson, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Englund, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Vägledning i vårdmötet och stödet till cancerpatienter: En studie av vårdprogram2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To enlighten what is included in health care programs regarding the caring encounter and support for cancer patients.Background: Due to the increasing number of people that are diagnosed with cancer, nurses are in need of more knowledge regarding caring encounters and support to cancer patients.Method: To analyze data using a qualitative study of literature concerning nursing care - and psychosocial aspects in health care programs.Result: Participation through information, support through communication, noticing mental illness and dealing with existential questions have shown to be important parts and are the result’s four thematic areas.Conclusions: Health care programs have shown to contain an uneven distribution of information concerning caring encounters and support to cancer patient. However the information altogether, which is presented in the result of the study, shows a relatively multifaceted picture of how caring encounters and support can be given in the various phases in cancer patients’ disease progression.Clinical implication: This study can be a good source of information for nurses regarding the care and support in their daily encounters with cancer patients. By offering useful advice and strategies, this study can create an increased sense of self-confidence in difficult situations that nurse’s might face.

  • 382.
    Fransson, S.
    et al.
    Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-405 30, Sweden.
    Uv, A.
    Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-405 30, Sweden.
    Eriksson, H.
    Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-405 30, Sweden.
    Andersson, M. K.
    Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wettergren, Y.
    Department of General Surgery, University of Gothenburg SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergo, M.
    Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ejeskär, Katarina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    p37δ is a new isoform of PI3K p110δ that increases cell proliferation and is overexpressed in tumors2012In: Oncogene, ISSN 0950-9232, E-ISSN 1476-5594, Vol. 31, no 27, p. 3277-3286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) regulate cell growth, proliferation and survival, and are frequently affected in human cancer. PI3K is composed of a catalytic subunit, p110, and a regulatory subunit, p85. The PI3K catalytic subunit p110δ is encoded by PIK3CD and contains p85- and RAS-binding domains, and a kinase domain. Here we present an alternatively spliced PIK3CD transcript encoding a previously unknown protein, p37δ, and demonstrate that this protein is expressed in human ovarian and colorectal tumors. p37δ retains the p85-binding domain and a fraction of the RAS-binding domain, lacks the catalytic domain, and has a unique carboxyl-terminal region. In contrast to p110δ, which stabilizes p85, p37δ promoted p85 sequestering. Despite the truncated RAS-binding domain, p37δ bound to RAS and we found a strong positive correlation between the protein levels of p37δ and RAS. Overexpressing p37δ, but not p110δ, increased the proliferation and invasive properties of HEK-293 cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cells overexpressing p37δ showed a quicker phosphorylation response of AKT and ERK1/2 following serum stimulation. Ubiquitous expression of human p37δ in the fruit fly increased body size, DNA content and phosphorylated ERK1/2 levels. Thus, p37δ appears to be a new tumor-specific isoform of p110δ with growth-promoting properties.

  • 383.
    Fransson, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Abel, Frida
    Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kogner, Per
    Childhood Cancer Research Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Tommy
    Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ejeskär, Katarina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Stage-dependent expression of PI3K/Akt‑pathway genes in neuroblastoma2013In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 609-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway plays a critical role in cancer cell growth and survival and has also been implicated in the development of the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. In neuroblastoma high mRNA expression of the PI3K catalytic isoform PIK3CD is associated to favorable disease. Yet, activation of Akt is associated with poor prognosis. Since the contribution of the numerous members of this pathway to neuroblastoma pathogenesis is mainly unknown, genes of the PI3K/Akt pathway were analyzed at the mRNA level through microarrays and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan) and at the protein level using western blot analysis. Five genes showed lower mRNA expression in aggressive compared to more favorable neuroblastomas (PRKCZ, PRKCB1, EIF4EBP1, PIK3RI and PIK3CD) while the opposite was seen for PDGFRA. Clustering analysis shows that the expression levels of these six genes can predict aggressive disease. At the protein level, p110δ (encoded by PIK3CD) and p85α isomers (encoded by PIK3R1) were more highly expressed in favorable compared to aggressive neuroblastoma. Evaluation of the expression of these PI3K genes can predict aggressive disease, and indicates stage-dependent involvement of PI3K-pathway members in neuroblastoma.

  • 384.
    Fransson, Susanne
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ejeskär, Katarina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    High level of p37δ-mRNA relative to p110δ-mRNA in neuroblastoma tumors correlates with poor patient survival2013In: Medical Oncology, ISSN 1357-0560, E-ISSN 1559-131X, Vol. 30, no 4, article id 724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alterations in the PI3K/Akt pathway, a pathway that promotes proliferation and oncogenic transformation, are common in various cancers. In neuroblastoma, activation of Akt is correlated with aggressive disease although mutations in genes of this pathway are rare. Previous findings include a few mutations in PIK3CD, the gene encoding PI3K catalytic subunit delta, p110delta. We recently reported that an alternatively spliced form of p110delta, called p37delta, had cell proliferative properties and was over-expressed in ovarian and colorectal tumors. Here, we investigated p37delta in neuroblastoma primary tumors of different stages using qPCR (TaqMan) for gene expression analysis (46 samples) and Western blot for protein analysis (22 samples). Elevated levels of both p37delta-mRNA and p110delta-mRNA were detected in metastasizing neuroblastoma tumors compared to normal adrenal gland (P<0.05), and higher expression of p37delta-mRNA relative to p110delta-mRNA in neuroblastoma non-survivor patients compared to survivors (P<0.01). p37delta-Protein levels but not p110delta levels correlated with increased pAKT(T308) and pERK levels. The p37delta-mRNA levels did not correlate with the protein levels, indicating major regulation at the translational/protein level. Deregulation of signaling pathways is a hallmark of cancer development. Here, we show that p37delta, a kinase-dead isoform of the PI3K catalytic subunit p110delta, is over-expressed in neuroblastoma tumors, and that it correlates with the activation of both PI3K/Akt- and RAS-signaling pathways.

  • 385.
    Fransson, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kogner, Per
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Childhood Cancer Research Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Martinsson, Tommy
    Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ejeskär, Katarina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Medical and Clinical Genetics, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aggressive neuroblastomas have high p110alpha but low p110delta and p55alpha/p50alpha protein levels compared to low stage neuroblastomas2013In: Journal of Molecular Signaling, ISSN 1750-2187, E-ISSN 1750-2187, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is involved in neuroblastoma development where Akt/PKB activation is associated with poor prognosis. PI3K activity subsequently activates Akt/PKB, and as mutations of PI3K are rare in neuroblastoma and high levels of PI3K subunit p110delta is associated with favorable disease with low p-Akt/PKB, the levels of other PI3K subunits could be important for Akt activation.Methods: Protein levels of Type IA PI3K catalytic and regulatory subunits were investigated together with levels of phosphorylated Akt/PKB and the PI3K negative regulator PTEN in primary neuroblastoma tumors. Relation between clinical markers and protein levels were evaluated through t-tests. Results: We found high levels of p-Akt/PKB correlating to aggressive disease and p-Akt/PKB (T308) showed inverse correlation to PTEN levels. The regulatory isomers p55alpha/p50alpha showed higher levels in favorable neuroblastoma as compared with aggressive neuroblastoma. The PI3K-subunit p110alpha was found mainly in advanced tumors while p110delta showed higher levels in favorable neuroblastoma.Conclusions: Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway is seen in neuroblastoma tumors, however the contribution of the different PI3K isoforms is unknown. Here we show that p110alpha is preferentially expressed in aggressive neuroblastomas, with high p-Akt/PKB and p110delta is mainly detected in favorable neuroblastomas, with low p-Akt/PKB. This is an important finding as PI3K-specific inhibitors are suggested for enrollment in treatment of neuroblastoma patients. © 2013 Fransson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  • 386. Frantzén, L
    et al.
    Hallman, Elsie-Britt
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kullén Engström, A
    Lillesveen, B
    Skarp Hjälmén, A
    Samverkan kring personer med demens.2007In: Folkhälsa i samverkan, Studentlitteratur, 2007, p. 265-281Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 387.
    Fredricson, Linda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lundin, Åsa
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Faktorer som är av betydelse vid val av kost för individer med diabetes typ 2: - en litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of people with diabetes in the world is increasing, because the population isincreasing and it is getting older. Also, more people tend to be less active and areoverweight. Diabetes type 2 is the most common form of diabetes in Sweden today and isrelated to our lifestyle. Therefore the food and the exercise are the fundamental treatment.The problem is that individuals do not know what recommendations about food they aresupposed to follow. They have not received enough guidelines and education aboutnutrition. The aim of the literature study was to, from a patient perspective, identify factorswhich are of importance in the choice of food for individuals with diabetes type 2. A totalof 9 scientific articles where analysed and three factors emerged: Knowledge,Responsibility and Support. The result showed that it is important to understand therelation between the factors, both for the nurses and for the individuals with diabetes type2. The result is supposed to benefit both nurses and care in Sweden.

  • 388.
    Frilund, Marianne
    et al.
    Yrkeshögskolan Novia University of Applied Sciences, Vaasa, Finland.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Managing the optimal workload by the PAONCIL method: a challange for nursing leadership in care of older people2009In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 426-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The aim of the study was to test the ability of the professional assessment of optimal nursing care intensity level (PAONCIL)-method to establish the optimal nursing intensity (NI) per care giver within the care of older people by testing whether the method's prerequisites for hospital settings can be fulfilled within the care of older people as well.

    Background The PAONCIL method is included in the RAFAELA system as a method for calculating personnel resources based on NI.

    Method The PAONCIL assessments were collected through questionnaires (n = 3512). The data was analysed by simple linear regression analysis.

    Results It can be stated that the prerequisites for the PAONCIL method were fulfilled and that the optimal NI-level could be determined on seven participating units.

    Discussion It can be stated that the RAFAELA system is a useful system for measuring NI within the care of older people, but additional research is needed, especially within the home care setting.

    Conclusion Although an instrument never provides a complete overview of the patient's care needs and need satisfaction, it provides information about the daily situation as well as gives guidelines for long-term strategic planning.

  • 389.
    Frilund, Marianne
    et al.
    Yrkeshögskolan Novia University of Applied Sciences, Vaasa, Finland.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Buskerud University College, Drammen, Norway / Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Oulu Patient Classification Instrument within Primary Health Care2009In: Connecting Health and Humans: Proceedings of NI2009 - The 10th International Congress on Nursing Informatics / [ed] Kaija Saranto, Patricia Flatley Brennan, Hyeoun-Ae Park, Marianne Tallberg, Anneli Ensio, IOS Press, 2009, p. 30-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As patients have become older their care needs have increased, and this has consequences for the work conditions within primary health care. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate, whether the OPC instrument, which has been developed for hospital care, is valid and useful within primary healthcare for older people. Materials and Methods: Reliability and validity testing of the OPC instrument was carried out at a health care centre in Eastern Finland spring 2004. A total number of 92 questionnaires were handed out, and the response rate was 67% (n=61) in order to test the validity. The inter-rater reliability was tested through parallel classification. A total number of 860 patient's were classified; in total 1722 classifications were done. Cohens Kappa was chosen as the measurement for the consensus between the nurses' classification. Results: The consensus of the NI scores in total (OPC points) was 71%. The consensus measured with Kappa (k) showed a strong (0.65) consensus degree. Discussion: It can be said that the OPC instrument achieved a high enough reliability and validity in order to be seen as a reliable and useful instrument to measure the NCI within primary healthcare for the elderly. Conclusion: The OPC instrument can be seen as providing a fairly comprehensive view of the patient's caring needs, without claiming to be covering everything.

  • 390.
    Frilund, Marianne
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Validity and reliability testing of the Oulu patient classification: instrument within primary health care for the older people2009In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 280-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of The Oulu Patient Classification (OPC) instrument to see whether the instrument that has been developed for hospital care is valid and useful within primary health care for older people.

    Background. Although different patient classification instruments have been under development since the 1960s, this is still a very important research area today.

    Method. Inter-rater reliability testing of the OPC instrument was undertaken. The inter-rater reliability was tested through parallel classification (n = 1722). Validity testing was conducted as an expert validation of the manual for the OPC instrument, using a questionnaire during June and July of 2005 (n = 61).

    Results. The inter-rater reliability testing achieved over 70% consensus, Cohen's Kappa showed a strong consensus for OPC classifications (0.65). The reliability measured with Cronbach's Alpha was also acceptable.

    Conclusion. The results show that the OPC instrument provides a good overview of the patient's care needs and is a reliable instrument within primary health care for older people.

  • 391.
    Frisk, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Roswall, Kristin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    En litteraturstudie kring psykisk ohälsa bland barn och unga2012Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Den psykiska ohälsan bland barn och unga har de senaste 10-20 åren ökat. Syfte: En litteraturstudie har utförts med syfte att undersöka orsaker till psykisk ohälsa, hur den yttrar sig bland barn och unga samt insatser som bör genomföras för att främja psykisk hälsa. Metod: Resultatet bygger på tio vetenskapliga artiklar av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats. Resultat: Resultatet visar att den psykiska ohälsan bland barn och unga har ökat. Detta kan bland annat bero på socioekonomiska skillnader och stress. Resultatet visar även att psykosomatiska besvär har ökat bland barn och unga, där huvudvärk och buksmärtor är vanliga symtom. Ångest har visat sig vara ett större problem än vad tidigare varit känt. Stress är en del av barn och ungas vardag och flera faktorer i skolan har visat sig vara stressorer; det kan bland annat inbegripas av skolarbetets krav och relationer till lärare. Skolan är en viktig arena för hälsoutvecklingen hos barn och unga. Därför är många insatser riktade mot förskola, skola och fritidsverksamhet. Slutsats: Forskning tyder på att barn med psykisk ohälsa växer upp till vuxna med problem och därför är tidiga insatser nyckeln till att bryta den negativa trenden. 

  • 392.
    Frisk, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Roswall, Kristin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Samverkan i arbetet med våldsutsatta kvinnor i nära relationer: En kvalitativ studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The violence against women is a public health problem. It is difficult to determine the actual prevalence of the violence against women because unreported cases are high. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the interaction in organizations and agencies with abused women in intimate relationships in the region of Skaraborg. Method: Three semistructured interviews were conducted with officials from X, Y and Z, who work with abused women in intimate relationships. Results: The results showed that there are fifteen councils in the region of Skaraborg who interact with abused women. One of the effects of the interaction is to be able to refer further according to the informants. The informants saw potential for improvement in the future, for example by collaborating with preschool and school. The results also showed that the informants are aware of the importance of their treatment against abused women, some more than others. Conclusion: The interaction is important to the fifteen councils in the region of Skaraborg, because one council can not alone give the women adequate help. The interaction in the region of Skaraborg works fine, however there are things that can improve in order to get better. The informants had their own different suggestions on how to make changes to the better, an example is a wider interaction with other agencies.

  • 393.
    Frostemark Pålsson, Jeanette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Heinum, Ann
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att göra eller att vara i samtalet: Skolsköterskors erfarenhet av att kommunicera med skolelever2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe the school health nurses experience of talking with pupils during the health dialogue, and to achieve a deeper understanding of the communication between the nurse and the pupil. The data collection was made by interviewing ten school nurses. The method used was a quality content analysis with an inductive approach. During the analysis appears the theme: To act or to be, and four subthemes: To treat with respect, to make a room for communication, to be present and to use your experience during the health dialogue. Some of the school nurses describe how they used the method, Motivating Interview, to increase the possibility to in a god way, meeting the pupils. The school nurses declare how their reflection increases their knowledge and their skills, and this experience is used for the future. These findings relate to Rosemarie Rizzo Parses theory of human becoming, and were found to contribute an apprehension for the individual communication. The study increases the knowledge of the communication and how to make it possible during the health dialogue, to change the pupils’ way of living aiming at a better health.

  • 394.
    Fröberg, L.
    et al.
    Botanical Museum, Lund, Sweden.
    Niklasson, M.
    Institute of Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Paltto, Heidi
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Ecology, Swedish Agricultural University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knutsson, T.
    Nedre Västerstad 111, Mörbylånga, Sweden.
    Johansson, T.
    County Administrator of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Age and epiphytic lichen diversity of the dwarf shrub Helianthemum oelandicum on the island of Öland , Sweden2009In: The Lichenologist, ISSN 0024-2829, E-ISSN 1096-1135, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 537-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lichen cover and diversity was analysed on the dwarf shrub Helianthemum oelandicum (L.) Dum.Cours.at one site in the calcareous grassland of the area known as the 'Great Alvar' on the Island of Öland, Sweden. The age of 22 phorophytes was determined by ring counting and varied from 8 to 41 years and was accurately predicted by the root diameter. A total of 18 lichen species were found, with a range between 0 and 13 species per phorophyte. The number of lichen species on living H. oelandicum was correlated with the phorophyte age. The number of lichen species and their coverage was greater on dead compared with living phorophytes. The species number was also higher on thin branches compared with thick branches and roots and some of the species showed preferences for dead phorophytes, and for thin branches. This study of lichen colonization and growth on dwarf shrubs in relation to phorophyte age is a new application of herbchronology.

  • 395.
    Frössling, Jenny
    et al.
    Department of Disease Control and Epidemiology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden / Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Ohlson, Anna
    Department of Disease Control and Epidemiology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden / Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Björkman, Camilla
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Nina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Division of Theoretical Biology, IFM Theory and Modelling, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nöremark, Maria
    Department of Disease Control and Epidemiology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Application of network analysis parameters in risk-based surveillance - Examples based on cattle trade data and bovine infections in Sweden2012In: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, ISSN 0167-5877, E-ISSN 1873-1716, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 202-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Financial resources may limit the number of samples that can be collected and analysed in disease surveillance programmes. When the aim of surveillance is disease detection and identification of case herds, a risk-based approach can increase the sensitivity of the surveillance system. In this paper, the association between two network analysis measures, i.e. ‘in-degree’ and ‘ingoing infection chain’, and signs of infection is investigated. It is shown that based on regression analysis of combined data from a recent cross-sectional study for endemic viral infections and network analysis of animal movements, a positive serological result for bovine coronavirus (BCV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is significantly associated with the purchase of animals. For BCV, this association was significant also when accounting for herd size and regional cattle density, but not for BRSV. Examples are given for different approaches to include cattle movement data in risk-based surveillance by selecting herds based on network analysis measures. Results show that compared to completely random sampling these approaches increase the number of detected positives, both for BCV and BRSV in our study population. It is concluded that network measures for the relevant time period based on updated databases of animal movements can provide a simple and straight forward tool for risk-based sampling.

  • 396.
    Furåker, Carina
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Hellström Muhli, Ulla
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Walldal, Elvi
    Göteborg University.
    Quality of care in relation to a critical pathway from the staff's perspective2004In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 309-316Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 397.
    Furåker, Carina
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Gothenburg, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The consultative work of occupational therapists working in municipal healthcare2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 101-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work of occupational therapists (OTs) in municipal healthcare has become more consultative in recent years. The aim of this study is to explore the content of the OTs’ consultative role in everyday activities in municipal healthcare. The study is based on data consisting of diary notes with additional reflections made by 23 OTs during three days. The data were subjected to content analysis. OTs are contacted via referrals (telephone calls or personal communication) to arrange consultations with patients, relatives, assistant staff, and colleagues. The OTs' consultative work consists of discussion, negotiation, information, or instruction, in relation to the advice and recommendations given. They also provide supervision and support to patients, relatives, and assistant staff. The advice and recommendations are evaluated. Thus, OTs' counselling consists of more than assessments and advice, as it also includes information, instruction, supervision, support, and evaluation. Further investigations are necessary in order to understand the competence that is needed and used in the consultative role of OTs in municipal healthcare. An implication for practice is that the healthcare managers need to support the OTs' possibility to provide supervision and support, especially in relation to assistant staff as they are responsible for everyday rehabilitation.

  • 398.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    EGOSAP: Evolutionary Gene Ontology based Semantic Alignment of Biological Pathways2007In: Proceedings of the third Moscow Conference on Computational Molecular Biology, Moscow, Russia, 27-30 July 2007, 2007, p. 98-100Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 399.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Evaluating Protein Structure Prediction Models with Evolutionary Algorithms2005In: Information processing with evolutionary algorithms: from industrial applications to academic speculations / [ed] Manuel Graña, Richard Duro, Alicia d’Anjou and Paul P. Wang, Springer London, 2005, p. 143-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 400.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Gene Ontology-based Semantic Alignment of Biological Pathways by Evolutionary Search2008In: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, ISSN 0219-7200, E-ISSN 1757-6334, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 825-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of biological pathways have been elucidated recently, and there is a need for methods to analyze these pathways. One class of methods compares pathways semantically in order to discover parts that are evolutionarily conserved between species or to discover intraspecies similarities. Such methods usually require that the topologies of the pathways being compared are known, i.e. that a query pathway is being aligned to a model pathway. However, sometimes the query only consists of an unordered set of gene products. Previous methods for mapping sets of gene products onto known pathways have not been based on semantic comparison of gene products using ontologies or other abstraction hierarchies. Therefore, we here propose an approach that uses a similarity function defined in Gene Ontology (GO) terms to find semantic alignments when comparing paths in biological pathways where the nodes are gene products. A known pathway graph is used as a model, and an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is used to evolve putative paths from a set of experimentally determined gene products. The method uses a measure of GO term similarity to calculate a match score between gene products, and the fitness value of each candidate path alignment is derived from these match scores. A statistical test is used to assess the significance of evolved alignments. The performance of the method has been tested using regulatory pathways for S. cerevisiae and M. musculus.

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