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  • 301.
    Lund, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Släktskapets påverkan på tillväxt, storlek, mortalitet och defekter hos yngel vid uppfödning hos Grönfläckig padda (Bufo viridis).2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete syftar till att svara på hypotesen som säger att det är skillnader i tillväxt, storlek, dödlighet och deformationer hos besläktade yngel av grönfläckig padda (Bufo viridis) gentemot obesläktade yngel vid uppfödning. Tidigare australiensisk studie visar att kemiska ämnen som paddorna själva utsöndrar påverkar tillväxt och överlevnad. Det förekommer även att syskon favoriserar och känner igen varandra och således blir konkurrensen syskon emellan inte lika stark. Yngel från fem olika honor delades in i grupper och placerats i akvarietankar med antingen besläktade individer från en och samma hona eller blandade. Där har de vuxit upp från ägg till yngel. De yngel som föddes upp tillsammans med sina syskon var större än yngel som fötts upp med obesläktade yngel. Det var ingen skillnad i procentuell tillväxt över tid mellan besläktade och obesläktade individer. Vid de första mättillfällena var det skillnad i storlek, viket indikerar att mekanismen som styr tillväxt är som starkast i ett tidigt utvecklingsskede för att sedan avta. Tidigare studie på grönfläckig padda i Sverige visar på liknande resultat och dessa motsäger resultat från en australiensisk studie där tillväxten varit mindre i början och större i slutet. Dödligheten från ägg till yngel var större hos de obesläktade individerna. Sammantaget ger det en indikation om att mekanismen bakom exempelvis storlek, tillväxt och dödlighet är mer komplexa än vad som framkommit i tidigare arbeten. Resultatet visar på skillnader som kan ligga till grund för utvecklandet av nya metoder vid uppfödning av grönfläckig padda och som även kan hjälpa till vid bevarandet av den svenska populationen. 

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    Examensarbete Grönfläckig padda
  • 302.
    Lundh, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Coleman, Scott
    Motion and Sports Lab, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Riad, Jacques
    Orthopaedic Department, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden / Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Movement deviation and asymmetry assessment with three dimensional gait analysis of both upper- and lower extremity results in four different clinical relevant subgroups in unilateral cerebral palsy2014Ingår i: Clinical Biomechanics, ISSN 0268-0033, E-ISSN 1879-1271, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 381-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In unilateral cerebral palsy, movement pattern can be difficult to define and quantify. The aim was to assess the degree of deviation and asymmetry in upper and lower extremities during walking.

    Methods

    Forty-seven patients, 45 Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) I and 2 patients GMFCS II, mean age 17.1 years (range 13.1 to 24.0) and 15 matched controls were evaluated. Gait profile score (GPS) and arm posture score (APS) were calculated from three-dimensional gait analysis (GA). Asymmetry was the calculated difference in deviation between affected and unaffected sides.

    Findings

    The GPS was significantly increased compared to the control group on the affected side (6.93 (2.08) versus 4.23 (1.11) degrees) and on the unaffected side (6.67 (2.14)). The APS was also significantly increased on the affected side (10.39 (5.01) versus 5.52 (1.71) degrees) and on the unaffected side (7.13 (2.23)). The lower extremity asymmetry increased (significantly) in comparison with the control group (7.89 (3.82) versus 3.90 (1.01)) and correspondingly in the upper extremity (9.75 (4.62) versus 5.72 (1.84)). The GPS was not different between affected and unaffected sides, however the APS was different (statistically significant).

    Interpretation

    We calculated deviation and asymmetry of movement during walking in unilateral CP, identifying four important clinical groups: close to normal, deviations mainly in the leg, deviations mainly in the arm and those with deviation in the arm and leg. This method can be applied to any patient group, and aid in diagnosing, planning treatment, and prognosis.

  • 303.
    Lundin, Anders
    et al.
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Delsing, Louise
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Clausen, Maryam
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ricchiuto, Piero
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sanchez, José
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sabirsh, Alan
    Pharmaceutical Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ding, Mei
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden / Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK / UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, UK.
    Brolén, Gabriella
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hicks, Ryan
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Herland, Anna
    Department of Micro and Nanosystems KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falk, Anna
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Human iPS-Derived Astroglia from a Stable Neural Precursor State Show Improved Functionality Compared with Conventional Astrocytic Models2018Ingår i: Stem Cell Reports, ISSN 2213-6711, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 1030-1045Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In vivo studies of human brain cellular function face challenging ethical and practical difficulties. Animal models are typically used but display distinct cellular differences. One specific example is astrocytes, recently recognized for contribution to neurological diseases and a link to the genetic risk factor apolipoprotein E (APOE). Current astrocytic in vitro models are questioned for lack of biological characterization. Here, we report human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived astroglia (NES-Astro) developed under defined conditions through long-term neuroepithelial-like stem (ltNES) cells. We characterized NES-Astro and astrocytic models from primary sources, astrocytoma (CCF-STTG1), and hiPSCs through transcriptomics, proteomics, glutamate uptake, inflammatory competence, calcium signaling response, and APOE secretion. Finally, we assess modulation of astrocyte biology using APOE-annotated compounds, confirming hits of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in adult and hiPSC-derived astrocytes. Our data show large diversity among astrocytic models and emphasize a cellular context when studying astrocyte biology.

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  • 304.
    Lundin, Zebastian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Correlates of Internet Addiction: Contextualized by a Comparison with ADHD2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, people are interacting with the Internet. The emergence of this phenomenon has been positively contributing to the rapid development of our society in the last decades. However, negative reports about excessive usage are coming to the surface and questions about potential negative consequences are being raised. Internet addiction (IA) has been suggestedas a new type of disorder. There is a new field of research emerging with the aim to investigate its nature. This review compiles the most relevant literature on neuroimaging techniques used to identify the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of IA. Based on identified comorbidity between IA and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a comparison between the neural correlates of IA and ADHD is attempted, in order to illustrate the importance of bringing more attention to IA. The findings present structural, functional and neurochemical alterations in brain regions associated with emotional processing, cognitive control and reward processing. Similarities between the two disorders interms of structural and functional alterations in regions associated with emotional processing and cognitive control are highlighted.Limitations regarding lack of consensus of the operational definition, narrow selection criteria of participants and a need for subcategories inside the term IA are pointed out. The thesis concludes that as of now the discovered alterations may be considered as biological markers underlying the disorder and IA is a field of research worthy of more attention.

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  • 305.
    Lutimba, Stuart
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Science for Life Laboratory.
    Determination of specificity and affinity of the Lactose permease (LacY) protein of Escherichia coli through application of molecular dynamics simulation2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins are essential in all living organisms. They are involved in various critical activities and are also structural components of cells and tissues. Lactose permease a membrane protein has become a prototype for the major facilitator super family and utilises an existing electrochemical proton gradient to shuttle galactoside sugars to the cell. Therefore it exists in two principle states exposing the internal binding site to either side of the membrane. From previous studies it has been suggested that protonation precedes substrate binding but it is still unclear why this has to occur in the event of substrate binding. Therefore this study aimed to bridge this gap and to determine the chemical characteristics of the transport pathway. Molecular dynamics simulation methods and specialised simulation hardware were employed to elucidate the dependency of substrate binding on the protonation nature of Lactose permease. Protein models that differed in their conformation as well as their protonation states were defined from their respective X-ray structures. Targeted molecular dynamics was implemented to drive the substrate to the binding site and umbrella sampling was used to define the free energy of the transport pathway. It was therefore suggested that protonation for sugar binding is due to the switch-like mechanism of Glu325 in the residue-residue interaction (His322 and Glu269) that leads to sugar binding only in the protonated state of LacY. Furthermore, the free energy profile of sugar transport path way was lower only in the protonated state which indicates stability of sugar binding in the protonated state.

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  • 306.
    Lycke, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Science, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Region Västra Götaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Kristjansdottir, Björg
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Science, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Region Västra Götaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundfeldt, Karin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Science, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg and Region Västra Götaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Increased Diagnostic Accuracy of Adnexal Tumors with A Combination of Established Algorithms and Biomarkers2020Ingår i: Journal of clinical medicine, ISSN 2077-0383, Vol. 9, nr 2, artikel-id E299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic cancer. Pre-diagnostic testing lacks sensitivity and specificity, and surgery is often the only way to secure the diagnosis. Exploring new biomarkers is of great importance, but the rationale of combining validated well-established biomarkers and algorithms could be a more effective way forward. We hypothesized that we can improve differential diagnostics and reduce false positives by combining (a) risk of malignancy index (RMI) with serum HE4, (b) risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) with a transvaginal ultrasound score or (c) adding HE4 to CA125 in a simple algorithm. With logistic regression modeling, new algorithms were explored and validated using leave-one-out cross validation. The analyses were performed in an existing cohort prospectively collected prior to surgery, 2013-2016. A total of 445 benign tumors and 135 ovarian cancers were included. All presented models improved specificity at cut-off compared to the original algorithm, and goodness of fit was significant (p < 0.001). Our findings confirm that HE4 is a marker that improves specificity without hampering sensitivity or diagnostic accuracy in adnexal tumors. We provide in this study "easy-to-use" algorithms that could aid in the triage of women to the most appropriate level of care when presenting with an unknown ovarian cyst or suspicious ovarian cancer.

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  • 307.
    Lymperopoulou, Ioana Anca
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    A cognitive neuroscience perspective of emotions2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions have a remarkable capacity to mobilize an individual and shape a person’s behavior in order to ultimately lead to a higher wellbeing. The importance of emotions is further emphasized by pathological cases of people who suffer from an inability to normally regulate their emotional life, such as people who suffer from major depression disorder (MDD), eating disorders, or borderline personality disorder. Given the central role emotions play in our lives, it is very easy to understand the great interest cognitive neuroscientists have in this research field. Emotions have been approached in the last decades from different angles and as such, distinct theories arose. The goal of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of the emotion theories that exist, with a focus on three of the fastest developing cognitive theories of emotions: Frijda’s action-readiness, Russell’s core affect and the communicative theory. Additionally, the neural correlates of emotions will be discussed, focusing on the role of amygdala in the negative emotion of fear. Neuroimaging studies that reveal a correlation between the amygdala and emotions, fear in particular, will be described. Given that the ability of self-regulation is crucial for the achievements of our aims and goals, fMRI studies designed to investigate neural the underpinnings of emotion regulation will be presented. The process of cognitive reappraisal will be used to point towards the brain regions that act as down-regulators for the activity of amygdala while processing negatively valenced stimuli.

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    A cognitive approach to emotions
  • 308.
    Långsjö, Jaakko W.
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University hospital, Finland / Intensive Care Unit, Tampere University Hospital, Central Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, Harry
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University hospital, Finland / Department of Pharmacology, Drug Development and Therapeutics, University of Turku, Finland.
    Harnessing anaesthesia and brain imaging for the study of human consciousness2014Ingår i: Current pharmaceutical design, ISSN 1381-6128, E-ISSN 1873-4286, Vol. 20, nr 26, s. 4211-4224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 309.
    Löf, Kasper
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Investigating the Neural Correlates of Perceived Social Isolation: Is Perceived Social Isolation Confined to the Social Brain?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Loneliness, or the perceived discrepancy of ones relationships in terms of quality, is known as Perceived Social Isolation (PSI). Studies have shown that PSI is both increasing and is correlated with health risks. Specifically, PSI is not only related with risks of mortality but is also linked with variations in the brain. Having few social contacts, or being Objectively Socially Isolated (OSI) does not qualify as PSI. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the neural correlates of PSI, as distinguished from OSI. The true role of PSI is still unknown, however, arguments can be made that PSI serves an important role in survival. The social brain, which allows for social cognition is used as a basis for understanding PSI in this thesis. In this thesis, I found that individuals suffering from PSI have increased attention towards social threat, and a preference to engage in positive social stimuli. Further, PSI affects both social cognition and the social brain. However, regional brain activity was not confined to the social brain. The results showed that PSI may be related to both affective and attentional networks of the brain. PSI also affects activity in the ventral striatum. Further, PSI is related to varied regional brain size. I argue that PSI can be reduced by mainly fixing maladaptive cognitive patterns.

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  • 310.
    Löfstrand, Emelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Empathy for Pain: And its Neural Correlates2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of empathy has been fascinating laymen and scholars for centuries and has recently been an important subject for cognitive neuroscientific study. Empathy refers to the ability to understand and share others’ emotions and a characteristic of this ability is the capacity to empathize with others in pain. This review intends to examine and read up on the current state of the field of the neural and behavioral mechanisms associated with empathy for pain. The neural underpinnings of the first-hand experience of pain have been shown to be activated in a person observing the suffering individual, and this similarity in brain activity has been referred to as shared networks. This phenomenon plays an important role in the study of empathy. However, different factors have been shown to influence empathy for pain, such as age, gender, affective link between observer and sufferer, as well as phylogenetic similarity. This thesis discusses these differences, as well as atypical aspects affecting the empathic ability such as synaesthesia for pain, psychopathy and Asperger’s disease. Further, empathy for pain can be modulated by the individual observing someone in pain. For example, caregivers often down-regulate their empathic response to patients in pain, possibly in order to focus on their treatment and assistance. Also, paying attention to harmful stimuli heightens the perception of pain; therefore, the painful experience can be less remarkable when focusing on something else. The effect of empathy from others directed to oneself when suffering is discussed, as well as the consistency and limitations of presented research.

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  • 311.
    Lönn, Josefina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Well-being and Dispositional Optimism in Uganda and Sweden: An empirical and neurobiological investigation2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Uganda´s well-being ranks among the worst in the world, while Sweden´s well-being ranks among the best. This thesis investigates if there is a difference in well-being and dispositional optimism in Uganda and Sweden. The neurobiology underlying well-being and optimism is also examined. The neural correlations of well-being and optimism are connected to areas in the limbic system and cerebral cortex. Prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex are two curial regions involved in both well-being and optimism. Amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus are central areas for hedonic well-being, dispositional optimism, and optimism bias. In this thesis 284 Ugandans and 256 Swedes completed a questionnaire based survey. Greater hedonic well-being was found among Swedes, whereas greater eudiamonic well-being was found among Ugandans. Swedes reported greater global life satisfaction than Ugandans, but Ugandans expressed higher satisfaction with their current lives compared with Swedes. In relation to dispositional optimism, Ugandans were found to be both more optimistic and more pessimistic than Swedes. This unexpected dispositional optimism pattern is discussed and future research directions are proposed.

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  • 312.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    et al.
    Department of psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding2019Ingår i: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 705-711Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in personality have been shown to be larger in more gender equal countries. We advance this researchby using an extensive personality measure, the IPIP-NEO-120, with large country samples (N > 1000), from 22countries. Furthermore, to capture the multidimensionality of personality we measure sex differences with a multivariateeffect size (Mahalanobis distance D). Results indicate that past research, using univariate measures of effect size, haveunderestimated the size of between-country sex differences in personality. Confirming past research, there was a strongcorrelation (r = .69) between a country’s sex differences in personality and their Gender Equality Index. Additionalanalyses showed that women typically score higher than men on all five trait factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and that these relative differences are larger in more gender equal countries. Wespeculate that as gender equality increases both men and women gravitate towards their traditional gender roles.

  • 313.
    MacGregor, Oskar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Trivial Love2015Ingår i: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 497-500Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 314.
    MacGregor, Oskar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    WADA's Whereabouts Requirements and Privacy2015Ingår i: Routledge Handbook of Drugs and Sport / [ed] Verner Møller, Ivan Waddington & John M. Hoberman, London: Routledge, 2015, s. 310-321Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 315.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde.
    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing ACR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit reduced accumulation of arsenics and increased tolerance to arsenate2015Ingår i: Transgenic tobacco plants expressing ACR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit reduced accumulation of arsenics and increased tolerance to arsenate, Omics International Conference , 2015, Vol. 2, s. 32-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing ACR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit reduced accumulation of arsenics and increased tolerance to arsenate.

    Toxic metals such as arsenics, lead, cadmium or chromium are the major environmental pollutants that severely contribute to contamination of the global food chain directly through their accumulation in the edible parts of the cultivated crops or indirectly via meat-milk pathway. Fortunately, plant genetic engineering has the potential for developing new crop cultivars for removal of the toxic substances from the polluted sources or for avoiding accumulation of these contaminants in the edible parts. Previously, we have identified and studied four key genes that are involved in accumulation of arsenics in plants (J Biol. Systems 2010, 18/1:1-19; J Mol. Modeling 2012, DOI 10.1007/s00894-012-1419 and J Mol. Modeling 2014, DOI 10.1007/s00894-014-2104). In this study, we have cloned and transformed the ACR2 gene (arsenic reductase 2) of Arabidopsis thaliana into tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum). Our results revealed that the transgenic tobacco plants are more tolerant to arsenic than the wild-type control plants. These plants can grow on medium containing 200 µM arsenate, whereas the non-transgenic plants can hardly survive under this condition. Furthermore, when exposed to 100 µM arsenate for 35 days accumulation of arsenics in shoots of the transgenic plants decreases significantly (28 µg/g d wt.) compared to that observed in the non-transgenic control plants (40 µg/g d wt.). This study shows that A. thaliana ACR2 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of plants to develop new cultivars that can be grown on arsenic contaminated fields and can supply harmless foods containing no or significantly reduced amount of arsenics.

  • 316.
    Mandiramoorthy, Selva Kumar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    To identify novel oncogenes for the design of novel tools for diagnosis and treatment of cancer2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled cell growth that destroys the healthy tissue of the body. It is one of the deadliest diseases in the world that alters many cellular mechanisms and features. In this report, a list of 22 upregulated oncogenes is studied to identify the novel oncogene. The need to determine the novel oncogene is to develop the anti-cancer agent. To determine the novel oncogene, gene enrichment analysis (GEA) was performed. It is a method to identify classes of genes that are over-represented in the large set of genes to determine the phenotypes of the organisms. DAVID and PANTHER are the methods used to carry on this study as it has Gene Ontology (GO) embedded in it. The GEA uses fishers exact test to determine the enriched gene by the standard p-value of 0.05. To further study the oncogene Network Enrichment Analysis was performed with EVINET. We found that microtubule was significantly enriched in NEA. The genes significantly enriched for GO microtubule were studied. The significantly enriched microtubule in NEA might then be used as a target for anti-cancer agent and used to develop the drug in the future.

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  • 317.
    Marcišauskas, Simonas
    et al.
    Division of Systems and Synthetic Biology, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kristjansdottir, Björg
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Waldemarson, Sofia
    Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, Medicon Village, Lund, Sweden.
    Sundfeldt, Karin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Univariate and classification analysis reveals potential diagnostic biomarkers for early stage ovarian cancer Type 1 and Type 22019Ingår i: Journal of Proteomics, ISSN 1874-3919, E-ISSN 1876-7737, Vol. 196, s. 57-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomarkers for early detection of ovarian tumors are urgently needed. Tumors of the ovary grow within cysts and most are benign. Surgical sampling is the only way to ensure accurate diagnosis, but often leads to morbidity and loss of female hormones. The present study explored the deep proteome in well-defined sets of ovarian tumors, FIGO stage I, Type 1 (low-grade serous, mucinous, endometrioid; n = 9), Type 2 (high-grade serous; n = 9), and benign serous (n = 9) using TMT–LC–MS/MS. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD010939. We evaluated new bioinformatics tools in the discovery phase. This innovative selection process involved different normalizations, a combination of univariate statistics, and logistic model tree and naive Bayes tree classifiers. We identified 142 proteins by this combined approach. One biomarker panel and nine individual proteins were verified in cyst fluid and serum: transaldolase-1, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A (ALDOA), transketolase, ceruloplasmin, mesothelin, clusterin, tenascin-XB, laminin subunit gamma-1, and mucin-16. Six of the proteins were found significant (p <.05) in cyst fluid while ALDOA was the only protein significant in serum. The biomarker panel achieved ROC AUC 0.96 and 0.57 respectively. We conclude that classification algorithms complement traditional statistical methods by selecting combinations that may be missed by standard univariate tests. Significance: In the discovery phase, we performed deep proteome analyses of well-defined histology subgroups of ovarian tumor cyst fluids, highly specified for stage and type (histology and grade). We present an original approach to selecting candidate biomarkers combining several normalization strategies, univariate statistics, and machine learning algorithms. The results from validation of selected proteins strengthen our prior proteomic and genomic data suggesting that cyst fluids are better than sera in early stage ovarian cancer diagnostics. 

  • 318.
    Martinez Maestre, Andreu
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    PVC: Proximity Value Clustering: A new clustering method without human interaction2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 319.
    Martínez Enguita, David
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Identification of personalized multi-omic disease modules in asthma2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is a respiratory syndrome associated with airflow limitation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation of the airways in the lungs. Despite the ongoing research efforts, the outstanding heterogeneity displayed by the multiple forms in which this condition presents often hampers the attempts to determine and classify the phenotypic and endotypic biological structures at play, even when considering a limited assembly of asthmatic subjects. To increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and functional pathways that govern asthma from a systems medicine perspective, a computational workflow focused on the identification of personalized transcriptomic modules from the U-BIOPRED study cohorts, by the use of the novel MODifieR integrated R package, was designed and applied. A feature selection of candidate asthma biomarkers was implemented, accompanied by the detection of differentially expressed genes across sample categories, the production of patient-specific gene modules and the subsequent construction of a set of core disease modules of asthma, which were validated with genomic data and analyzed for pathway and disease enrichment. The results indicate that the approach utilized is able to reveal the presence of components and signaling routes known to be crucially involved in asthma pathogenesis, while simultaneously uncovering candidate genes closely linked to the latter. The present project establishes a valuable pipeline for the module-driven study of asthma and other related conditions, which can provide new potential targets for therapeutic intervention and contribute to the development of individualized treatment strategies.

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    Master_Thesis_David_Martinez
  • 320.
    Mathews, Bobby
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, genetics and pathology.
    A zebrafish model system for drug screening in diabetes2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    GWAS (Genome wide association studies) have aided in the discovery of various novel variants associated with diabetes. However, a detailed study is required to uncover the role of these genes and to determine how their dysfunction affects pathophysiology. Previous work in the lab has been successful in establishing zebrafish as an efficient model to characterise the effects of these candidate genes. Consequently, efforts have been also made to establish zebrafish as an efficient model system for drug screening as well. The current POP (Proof of principle) study aims to find whether treatment with tolbutamide drug in zebrafish carrying MODY (Maturity onset diabetes of the young) mutations has the similar effects in humans. The study employed zebrafish carrying five (gck, hnf1a, hnf1ba, hnf1bb, pdx1) CRISPR induced MODY orthologues. The zebrafish larvae were supplemented with tolbutamide drug from 5dpf till 10dpf (day post fertilisation). At 10dpf, larvae were screened for various glycaemic traits, whole body glucose and lipids as well body size. CRISPR-CAS9- induced mutations were quantified using paired end sequencing. The results showed that treatment with tolbutamide had a significant effect on the hyperglycaemic outcome induced by hnf1bb, hnf1a, and pdx1 mutations which was in line with the known effects of the drug in humans. In conclusion, the POP study proved to be successful in leveraging zebrafish as an efficient model system for, in vivo characterisation of drugs and can likely help to identify novel targets for therapeutic interventions.

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    fulltext
  • 321.
    Mattisson, Amanda
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Conscious by Default: The Role of the Default Mode Network in Internal Awareness2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In the 1990s researchers discovered task-deactivated regions in the human brain. Together, these areas make up the default mode network (DMN). It was originally proposed to act as a balancing mechanism between different brain systems, explaining the deactivations, but is now mostly studied with regards to internal awareness, such as daydreaming and mental imagery. The purpose of this thesis is to present a summary of DMN research, focusing on the network’s suggested role in internal awareness. This will be done by reviewing a wide variety of research that either explicitly or indirectly correlate default mode network features with aspects of consciousness and internal awareness. The subjective experience of being conscious have been a source of argument primarily among philosophers, but the qualities we feel are intimately linked to cognitive functions that are supported by the regions found in the DMN. Cognitive neuroscience may therefore be able to contribute to the concept of internal awareness and consciousness.

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  • 322.
    Mauritsson, Karl
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Ecological and Edaphic Correlations of Soil Invertebrate Community Structure in Dry Upland Forests of Eastern Africa2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural forests are characterised by great vegetation diversity and create habitats for a major part of Earth’s terrestrial organisms. Plantation forests, which are mainly composed of a few genera of fast-growing trees, constitute an increasing fraction of global forests, but they only partly compensate for loss of area, habitat and ecological functions in natural forests. Plantation forests established near natural forests can be expected to serve as buffers, but they seem to be relatively poor in invertebrate species and it is not clear why. This bachelor’s degree project aimed at establishing the ecological and edaphic factors that correlate with soil invertebrate diversity in dry upland forests and surrounding plantation forests in eastern Africa. Some aspects of the above-ground vegetation heterogeneity were investigated since this was assumed to influence the heterogeneity of the soil environment, which is considered as critical for soil biodiversity. The obtained knowledge may be valuable in conservation activities in East African forests, which are threatened by destruction, fragmentation and exotic species.

    The study area was Karura Forest, a dry upland forest in Nairobi, Kenya. Three different sites were investigated; a natural forest site characterized by the indigenous tree species Brachylaena huillensis and Croton megalocarpus, and two different plantation forest sites, characterized by the exotic species Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus paniculata, respectively. For each forest type, six plots were visited. Soil invertebrates were extracted from collected soil and litter samples by sieving and Berlese-Tullgren funnels. The invertebrates were identified, and the taxonomic diversity calculated at the order level. The ecological and edaphic factors, measured or calculated for each plot, were tree species diversity, ratio of exotic tree species, vertical structure of trees, vegetation cover, vegetation density, litter quality, soil pH, soil temperature and soil moisture.

    One-way ANOVA was used to compare soil invertebrate diversity and other variables between different forest types. Akaike’s Information Criterion and Multiple Linear Regression were used to establish linear models with variables that could explain measured variations of the diversity.

    There was some evidence for higher soil invertebrate diversity in natural forests than in surrounding plantation forests. The abundance of soil invertebrates was also clearly higher in natural forests, which indicates that natural forests are more important than plantation forests for conservation of soil invertebrate populations. Soil invertebrate diversity (in terms of number of orders present) was found to be influenced by forest type and litter quality. The diversity was higher at places with high amounts of coarse litter, which here is considered as more heterogenous than fine litter. The dependence on forest type was partly a consequence of differences in soil pH since Eucalyptus trees lower soil pH and thereby also soil biodiversity. No relation to heterogeneity of above-ground vegetation was found.

    For future conservation activities in Karura Forest Reserve it is recommended to continue removing exotic plant species and replanting indigenous trees, to prioritize the removal of Eucalyptus trees before Cypress trees, to only remove a few trees at a time and to establish ground vegetation when doing so.

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    Report
  • 323.
    Mazzaferro, Eugenia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Identification and characterization of causal genes for LDL cholesterol levels and downstream effects on atherosclerosis2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and results from progression of atherosclerosis, which is triggered in part by elevated plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol. Genome-wide association studies have identified many loci that are associated with circulating lipid levels and bioinformatics tools have been implemented to prioritize positional candidate genes. This project aims to better understand the genetics underlying the regulation of plasma LDL levels and their effect of atherosclerosis using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system. A multiplex line with the genes abcg5, abcg8, myrf, col4a3bpa, col4a3bpb, st3gal3, ywhaqa and ywhaqb targeted by CRISPR/Cas9 technique was established using zebrafish with fluorescently labeled macrophages (Tg[mpeg1:mCherry]) and neutrophils (Tg[mpo:EGFP]). Monodansylpentane cadaverase was used to visualize lipids droplets, together with macrophages and neutrophils, in 384 overfed larvae, allowing the visualization and quantification of vascular atherogenic traits at 10 days post-fertilization. Euthanized larvae were homogenized for the quantification of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, glucose and protein levels. DNA was extracted and larvae were paired-end sequenced for the CRISPR-targeted sites. Linear regression analysis to compare the wild-type larvae against homozygous mutants and additive models for orthologous genes were performed. The lower accumulation of lipids and the lower co-localization of macrophages and neutrophils in the vasculature suggested that the larvae with mutations in the gene abcg5, abcg8, col4a3bpb, and ywhaqb resulted in larvae more protected against atherosclerotic phenotype. The study suggested that loss of function of the targeted genes was associated with atherogenic traits, helping to understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.

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    fulltext
  • 324.
    McBean, G. J.
    et al.
    School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    López, M. G.
    Instituto Teófilo Hernando for Drug Discovery, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Wallner, Fredrik K.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Redoxis AB.
    Redox-based therapeutics in neurodegenerative disease2017Ingår i: British Journal of Pharmacology, ISSN 0007-1188, E-ISSN 1476-5381, Vol. 174, nr 12, s. 1750-1770Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This review describes recent developments in the search for effective therapeutic agents that target redox homeostasis in neurodegenerative disease. The disruption to thiol redox homeostasis in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis is discussed, together with the experimental strategies that are aimed at preventing, or at least minimizing, oxidative damage in these diseases. Particular attention is given to the potential of increasing antioxidant capacity by targeting the Nrf2 pathway, the development of inhibitors of NADPH oxidases that are likely candidates for clinical use, together with strategies to reduce nitrosative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We describe the shortcomings of compounds that hinder their progression to the clinic and evaluate likely avenues for future research.

  • 325.
    McCoy, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Comparing consensus modules using S2B and MODifieR2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    It is currently understood that diseases are typically not caused by rogue errors in genetics but have both molecular and environmental causes from myriad overlapping interactions within an interactome. Genetic errors, such as that seen by a single-nucleotide polymorphism can lead to a dysfunctional cell, which in turn can lead to systemic disruptions that result in disease phenotypes. Perturbations within the interactome, as can be caused by many such errors, can be organized into a pathophenotype, or “disease module”. Disease modules are sets of correlated variables that can represent many of a disease’s activities with subgraphs of nodes and edges. Many methods for inferring disease modules are available today, but the results each one yields is not only variable between methods but also across datasets and trial attempts. In this study, several such inference methods for deriving disease modules are evaluated by combining them to create “consensus” modules. The method of focus is Double-Specific Betweenness (S2B), which uses betweenness centrality across separate diseases to derive new modules. This study, however, uses S2B to combine the results of independent inference methods rather than separate diseases to derive new modules. Pre-processed asthma and arthritis data are compared using various combinations of inference methods. The performance of each result is validated using Pathway Scoring Algorithm. The results of this study suggest that combining methods of inference using MODifieR or S2B may be beneficial for deriving meaningful disease modules.

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    fulltext
  • 326.
    Mehrbani Azar, Yashar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Protein expression analysis of PI3K/AKT pathway components in cells expressing INPP5K and MYO1C2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In an Experimental Rat model for endometrial carcinoma (EC) a minimal region of recurrent deletion/allelic loss at the neighborhood of the Tp53 gene has been identified. A similar observation of deletion at the homologous position on human chromosome 17 unassociated with TP53 mutation has been reported in several human cancer types. Thus an important tumor suppressor activity located close to, but distinct of TP53 is suggested. Detailed molecular analysis of this candidate region in a tumor model suggested Myo1c (myosin 1C) and Inpp5k (inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase K), also known as Skip (skeletal muscle and kidney enriched inositol polyphosphate phosphatase), as the best candidates. These two genes are suggested to be involved in glucose metabolism through PI3K/AKT signaling and neither of them has earlier been reported as a tumor suppressor gene. The present work aimed to investigate the potential correlation of MYO1C and/or INPP5K proteins with components of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway involved in cell growth and survival. Cells were transfected with increasing amounts of MYO1C- or INPP5K- gene expression constructs and protein extracts of the cells were subjected to Western Blot analysis for 13 important components of the signaling pathway: p110β\α\δ, p85, pAkt308&473, 14-3-3β, PTEN, Akt, pErk, Erk, Ras, p4EBP1 and 4EBP1. The analysis showed dose-dependent changes in the expression levels of several of these proteins, and the observed changes for the most part were directed towards negative regulation of cell proliferation and survival. The presented data further extended the initial hypothesis for potential tumor suppressor activities of MYO1C and INPP5K proteins through PI3K/AKT pathway.

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    fulltext
  • 327.
    Mohamed, Ahmed
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Deciphering the ontogeny of unmutated and mutated subsets of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer that affects the B cells of the immune system causing problems in the process of producing antibodies. It can be sorted into mutated and unmutated CLL based on the percentage of somatic mutations in the Immunoglobulin Heavy chain Variable region (IgHV). The B cells of healthy individuals can be sorted into three groups; CD27dull memory B cells (MBCs), CD27bright MBCs and naïve B cells. The hypothesis for the project was that the unmutated CLL subset originates from CD27dull MBCs and the mutated CLL subset originates from CD27bright MBCs. RNA-sequencing data from healthy individuals were acquired from a collaboration partner in Rome and CLL-patients were collected from public datasets available online. Several bioinformatic tools were used to analyze the data. First, the quality of the data files was checked, then adapter sequence from the sequencing process and low-quality bases were removed (trimming). Good quality of the files was confirmed after the trimming. Secondly, these files were mapped against the human reference genome (GRCh38/hg38) for alignment, then the resulted data was used to check for genes that showed differential expression between the different groups. Results were analyzed and visualized using Venn diagrams, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and heatmap plots and random forest. A list of 85 genes was generated based on the different comparisons and was used in one PCA plot that showed clear separation between the different groups. The SWAP70 gene was analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The study concluded five genes that could be used as biomarkers for CLL and the diagnosis of its subtypes where some of them were discussed in previous studies. Also, the mutated CLL subset showed a similar behavior to the healthy individuals and this could validate the original hypothesis and justifies the better disease prognosis for this subtype.

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    fulltext
  • 328.
    Montasser, Mona
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Rethinking the role of anxiety: Using cognitive reappraisal in the classroom2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides an overview of the literature both in the field of academic anxiety and emotion regulation. The two research fields have proceeded independently in the literature at least until recently and the thesis highlights their integration. The thesis aims to answer: what happens in the brain during cognitive reappraisal and how can we use cognitive reappraisal as a strategy for dealing with academic anxiety. Brain-imaging studies show that cognitive reappraisal (an emotion regulation strategy) involves many different higher-order cognitive processes, such as emotion processing, manipulation of appraisals in working memory, inhibiting the old and selecting new appraisals. Different regions of the prefrontal cortex are believed to support these functions, moreover, the prefrontal cortex modulates amygdala activity and decreases negative emotions. Previous research in the lab and in the classroom suggests that cognitive reappraisal might be a strategy for dealing with academic anxiety. The arousal reappraisal intervention encourages students to reinterpret their increased arousal as beneficial to their performance. Only a small number of studies have tested the intervention in academic contexts, however the results are promising, e.g. students improved exam performance. The goal is to teach students that it is possible to perform well regardless of one’s anxiety. The findings presented in this thesis provide an initial glimpse into the fruitful integration of these two research fields. 

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    fulltext
  • 329.
    Monteiro, Anita-Ann
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Detection of exosomal mirna from different volumes of biofluids as biomarkers for the diagnosis of sepsis: Future diagnostics of sepsis2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Sepsis, a life-threatening condition which results from a dysregulation of host response to infection and leads to multiple organ dysfunction, is a cause for great concern. The current gold standard of detection – Blood culturing – is a highly time-consuming process and so, research has proposed the use of biomarkers. Current biomarkers, C-reactive protein and Procalcitonin, though good indicators, individually show certain limitations with respect to the specificity and sensitivity. Hence, as a step forward from singleplex biomarkers, the development of a multi-marker panel was suggested. For this purpose, the use of microRNAs (miRNAs) were employed to serve as potential biomarkers for the detection of sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine whether a higher concentration of miRNA would be obtained from a larger volume of plasma as well as to see if the miRNA present in blood can be used for the diagnosis of sepsis. Extractions were carried out using the QIAGEN exoRNeasy Plasma: Midi & Maxi Kits from plasma and Norgen’s Total RNA Purification Kit from blood. The samples were analysed and quantified using the Qubit® microRNA assay kit & Qubit® 3.0 Fluorometer and the NanoDrop™ 2000 Spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that there was a significant difference between miRNA concentrations in the two volumes of plasma analysed. Based on the accurate Qubit measurements and readings, it was concluded that a larger volume of plasma, does yield a higher concentration of miRNA. In addition, it was also established that the miRNA detected in blood, could be used as probable biomarkers for the diagnosis of sepsis.

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    a19animo_Bachelors Thesis
  • 330.
    Monzur, Sadia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Effect of nox2/4 inhibitors in t98g cells during a mimicked ischemic stroke2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke, an immensely complicated cerebrovascular disease is harvesting lives of millions over the globe and has been designated as world’s second largest killer. Improvement of pre and post treatment for this pathology to reduce the death toll has become an urgency since there are very limited therapeutic options for stroke patients, while efforts to give direct neuro-protection to the brain cells on set of ischemic stroke has been hugely unsuccessful. As oxidative stress plays a key role in brain damage during this pathology and NOX enzymes are the main source reactive oxygen species inducing this stress, at present NOX inhibitors have come to lime light for treating this condition but available Nox inhibitors lack of certain qualities and exhibit side effects that hold them back form clinical trials. In this study in vitro efficacy of NOX inhibitors M4, M107 and M114 patented by Glucox Biotech AB was evaluated along with a positive control, VAS2870, in cellular model of ischemic stroke using the T98G cell line through detection of gene expression of Nox2/4 genes, cell viability assay and ROS assay. Results indicate that these inhibitors decrease cell mortality significantly by inhibiting the enzymes activity and lowering the ROS. In the future there is great hope that these inhibitors could be used clinically due to their uniqueness and may hold the key to ameliorate the suffering from stroke, and save lives.

  • 331.
    Morland, Sara
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Exploring qpcr data with weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA)2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Differently expressed genes e.g. in a disease may play a role in the etiology or progression of the disease. The traditional approach of finding differentially expressed genes is to compare the expression levels in the groups, and produce a list of differentially expressed candidate genes. With many pairwise comparisons, the risk of introducing type I and type II errors is high. One solution is to group together genes that are co-expressed into modules. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) uses a topological overlap module approach and has been proved to find patterns that have been undetected by gene-to-gene comparison methods. qPCR has high sensitivity and specificity, and advances in technology has increased its throughput. The goal of the project was to construct WGCNA modules from qPCR data and evaluate the WGCNA method in five previously published qPCR data sets. There was little overlap between the differentially expressed genes found in the published articles and the candidates found by WGCNA. In three data sets WGCNA failed to produce any significant genes. In one of the data set significant genes were found where the original article failed. In one data set, 19 out of 60 genes that are top-ranked by the original authors were found in significant WGCNA modules. The biggest challenge with this type of comparison is to determine whether results that differ from the published studies are more or less biologically relevant. It is difficult to draw conclusions on whether the method is suitable for use for analysis of qPCR data based on this study.

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    fulltext
  • 332.
    Nahar, Noor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Moś, Maria
    Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland.
    Warzecha, Tomasz
    Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, USA.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth University, Tathawade, Pune 411033, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    In silico and in vivo studies of molecular structures and mechanisms of AtPCS1 protein involved in binding arsenite and/or cadmium in plant cells2014Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Modeling, ISSN 1610-2940, E-ISSN 0948-5023, Vol. 20, nr 3, artikel-id 2104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a continuation of our previous research on the phytochelatin synthase1 (PCS1) gene involved in binding and sequestration of heavy metals or metalloids in plant cells. Construction of a 3D structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana PCS1 protein and prediction of gene function by employing iterative implementation of the threading assembly refinement (I-TASSER) revealed that PC ligands (3GC-gamma-glutamylcysteine) and Gln50, Pro53, Ala54, Tyr55, Cys56, Ile102, Gly161, His162, Phe163, Asp204 and Arg211 residues are essential for formation of chelating complex with cadmium (Cd²⁺) or arsenite (AsIII). This finding suggests that the PCS1 protein might be involved in the production of the enzyme phytochelatin synthase, which might in turn bind, localize, store or sequester heavy metals in plant cells. For validation of the in silico results, we included a T-DNA tagged mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, SAIL_650_C12, (mutation in AtPCS1 gene) in our investigation. Furthermore, using reverse transcriptase PCR we confirmed that the mutant does not express the AtPCS1 gene. Mutant plants of SAIL_650_C12 were exposed to various amounts of cadmium (Cd²⁺) and arsenite (AsIII) and the accumulation of these toxic metals in the plant cells was quantified spectrophotometrically. The levels of Cd²⁺ and AsIII accumulation in the mutant were approximately 2.8 and 1.6 times higher, respectively, than that observed in the wild-type controlled plants. We confirmed that the results obtained in in silico analyses complement those obtained in in vivo experiments.

  • 333.
    Nahar, Noor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Phytoremediation of arsenic from the contaminated soil using transgenic tobacco plants expressing ACR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana2017Ingår i: Journal of plant physiology (Print), ISSN 0176-1617, E-ISSN 1618-1328, Vol. 218, s. 121-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have cloned, characterized and transformed the AtACR2 gene (arsenic reductase 2) of Arabidopsis thaliana into the genome of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var Sumsun). Our results revealed that the transgenic tobacco plants are more tolerant to arsenic than the wild type ones. These plants can grow on culture medium containing 200μM arsenate, whereas the wild type can barely survive under this condition. Furthermore, when exposed to 100μM arsenate for 35days the amount of arsenic accumulated in the shoots of transgenic plants was significantly lower (28μg/g d wt.) than that found in the shoots of non-transgenic controls (40μg/g d wt.). However, the arsenic content in the roots of transgenic plants was significantly higher (2400μg/g d. wt.) than that (2100μg/g d. wt.) observed in roots of wild type plants. We have demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana AtACR2 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of plants to develop new crop cultivars that can be grown on arsenic contaminated fields to reduce arsenic content of the soil and can become a source of food containing no arsenic or exhibiting substantially reduced amount of this metalloid.

  • 334.
    Nahar, Nour
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Functional studies of AtACR2 gene putatively involved in accumulation, reduction and/or sequestration of arsenic species in plants2017Ingår i: Biologia (Bratislava), ISSN 0006-3088, E-ISSN 1336-9563, Vol. 72, nr 5, s. 520-526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Food-based exposure to arsenic is a human carcinogen and can severely impact human health resulting in many cancerous diseases and various neurological and vascular disorders. This project is a part of our attempts to develop new varieties of crops for avoiding arsenic contaminated foods. For this purpose, we have previously identified four key genes, and molecular functions of two of these, AtACR2 and AtPCSl, have been studied based on both in silico and in vivo experiments. In the present study, a T-DNA tagged mutant, (SALK-143282C with mutation in AtACR2 gene) of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied for further verification of the function of AtACR2 gene. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that this mutant exhibits a significantly reduced expression of the AtACR2 gene. When exposed to 100 μM of arsenate (AsV) for three weeks, the mutant plants accumulated arsenic approximately three times higher (778 μg/g d. wt.) than that observed in the control plants (235 μg/g d. wt.). In contrast, when the plants were exposed to 100 μM of arsenite (AsIII), no significant difference in arsenic accumulation was observed between the control and the mutant plants (535 μg/g d. wt. and 498 μg/g d. wt., respectively). Also, when arsenate and arsenite was measured separately either in shoots or roots, significant differences in accumulation of these substances were observed between the mutant and the control plants. These results suggest that AtACR2 gene is involved not only in accumulation of arsenic in plants, but also in conversion of arsenate to arsenite inside the plant cells. © 2017 Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences.

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  • 335.
    Narayanan, Aswathy
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska Institutet.
    Integrative analysis of fecal microbiota and metabolome on hiv infected individuals2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbiome and metabolites play an important role in the progression of Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Understanding the microbial composition of elite controllers has provided insights into the viral control mechanisms involved, which may be beneficial for developing therapeuticsforHIVinfection.The intestineis considered as theprimarysiteforHIV-1 infection. During the process of infection, pathogens disrupt the gut-associated lymphoid tissues which lead to bacterial translocation. This results in disease progression, imbalances of microbial communityanddisturbancesof gutmicrobiota composition andfunction.Thecurrentstudywas performed in elite controllers (EC); theyaregroupofindividualswhichhastheabilitytocontrolthe viral infection in the absence of therapy; viremic progressors (VP) are HIV infected and treatment-naive individuals; healthy controls (HC) are the HIV uninfected individuals; to functionally interpret the difference in the microbial composition and significantly enriched pathways between the groups. The bacterial diversity and richness were high in EC when compared to other two groups. Proteobacteria was significantly abundant in EC at the phylum level. Increased abundance of Lachnospiraceae, Prevotellaceae and Lactobacillaceae in EC and decreased abundance of Ruminococcaceae in VP were observed compared to HC atthe family level. Significantly enriched metabolites were also studied and integrated along with the significantly abundant microbiome to elucidate the pathways involved in each group. Pyrimidine and Purine metabolism pathways and Sphingolipid metabolism pathways were the common pathways found in the three groups. In conclusion, EC have higher microbial richness and diversity than treatment-naive VP patients, with unique bacterial composition and distinct pathways which may contribute to the control ofthe viral infection.

  • 336.
    Nawani, Neelu
    et al.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr D Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nahar, Noor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Saha, Anandakumar
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Kapadnis, Balasaheb
    Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule University of Pune, Pune, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Status of metal pollution in rivers flowing through urban settlements at Pune and its effect on resident microflora2016Ingår i: Biologia (Bratislava), ISSN 0006-3088, E-ISSN 1336-9563, Vol. 71, nr 5, s. 494-507Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates the sporadic distribution of metals in fluvial systems flowing from catchments to urban settlements. This is a detailed study prognosticating the deteriorating quality of rivers at specific locations due to metal pollution. Heavy metals like cadmium, lead, nickel and mercury are prominent in industrial sector. Contour plots derived using spatial and temporal data could determine the focal point of metal pollution and its gradation. Metal values recorded were cadmium 157 mg/L, lead 47 mg/L, nickel 61 mg/L and mercury 0.56 mg/L. Prokaryote diversity was less in polluted water and it harboured metal tolerant bacteria, which were isolated from these polluted sites. Actinomycetes like Streptomyces and several other bacteria like Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas isolated from the polluted river sites exhibited changes in morphology in presence of heavy metals. This stress response offered remedial measures as Streptomyces were effective in biosorption of cadmium, nickel and lead and Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas were effective in the bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium. The amount of 89 mg of lead and 106 mg of nickel could be adsorbed on one gram of Streptomyces biomass-based biosorbent. Such biological remedies can be further explored to remove metals from polluted sites and from metal contaminated industrial or waste waters.

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    Biologia-1-2016
  • 337.
    Nguyen, Duong T.
    et al.
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    O'Hara, Matthew
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Granéli, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Discovery Sciences, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hicks, Ryan
    Discovery Sciences, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Miliotis, Tasso
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Nyström, Ann-Christin
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hansson, Sara
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Pia
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Gan, Li-Ming
    Early Clinical and Development, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Magnone, Maria Chiara
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Althage, Magnus
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Heydarkhan-Hagvall, Sepideh
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Humanizing Miniature Hearts through 4-Flow Cannulation Perfusion Decellularization and Recellularization2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 7458Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite improvements in pre-clinical drug testing models, predictability of clinical outcomes continues to be inadequate and costly due to poor evidence of drug metabolism. Humanized miniature organs integrating decellularized rodent organs with tissue specific cells are translational models that can provide further physiological understanding and evidence. Here, we evaluated 4-Flow cannulated rat hearts as the fundamental humanized organ model for cardiovascular drug validation. Results show clearance of cellular components in all chambers in 4-Flow hearts with efficient perfusion into both coronary arteries and cardiac veins. Furthermore, material characterization depicts preserved organization and content of important matrix proteins such as collagens, laminin, and elastin. With access to the complete vascular network, different human cell types were delivered to show spatial distribution and integration into the matrix under perfusion for up to three weeks. The feature of 4-Flow cannulation is the preservation of whole heart conformity enabling ventricular pacing via the pulmonary vein as demonstrated by noninvasive monitoring with fluid pressure and ultrasound imaging. Consequently, 4-Flow hearts surmounting organ mimicry challenges with intact complexity in vasculature and mechanical compliance of the whole organ providing an ideal platform for improving pre-clinical drug validation in addition to understanding cardiovascular diseases.

  • 338.
    Nielsen, Varg
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Varför och hur konstruerar människor transcendentala entiteter: Står sig den kognitionsvetenskapliga religionsforskningens förklaring i en kognitivt neurovetenskaplig kontext?2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Why is it that we humans have a tendency to construct transcendental entities? That is one of the big questions the scientific discipline Cognitive Science of Religion is trying to answer. In order to gain validation for the concepts used by this discipline neural correlates are needed. The aim of the present work is to investigate the concepts Hypersensitive Agency Detection Device ((H)ADD) and Theory of Mind (ToM) both in psychological, cognitive and neural aspects to see if those concepts are enough to explain the human tendencies to construct transcendental entities. This work is developed as philosophical a literature study and uses literature from the scientific disciplines of cognitive neuroscience, cognitive science of religion, cognitive science, neurotheology, psychology of religion and philosophy of religion. This means that the present work is interdisciplinary and stands on a bridge between the theoretical and empirical sciences. A word of caution: Regardless the findings this work presents, the explanatory value is limited as it is a theoretical study in an empirical scientific field. It is when the findings in this work are tested empirically that the findings sustainability are decided.             

    What this work shows is that neural correlates for ToM already exist in the form of the Mirror Neuron-Theory (MNT), but it is problematic because it can not show how higher orders of representations are possible. No scientific data about neural correlates to (H)ADD has been found for this study, but here the amygdala may play a prominent role. Furthermore this work shows that (H)ADD and ToM is not enough to explain why humans have a tendency to construct transcendental entities. We are in need of peripheral cognitive mechanisms such as intuitive knowledge modules, ontological categories, teleological thinking, our drive to seek causal connections and our ability for pattern recognition.

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  • 339.
    Niemer, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Omgivande markslags påverkan på förekomst av bibagge Apalus bimaculatus i sand- och grustäkter i Västra Götalands län2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bibaggen Apalus bimaculatus är en rödlistad skalbagge som förekommer i öppna sandiga miljöer och är starkt knuten till sin värdart vårsidenbi Colletes cunicularius vilken den boparasiterar på. Inventeringar av sekundära habitat i form av sand- och grustäkter har utförts i Västra Götalands län under tidig vår 2009 och 2010. Data från dessa inventeringar har i denna studie används i samband med undersökning av omgivande markslag runt dellokalerna/täkterna för att ta reda på om omgivande markslag påverkar förekomst av bibagge vid dellokaler/täkter. Inom sand- och grustäkterna registrerade inventerarna enskilda dellokaler där fynd av bibagge eller vårsidenbi gjordes. Om ingen av arterna observerades angavs en koordinat där en dellokal ansågs vara mest lämplig för en av arterna eller för båda arterna. I ArcGis skapades en buffertzon runt alla dellokaler med 541 meters radie, vilket baseras på det maximala uppmätta flygavståndet för vårsidenbi vid näringssök, 350 meter, summerat med medelstorleken för täkter i Västra Götalands län, 191 meter. Radien baseras även på ett antagande om att täkterna har formen av en cirkel. I buffertzonerna analyserades sedan hur stor area respektive markslag utgjorde kring respektive dellokal med och utan fynd av bibagge och vårsidenbi. T-test utfördes för att se om arean av olika markslag skiljde sig åt mellan dellokaler med och utan fynd av bibagge och vårsidenbi. Regressionsanalys utfördes för naturliga logaritmen av antalet bibaggar och vårsidenbin vid dellokaler och arean av respektive omgivande markslag. T-testet för medelarea lövskog inom buffertzoner omgivande dellokaler med och utan bibagge är det enda som visar på en statistiskt signifikant skillnad (t=2,36, d.f.= 184, p=0,02). Ett statistiskt signifikant negativt samband kunde vid regressionsanalyserna påvisas för naturliga logaritmen av antalet bibaggar och area åkermark inom buffertzoner (r2 = 0,38, d.f.=14, p = 0,01). Ett statistiskt signifikant positivt samband kunde påvisas vid regressionsanalysen för naturliga logaritmen av antalet bibaggar och area barr- och blandskog inom buffertzoner (r2 = 0,46, d.f.=14, p = 0,004). Resultaten är mycket intressanta, speciellt då de erhållits med hjälp av grov markslagsanalys i GIS.

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  • 340.
    Niemi, Markus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neuroscientific perspective on the bidirectional relationship between life satisfaction and health: Are people happier because they are healthy, or are they healthier because they are happy?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Bentham’s 1832 Greatest Happiness Principle states that the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people should be the goal of public policy. When people are asked what they wish for in life, health and happiness are consistently mentioned. This thesis examines the relationship between health and happiness. However, as happiness is difficult to consistently operationalize across different studies and scientific disciplines, life satisfaction is used as a proxy for happiness. This thesis studies the relationship between health and life satisfaction with a particular focus on the directionality of the relationship and the tentative processes indicated to be involved with this process. This study is accomplished through a literary review of the scientific literature related to life satisfaction, its neural correlates and their relationship with physical health. This study is modelled on the top-down, bottom-up and bidirectional debate within the larger Subjective Well-Being (SWB) literature. The results indicate that the correlation between life satisfaction and health appears to be robust, but the exact directionality and causality is unclear and difficult to establish with a literary review, with only predictive ability of life satisfaction on later physical health or vice versa established. Furthermore, the results appear to indicate that the central process linking this relationship is resilience - the ability to adaptively respond to stressors. Enhancing resiliency through psychological interventions may be a method to promote happiness and health in individuals as well as in society as a whole.

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  • 341.
    Niklas, Stenberg
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Reviewing the Dual-Process Theory of Moral Judgment2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The dual-process theory of moral judgment by Joshua Greene has influenced

    much of contemporary research on moral cognition. The dual-process research paradigm can

    be argued to have yielded fruitful results. The results in general often indicate a dichotomy

    between reasoning and emotional mechanisms. These results are interpreted in the existing

    theoretical framework as producing specific differentiations in moral judgment among test

    subjects. The experimental conditions expose subjects to moral dilemmas during functional

    brain scanning. A competitive interaction between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and

    ventromedial prefrontal cortex has been identified to affect subjects’ response. During more

    recent years, critique aimed at the dual-process theory that falls into three main categories has

    been raised against this paradigm. These problems may have negative effects on the results

    derived from the dual-process paradigm. In this essay I will review problems within the

    framework of the dual-process theory that concern terminology, where concepts tied to

    normative ethics, can be misleading.

    Researchers have also identified methodological

    problems that are proposed to create extraneous emotional variables unaccounted for in the

    dual-process theory.

    I compare results and proposals from initial studies with the critique and

    go through normative issues concerning what ethical conclusions neuroscientific data derived

    from dual-process paradigm could give. My conclusion is that the dual-process theory is a

    functional descriptive theory that needs to redefine its concepts, multiply emotional spectrum

    analysis and divide itself from normative claims.

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  • 342.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Mechanisms of Reward and Addiction: A Review of the Role of Dopamine in Cocaine Addiction2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Cocaine is known for its severe addictive properties and still, there is no effective treatment for cocaine addiction. Cocaine is a powerful chemical substance. It enters the brain rapidly and cause abnormal high levels of dopamine. Dopamine is found to be the neural correlate for reward. Addictive drugs such as cocaine are reported to be rewarding and initially generate many dimensions of positive effects. However, repeated cocaine use are associated with both structural and functional abnormalities in several brain regions, especially in areas responsible for voluntary control. Loss of control gives way to compulsive consumption and craving for more cocaine stimulation. These neuronal changes and negative symptoms tend to occur gradually, while the tolerance increases. The addicted individual has to enhance the dose in order to obtain the desired effect, which is; becoming physically dependent of a substance. Also, dysregulation of reward circuitries causes decreased sensitivity to natural rewards leading to increased interest in cocaine-related reward stimulation. The abstinence usually last for long time, even years, after self-administration, which makes addicts highly sensitive to relapse. Up to date, effective therapeutic interventions and pharmacological treatments are limited. Neurostimulation techniques such as DBS have shown positive results in regulation of dopaminergic excitability. Though, more research in the complexity of dopamine and mesolimbic areas is well needed, in order to better understand the neural basis of cocaine addiction and be able to offer evidence-based treatments. This thesis will provide an overview of the neuronal impact of cocaine on the dopaminergic reward circuitries in the brain.

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  • 343.
    Nilsson, Malin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Brain Function: Underlying mechanisms2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mediterranean diet (Medi) has been highlighted as the golden diet rich in protective properties associated with cognitive- and emotional health. The foundation of the Medi comprises vegetables, fruits, nuts and seeds, legumes, and extra virgin olive oil. Research has been conducted in both holistic dietary approach and single nutrient approach regarding the impact of nutrition and diet, in this case, the Medi‟s effect on brain health. This review aims to give an up to date overview of the Mediterranean diet, outline some of the diet's abundant nutrients, and discuss studies linking the nutrient's potential effect on depression, cognitive decline, dementia, and brain structure and function. In addition, this review will attempt to assess whether the Medi as a whole or if a single nutrient approach is accountable for the health-promoting findings. Furthermore, the gut-brain axis, and other potential underlying mechanisms involved in the modulation of food- and nutrient intake and their effects on the brain, will be outlined. A diet high in fruit-, vegetable-, polyunsaturated fatty acid-, and monounsaturated fatty acid content has great power for health-maintenance and decreases the risk of suffering cognitive decline, dementia, and potentially depression. More randomized controlled trials are however eagerly awaited to give more substance to previous findings.

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    Effects of the Mediterranean diet on Brain Function
  • 344.
    Nolskog, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Region of Västra Götaland, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Backhaus, Erik
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nasic, Salmir
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Clinical molecular microbiology, Laboratory Medicine, Unilabs, Skövde, Sweden.
    STI with Mycoplasma genitalium: More common than Chlamydia trachomatis in patients attending youth clinics in Sweden2019Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 81-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Sweden is well known, whereas the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium is less well documented. Youth clinics offer free contraception advice, sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and/or contact tracing for the age group 15–25 years. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of STIs, the presence of symptoms and the role of contact tracing. From July 2013 to March 2014, 1001 persons, 509 women and 492 men, were included in this study of six youth clinics in the Region of Västra Götaland. Symptoms were registered and whether the patient was tested because of contract tracing. Collection of urine samples, testing, treatment and disease registration were performed according to clinical routines. Urine samples were analysed for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae on the Cobas 4800 system (Roche). M. genitalium was analysed by lab-developed PCR. Genital infection was present in 16.8%. The prevalence of M. genitalium was higher than for C. trachomatis (9.6% and 7.1%). Men with symptoms have a significantly higher relative risk for infection with M. genitalium or C. trachomatis compared to asymptomatic men, while there is no increase for women. Contact tracing is important since positive outcome has a high relative risk for both infections. The prevalence of M. genitalium was higher than C. trachomatis in this study population. Initial testing for both C. trachomatis and M. genitalium should at least be considered for young men presenting with symptoms of genital infection. In finding positive cases, contact tracing is of great importance. © 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

  • 345.
    Norberg, Linnea
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Academic motivation and well-being in Sweden and China: An empirical study with a neuroscientific perspective2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Self-Determination Theory (SDT) claims that autonomous motivation is a basic psychological need for all humans across cultures. When this need is met, individuals are predicted to experience well-being. However, it has been argued that autonomous motivation is not a basic need in the Chinese culture due to their philosophical background. Furthermore, commonly used instruments to measure well-being have been criticised for not measuring low arousal positive affect such as “harmony” or “peace of mind” which have been argued to more accurately target well-being for the Chinese population. The aim of this thesis is to give an overview of the psychological and cognitive neuroscientific research relating to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, well-being and the associated cultural controversy. Additionally, a questionnaire-based study is reported which examine motivation type and well-being of 183 university students in China and in Sweden through self-reported data. The results support the SDT by showing that intrinsic motivation is correlated to well-being for both samples. Furthermore, the Swedish students experienced higher well-being compared to the Chinese students measured by the traditional “western” instruments. However, the Swedish and the Chinese students reported very similar peace of mind. This indicates that the commonly used instruments might not target well-being accurately universally. Limitations of the study and directions of future research is suggested in the discussion.

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    Academic motivation and well-being in Sweden and China: An empirical study with a neuroscientific perspective
  • 346.
    Nordén, Johan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Assessment of methods for microRNA isolation, microRNA amplification, and development of a normalization strategy for sepsis biomarker research2020Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Sepsis, defined by organ dysfunction caused by an adverse immune response of the host to an infection, comes with considerable cost in human lives and as a substantial burden financially. Significant upgrades have been made over the past two decades when diagnosing and treating sepsis but still with room for improvements. Early detection is a cornerstone in the fight against sepsis, and the focus on strengthening diagnostics is in the forefront of modern research. The implementation of biomarkers may be the path of progression in this objective. This study aimed at establishing procedural foundations when using microRNAs as potential biomarkers. The study conducted looked at: (1) Isolation procedure, of microRNA from human plasma, of three kits: Total RNA Purification Kit (Norgen Biotech), miRNAeasy Serum/Plasma Kit (Qiagen), and miRNeasy Serum/Plasma Advanced Kit (Qiagen). (2) Amplification of miRNA through two Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR methods: Two-tailed RT-qPCR (TATAA Biocenter), and miRCURY LNA miRNA PCR (Qiagen). (3) Developing a normalization strategy by identifying miRNA reference targets in a geNorm pilot experiment. Qubit analysis revealed that the two isolation kits from Qiagen performed similar, and better that the Norgen kit. The Two-tailed RT-qPCR failed to amplify miRNA samples, whereas the miRCURY LNA miRNA PCR showed consistent amplification across samples with a high call rate. The geNorm analysis concluded that hsa-miR-425-5p and hsa-miR-93-5p was the optimal reference target set. The study demonstrated that the isolation kits from Qiagen coupled with the miRCURY LNA miRNA PCR is a viable option for future miRNA biomarker studies.

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  • 347.
    Noreika, Valdas
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom / Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Windt, Jennifer M.
    Department of Philosophy, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.
    Kern, Markus
    Translational Neurotechnology Lab, University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Salonen, Tiina
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finlan.
    Parkkola, Riitta
    Department of Radiology, University and University Hospital of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Karim, Ahmed A.
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Germany / Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Jacobs University, Bremen, Germany / Department of Health Psychology and Neurorehabilitation, SRH Mobile University, Riedlingen, Germany.
    Ball, Tonio
    Translational Neurotechnology Lab, University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Lenggenhager, Bigna
    Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Modulating dream experience: Noninvasive brain stimulation over the sensorimotor cortex reduces dream movement2020Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 6735Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, cortical correlates of specific dream contents have been reported, such as the activation of the sensorimotor cortex during dreamed hand clenching. Yet, despite a close resemblance of such activation patterns to those seen during the corresponding wakeful behaviour, the causal mechanisms underlying specific dream contents remain largely elusive. Here, we aimed to investigate the causal role of the sensorimotor cortex in generating movement and bodily sensations during REM sleep dreaming. Following bihemispheric transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or sham stimulation, guided by functional mapping of the primary motor cortex, naive participants were awakened from REM sleep and responded to a questionnaire on bodily sensations in dreams. Electromyographic (EMG) and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were used to quantify physiological changes during the preceding REM period. We found that tDCS, compared to sham stimulation, significantly decreased reports of dream movement, especially of repetitive actions. Other types of bodily experiences, such as tactile or vestibular sensations, were not affected by tDCS, confirming the specificity of stimulation effects to movement sensations. In addition, tDCS reduced EEG interhemispheric coherence in parietal areas and affected the phasic EMG correlation between both arms. These findings show that a complex temporal reorganization of the motor network co-occurred with the reduction of dream movement, revealing a link between central and peripheral motor processes and movement sensations of the dream self. tDCS over the sensorimotor cortex interferes with dream movement during REM sleep, which is consistent with a causal contribution to dream experience and has broader implications for understanding the neural basis of self-experience in dreams. © 2020, The Author(s).

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  • 348.
    Norrström, Niclas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Noél M. A.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nash equilibrium can resolve conflicting maximum sustainable yields in multi-species fisheries management2017Ingår i: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 74, nr 1, s. 78-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current fisheries management goals set by the European Commission states that fish stocks should be harvested to deliver maximum sustainable yields (MSY) and simultaneously, management should take ecosystem considerations into account. This creates unsolved trade-offs for the management of the stocks. We suggest a definition of a multi-species-MSY (MS-MSY) where no alternative fishing mortality (F) can increase yield (long term) for any ecologically interacting stock, given that the other stocks are fished at constant efforts (Fs). Such a MS-MSY can be solved through the game theoretic concept of a Nash equilibrium and here we explore two solutions to this conflict in the Baltic Sea. We maximize the sustainable yield of each stock under two constraints: first, we harvest the other stocks at a fixed F (FNE); second, we keep the spawning stock biomasses of the other stocks fixed [biomass Nash equilibrium (BNE)]. As a case study, we have developed a multi-species interaction stochastic operative model (MSI-SOM), which contains a SOM for each of the three dominant species of the Baltic Sea, the predator cod (Gadus morhua), and its prey herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). For our Baltic Sea case, MS-MSYs exist under both the FNE and the BNE, but there is no guarantee that point solutions exists. We found that the prey species’ spawning stock biomasses are additive in the cod growth function, which allowed for a point solution in BNE. In the FNE, the herring MSY was found to be relatively insensitive to the other species’ fishing mortalities (F), which facilitated a point solution. The MSY targets of the BNE and the FNE differ slightly where the BNE gives higher predator yields and lower prey yields.

  • 349.
    Norén, Oskar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Konkurrensen mellan röding, sik och lake i Vättern: En djupdykning i tre konsumenters födopreferenser. Två tidsperioder: 1964-1978 samt 2006-20112020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Lake Vättern contains Swedens most valuable population of arctic charr (Salvelinus umbla). The stock of this Salmonidae fish showed a negative trend for several decades but has now turned to a more positive one. Too minimize the risk of a new backlash it is important to obtain knowledge about the arctic charr and its interaction with other species. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interspecific competition between arctic charr and two other valuable species i.e. whitefish (Coregonus maraena) and burbot (Lota lota). Data of stomach contents from two periods (1964-1978 & 2006-2011) were analyzed. The consumers were divided into different groups with respect to size and season. The measure of the competition was then answered quantitatively with two indexes (Pianka & Laubmeier). The results support the conclusion that small charr (<30 cm) was exposed of remarkably tough competition from whitefish regarding the older period. This derives from the fact that these two species show a very similar diet including Opossum shrimp (Mysis relicta) and Monoporeia affinis. With increasing size charr turns to a more piscivore diet and begins to compete with burbot. The piscivorous charr consumes mostly smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) while burbot shows a more diverse behavior of  its selection of fish species as a resource. The fact that these three species can coexist despite tough competition likely derives from the fact that Vätterns food web contains a lot of actors at the lower trophic levels.

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  • 350.
    Nourizadeh, Alireza
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. No.
    APC, BRAF and KRAS mutations, and MLH1, MGMT and CDKN2A expression analysis in Nepalese colorectal cancer patients.: -2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy which develops due to old age and lifestyle factors, low percent of patients afflicted by a genetic disorders. Half of all colorectal cancer patients are diagnosed after metastasis. The high rate of the late detection, emphasizes on the requirement of convenient and inexpensive diagnostic methods for comprehensive screening programs. The aim of this study was to discover proto-oncogenes mutation and assessment of tumor suppressor genes expression. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) histologically verified colorectal cancer samples were used. APC, KRAS and BRAF mutations were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments and direct sequencing. Gene expression assessment of MLH1, MGMT and CDKN2A were achieved via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In the present study we could detect a novel transversion heterozygous mutation in APC gene codon 1365 in three patients. BRAF codon 600 mutation were detected in one patient. KRAS codon 12 mutation was discovered in one sample and also a novel transition mutation in codon 15 was detected in 6 patients. In 80% of cases, MLH1 and MGMT expression were undetectable, in remaining 20%, MLH1 expression were reduced, but MGMT showed both reduced and increased expression compared to control. In 100% of patients CDKN2A expression was undetectable. The rate of mutations in predetermined hotspot codons and amount of uncommon mutations into APC, BRAF and KRAS in Nepalese patients indicates the requirement of further investigation in CRC patients from that part of the world. Also, the expression rate of MLH1, MGMT, CDKN2A and deficiency of an information source emphasizes the necessity of whole genome CRC expression profiling data to comparison and conclusion. 

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