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  • 301.
    Morland, Sara
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Exploring qpcr data with weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA)2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Differently expressed genes e.g. in a disease may play a role in the etiology or progression of the disease. The traditional approach of finding differentially expressed genes is to compare the expression levels in the groups, and produce a list of differentially expressed candidate genes. With many pairwise comparisons, the risk of introducing type I and type II errors is high. One solution is to group together genes that are co-expressed into modules. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) uses a topological overlap module approach and has been proved to find patterns that have been undetected by gene-to-gene comparison methods. qPCR has high sensitivity and specificity, and advances in technology has increased its throughput. The goal of the project was to construct WGCNA modules from qPCR data and evaluate the WGCNA method in five previously published qPCR data sets. There was little overlap between the differentially expressed genes found in the published articles and the candidates found by WGCNA. In three data sets WGCNA failed to produce any significant genes. In one of the data set significant genes were found where the original article failed. In one data set, 19 out of 60 genes that are top-ranked by the original authors were found in significant WGCNA modules. The biggest challenge with this type of comparison is to determine whether results that differ from the published studies are more or less biologically relevant. It is difficult to draw conclusions on whether the method is suitable for use for analysis of qPCR data based on this study.

  • 302.
    Nahar, Noor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Moś, Maria
    Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland.
    Warzecha, Tomasz
    Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Krakow, Poland.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, USA.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth University, Tathawade, Pune 411033, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    In silico and in vivo studies of molecular structures and mechanisms of AtPCS1 protein involved in binding arsenite and/or cadmium in plant cells2014Ingår i: Journal of Molecular Modeling, ISSN 1610-2940, E-ISSN 0948-5023, Vol. 20, nr 3, artikel-id 2104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a continuation of our previous research on the phytochelatin synthase1 (PCS1) gene involved in binding and sequestration of heavy metals or metalloids in plant cells. Construction of a 3D structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana PCS1 protein and prediction of gene function by employing iterative implementation of the threading assembly refinement (I-TASSER) revealed that PC ligands (3GC-gamma-glutamylcysteine) and Gln50, Pro53, Ala54, Tyr55, Cys56, Ile102, Gly161, His162, Phe163, Asp204 and Arg211 residues are essential for formation of chelating complex with cadmium (Cd²⁺) or arsenite (AsIII). This finding suggests that the PCS1 protein might be involved in the production of the enzyme phytochelatin synthase, which might in turn bind, localize, store or sequester heavy metals in plant cells. For validation of the in silico results, we included a T-DNA tagged mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, SAIL_650_C12, (mutation in AtPCS1 gene) in our investigation. Furthermore, using reverse transcriptase PCR we confirmed that the mutant does not express the AtPCS1 gene. Mutant plants of SAIL_650_C12 were exposed to various amounts of cadmium (Cd²⁺) and arsenite (AsIII) and the accumulation of these toxic metals in the plant cells was quantified spectrophotometrically. The levels of Cd²⁺ and AsIII accumulation in the mutant were approximately 2.8 and 1.6 times higher, respectively, than that observed in the wild-type controlled plants. We confirmed that the results obtained in in silico analyses complement those obtained in in vivo experiments.

  • 303.
    Nahar, Noor
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Phytoremediation of arsenic from the contaminated soil using transgenic tobacco plants expressing ACR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana2017Ingår i: Journal of plant physiology (Print), ISSN 0176-1617, E-ISSN 1618-1328, Vol. 218, s. 121-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have cloned, characterized and transformed the AtACR2 gene (arsenic reductase 2) of Arabidopsis thaliana into the genome of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var Sumsun). Our results revealed that the transgenic tobacco plants are more tolerant to arsenic than the wild type ones. These plants can grow on culture medium containing 200μM arsenate, whereas the wild type can barely survive under this condition. Furthermore, when exposed to 100μM arsenate for 35days the amount of arsenic accumulated in the shoots of transgenic plants was significantly lower (28μg/g d wt.) than that found in the shoots of non-transgenic controls (40μg/g d wt.). However, the arsenic content in the roots of transgenic plants was significantly higher (2400μg/g d. wt.) than that (2100μg/g d. wt.) observed in roots of wild type plants. We have demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana AtACR2 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of plants to develop new crop cultivars that can be grown on arsenic contaminated fields to reduce arsenic content of the soil and can become a source of food containing no arsenic or exhibiting substantially reduced amount of this metalloid.

  • 304.
    Nahar, Nour
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Functional studies of AtACR2 gene putatively involved in accumulation, reduction and/or sequestration of arsenic species in plants2017Ingår i: Biologia (Bratislava), ISSN 0006-3088, E-ISSN 1336-9563, Vol. 72, nr 5, s. 520-526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Food-based exposure to arsenic is a human carcinogen and can severely impact human health resulting in many cancerous diseases and various neurological and vascular disorders. This project is a part of our attempts to develop new varieties of crops for avoiding arsenic contaminated foods. For this purpose, we have previously identified four key genes, and molecular functions of two of these, AtACR2 and AtPCSl, have been studied based on both in silico and in vivo experiments. In the present study, a T-DNA tagged mutant, (SALK-143282C with mutation in AtACR2 gene) of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied for further verification of the function of AtACR2 gene. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that this mutant exhibits a significantly reduced expression of the AtACR2 gene. When exposed to 100 μM of arsenate (AsV) for three weeks, the mutant plants accumulated arsenic approximately three times higher (778 μg/g d. wt.) than that observed in the control plants (235 μg/g d. wt.). In contrast, when the plants were exposed to 100 μM of arsenite (AsIII), no significant difference in arsenic accumulation was observed between the control and the mutant plants (535 μg/g d. wt. and 498 μg/g d. wt., respectively). Also, when arsenate and arsenite was measured separately either in shoots or roots, significant differences in accumulation of these substances were observed between the mutant and the control plants. These results suggest that AtACR2 gene is involved not only in accumulation of arsenic in plants, but also in conversion of arsenate to arsenite inside the plant cells. © 2017 Institute of Molecular Biology, Slovak Academy of Sciences.

  • 305.
    Nawani, Neelu
    et al.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr D Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nahar, Noor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Saha, Anandakumar
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Kapadnis, Balasaheb
    Department of Microbiology, Savitribai Phule University of Pune, Pune, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Status of metal pollution in rivers flowing through urban settlements at Pune and its effect on resident microflora2016Ingår i: Biologia (Bratislava), ISSN 0006-3088, E-ISSN 1336-9563, Vol. 71, nr 5, s. 494-507Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates the sporadic distribution of metals in fluvial systems flowing from catchments to urban settlements. This is a detailed study prognosticating the deteriorating quality of rivers at specific locations due to metal pollution. Heavy metals like cadmium, lead, nickel and mercury are prominent in industrial sector. Contour plots derived using spatial and temporal data could determine the focal point of metal pollution and its gradation. Metal values recorded were cadmium 157 mg/L, lead 47 mg/L, nickel 61 mg/L and mercury 0.56 mg/L. Prokaryote diversity was less in polluted water and it harboured metal tolerant bacteria, which were isolated from these polluted sites. Actinomycetes like Streptomyces and several other bacteria like Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas isolated from the polluted river sites exhibited changes in morphology in presence of heavy metals. This stress response offered remedial measures as Streptomyces were effective in biosorption of cadmium, nickel and lead and Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas were effective in the bioaccumulation of lead and cadmium. The amount of 89 mg of lead and 106 mg of nickel could be adsorbed on one gram of Streptomyces biomass-based biosorbent. Such biological remedies can be further explored to remove metals from polluted sites and from metal contaminated industrial or waste waters.

  • 306.
    Nguyen, Duong T.
    et al.
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    O'Hara, Matthew
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Granéli, Cecilia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Discovery Sciences, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hicks, Ryan
    Discovery Sciences, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Miliotis, Tasso
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Nyström, Ann-Christin
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hansson, Sara
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Pia
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Gan, Li-Ming
    Early Clinical and Development, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Magnone, Maria Chiara
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Althage, Magnus
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Heydarkhan-Hagvall, Sepideh
    Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Humanizing Miniature Hearts through 4-Flow Cannulation Perfusion Decellularization and Recellularization2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 7458Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite improvements in pre-clinical drug testing models, predictability of clinical outcomes continues to be inadequate and costly due to poor evidence of drug metabolism. Humanized miniature organs integrating decellularized rodent organs with tissue specific cells are translational models that can provide further physiological understanding and evidence. Here, we evaluated 4-Flow cannulated rat hearts as the fundamental humanized organ model for cardiovascular drug validation. Results show clearance of cellular components in all chambers in 4-Flow hearts with efficient perfusion into both coronary arteries and cardiac veins. Furthermore, material characterization depicts preserved organization and content of important matrix proteins such as collagens, laminin, and elastin. With access to the complete vascular network, different human cell types were delivered to show spatial distribution and integration into the matrix under perfusion for up to three weeks. The feature of 4-Flow cannulation is the preservation of whole heart conformity enabling ventricular pacing via the pulmonary vein as demonstrated by noninvasive monitoring with fluid pressure and ultrasound imaging. Consequently, 4-Flow hearts surmounting organ mimicry challenges with intact complexity in vasculature and mechanical compliance of the whole organ providing an ideal platform for improving pre-clinical drug validation in addition to understanding cardiovascular diseases.

  • 307.
    Nielsen, Varg
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Varför och hur konstruerar människor transcendentala entiteter: Står sig den kognitionsvetenskapliga religionsforskningens förklaring i en kognitivt neurovetenskaplig kontext?2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Why is it that we humans have a tendency to construct transcendental entities? That is one of the big questions the scientific discipline Cognitive Science of Religion is trying to answer. In order to gain validation for the concepts used by this discipline neural correlates are needed. The aim of the present work is to investigate the concepts Hypersensitive Agency Detection Device ((H)ADD) and Theory of Mind (ToM) both in psychological, cognitive and neural aspects to see if those concepts are enough to explain the human tendencies to construct transcendental entities. This work is developed as philosophical a literature study and uses literature from the scientific disciplines of cognitive neuroscience, cognitive science of religion, cognitive science, neurotheology, psychology of religion and philosophy of religion. This means that the present work is interdisciplinary and stands on a bridge between the theoretical and empirical sciences. A word of caution: Regardless the findings this work presents, the explanatory value is limited as it is a theoretical study in an empirical scientific field. It is when the findings in this work are tested empirically that the findings sustainability are decided.             

    What this work shows is that neural correlates for ToM already exist in the form of the Mirror Neuron-Theory (MNT), but it is problematic because it can not show how higher orders of representations are possible. No scientific data about neural correlates to (H)ADD has been found for this study, but here the amygdala may play a prominent role. Furthermore this work shows that (H)ADD and ToM is not enough to explain why humans have a tendency to construct transcendental entities. We are in need of peripheral cognitive mechanisms such as intuitive knowledge modules, ontological categories, teleological thinking, our drive to seek causal connections and our ability for pattern recognition.

  • 308.
    Niemer, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Omgivande markslags påverkan på förekomst av bibagge Apalus bimaculatus i sand- och grustäkter i Västra Götalands län2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bibaggen Apalus bimaculatus är en rödlistad skalbagge som förekommer i öppna sandiga miljöer och är starkt knuten till sin värdart vårsidenbi Colletes cunicularius vilken den boparasiterar på. Inventeringar av sekundära habitat i form av sand- och grustäkter har utförts i Västra Götalands län under tidig vår 2009 och 2010. Data från dessa inventeringar har i denna studie används i samband med undersökning av omgivande markslag runt dellokalerna/täkterna för att ta reda på om omgivande markslag påverkar förekomst av bibagge vid dellokaler/täkter. Inom sand- och grustäkterna registrerade inventerarna enskilda dellokaler där fynd av bibagge eller vårsidenbi gjordes. Om ingen av arterna observerades angavs en koordinat där en dellokal ansågs vara mest lämplig för en av arterna eller för båda arterna. I ArcGis skapades en buffertzon runt alla dellokaler med 541 meters radie, vilket baseras på det maximala uppmätta flygavståndet för vårsidenbi vid näringssök, 350 meter, summerat med medelstorleken för täkter i Västra Götalands län, 191 meter. Radien baseras även på ett antagande om att täkterna har formen av en cirkel. I buffertzonerna analyserades sedan hur stor area respektive markslag utgjorde kring respektive dellokal med och utan fynd av bibagge och vårsidenbi. T-test utfördes för att se om arean av olika markslag skiljde sig åt mellan dellokaler med och utan fynd av bibagge och vårsidenbi. Regressionsanalys utfördes för naturliga logaritmen av antalet bibaggar och vårsidenbin vid dellokaler och arean av respektive omgivande markslag. T-testet för medelarea lövskog inom buffertzoner omgivande dellokaler med och utan bibagge är det enda som visar på en statistiskt signifikant skillnad (t=2,36, d.f.= 184, p=0,02). Ett statistiskt signifikant negativt samband kunde vid regressionsanalyserna påvisas för naturliga logaritmen av antalet bibaggar och area åkermark inom buffertzoner (r2 = 0,38, d.f.=14, p = 0,01). Ett statistiskt signifikant positivt samband kunde påvisas vid regressionsanalysen för naturliga logaritmen av antalet bibaggar och area barr- och blandskog inom buffertzoner (r2 = 0,46, d.f.=14, p = 0,004). Resultaten är mycket intressanta, speciellt då de erhållits med hjälp av grov markslagsanalys i GIS.

  • 309.
    Niemi, Markus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neuroscientific perspective on the bidirectional relationship between life satisfaction and health: Are people happier because they are healthy, or are they healthier because they are happy?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Bentham’s 1832 Greatest Happiness Principle states that the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people should be the goal of public policy. When people are asked what they wish for in life, health and happiness are consistently mentioned. This thesis examines the relationship between health and happiness. However, as happiness is difficult to consistently operationalize across different studies and scientific disciplines, life satisfaction is used as a proxy for happiness. This thesis studies the relationship between health and life satisfaction with a particular focus on the directionality of the relationship and the tentative processes indicated to be involved with this process. This study is accomplished through a literary review of the scientific literature related to life satisfaction, its neural correlates and their relationship with physical health. This study is modelled on the top-down, bottom-up and bidirectional debate within the larger Subjective Well-Being (SWB) literature. The results indicate that the correlation between life satisfaction and health appears to be robust, but the exact directionality and causality is unclear and difficult to establish with a literary review, with only predictive ability of life satisfaction on later physical health or vice versa established. Furthermore, the results appear to indicate that the central process linking this relationship is resilience - the ability to adaptively respond to stressors. Enhancing resiliency through psychological interventions may be a method to promote happiness and health in individuals as well as in society as a whole.

  • 310.
    Niklas, Stenberg
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Reviewing the Dual-Process Theory of Moral Judgment2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The dual-process theory of moral judgment by Joshua Greene has influenced

    much of contemporary research on moral cognition. The dual-process research paradigm can

    be argued to have yielded fruitful results. The results in general often indicate a dichotomy

    between reasoning and emotional mechanisms. These results are interpreted in the existing

    theoretical framework as producing specific differentiations in moral judgment among test

    subjects. The experimental conditions expose subjects to moral dilemmas during functional

    brain scanning. A competitive interaction between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and

    ventromedial prefrontal cortex has been identified to affect subjects’ response. During more

    recent years, critique aimed at the dual-process theory that falls into three main categories has

    been raised against this paradigm. These problems may have negative effects on the results

    derived from the dual-process paradigm. In this essay I will review problems within the

    framework of the dual-process theory that concern terminology, where concepts tied to

    normative ethics, can be misleading.

    Researchers have also identified methodological

    problems that are proposed to create extraneous emotional variables unaccounted for in the

    dual-process theory.

    I compare results and proposals from initial studies with the critique and

    go through normative issues concerning what ethical conclusions neuroscientific data derived

    from dual-process paradigm could give. My conclusion is that the dual-process theory is a

    functional descriptive theory that needs to redefine its concepts, multiply emotional spectrum

    analysis and divide itself from normative claims.

  • 311.
    Nilsson, Hanna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Mechanisms of Reward and Addiction: A Review of the Role of Dopamine in Cocaine Addiction2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Cocaine is known for its severe addictive properties and still, there is no effective treatment for cocaine addiction. Cocaine is a powerful chemical substance. It enters the brain rapidly and cause abnormal high levels of dopamine. Dopamine is found to be the neural correlate for reward. Addictive drugs such as cocaine are reported to be rewarding and initially generate many dimensions of positive effects. However, repeated cocaine use are associated with both structural and functional abnormalities in several brain regions, especially in areas responsible for voluntary control. Loss of control gives way to compulsive consumption and craving for more cocaine stimulation. These neuronal changes and negative symptoms tend to occur gradually, while the tolerance increases. The addicted individual has to enhance the dose in order to obtain the desired effect, which is; becoming physically dependent of a substance. Also, dysregulation of reward circuitries causes decreased sensitivity to natural rewards leading to increased interest in cocaine-related reward stimulation. The abstinence usually last for long time, even years, after self-administration, which makes addicts highly sensitive to relapse. Up to date, effective therapeutic interventions and pharmacological treatments are limited. Neurostimulation techniques such as DBS have shown positive results in regulation of dopaminergic excitability. Though, more research in the complexity of dopamine and mesolimbic areas is well needed, in order to better understand the neural basis of cocaine addiction and be able to offer evidence-based treatments. This thesis will provide an overview of the neuronal impact of cocaine on the dopaminergic reward circuitries in the brain.

  • 312.
    Nilsson, Malin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Effects of the Mediterranean Diet on Brain Function: Underlying mechanisms2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mediterranean diet (Medi) has been highlighted as the golden diet rich in protective properties associated with cognitive- and emotional health. The foundation of the Medi comprises vegetables, fruits, nuts and seeds, legumes, and extra virgin olive oil. Research has been conducted in both holistic dietary approach and single nutrient approach regarding the impact of nutrition and diet, in this case, the Medi‟s effect on brain health. This review aims to give an up to date overview of the Mediterranean diet, outline some of the diet's abundant nutrients, and discuss studies linking the nutrient's potential effect on depression, cognitive decline, dementia, and brain structure and function. In addition, this review will attempt to assess whether the Medi as a whole or if a single nutrient approach is accountable for the health-promoting findings. Furthermore, the gut-brain axis, and other potential underlying mechanisms involved in the modulation of food- and nutrient intake and their effects on the brain, will be outlined. A diet high in fruit-, vegetable-, polyunsaturated fatty acid-, and monounsaturated fatty acid content has great power for health-maintenance and decreases the risk of suffering cognitive decline, dementia, and potentially depression. More randomized controlled trials are however eagerly awaited to give more substance to previous findings.

  • 313.
    Nolskog, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Region of Västra Götaland, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Backhaus, Erik
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nasic, Salmir
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Clinical molecular microbiology, Laboratory Medicine, Unilabs, Skövde, Sweden.
    STI with Mycoplasma genitalium: More common than Chlamydia trachomatis in patients attending youth clinics in Sweden2019Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 81-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Sweden is well known, whereas the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium is less well documented. Youth clinics offer free contraception advice, sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and/or contact tracing for the age group 15–25 years. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of STIs, the presence of symptoms and the role of contact tracing. From July 2013 to March 2014, 1001 persons, 509 women and 492 men, were included in this study of six youth clinics in the Region of Västra Götaland. Symptoms were registered and whether the patient was tested because of contract tracing. Collection of urine samples, testing, treatment and disease registration were performed according to clinical routines. Urine samples were analysed for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae on the Cobas 4800 system (Roche). M. genitalium was analysed by lab-developed PCR. Genital infection was present in 16.8%. The prevalence of M. genitalium was higher than for C. trachomatis (9.6% and 7.1%). Men with symptoms have a significantly higher relative risk for infection with M. genitalium or C. trachomatis compared to asymptomatic men, while there is no increase for women. Contact tracing is important since positive outcome has a high relative risk for both infections. The prevalence of M. genitalium was higher than C. trachomatis in this study population. Initial testing for both C. trachomatis and M. genitalium should at least be considered for young men presenting with symptoms of genital infection. In finding positive cases, contact tracing is of great importance. © 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

  • 314.
    Norberg, Linnea
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Academic motivation and well-being in Sweden and China: An empirical study with a neuroscientific perspective2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Self-Determination Theory (SDT) claims that autonomous motivation is a basic psychological need for all humans across cultures. When this need is met, individuals are predicted to experience well-being. However, it has been argued that autonomous motivation is not a basic need in the Chinese culture due to their philosophical background. Furthermore, commonly used instruments to measure well-being have been criticised for not measuring low arousal positive affect such as “harmony” or “peace of mind” which have been argued to more accurately target well-being for the Chinese population. The aim of this thesis is to give an overview of the psychological and cognitive neuroscientific research relating to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, well-being and the associated cultural controversy. Additionally, a questionnaire-based study is reported which examine motivation type and well-being of 183 university students in China and in Sweden through self-reported data. The results support the SDT by showing that intrinsic motivation is correlated to well-being for both samples. Furthermore, the Swedish students experienced higher well-being compared to the Chinese students measured by the traditional “western” instruments. However, the Swedish and the Chinese students reported very similar peace of mind. This indicates that the commonly used instruments might not target well-being accurately universally. Limitations of the study and directions of future research is suggested in the discussion.

  • 315.
    Norrström, Niclas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Noél M. A.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nash equilibrium can resolve conflicting maximum sustainable yields in multi-species fisheries management2017Ingår i: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 74, nr 1, s. 78-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current fisheries management goals set by the European Commission states that fish stocks should be harvested to deliver maximum sustainable yields (MSY) and simultaneously, management should take ecosystem considerations into account. This creates unsolved trade-offs for the management of the stocks. We suggest a definition of a multi-species-MSY (MS-MSY) where no alternative fishing mortality (F) can increase yield (long term) for any ecologically interacting stock, given that the other stocks are fished at constant efforts (Fs). Such a MS-MSY can be solved through the game theoretic concept of a Nash equilibrium and here we explore two solutions to this conflict in the Baltic Sea. We maximize the sustainable yield of each stock under two constraints: first, we harvest the other stocks at a fixed F (FNE); second, we keep the spawning stock biomasses of the other stocks fixed [biomass Nash equilibrium (BNE)]. As a case study, we have developed a multi-species interaction stochastic operative model (MSI-SOM), which contains a SOM for each of the three dominant species of the Baltic Sea, the predator cod (Gadus morhua), and its prey herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). For our Baltic Sea case, MS-MSYs exist under both the FNE and the BNE, but there is no guarantee that point solutions exists. We found that the prey species’ spawning stock biomasses are additive in the cod growth function, which allowed for a point solution in BNE. In the FNE, the herring MSY was found to be relatively insensitive to the other species’ fishing mortalities (F), which facilitated a point solution. The MSY targets of the BNE and the FNE differ slightly where the BNE gives higher predator yields and lower prey yields.

  • 316.
    Nourizadeh, Alireza
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. No.
    APC, BRAF and KRAS mutations, and MLH1, MGMT and CDKN2A expression analysis in Nepalese colorectal cancer patients.: -2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy which develops due to old age and lifestyle factors, low percent of patients afflicted by a genetic disorders. Half of all colorectal cancer patients are diagnosed after metastasis. The high rate of the late detection, emphasizes on the requirement of convenient and inexpensive diagnostic methods for comprehensive screening programs. The aim of this study was to discover proto-oncogenes mutation and assessment of tumor suppressor genes expression. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) histologically verified colorectal cancer samples were used. APC, KRAS and BRAF mutations were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments and direct sequencing. Gene expression assessment of MLH1, MGMT and CDKN2A were achieved via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In the present study we could detect a novel transversion heterozygous mutation in APC gene codon 1365 in three patients. BRAF codon 600 mutation were detected in one patient. KRAS codon 12 mutation was discovered in one sample and also a novel transition mutation in codon 15 was detected in 6 patients. In 80% of cases, MLH1 and MGMT expression were undetectable, in remaining 20%, MLH1 expression were reduced, but MGMT showed both reduced and increased expression compared to control. In 100% of patients CDKN2A expression was undetectable. The rate of mutations in predetermined hotspot codons and amount of uncommon mutations into APC, BRAF and KRAS in Nepalese patients indicates the requirement of further investigation in CRC patients from that part of the world. Also, the expression rate of MLH1, MGMT, CDKN2A and deficiency of an information source emphasizes the necessity of whole genome CRC expression profiling data to comparison and conclusion. 

  • 317.
    Nushair, Ali Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saha, Ananda Kumar
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Rahman, Md. Anisur
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mohanta, Moni Krishno
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hasan, Md. Ariful
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Haque, Md. Fazlul
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Rhizobium sp.CCNWYC119: a single strain highly effective as biofertilizer for three different peas (Pigeon pea, Sweet pea and Chick pea)2018Ingår i: Legume Research An International Journal, ISSN 0250-5371, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 771-777, artikel-id LR-389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhizobium spp. was isolated from root nodules of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.), Sweet pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). The isolates ware rod shaped, aerobic, gram negative, motile and non-spore forming. Isolates were positive to Catalase, Citrate utilization, Urea hydrolysis, Congored, Nitrification, Oxidase, Triple sugar iron and MacConkey agar test. The isolates can ferment all nine sugars. Then, the isolates identified as Rhizobium spp. Depending on above results were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing for further confirmation and identification. Surprisingly, theisolates were same strain or member of same cluster of Rhizobium and identified as Rhizobium sp.CCNWYC119 strain based on 16S rRNA sequence (98% similarity). Then, different parameters of soil quality enrichment and plant growth viz.plant height; weight of pods and seeds; number, fresh and dry weight of nodules were studied to test the efficacy of the isolate as biofertilizer. Here, inoculant of Rhizobium sp. isolated from Pigeon pea was used as biofertilizer. The results showed the significant increase of nodulation, enrichment of soil of rhizosphere, plant growth and yield for all three types of inoculated peas as compared with non-inoculated control peas indicating that the isolated strain could be used as a common efficient biofertilizer for Pigeon pea, Sweet pea and Chick pea. It was also found that the isolate grew optimally at temperature 28°C and pH 7.0.Moreover, the isolate was sensitive to the higher concentration of NaCl (>1%) and to antibiotics- Mecillinam, Ciprofloxacin,Cotrimoxazole, Pefloxacin, Ceftazidime and Tetracycline.

  • 318.
    Nyqvist Ghashghaian, Simon
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neurobiology of Ketamine and Addiction2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic prescription drug and has been used for general anesthesia. The research surrounding this chemical compound has revealed conflicting evidence of its potential use in health care and addiction treatment. On one side, ketamine is a widespread drug of abuse associated with neurocognitive deficits and neurotoxicity, on the other side ketamine has recently been found to have a variety of potential uses, including but not limited to; antidepressant effects, reconsolidation of drug-related memories and disrupting maladaptive rumination. Ketamine’s ability to induce psychedelic and mystic experiences, reconsolidation of memories, antidepressant effects, and its ability to reduce cue-induced drug craving makes it a potentially useful tool in drug abuse therapy. Most of the negative side-effects of ketamine seem to be apparent at high doses and in frequent use but low doses and non-frequent use has a low risk of harm, therefore, careful consideration and extensive research are required before ketamine can be widely used in the public and in health care for treatment strategies. This thesis aims to explore the role of ketamine and its neurobiological effects in the treatment of addiction and depression.

  • 319.
    O'Hanlon, Carrie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Effects of adiponectin on placental gene expression and nutrient transport2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity during pregnancy (a BMI of 30kg/m2 and over) is a key risk factor for a number of diseases including gestational diabetes. It is thought that mothers who are obese tend to give birth to babies who are large for their gestational age (LGA) and potentially more susceptible further health complications during early childhood and beyond. As approximately 2/3 of women in the USA are entering pregnancy as overweight (BMI > 25) or obese the possibility of creating a vicious cycle of intra-uterine transmission of metabolic disease inherited from the mother to child is a growing problem. Pregnant women with low concentrations of circulating adiponectin (APN) in their first trimester are more likely to develop gestational diabetes than patients with normal levels, implying a causal link to insulin resistivity. Obese pregnant women who have lower APN levels have a difficulty controlling placental homeostasis and this is thought to cause perturbations in the maternal-supply/fetal-demand model leading to excess fetal nutrients. This study aimed to investigate the effects of APN on placental gene expression of nutrient transporters. Results show that over-abundance of circulating APN where both dams and fetuses are APN transgenic, show significantly increased placental estrogen receptor-α expression and lower expression when that same genotype is exposed to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet. Over-abundance of APN also appears to normalize expression of SNAT2 and LPL as a deficiency in APN appears to cause reduced SNAT2 expression and compensatory LPL expression. As fetal weights were not increased in obese pregnancies in either strain of dams yet placenta weights generally increased, there appears to be an APN-independent mechanism working in knockout placentas to protect the fetus from excess growth alongside a possible disconnect between mTOR and SNAT2 signalling. In conclusion, there are still undiscovered mechanisms protecting the fetus against overgrowth in mice that don’t produce APN. It is also evident that mice that had higher levels of APN were protected against excess nutrient transport in obese diets and that APN likely ensures optimal concentrations of each nutrient type reach the fetus.

  • 320.
    Olivé, Montse
    et al.
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Neuromuscular Unit, Department of Neurology / CIBERNED, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain.
    Abdul-Hussein, Saba
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Oldfors, Anders
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    González-Costello, José
    Department of Cardiology, Barcelona, Spain.
    van der Ven, Peter F. M.
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Fürst, Dieter O.
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    González, Laura
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Neuromuscular Unit, Department of Neurology.
    Moreno, Dolores
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology, Barcelona, Spain.
    Torrejón-Escribano, Benjamín
    Scientific and Technical Services Facility, Biology Unit, CCiTUB, IDIBELL-University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Alió, Josefina
    Department of Cardiology, Barcelona, Spain.
    Pou, Adolf
    Department of Neurology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ferrer, Isidro
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERNED, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Clinical and Medical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    New cardiac and skeletal protein aggregate myopathy associated with combined MuRF1 and MuRF3 mutations2015Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 24, nr 13, s. 3638-3650, artikel-id 108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein aggregate myopathies (PAMs) define muscle disorders characterized by protein accumulation in muscle fibres. We describe a new PAM in a patient with proximal muscle weakness and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, whose muscle fibres contained inclusions containing myosin and myosin-associated proteins, and aberrant distribution of microtubules. These lesions appear as intact A- and M-bands lacking thin filaments and Z-discs. These features differ from inclusions in myosin storage myopathy (MSM), but are highly similar to those in mice deficient for the muscle-specific RING finger proteins MuRF1 and MuRF3. Sanger sequencing excluded mutations in the MSM-associated gene MYH7 but identified mutations in TRIM63 and TRIM54, encoding MuRF1 and MuRF3, respectively. No mutations in other potentially disease-causing genes were identified by Sanger and whole exome sequencing. Analysis of seven family members revealed that both mutations segregated in the family but only the homozygous TRIM63 null mutation in combination with the heterozygous TRIM54 mutation found in the proband caused the disease phenotype. Both MuRFs are microtubule-associated proteins localizing to sarcomeric M-bands and Z-discs. They are E3 ubiquitin ligases that play a role in degradation of sarcomeric proteins, stabilization of microtubules and myogenesis. Lack of ubiquitin and the 20S proteasome subunit in the inclusions found in the patient suggested impaired turnover of thick filament proteins. Disruption of microtubules in cultured myotubes was rescued by transient expression of wild-type MuRF1. The unique features of this novel myopathy point to defects in homeostasis of A-band proteins in combination with instability of microtubules as cause of the disease.

  • 321.
    Olivé, Montse
    et al.
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Neuromuscular Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERNED, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain.
    Abdul-Hussein, Saba
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Oldfors, Anders
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    González-Costello, José
    Department of Cardiology, Barcelona, Spain.
    van der Ven, Peter F. M.
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Fürst, Dieter O.
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cell Biology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    González, Laura
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology and Neuromuscular Unit, Department of Neurology.
    Moreno, Dolores
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology, Barcelona, Spain.
    Torrejón-Escribano, Benjamín
    Scientific and Technical Services Facility, Biology Unit, CCiTUB, IDIBELL-University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Alió, Josefina
    Department of Cardiology, Barcelona, Spain.
    Pou, Adolf
    Department of Neurology, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain.
    Ferrer, Isidro
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERNED, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Instituto Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    New cardiac and skeletal protein aggregate myopathy associated with combined MuRF1 and MuRF3 mutations: [Human Molecular Genetics, 24, 13, (2015) 3638-3650] DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddv108 [Erratum]2015Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics, ISSN 0964-6906, E-ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 24, nr 21, s. 6264-6264Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 322.
    Olofsson, Emmie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Children of Divorce: Long-Term Psychological Effects and Neurological Consequences2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has examined what long-term psychological and neurological effects that are apparent in children and adults who have experienced parental divorce. It was predicted that significantly more children and adult children from divorced families would have increased symptoms of mental disorders than children and adult children from married homes e.g., anxiety, depression, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. It was further predicted that parental divorce would negatively affect the neurological system in the offspring. The correlation between children of divorce and negative neurological effects was not found to be true. However, adult children of divorce have significantly lower baseline cortisol levels compared to adult children of marriage. Dysregulated cortisol levels are highly associated with the development of e.g., anxiety, depression, and brain damage. Parental divorce did not only influence how secretion of the hormone cortisol is regulated within adult children of divorce, but how both children and adult children of divorce psychologically adapt postdivorce. Children of divorce have for instance lower general well-being, more symptoms of anxiety and depression, lower self-esteem, and feel more stress than children of marriage. Adult children of divorce are more likely to experience marital discord, getting divorced themselves, anxiety and depression, lower academic performance, and substance abuse, etc. The result of the thesis suggests that children and adult children from divorced families are negatively affected, both psychologically and neurologically, regardless of age. Parental divorce and supplementary effects make it more likely for children and adult children to experience more symptoms of mental disorders.

  • 323.
    Olowe, Omorinsola
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Temporal Dynamics of Emotion Regulation Strategies: An ERP Study2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Distraction and cognitive reappraisal are two widely used types of emotional regulation strategies that are thought to be reliable when down-regulating our emotions to negative or unpleasant stimuli. Gross‘s process model of emotion generation (Gross, 1998) holds that they differ in the time they intervene in the emotiongenerative process and also how they impact emotional responses when they are used to regulate negative emotions. Distraction which involves attentional deployment is expected to operate earlier than reappraisal that entails meaning evaluation and reevaluation. Cognitive reappraisal encompasses various strategies that are used to regulate our emotions through reinterpretation. Self-focused and situation-focused reappraisal are two of them. The former is considered more efficient and thus would lead to a greater attenuation of the LPPthan the latter. To test this prediction, electrocortical responses to angry faces when using these strategies were measured using the late positive potential (LPP). Twenty four healthy participants were recruited for the study and were cued to down-regulate their emotions using these strategies while angry and neutral facial stimuli were seen on a computer screen. Contrary to prediction, distraction did not modulate the LPP earlier than reappraisal. However, supporting our hypothesis self-focused strategies largely modulated the LPP than situation-focused strategy. The pattern of result suggests that reappraisal might have an influence on the early neural processes of emotion generation and that the subcategories of cognitive reappraisal have a differential effect on emotional regulation.

  • 324.
    Olson, Emelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Effects on the Hippocampal Volume and Function: Stress and Depression Versus Physical Exercise2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, changes in the human hippocampal volume and function induced by stress, depression and physical exercise are examined. Hippocampus is crucially involved in the acquisition and retrieval of episodic and spatial memory, and hippocampal volume correlates with episodic and spatial memory performance. Hippocampus has substantial plasticity and changes with age, but also in response to experiential factors across life. Stress and, under at least some circumstances, also depression have negative effects on hippocampal volume and memory function. The negative effects are believed to accelerate age-related decline in volume and function, mediated by exaggerated cortisol levels and dysfunction in the HPA-axis. Physical exercise is examined from two perspectives; aerobic and strength exercise. Aerobic exercise increases hippocampal volume across various ages and decelerates age-related hippocampal degeneration, whereas support for strength exercise-induced effects are mixed and need to be studied further. The positive effects are believed to be mediated by increased BDNF levels and regional cerebral blood volume. Although hippocampal volume normally correlates with hippocampus-dependent memory, studies on exercise-induced changes in human hippocampus-dependent memory have reported inconsistent results. Animal studies have observed both the negative and positive effects on hippocampal volume to relate to changes in neurogenesis, cell proliferation, and dendritic complexity. The negative and positive effects on hippocampal volume have been observed to be non-permanent, suggesting that physical exercise may prevent, attenuate and possibly reverse hippocampal degeneration induced by stress and depression. Further, more studies on sex and age differences, exercise intervention designs and functional values of physical exercise would be of value.

  • 325.
    Olsson, Björn E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Korsakova, Ekaterina S.
    Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia.
    Anan'ina, Lyudmila N.
    Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia.
    Pyankova, Anna A.
    Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia.
    Mavrodi, Olga V.
    Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, USA.
    Plotnikova, Elena G.
    Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm, Russia.
    Mavrodi, Dmitri V.
    Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Southern Mississippi, USA.
    Draft genome sequences of strains Salinicola socius SMB35T, Salinicola sp. MH3R3–1 and Chromohalobacter sp. SMB17 from the Verkhnekamsk potash mining region of Russia2017Ingår i: Standards in Genomic Sciences, ISSN 1944-3277, E-ISSN 1944-3277, Vol. 12, nr 39, s. 1-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Halomonads are moderately halophilic bacteria that are studied as models of prokaryotic osmoadaptation and sources of enzymes and chemicals for biotechnological applications. Despite the progress in understanding the diversity of these organisms, our ability to explain ecological, metabolic, and biochemical traits of halomonads at the genomic sequence level remains limited. This study addresses this gap by presenting draft genomes of Salinicola socius SMB35T, Salinicola sp. MH3R3-1 and Chromohalobacter sp. SMB17, which were isolated from potash mine tailings in the Verkhnekamsk salt deposit area of Russia. The analysis of these genomes confirmed the importance of ectoines and quaternary amines to the capacity of halomonads to tolerate osmotic stress and adapt to hypersaline environments. The study also revealed that Chromohalobacter and Salinicola share 75-90% of the predicted proteome, but also harbor a set of genus-specific genes, which in Salinicola amounted to approximately 0.5 Mbp. These genus-specific genome segments may contribute to the phenotypic diversity of the Halomonadaceae and the ability of these organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions and colonize new ecological niches.

  • 326.
    Olsson, H. A. Joakim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    An evaluation of the Integrated Information Theory against some central problems of consciousness2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis evaluates the integrated information theory (IIT) by looking at how it may answer

    some central problems of consciousness that the author thinks any theory of consciousness

    should be able to explain. The problems concerned are the mind-body problem, the hard

    problem, the explanatory gap, the binding problem, and the problem of objectively detecting

    consciousness. The IIT is a computational theory of consciousness thought to explain the rise

    of consciousness. First the mongrel term consciousness is defined to give a clear idea of what

    is meant by consciousness in this thesis; followed by a presentation of the IIT, its origin, main

    ideas, and some implications of the theory. Thereafter the problems of consciousness will be

    presented, and the explanation the IIT gives will be investigated. In the discussion, some not

    perviously—in the thesis—discussed issues regarding the theory will be lifted. The author

    finds the IIT to hold explanations to each of the problems discussed. Whether the

    explanations are satisfying is questionable.

  • 327.
    Olsson, Joakim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Narcissism - Brain and Behavior: Self-Views and Empathy in the Narcissistic Brain2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reviews both psychological and neural research in the fields of self-evaluation, self-views and self-enhancement bias. The research has made associations to grandiosity and need for admiration, which are two of the defining characteristics of narcissistic personality disorder. Neural correlates associated with this research are the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, posteromedial cortex and anterior insula. Narcissists have been seen to have a decreased form of emotional empathy even though they rate themselves to have higher emotional empathy than they actually have, which is linked to self-enhancement bias and grandiosity. Alexithymia has not gained much attention in relation to narcissism, but research presented suggests that this might need to change. Neural correlates that are associated with lack of emotional empathy and alexithymia are the anterior insula, frontoparalimbic areas and the medial prefrontal cortex. Narcissistic personality disorder is in the DSM-5 specified to be defined by a grandiose sense of self, a need for admiration, and a lack of empathy in either fantasy or behavior. However according to researchers in the field this only covers a part of the spectrum of narcissism. Deficits in the DSM-5 will he highlighted, as well as suggestions on what to do in order to help clarify the definition in DSM-5 and the concept in general.

  • 328.
    Orio, Alessandro
    et al.
    SLU, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Anders
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Luzenczyk, Anna
    Morski Instytut Rybacki, Poland.
    Berg, Casper
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Ustups, Didzis
    BIOR, Latvia.
    Artemenkov, Dmitriy
    Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography, Russia.
    Schade, Franziska
    Thünen-Institut, Germany.
    Kornilovs, Georgs
    BIOR, Latvia.
    Degel, Henrik
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Strehlow, Harry
    Thünen-Institut, Germany.
    Karpushevskiy, Igor
    AtlantNIRO, Russia.
    Horbowy, Jan
    Morski Instytut Rybacki, Poland.
    Raitaniemi, Jari
    Luke Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Boje, Jesper
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    SLU, Sweden.
    Lövgren, Johan
    SLU, Sweden.
    Pönni, Jukka
    Luke Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Hommik, Kristiina
    Öhman, Kristin
    SLU, Sweden.
    Eero, Margit
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Plikshs, Maris
    BIOR, Latvia.
    Casini, Michele
    SLU, Sweden.
    Bergenius, Mikaela
    SLU, Sweden.
    Mosegaard, Henrik
    Holmgren, Noel
    SLU, Sweden.
    Norrström, Niclas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kaljuste, Olavi
    SLU, Sweden.
    Jounela, Pekka
    Luke Natural Resources Institute, Finland.
    Statkus, Romas
    Lithuania.
    Jonusas, Stanislovas
    European Commission.
    Neuenfeldt, Stefan
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Stoetera, Sven
    Thünen-Institut, Germany.
    Raid, Tiit
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Mildenberger, Tobias
    DTU Aqua, Denmark.
    Gröhsler, Tomas
    Thünen-Institut, Germany.
    Krumme, Uwe
    Thünen-Institut, Germany.
    Amosova, Viktoriia
    AtlantNIRO, Russia.
    Grygiel, Wlodzimierz
    Morski Instytut Rybacki, Poland.
    Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep
    SLU, Sweden.
    Mirny, Zuzanna
    Morski Instytut Rybacki, Poland.
    Report of the Baltic Fisheries AssessmentWorking Group (WGBFAS): 19-26 April 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS) met 19-26 April 2017(Chair: Tomas Gröhsler, Germany and Co-chair: Michele Casini, Sweden), with 41 participants and 9 countries represented. The objective of WGBFAS was to assess the status of the following stocks: Sole in Division 3.a, SDs 20–24; Cod in Kattegat, Cod in SDs 22–24, Cod in SDs 25–32; Herring in SDs 25–27, 28.2, 29 and 32, Herring in SD 28.1 (Gulf of Riga), Herring in SDs 30-31 (Gulf of Bothnia); Sprat in SDs 22–32; Plaice in SDs 21–23, Plaice in SDs 24–25; Flounder in SDs 22–23, in SDs 24–25, in SDs 26+28 and SDs 27+29–32; Brill in SDs 22–32, Dab in SDs 22–32 and Turbot in SDs 22–32. WGBFAS also identified the data needed for next year’s data call with some suggestions for improvements in the data call, and stock-specific research needs.The report contains an introduction with the summary of other WGs relevant for the WGBFAS, the methods used, and ecosystem considerations. The results of the analytical stock assessment or survey trends for the species listed above are then presented with all the stocks with the same species in the same sections. The report ends with references, recommendations, links to Stock Annexes and list of Working Documents.The principle analytical models used for the stock assessments were XSA and SAM. For most flatfishes and cod in SDs 25–32 (data limited stocks), CPUE trends from bottomtrawl surveys were used in the assessment (except plaice in SDs 24–25 for which relative SSB from SAM was used). For the data limited stocks, reference points based on length-based indicators were estimated (except cod in SDs 25-32 for which relative reference points were estimated using the SPiCT model). For cod in SDs 25–32, intersessional work was planned to hopefully allow returning to an analytical stock assessment in the near future. Ecosystem changes have been analytically considered in the following stock assessments: Herring in SD 25–27, 28.2, 29 and 32, and Sprat in SD 22–32, in form of cod predation mortality.

  • 329.
    Ozuemba, Bartholomew
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Masilamani, Twinkle J.
    Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Loiselle, Julie J.
    Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Koenderink, Benjamin
    AMRIC, Health Sciences North, Sudbury, Canada.
    Vanderbeck, Kaitlin A.
    School of Human Kinetics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Knee, Jose
    AMRIC, Health Sciences North, Sudbury, Canada.
    Lariviere, Celine
    Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada / School of Human Kinetics, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada.
    Sutherland, Leslie C.
    Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada / AMRIC, Health Sciences North, Sudbury, Canada / Division of Medical Sciences, Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Canada / Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, Canada / Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
    Co- and post-transcriptional regulation of Rbm5 and Rbm10 in mouse cells as evidenced by tissue-specific, developmental and disease-associated variation of splice variant and protein expression levels2016Ingår i: Gene, ISSN 0378-1119, E-ISSN 1879-0038, Vol. 580, nr 1, s. 26-36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Expression and function of the two RNA binding proteins and regulators of alternative splicing, RBM5 and RBM10, have largely been studied in human tissue and cell lines. The objective of the study described herein was to examine their expression in mouse tissue, in order to lay the framework for comprehensive functional studies using mouse models. Methods: All RNA variants of Rbm5 and Rbm10 were examined in a range of normal primary mouse tissues. RNA and protein were examined in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts and in denervated and dystonin-deficient mouse skeletal muscle. Results: All Rbm5 and Rbm10 variants examined were expressed in all mouse tissues and cell lines. In general, Rbm5 and Rbm10 RNA expression was higher in brain than in skin. RNA expression levels were more varied between cardiac and skeletal muscle, depending on the splice variant: for instance, Rbm10v1 RNA was higher in skeletal than cardiac muscle, whereas Rbm10v3 RNA was higher in cardiac than skeletal muscle. In mouse brain, cardiac and skeletal muscle, RNA encoding an approximately 17 kDa potential paralogue of a small human RBM10 isoform was detected, and the protein observed in myoblasts and myotubes. Expression of Rbm5 and Rbm10 RNA remained constant during C2C12 myogenesis, but protein levels significantly decreased. In two muscle disease models, neither Rbml 0 nor Rbm5 showed significant transcriptional changes, although significant specific alternative splicing changes of Rbm5 pre-mRNA were observed. Increased RBM10 protein levels were observed following denervation. Conclusions: The varied co-transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation aspects of Rbm5 and Rbm10 expression associated with mouse tissues, myogenesis and muscle disease states suggest that a mouse model would be an interesting and useful model in which to study comprehensive functional aspects of RBM5 and RBM10. 

  • 330.
    Padvitski, Tsimafei
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. CECAD University of Cologne.
    Integrative analysis of age-related changes in the transcriptome of Caenorhabditis elegans2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing is difficult to study because of the complexity and multi-factorial nature of traits that result from a combination of environmental, genetic, epigenetic and stochastic factors, each contributing to the overall phenotype. In light of this challenge, transcriptomic studies of aging organisms are of particular interest, since transcription is an intermediate step that links genotype and phenotype.

    In recent years microarrays have been widely used for elucidation of changes that occur with age in the transcriptome in Caenorhabditis elegans. However, different microarray studies of C. elegans report sets of differentially expressed genes of varying consistence, with different functional annotations. Failures to find a consistent set of transcriptomic alterations may reflect the absence of a specific genetic program that would guide age-related changes but may also, to some extent, be a consequence of a small sample sizes and a lack of study power in transcriptomic researches. To tackle this issue we analyzed RNA sequences of samples from a time-series experiment of normal aging of C. elegans, performing the first, to our knowledge, NGS-based study of such kind. As a result, evidences were collected that promote a union of two competing theories: the theory of DNA damage accumulation and the theory of programmed aging.

    Next, we applied two alternative methods, namely the Short Time-series Expression Mining and the Network Smoothing algorithm, in order to obtain and analyze sets of genes that represent distinct modules of age-related changes in the transcriptome. Besides characterization of age-related changes, we were also interested in assessment and validation of the Network Smoothing algorithm. Generally, results of clustering of smoothed scores are consistent with results of short time-series clustering, allowing robust elucidation of functions that are perturbed during aging.

    At the last phase of the project we questioned if observed changes in the transcriptome can be controlled by specific transcription factors. Thus we used Chip-seq data to predict plausible transcription factor regulators of gene sets obtained using time series clustering and Network smoothing. On the one hand, all predicted transcription factors had documented relevance to aging. On the other hand, we did not achieve gene set specific prediction of transcription factors. In fact, genes with the opposite dynamics were predicted to respond to the same transcription factors. 

    To summarize, we characterized in details age-related changes in the transcriptome of C. elegans, validated the performance of the Network Smoothing algorithm and showed that integration of gene expression with Chip-seq data allows to predict transcription factors that are capable to modulate the lifespan of C. elegans.

  • 331.
    Parthemore, Joel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    A cognitive semiotic perspective on the nature and limitations of concepts andconceptual frameworks2016Ingår i: Meaning, Mind and Communication: Explorations in Cognitive Semiotics / [ed] Jordan Zlatev, Göran Sonesson, Piotr Konderak, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2016, s. 47-68Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Known under the potentially misleading rubric of “knowledge representation” in cognitive science, theories of concepts represent both a subfield within philosophy of mind and an application area for cognitive semiotics. They describe the properties of conceptual thought, typically through a listing of those properties: minimally taken to include systematicity, productivity, compositionality, intentionality, and endogenous control. Beyond that point, most things are up for grabs. Debate rages over such questions as whether concepts are representations or abilities; likewise unclear is whether they are essentially public or largely private, discrete or continuous, stable or dynamic, transparent or translucent or opaque. Cognitive semiotics helps clarify discussion over an inevitably abstract area in a number of key ways: through its grounding in semiotics, showing how concepts both are entwined with language (intrinsically public) and pull apart from it; through its roots in phenomenology, showing how concepts both are and are not representations; through its focus on meaning as a dynamic process, showing how concepts’ relative stability belies an underlying dynamics; through its deep resonance with enactive philosophy, showing how concepts impose seemingly sharp boundaries onto underlying continuities; through its bold refusal to shy away from apparent contradictions and paradox, revealing how concepts both reveal the world and simultaneously hide it from us. As a concrete example, I discuss the conceptual nature of metaphor from a cognitive semiotic perspective. I show how – given the problematic nature of so-called literal meaning – the crucial distinction is not between literal and metaphorical meanings, but between tertiary/novel meanings and primary/secondary ones: between meanings that call attention to themselves and those that do not, where only the former are appropriately termed “metaphors”. The lesson is not that all meaning is metaphorical but rather that the line between metaphor and non-metaphor is pragmatic rather than absolute, conceptual rather than ontological.

  • 332.
    Parthemore, Joel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Consciousness, semiosis, and the unbinding problem2017Ingår i: Language & Communication, ISSN 0271-5309, E-ISSN 1873-3395, Vol. 54, s. 36-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Any wider discussion of semiosis must address not only how semiosis came about, in terms of evolutionary pressures and requisite cognitive infrastructure, but also – as importantly, and too easily forgotten – how human beings experience and have experienced it, and how that experience reflects (at the same time shaping) its development. Much discussion has focused on resolving how inputs from external sensory modalities combine with internal brain processes to produce unified consciousness: the so-called binding problem. One might wish to distinguish between the coming together of conscious experience in terms of underlying mechanics and the seemingly unavoidable reality that human beings experience a consciousness that is, from the onset, phenomenally unified. The unbinding problem is shown to be potentially just as important to telling the story.

  • 333.
    Parthemore, Joel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Understanding empathy: Metaphysical starting assumptions in the modeling of empathy and emotions2017Ingår i: Proceedings of AISB Annual Convention 2017: Society with AI / [ed] Joanna Bryson, Marina De Vos, Julian Padget, Bath, UK: The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour (AISB) , 2017, s. 263-267Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has three main purposes: to set out the relationship between empathy and related phenomena, including emotional contagion; to explain how metaphysical starting assumptions regarding the nature of empathy predispose one toward one or another account of these phenomena and toward different interpretations of the same empirical data -- often radically different; and to use recent discussions of empathy in the phenomenological and enactive communities (in particular their rejection of theory of mind accounts) to put forward a radical proposal. In the paradigmatic cases, one feels that one is feeling (at least some substantive portion of) what another person is feeling: “I feel your pain”. But there are certain intense experiences along with certain related but less intense ones where there is, I claim, a single joint experience among two or more individuals. One could call these experiences “extreme” empathy. This is how phenomenologists should, I think, cash out the frequent claim that in many circumstances, one agent “directly” experiences the emotional state of another without requiring the mediation of anything like theory of mind.

  • 334.
    Patel, Angana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Unraveling the molecular mechanism behind metabolic reprogramming caused by alterations of the enzyme PI3-kinase2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes play a key role in cancer induction and progression. Theydirectly or indirectly regulate critical metabolic pathways, phosphatidylinositol‐3 kinase pathwaybeing frequently activated pathway in cancer. The catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol‐4,5‐bisphosphate 3‐kinase (PI3K), p110α, is the most frequently mutated kinase in human cancer, E542K,E545K, and H1047R mutations being the most common. Expression of hepatic E545K and H1047Rp110α mutants in vivo shows marked and rapid increase in hepatic lipid and glycogen accumulationin mice with developmental (chronic) liver‐specific deletion of p110α, which was not seen in micewhen wildtype p110α is overexpressed. To investigate the logical pathways that could explain thelipid accumulation in mutant expressing mice, RNA sequencing from wildtype, knockout and mutatedmouse livers was performed. Read alignment and count quantification was done using the Rsubreadpackage and the statistical analyses are performed using the DeSeq2 package. Differentiallyexpressed genes were identified with adjusted p‐value of 0.05. Gene ontology analysis wasperformed on the differentially expressed genes using clusterProfiler, an R package to identifyseveral key pathways which were upregulated and downregulated among the different samplegroups. Signaling pathways related to cell cycle processes were mainly upregulated in the mutatedsamples when compared with the wildtype as well as knockout samples while signaling pathwaysrelated to many metabolic processes seem to be downregulated in mutated samples, even thoughthese mutants showed upregulated metabolism by accumulation of lipids and glycogenphysiologically. To confirm the results of gene expression data the results have to be cross validatedwith the gold standard quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

  • 335.
    Patel, Angana Heet
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Unravelingthe molecular mechanism behind metabolic reprogramming caused by alterations of the enzyme PI3-kinase2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes play a key role in cancer induction and progression. They directly or indirectly regulate critical metabolic pathways, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway being frequently activated pathway in cancer. The catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K), p110α, is the most frequently mutated kinase in human cancer, E542K, E545K, and H1047R mutations being the most common. Expression of hepatic E545K and H1047R p110α mutants in vivo shows marked and rapid increase in hepatic lipid and glycogen accumulation in mice with developmental (chronic) liver-specific deletion of p110α, which was not seen in mice when wildtype p110α is overexpressed. To investigate the logical pathways that could explain the lipid accumulation in mutant expressing mice, RNA sequencing from wildtype, knockout and mutated mouse livers was performed. Read alignment and count quantification was done using the Rsubread package and the statistical analyses are performed using the DeSeq2 package. Differentially expressed genes were identified with adjusted p-value of 0.05. Gene ontology analysis was performed on the differentially expressed genes using clusterProfiler, an R package to identify several key pathways which were upregulated and downregulated among the different sample groups. Signaling pathways related to cell cycle processes were mainly upregulated in the mutated samples when compared with the wildtype as well as knockout samples while signaling pathways related to many metabolic processes seem to be downregulated in mutated samples, even though these mutants showed upregulated metabolism by accumulation of lipids and glycogen physiologically. To confirm the results of gene expression data the results have to be cross validated with the gold standard quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

  • 336.
    Paul, Sudip Kumar
    et al.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh / Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh.
    Islam, Md Shofikul
    Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh.
    Hasibuzzaman, M. M.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Faruk
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Anjum, Adiba
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saud, Zahangir Alam
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Haque, Md Mominul
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Sultana, Papia
    Department of Statistics, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Haque, Azizul
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, United States.
    Andric, Klara Biljana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Rahman, Aminur
    The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, SE 701 82, Sweden.
    Karim, M. Rezaul
    Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Bangladesh.
    Siddique, Abu Eabrahim
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Karim, Yeasir
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Mizanur
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Miyataka, Hideki
    Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima, Japan.
    Xin, Lian
    Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Japan.
    Himeno, Seiichiro
    Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Japan.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Higher risk of hyperglycemia with greater susceptibility in females in chronic arsenic-exposed individuals in Bangladesh2019Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 668, s. 1004-1012Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) toxicity and diabetes mellitus (DM) are emerging public health concerns worldwide. Although exposure to high levels of As has been associated with DM, whether there is also an association between low and moderate As exposure and DM remains unclear. We explored the dose-dependent association between As exposure levels and hyperglycemia, with special consideration of the impact of demographic variables, in 641 subjects from rural Bangladesh. The total study participants were divided into three groups depending on their levels of exposure to As in drinking water (low, moderate and high exposure groups). Prevalence of hyperglycemia, including impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and DM was significantly associated with the subjects’ drinking water arsenic levels. Almost all exposure metrics (As levels in the subjects’ drinking water, hair and nails) showed dose-dependent associations with the risk of hyperglycemia, IGT and DM. Among the variables considered, sex, age, and BMI were found to be associated with higher risk of hyperglycemia, IGT and DM. In sex-stratified analyses, As exposure showed a clearer pattern of dose-dependent risk for hyperglycemia in females than males. Finally, drinking water containing low-to-moderate levels of As (50.01–150 μg/L) was found to confer a greater risk of hyperglycemia than safe drinking water (As ≤10 μg/L). Thus the results suggested that As exposure was dose-dependently associated with hyperglycemia, especially in females. © 2019 Elsevier B.V.

  • 337.
    Pendharkar, Sonal
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brandsborg, Erik
    Bifodan AS, Hundested, Denmark.
    Hammarström, Lennart
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marcotte, Harold
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Kärnsjukhuset, Skaraborg hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Vaginal colonisation by probiotic lactobacilli and clinical outcome in women conventionally treated for bacterial vaginosis and yeast infection2015Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 15, s. 1-12, artikel-id 255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the colonisation by lactobacilli and clinical outcome in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (R-VVC) receiving antibiotic or anti-fungal treatment in combination with the probiotic EcoVag(R) capsules. Methods: A total of 40 Scandinavian women diagnosed with BV or VVC on the basis of Amsel's criteria or clinical symptoms were consecutively recruited in two pilot open label clinical trials. In trial I, women with BV were treated with clindamycin and metronidazole followed by vaginal EcoVag(R) capsules, containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus DSM 14870 and Lactobacillus gasseri DSM 14869, for 5 consecutive days after each antibiotic treatment. In trial II, women were recruited in three groups as follows: women with BV receiving clindamycin and metronidazole treatment together with a prolonged administration of EcoVag(R) (10 consecutive days after each antibiotic treatment followed by weekly administration of capsules for next four months), women with R-VVC receiving extended fluconazole and EcoVag(R) treatment, and women receiving extended fluconazole treatments only. The difference in frequency of isolation of EcoVag(R) strains or other lactobacilli between groups was compared by Fisher's exact test. Results: The 6-month cure rate for BV was 50 % in trial I while both the 6- and 12-month cure rates were 67 % in trial II. The 6- and 12-month cure rates for VVC were 100 % and 89 % in women receiving fluconazole and EcoVag(R), and 100 % and 70 % in women receiving fluconazole only. The frequency of isolation of any Lactobacillus species during the course of the study was associated with cure of BV in trial I and II, whereas the frequency of isolation of EcoVag(R) strains was significantly associated with the cure of BV in trial II only. As previously observed, a change in sexual partner was associated with relapse of BV with an Odds ratio of 77 (95 % CI: 2.665 to 2225). Conclusions: The study suggests that the treatment with antibiotics or anti-fungal medication in combination with EcoVag(R) capsules provide long-term cure against BV and R-VVC as compared to previous reports.

  • 338.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Personality Neuroscience and Dark Values2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality neuroscience offers a new theory of the biological basis of personality traits. It involves the use of neuroscientific methodologies to study individual differences in behavior, motivation, emotion, and cognition. Personality psychology has contributed much in identifying the important dimensions of personality, but relatively little to understanding the biological sources of those dimensions. In recent years, personality psychology has become the foundation for the study of personality disorders, and by extension, neuroscience. First, I provide a theoretical foundation for the neuroscience of normal and abnormal personality traits. Second, I conduct two empirical studies on deviant personality traits captured by the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and relate them to universal human values. Study I shows that darker personalities endorse values that are self-enhancing, and that justify self-serving behavior. Study II investigates the relationship between the aforementioned constructs and empathy based on the idea that empathy is an important moderating factor of dark traits. In the discussion, suggestions for future studies in neuroscience are presented, as well as some limitations relating to the constructs.

  • 339.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Finland.
    Searching for Machiavelli but Finding Psychopathy and Narcissism2019Ingår i: Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, ISSN 1949-2715, E-ISSN 1949-2723, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 235-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Machiavellianism is a psychological construct reflecting individual differences in manipulative and strategic thinking, pragmatic morality, and a cynical outlook on life. A recent stream of research has shown that Machiavellianism and psychopathy seem to be redundant constructs and that measures of Machiavellianism do not correspond well with theoretical expectations. In the present study, I juxtapose multiple measures of Machiavellianism against normal (i.e., the five-factor model and HEXACO) and abnormal (e.g., narcissism, psychopathy, impulsivity, and personality dysfunction) personality traits in an online sample (N = 591). Using Goldberg’s (2006) Bass–Ackwards approach, I investigate whether typical Machiavellian traits can be found anywhere in the construct hierarchy by comparing the levels of the hierarchy with expert-rated five-factor model prototypes of Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and external correlates. Our results indicate that measures of Machiavellianism mostly reflect psychopathy and narcissism. The implications of these results are discussed, including what the future may hold for Machiavellianism.

     

  • 340.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Lilienfeld, Scott O.
    Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States of America / School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Social status as one key indicator of successful psychopathy: An initial empirical investigation2019Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 141, s. 209-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder that researchers have subdivided into two types: successful and unsuccessful. Nevertheless, little headway has been made regarding how to conceptualize and operationalize success. We consider various accounts of success from the existing literature and make the case for a two-dimensional view of successful psychopathy. Specifically, we contend that successful psychopathy can be conceptualized with two conditions in mind: (a) high social status and (b) lack of serious antisocial behavior. We emphasize that high social status, best described using socioeconomic status (SES), has been largely overlooked in the literature. We tested this idea using a sample of 591 participants who received measures of the triarchic model of psychopathy (i.e., boldness, meanness, and disinhibition), SES, and personality dysfunction. The results demonstrated that, as predicted, the putatively adaptive features of psychopathy (i.e., boldness) were positively related to SES and personality functioning. In contrast, the putatively maladaptive psychopathy features disinhibition and meanness were negatively related to personality functioning, and disinhibition was negatively related to SES. The relevance of boldness to psychopathy and the benefits of conceptualizing success as a continuous variable are discussed.

  • 341.
    Persson, Björn N.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Blekinge Center of Competence, Region Blekinge, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Current Directions in Psychiatric Classification: From the DSM to RDoC2019Ingår i: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa, Cham: Springer, 2019, 1, s. 253-268Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 342.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dark and bright values: The Dark Triad and empathy relating to universal values2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an emphasis on self-enhancing values in present-day society. Empathy is shown to be declining and callousness increasing.This two-study research set out to analyze dark personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and brightpersonality traits (emotional and cognitive empathy), and their predictive validity on universal value types. Using a sample ofSwedes and Americans (N = 385), the Dark Triad (SD3) correlated significantly with all value types (Schwartz’s 10 values), forminga sinusoid pattern which aligned with the circumplex value model. Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated withthe self-enhancing values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the self-enhancing valuesHedonism and Power. Using a middle-aged US sample, cognitive and emotional empathy (IRI) were positively related to the selftranscendingvalues of Universalism and Benevolence and negatively with the self-enhancement values of Achievement and Power.In addition, both the dark and bright personality traits explained significant variance over the basic Big Five traits in universal values.Given the complex of values accounted for, we argue that these results account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values” andself-transcending “bright values”. This research highlights that certain universal values of individual and societal relevance can bepredicted by personality traits.

  • 343.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University West, Sweden.
    Dark values: The dark triad in Schwartz’ value types2016Ingår i: Independent in the heard: Inclusion and exclusion as social processes: Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014 / [ed] Robert Thornberg & Tomas Jungert, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, s. 82-96Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 344.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Empathy and Universal Values Explicated by the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis2016Ingår i: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 156, nr 6, s. 610-619Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research reports that empathy is on the decline in present-day society together with an increasing trend in self-enhancing values. Based on the empathy-altruism hypothesis we investigated whether these constructs are interlinked, by analyzing the relationships between emotional and cognitive empathy and 10 universal values. In the first study, using a middle-aged US sample, the results showed that empathy was strongly and positively related to altruistic values and negatively to self-enhancing values in a pattern which aligned with the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In a second confirmation study, these findings were replicated and extended, while also controlling for the Big Five personality traits, to discount that empathy is only captured by basic personality. Only emotional empathy, not cognitive empathy, accounted for up to 18% additional variance in altruistic values, which further confirmed the emphasis on feelings, as postulated by the empathy-altruism hypothesis.

  • 345.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / University West, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Revisiting the Structure of the Short Dark Triad2019Ingår i: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 3-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decade, extensive interest has been directed toward the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), popularly assessed by the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Nevertheless, relatively little research has been conducted on the SD3's factor structure. We investigated the SD3's psychometric properties in three studies with three independent samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses ( N1 = 1,487; N2 = 17,740; N3 = 496). In all three studies, Machiavellianism and psychopathy items displayed large general factor loadings, and narcissism larger specific factor loadings. In subsequent studies, two- and three-factor models fitted the data similarly, with the best fitting model being a bifactor model with items from Machiavellianism and psychopathy modelled as one specific factor, and narcissism as a second specific factor. On this basis, we suggest that the SD3 does not seem to capture the different mental processes theorized to underlie the similar behaviors generated by Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Additionally, we recommend the use of a single SD3 composite score, and not subscale scores, as subscales contain small amounts of reliable variance beyond the general factor.

  • 346.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.
    Garcia, Denilo
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Testing construct independence in the Short Dark Triad using Item Response Theory2017Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 117, s. 74-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) is a popular construct for describing socially aversive personality traits. In recent years, the Short Dark Triad (SD3; Jones & Paulhus, 2014) has become a popular measure for assessing the Dark Triad constructs. However, recent research has called the supposed dissimilarity between the Dark Triad constructs into question. In particular, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that a distinction between Machiavellianism and psychopathy may not be tenable. In order to investigate this issue further, we analyzed the SD3 in a large sample (N = 1983) using Item Response Theory. We establish item response parameter estimates for each Dark Triad construct and further test whether the Dark Triad constructs can be modelled together. Results show that Machiavellianism and narcissism could not be modelled together, but the combinations Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and narcissism and psychopathy, yielded acceptable model fit. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of how the Dark Triad constructs may be interpreted and studied in the future.

  • 347.
    Persson, Emma
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Developing a web based tool for identification of disease modules2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex diseases such as cancer or obesity are thought to be caused by abnormalities in multiple  genes and cannot be derived to one specific location in the genome. It has been shown that  identification of disease associated genes can be made through looking at interaction patterns in a  protein‐protein interaction network, where the disease associated genes are represented in clusters,  or disease modules. There are several algorithms developed to infer these disease modules, but  studies have shown that the reliability of the results increase if multiple algorithms are used and a  consensus module is derived from them. MODifieR is an R package developed to combine the results  of multiple  disease module inferring algorithms and has proven to provide a stable result. To  increase usability of the R package and make it available not only for users with programmatic skills,  MODifieR Web was developed as a web based tool with a graphical user interface. The tool was built  using Angular and .NET core, invoking the MODifieR R package in the backend. The interface requires  input in the form of an expression matrix and a probe map from the user, easily uploadable in a  drag‐and‐drop  interface.  It  gives  the  user  the  possibility  to  analyze  data  using  seven  different  algorithms and provide results as gene lists and visualizes the consensus module in a network image.  MODifieR Web is a first version of an application that is a novel contribution to the existing tools for  identification of disease modules, although in need of further improvements to be able to serve a  greater  pool  of  users  in  a  more  effective  way.  The  tool  is  available  to  try  out  at   http://transbioinfo.liu.se/modifier#/home and the source code is released as an open‐source project  in Github (https://github.com/emmape/MODifieRProject).  

  • 348.
    Pettersson, Patrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    EXEKUTIVA FÖRMÅGOR OCH PROKRASTINATION2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    De exekutiva förmågorna möjliggör avancerade kognitiva processer. Prokrastination är vår benägenhet att fördröja en planerad handling trots att fördröjningen förvärrar situationen. Denna uppsats har utforskat om det finns ett konceptuellt samband mellan konstrukten. Orsaken till prokrastinaton tros hänga samman med bristande självreglering som är sammanlänkat med de exekutiva förmågorna. Det finns ett glapp mellan intentionen och handlandet hos de som prokrastinerar. Impulsivitet tycks ligga bakom denna skillnad. Prokrastinerande individer väljer det njutningsfulla i stunden framför långsiktiga fördelar. Indikationer tyder på att de hämmande mekanismerna inom de exekutiva förmågorna inverkar i reglerandet av impulsiviteten. Individer med högre förmåga att hämma impulser är bättre på att följa sina intentioner. Direkta studier mellan de exekutiva förmågorna och prokrastination behövs för att stärka kausala samband.

  • 349.
    Pettersson, Tove
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Correlates of Body Dissatisfaction in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: Examining the similarities between diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and body dissatisfaction2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Body dissatisfaction (BD) is a condition derived from negative thoughts and feelings about one's body and is a core symptom of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). Beingdissatisfied with one’s body is highly present in women and to some extent men. This might be a result of a skewed ideal in combination with social influences. In recent year, research on neurobiological risk factors as well as neuroscientific and cognitive mappings of AN and BD have gained traction, particularly when it comes to studies using neuroimaging- techniques and cognitive tests. Studies have identified brain regions (insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parietal cortex, amygdala, dorsolateral and orbitofrontal areas of the prefrontal cortex) associated with the processing of body shape as well as dysfunctional processing of self-image and body satisfaction. Structural imaging studies of AN patients using CT and MRI have, in many cases, found reduced cerebral volume, increased spinal fluid (CSF) and enlarged ventricles. Usually, food and water restriction has been seen as the cause, and structural deficits in AN patients have shown to improve with weight gain after long-term recovery.

  • 350.
    Pieslinger, Johan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Social punishment: Evidence from experimental scenarios2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Punishment is the act of penalizing an individual as a response to a transgression. This thesis will deal with punishment in experimental game scenarios and in experimental criminal punishment scenarios, along with their different adaptations. The aim will be to provide an overview of both psychological and neurological underpinnings of punishment by reviewing existing literature. While punishment ought to deter transgressions and promote cooperative behavior, internal neural reward-related systems seem to be a driving factor of the desire to punish wrongdoings. Decisions on whether a transgressor is guilty and deserves punishment is mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex with an emphasis on the ventromedial parts. External influences affect the behavioral output and its underlying neural signatures of punishment. Social context such as peer pressure and in-group bias emphasize the importance of theory of mind related areas when conducting punishment.

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