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  • 301.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Consciousness, semiosis, and the unbinding problem2017In: Language & Communication, ISSN 0271-5309, E-ISSN 1873-3395, Vol. 54, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Any wider discussion of semiosis must address not only how semiosis came about, in terms of evolutionary pressures and requisite cognitive infrastructure, but also – as importantly, and too easily forgotten – how human beings experience and have experienced it, and how that experience reflects (at the same time shaping) its development. Much discussion has focused on resolving how inputs from external sensory modalities combine with internal brain processes to produce unified consciousness: the so-called binding problem. One might wish to distinguish between the coming together of conscious experience in terms of underlying mechanics and the seemingly unavoidable reality that human beings experience a consciousness that is, from the onset, phenomenally unified. The unbinding problem is shown to be potentially just as important to telling the story.

  • 302.
    Parthemore, Joel
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Understanding empathy: Metaphysical starting assumptions in the modeling of empathy and emotions2017In: Proceedings of AISB Annual Convention 2017: Society with AI / [ed] Joanna Bryson, Marina De Vos, Julian Padget, Bath, UK: The Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour (AISB) , 2017, p. 263-267Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has three main purposes: to set out the relationship between empathy and related phenomena, including emotional contagion; to explain how metaphysical starting assumptions regarding the nature of empathy predispose one toward one or another account of these phenomena and toward different interpretations of the same empirical data -- often radically different; and to use recent discussions of empathy in the phenomenological and enactive communities (in particular their rejection of theory of mind accounts) to put forward a radical proposal. In the paradigmatic cases, one feels that one is feeling (at least some substantive portion of) what another person is feeling: “I feel your pain”. But there are certain intense experiences along with certain related but less intense ones where there is, I claim, a single joint experience among two or more individuals. One could call these experiences “extreme” empathy. This is how phenomenologists should, I think, cash out the frequent claim that in many circumstances, one agent “directly” experiences the emotional state of another without requiring the mediation of anything like theory of mind.

  • 303.
    Perini, Irene
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Bergstrand, Simon
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, .
    Morrison, India
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden /University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Where Pain Meets Action in the Human Brain2013In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 33, no 40, p. 15930-15939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pain's complex influence on behavior implies that it involves an action component, although little is known about how the human brain adaptively translates painful sensations into actions. The consistent activation of premotor and motor-related regions during pain, including the midcingulate cortex (MCC), raises the question of whether these areas contribute to an action component. In this fMRI experiment, we controlled for voluntary action-related processing during pain by introducing a motor task during painful or nonpainful stimulation. The MCC (particularly the caudal cingulate motor zone [CCZ]), motor cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum responded during action regardless of pain. Crucially, however, these regions did not respond to pain unless an action was performed. Reaction times were fastest during painful stimulation and correlated with CCZ activation. These findings are consistent with the results of an activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis in which activation across experiments involving pain, action execution, or action preparation (with a total of 4929 subjects) converged in a similar network. These findings suggest that specific motor-related areas, including the CCZ, play a vital role in the control and execution of context-sensitive behavioral responses to pain. In contrast, bilateral insular cortex responded to pain stimulation regardless of action.

  • 304.
    Persson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Finland.
    Searching for Machiavelli but Finding Psychopathy and Narcissism2019In: Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, ISSN 1949-2715, E-ISSN 1949-2723, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 235-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machiavellianism is a psychological construct reflecting individual differences in manipulative and strategic thinking, pragmatic morality, and a cynical outlook on life. A recent stream of research has shown that Machiavellianism and psychopathy seem to be redundant constructs and that measures of Machiavellianism do not correspond well with theoretical expectations. In the present study, I juxtapose multiple measures of Machiavellianism against normal (i.e., the five-factor model and HEXACO) and abnormal (e.g., narcissism, psychopathy, impulsivity, and personality dysfunction) personality traits in an online sample (N = 591). Using Goldberg’s (2006) Bass–Ackwards approach, I investigate whether typical Machiavellian traits can be found anywhere in the construct hierarchy by comparing the levels of the hierarchy with expert-rated five-factor model prototypes of Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and external correlates. Our results indicate that measures of Machiavellianism mostly reflect psychopathy and narcissism. The implications of these results are discussed, including what the future may hold for Machiavellianism.

     

  • 305.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Lilienfeld, Scott O.
    Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States of America / School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Social status as one key indicator of successful psychopathy: An initial empirical investigation2019In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 141, p. 209-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder that researchers have subdivided into two types: successful and unsuccessful. Nevertheless, little headway has been made regarding how to conceptualize and operationalize success. We consider various accounts of success from the existing literature and make the case for a two-dimensional view of successful psychopathy. Specifically, we contend that successful psychopathy can be conceptualized with two conditions in mind: (a) high social status and (b) lack of serious antisocial behavior. We emphasize that high social status, best described using socioeconomic status (SES), has been largely overlooked in the literature. We tested this idea using a sample of 591 participants who received measures of the triarchic model of psychopathy (i.e., boldness, meanness, and disinhibition), SES, and personality dysfunction. The results demonstrated that, as predicted, the putatively adaptive features of psychopathy (i.e., boldness) were positively related to SES and personality functioning. In contrast, the putatively maladaptive psychopathy features disinhibition and meanness were negatively related to personality functioning, and disinhibition was negatively related to SES. The relevance of boldness to psychopathy and the benefits of conceptualizing success as a continuous variable are discussed.

  • 306.
    Persson, Björn N.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Blekinge Center of Competence, Region Blekinge, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Current Directions in Psychiatric Classification: From the DSM to RDoC2019In: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa, Cham: Springer, 2019, 1, p. 253-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 307.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dark and bright values: The Dark Triad and empathy relating to universal values2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an emphasis on self-enhancing values in present-day society. Empathy is shown to be declining and callousness increasing.This two-study research set out to analyze dark personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and brightpersonality traits (emotional and cognitive empathy), and their predictive validity on universal value types. Using a sample ofSwedes and Americans (N = 385), the Dark Triad (SD3) correlated significantly with all value types (Schwartz’s 10 values), forminga sinusoid pattern which aligned with the circumplex value model. Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated withthe self-enhancing values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the self-enhancing valuesHedonism and Power. Using a middle-aged US sample, cognitive and emotional empathy (IRI) were positively related to the selftranscendingvalues of Universalism and Benevolence and negatively with the self-enhancement values of Achievement and Power.In addition, both the dark and bright personality traits explained significant variance over the basic Big Five traits in universal values.Given the complex of values accounted for, we argue that these results account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values” andself-transcending “bright values”. This research highlights that certain universal values of individual and societal relevance can bepredicted by personality traits.

  • 308.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University West, Sweden.
    Dark values: The dark triad in Schwartz’ value types2016In: Independent in the heard: Inclusion and exclusion as social processes: Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014 / [ed] Robert Thornberg & Tomas Jungert, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, p. 82-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Empathy and Universal Values Explicated by the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis2016In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 156, no 6, p. 610-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research reports that empathy is on the decline in present-day society together with an increasing trend in self-enhancing values. Based on the empathy-altruism hypothesis we investigated whether these constructs are interlinked, by analyzing the relationships between emotional and cognitive empathy and 10 universal values. In the first study, using a middle-aged US sample, the results showed that empathy was strongly and positively related to altruistic values and negatively to self-enhancing values in a pattern which aligned with the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In a second confirmation study, these findings were replicated and extended, while also controlling for the Big Five personality traits, to discount that empathy is only captured by basic personality. Only emotional empathy, not cognitive empathy, accounted for up to 18% additional variance in altruistic values, which further confirmed the emphasis on feelings, as postulated by the empathy-altruism hypothesis.

  • 310.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / University West, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Revisiting the Structure of the Short Dark Triad2019In: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 3-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decade, extensive interest has been directed toward the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), popularly assessed by the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Nevertheless, relatively little research has been conducted on the SD3's factor structure. We investigated the SD3's psychometric properties in three studies with three independent samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses ( N1 = 1,487; N2 = 17,740; N3 = 496). In all three studies, Machiavellianism and psychopathy items displayed large general factor loadings, and narcissism larger specific factor loadings. In subsequent studies, two- and three-factor models fitted the data similarly, with the best fitting model being a bifactor model with items from Machiavellianism and psychopathy modelled as one specific factor, and narcissism as a second specific factor. On this basis, we suggest that the SD3 does not seem to capture the different mental processes theorized to underlie the similar behaviors generated by Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Additionally, we recommend the use of a single SD3 composite score, and not subscale scores, as subscales contain small amounts of reliable variance beyond the general factor.

  • 311.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.
    Garcia, Denilo
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Testing construct independence in the Short Dark Triad using Item Response Theory2017In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 117, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) is a popular construct for describing socially aversive personality traits. In recent years, the Short Dark Triad (SD3; Jones & Paulhus, 2014) has become a popular measure for assessing the Dark Triad constructs. However, recent research has called the supposed dissimilarity between the Dark Triad constructs into question. In particular, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that a distinction between Machiavellianism and psychopathy may not be tenable. In order to investigate this issue further, we analyzed the SD3 in a large sample (N = 1983) using Item Response Theory. We establish item response parameter estimates for each Dark Triad construct and further test whether the Dark Triad constructs can be modelled together. Results show that Machiavellianism and narcissism could not be modelled together, but the combinations Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and narcissism and psychopathy, yielded acceptable model fit. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of how the Dark Triad constructs may be interpreted and studied in the future.

  • 312.
    Pokrzywa, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Department of Clinical and Medical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Norum, Michaela
    Department of Clinical and Medical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lengqvist, Johan
    Proteomic Core Facility, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ghobadpour, Mehrnaz
    Department of Clinical and Medical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Abdul-Hussein, Saba
    Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moslemi, Ali-Reza
    Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Developmental MYH3 Myopathy Associated with Expression of Mutant Protein and Reduced Expression Levels of Embryonic MyHC2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 11, article id e0142094Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    An essential role for embryonic MyHC in foetal development has been found from its association with distal arthrogryposis syndromes, a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by congenital contractions. The latter probably result from severe myopathy during foetal development. Lack of embryonic muscle biopsy material and suitable animal models has hindered study of the pathomechanisms linking mutations in MYH3 to prenatal myopathy.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    We determined the pathomechanisms of developmental myopathy caused by recurrent p.Thr178Ile MYH3 heterozygosity, using patient-derived skeletal muscle cells in culture as an experimental disease model to emulate early embryonic development. These cultured cells were processed for discrimination and quantitative analysis of mutant and wild-type MYH3 alleles and MyHC transcripts, real-time RT-qPCR, sequence analysis, immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot, and proteomic assessments. Involvement of the ubiquitin proteasome system was investigated in patients with p.Thr178Ile mutations in MYH3 and MYH2. We found equal overall expression of mutant and wild-type MyHC mRNAs and proteins. Compared to the controls, however, expression of embryonic MyHC transcripts and proteins was reduced whereas expression of myosin-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase (MuRF1) was increased. We also found delayed myofibrillogenesis and atrophic myotubes but structured sarcomeres.

    CONCLUSION:

    In conclusion, this study suggests that developmental p.Thr178Ile MYH3 myopathy is associated with a combined pathomechanism of insufficient dosage of functional embryonic MyHC and production of mutant protein.

  • 313.
    Prabhakar Yewale, Priti
    et al.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Bharat Lokhande, Kiran
    Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Sridhar, Aishwarya
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Vaishnav, Monika
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Ahmad Khan, Faisal
    The Life Science Centre-Biology, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Venkateswara Swamy, Kakuman
    Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Jass, Jana
    The Life Science Centre-Biology, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Molecular profiling of multidrug-resistant river water isolates: insights into resistance mechanism and potential inhibitors2019In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polluted waters are an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes and multidrug-resistant bacteria. This report describes the microbial community, antibiotic resistance genes, and the genetic profile of extended spectrum β-lactamase strains isolated from rivers at, Pune, India. ESBL-producing bacteria isolated from diverse river water catchments running through Pune City were characterized for their antibiotic resistance. The microbial community and types of genes which confer antibiotic resistance were identified followed by the isolation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on selective media and their genome analysis. Four representative isolates were sequenced using next generation sequencing for genomic analysis. They were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and two isolates were Enterobacter cloacae. The genes associated with the multidrug efflux pumps, such as tolC, macA, macB, adeL, and rosB, were detected in the isolates. As MacAB-TolC is an ABC type efflux pump responsible for conferring resistance in bacteria to several antibiotics, potential efflux pump inhibitors were identified by molecular docking. The homology model of their MacB protein with that from Escherichia coli K12 demonstrated structural changes in different motifs of MacB. Molecular docking of reported efflux pump inhibitors revealed the highest binding affinity of compound MC207-110 against MacB. It also details the potential efflux pump inhibitors that can serve as possible drug targets in drug development and discovery.

  • 314.
    Pradip, Arvind
    et al.
    Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden / Novo Nordisk A/S, Stem Cell Development, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    Steel, Daniella
    Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden / Horizon Discovery Ltd, Cambridge Research Park, Cambridge, UK.
    Jacobsson, Susanna
    Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacogenetics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden / AstraZeneca R&D, GMD CVMD GMed, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Björquist, Petter
    Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden / Novo Nordisk A/S, Stem Cell Development, Bagsværd, Denmark / NovaHep AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Inger
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacogenetics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Takara Bio Europe AB (Former Cellectis AB/Cellartis AB), Göteborg, Sweden.
    High Content Analysis of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Hepatocytes Reveals Drug Induced Steatosis and Phospholipidosis2016In: Stem Cells International, ISSN 1687-9678, Vol. 2016, article id 2475631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatotoxicity is one of the most cited reasons for withdrawal of approved drugs from the market. The use of nonclinically relevant in vitro and in vivo testing systems contributes to the high attrition rates. Recent advances in differentiating human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) into pure cultures of hepatocyte-like cells expressing functional drug metabolizing enzymes open up possibilities for novel, more relevant human cell based toxicity models. The present study aimed to investigate the use of hiPSC derived hepatocytes for conducting mechanistic toxicity testing by image based high content analysis (HCA). The hiPSC derived hepatocytes were exposed to drugs known to cause hepatotoxicity through steatosis and phospholipidosis, measuring several endpoints representing different mechanisms involved in drug induced hepatotoxicity. The hiPSC derived hepatocytes were benchmarked to the HepG2 cell line and generated robust HCA data with low imprecision between plates and batches. The different parameters measured were detected at subcytotoxic concentrations and the order of which the compounds were categorized (as severe, moderate, mild, or nontoxic) based on the degree of injury at isomolar concentration corresponded to previously published data. Taken together, the present study shows how hiPSC derived hepatocytes can be used as a platform for screening drug induced hepatotoxicity by HCA.

  • 315.
    Prakash, Divya
    et al.
    Dr. D. y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune 411 033, India.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Dr. D. y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune 411 033, India.
    Prakash, Mansi
    Dr. D. y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune 411 033, India.
    Bodas, Manish
    Dr. D. y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune 411 033, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Khetmalas, Madhukar
    Dr. D. Y Patil Biotechnology & Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune 411 033, India.
    Kapadnis, Balasaheb
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune 411 007, India.
    Actinomycetes: A Repertory of Green Catalysts with a Potential Revenue Resource2013In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, article id 264020Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biocatalysis, one of the oldest technologies, is becoming a favorable alternative to chemical processes and a vital part of green technology. It is an important revenue generating industry due to a global market projected at $7 billion in 2013 with a growth of 6.7% for enzymes alone. Some microbes are important sources of enzymes and are preferred over sources of plant and animal origin. As a result, more than 50% of the industrial enzymes are obtained from bacteria. The constant search for novel enzymes with robust characteristics has led to improvisations in the industrial processes, which is the key for profit growth. Actinomycetes constitute a significant component of the microbial population in most soils and can produce extracellular enzymes which can decompose various materials. Their enzymes are more attractive than enzymes from other sources because of their high stability and unusual substrate specificity. Actinomycetes found in extreme habitats produce novel enzymes with huge commercial potential. This review attempts to highlight the global importance of enzymes and extends to signify actinomycetes as promising harbingers of green technology.

  • 316.
    Prakash, Mansi
    et al.
    Dr. D. Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Bodas, Manish
    Dr. D. Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Prakash, Divya
    Dr. D. Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Dr. D. Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Khetmalas, Madhukar
    Dr. D. Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Eriksson, Cecilia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Diverse pathological implications of YKL-40: Answers may lie in 'outside-in' signaling2013In: Cellular Signalling, ISSN 0898-6568, E-ISSN 1873-3913, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1567-1573Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The developing paradigms about YKL-40, a member of the "mammalian chitinase-like proteins", from across the globe, project it as a vital parameter for the detection of disease onset and progression. It is expressed and secreted by cancer cells of different origins along with a variety of non-malignant cells including inflammatory and structural cells. Numerous studies demonstrate that YKL-40 over-expression is associated with increased patient mortality though the cellular receptors responsible for mediating these effects have not yet been identified. The putative YKL-40 ligands are thought to be carbohydrate structures, since it is capable of binding chitin, chito-oligosaccharides and heparin. Binding of collagen to YKL-40, identified it as the only non-carbohydrate extracellular matrix (ECM) ligand for YKL-40. Our broad understanding of YKL-40 as a versatile biomarker and its involvement in activating several signaling pathways make us anticipate that its specific receptors/binding partners may exist on the cell surface also. The cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) moieties seem to be the potential candidates for this role, suggesting that it could interact with HS-proteoglycans. It is recommended to clearly delineate YKL-40-mediated signaling mechanisms before promoting the YKL-40 know-how for translational research, in both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. The present review provides an overview of YKL-40 as a versatile biomarker, discussing the related pathological mechanisms and aims to reassess and unify the already proposed diverse hypotheses in YKL-40-regulated signaling mechanisms. (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 317.
    Prokop, Andreas
    et al.
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Cellartis, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sánchez-Soriano, Natalia
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Cell-Matrix Research, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Using primary neuron cultures of Drosophila to analyze neuronal circuit formation and function2012In: The making and un-making of neuronal circuits in Drosophila / [ed] Bassem A. Hassan, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012, p. 225-247Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many decades, primary neuron cultures of Drosophila have been used complementary to work in vivo. Primary cultures were instrumental for the analysis of physiological properties of Drosophila neurons and synapses, and they were used for the analysis of developmental processes. Recent developments have established Drosophila primary neurons based on Schneider's culture media, as a means to investigate the neuronal cytoskeleton, opening up novel opportunities for research into cellular mechanisms of axonal growth, synapse formation and perhaps even neuronal degeneration. These cell cultures provide readouts for cytoskeletal dynamics that are difficult or impossible to access in vivo, and which turned out to be highly conserved with mammalian or other vertebrate neurons. Therefore, the same genetic manipulations in Drosophila can now be studied synergetically in culture and in vivo, to address cell biological principles of neuronal circuit formation and function. Here we describe in detail how these cell cultures are generated and discuss principal considerations for the experimental design and the solution of common problems. Furthermore, we describe in detail how to generate Schneider's media with adjustable inorganic ion concentrations. These media have been shown to promote the physiological maturation of neurons, thus expanding the use of the primary neuron cultures into the synaptic stage. The culture strategies described here recapitulate in vivo development with impressive accuracy and provide a promising means for Drosophila research on neuronal development and function.

  • 318.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. The Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Can Bohmian Quantum Information Help us to Understand Consciousness?2016In: Quantum Interaction: 9th International Conference, QI 2015, Filzbach, Switzerland, July 15-17, 2015, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Harald Atmanspacher, Thomas Filk, Emmanuel Pothos, Springer Publishing Company, 2016, p. 76-87Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores whether David Bohm’ s proposal about quantum theoretical active information, and the mind-matter scheme he developed on the basis of it, can help us to explain consciousness (Bohm and Hiley 1987, 1993; Bohm 1989, 1990 ; Pylkkänen 2007 ). Here it is important to acknowledge that other researchers in philosophy of mind and consciousness studies have also made use of the concept of information in their theories of mind and consciousness. For example, Dretske (1981 ) and Barwise and Seligman (1997 ) have explored the possibility that information in the sense of factual semantic contents (i.e. information as meaningful data that represents facts correctly or incorrectly) can be grounded in environmental information (i.e.information as mere correlation, e.g. the way tree rings carry information about age). For Dretske this was an important part of his attempts to give a naturalistic account of sensory experiences, qualia and consciousness. During recent years the notion of information has been used to explain consciousness most notably by David Chalmers (1996 ), as well as by Giulio Tononi and his co-workers (Tononi and Koch 2014 ; Oizumi, Albantakis and Tononi 2014 ). The strategy of this paper will be to first describe Bohm’ s mind-matter scheme, and then to briefl y consider Chalmers’  and Tononi et al.’ s ideas in the light of this scheme.

  • 319.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Can quantum analogies help us to understand the process of thought?2014In: Mind and Matter, ISSN 1611-8812, E-ISSN 2051-3003, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 61-91Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 320.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, Finland & Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Consciousness in the light of quantum theory2016In: Consciousness: Integrating Eastern and Western Perspectives / [ed] Prem Saran Satsangi, Stuart Hameroff, Vishal Sani, Pami Dua, New Delhi: New Age Books , 2016, p. 23-34Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the theme “quantum approaches to consciousness” by considering the work of one of the pioneers in the field. The physicist David Bohm (1917-1992) not only made important contributions to quantum physics, but also had a long-term interest in interpreting the results of quantum physics and relativity in order to develop a general world view.  His idea was further that living and mental processes could be understood in a new, scientifically and philosophically more coherent way in the context of such a new world view. This paper gives a brief overview of different – and sometimes contradictory - aspects of Bohm’s research programme, and evaluates how they can be used to give an account of topics of interest in contemporary consciousness studies, such as analogies between thought and quantum processes, the problem of mental causation, the mind-body problem and the problem of time consciousness. 

  • 321.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki.
    Fundamental Physics and the Mind – Is There a Connection?2015In: Quantum Interaction 2014: 8th International Conference, QI 2014, Filzbach, Switzerland, June 30 - July 3, 2014. Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Harald Atmanspacher, Claudia Bergomi, Thomas Filk, Kirsty Kitto, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, p. 3-11Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in the field of quantum cognition (Pothos and Busemeyer 2013; Wang et al. 2013) suggest a puzzling connection between fundamental physics and the mind. Many researchers see quantum ideas and formalisms merely as useful pragmatic tools, and do not look for deeper underlying explanations for why they work. However, others are tempted to seek for an intelligible explanation for why quantum ideas work to model cognition. This paper first draws attention to how the physicist David Bohm already in 1951 suggested that thought and quantum processes are analogous, adding that this could be explained if some neural processes underlying thought involved non-negligible quantum effects. The paper next points out that the idea that there is a connection between fundamental physics and the mind is not unique to quantum theory, but was there already when Newtonian physics was assumed to be fundamental physics, advocated most notably by Kant. Kant emphasized the unique intelligibility of a Newtonian notion of experience, and this historical background prompts us to ask in the final part of the paper whether we can really make sense of any quantum-like experience (whether experience of the empirical phenomena in the external worldor the inner worldof psychological phenomena). It is proposed that intelligibility is a relative notion and that, regardless of initial difficulties, quantum approaches to cognition and consciousness are likely to provide valuable new ways of understanding the mind.

  • 322.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Henry Stapp Vs. David Bohm on Mind, Matter, and Quantum Mechanics2019In: Activitas Nervosa Superior: Journal for Neuroscience and Cognitive Research, ISSN 1802-9698, Vol. 61, no 1-2, p. 48-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper briefly discusses some of David Bohm’s views on mind and matter and suggests that they allow for a stronger possibility for conscious free will to influence quantum dynamics than Henry Stapp’s approach.

  • 323.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies, Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Is there room in quantum ontology for a genuine causal role of consciousness?2017In: The Palgrave Handbook of Quantum Models in Social Science: Applications and Grand Challenges / [ed] Emmanuel Haven and Andrei Khrennikov, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 293-317Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Western philosophy and science have a strongly dualistic tradition regarding the mental and physical aspects of reality, which makes it difficult to understand their possible causal relations. In recent debates in cognitive neuroscience it has been common to claim on the basis of neural experiments that conscious experiences are causally inefficacious. At the same time there is much evidence that consciousness does play an important role in guiding behavior. The author explores whether a new way of understanding the causal role of mental states and consciousness could be provided by the ontological interpretation of the quantum theory (Bohm and Hiley, Phys. Rep. 144:323–348, 1987; Bohm and Hiley, The undivided universe: An ontological interpretation of quantum theory. Routledge: London, 1993). This interpretation radically changes our notion of matter by suggesting that a new type of active information plays a causal role at the quantum level of reality. The author thus considers to what extent the alleged causal powers of consciousness involve information, and then moves on to consider whether information in (conscious) mental states can be connected to the information at the level of quantum physics. In this way he sketches how quantum theory might help to throw light upon one of the grand challenges facing the social sciences and the humanities, namely the question of whether consciousness plays any genuine causal role in the physical world.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-03-01 01:00
  • 324.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum Theories of Consciousness2018In: The Routledge Handbook of Consciousness / [ed] Rocco J. Gennaro, Taylor & Francis, 2018, 1, p. 216-231Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a brief historical introduction to quantum theory, and shows that the theory opens up some radically new ways of thinking about the place of mind and consciousness in nature. Quantum theory is all about learning, on the basis of scientific experiments, to question the "obvious" truths about the nature of the physical world and to come up with more coherent alternatives. The chapter considers the famous two-slit experiment. It explores what the different interpretations of quantum theory say about situations like the two-slit experiment, and also considers what kind of theories of mind and consciousness some interpretations have inspired. The attempt to explain mind and consciousness in terms of the quantum theory involves heavy speculation. The advances in quantum biology, while not giving direct support to quantum brain theory, perhaps make a biologically grounded quantum theory of consciousness seem less inconceivable.

  • 325.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum theory, active information and the mind-matter problem2015In: Contextuality from Quantum Physics to Psychology / [ed] E. Dzhafarov, S. Jordan, R. Zhang and V. Cervantes, New Jersey: World Scientific, 2015, p. 325-334Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bohm and Hiley suggest that a certain new type of active information plays a key objective role in quantum processes. This paper discusses the implications of this suggestion to our understanding of the relation between the mental and the physical aspects of reality.

  • 326.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History and Art Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum Theory and the Place of Mind in the Causal Order of Things2019In: Quanta and Mind: Essays on the Connection between Quantum Mechanics and the Consciousness / [ed] J. Acacio de Barros, Carlos Montemayor, Springer, 2019, p. 163-171Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The received view in physicalist philosophy of mind assumes that causation can only take place at the physical domain and that the physical domain is causally closed. It is often thought that this leaves no room for mental states qua mental to have a causal influence upon the physical domain, leading to epiphenomenalism and the problem of mental causation. However, in recent philosophy of causation there has been growing interest in a line of thought that can be called causal antifundamentalism: causal notions cannot play a role in physics, because the fundamental laws of physics are radically different from causal laws. Causal anti-fundamentalism seems to challenge the received view in physicalist philosophy of mind and thus raises the possibility of there being genuine mental causation after all. This paper argues that while causal anti-fundamentalism provides a possible route to mental causation, we have reasons to think that it is incorrect. Does this mean that we have to accept the received view and give up the hope of genuine mental causation? I will suggest that the ontological interpretation of quantum theory provides us both with a view about the nature of causality in fundamental physics, as well as a view how genuine mental causation can be compatible with our fundamental (quantum) physical ontology.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-09-20 00:01
  • 327.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The crisis of intelligibility in physics and the prospects of a new form of scientific rationality2017In: On the Human Condition: Philosophical Essays in Honour of the Centennial Anniversary of Georg Henrik von Wright / [ed] Ilkka Niiniluoto & Thomas Wallgren, Helsinki: The Philosophical Society of Finland , 2017, p. 373-399Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Philosophy, History, Culture and Art Studies & The Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences (TINT), University of Helsinki, Finland.
    The quantum epoché2015In: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, ISSN 0079-6107, E-ISSN 1873-1732, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 332-340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theme of phenomenology and quantum physics is here tackled by examining some basic interpretational issues in quantum physics. One key issue in quantum theory from the very beginning has been whether it is possible to provide a quantum ontology of particles in motion in the same way as in classical physics, or whether we are restricted to stay within a more limited view of quantum systems, in terms of complementary but mutually exclusive phenomena. In phenomenological terms we could describe the situation by saying that according to the usual interpretation of quantum theory (especially Niels Bohr's), quantum phenomena require a kind of epoche (i.e. a suspension of assumptions about reality at the quantum level). However, there are other interpretations (especially David Bohm's) that seem to re-establish the possibility of a mind-independent ontology at the quantum level. We will show that even such ontological interpretations contain novel, non-classical features, which require them to give a special role to phenomenaor appearances, a role not encountered in classical physics. We will conclude that while ontological interpretations of quantum theory are possible, quantum theory implies the need of a certain kind of epoche even for this type of interpretations. While different from the epoche connected to phenomenological description, the quantum epochenevertheless points to a potentially interesting parallel between phenomenology and quantum philosophy.

  • 329.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of History, Philosophy, Culture and Art Studies & Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in the Philosophy of the Social Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    The role of Eastern approaches in David Bohm's scientific-philosophical odysseia2017In: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, ISSN 0079-6107, E-ISSN 1873-1732, Vol. 131, p. 171-178Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Weak vs. Strong Quantum Cognition2015In: Advances in Cognitive Neurodynamics (IV): Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Cognitive Neurodynamics - 2013 / [ed] Hans Liljenström, Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015, p. 411-418Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades some cognitive scientists have adopted a program of quantum cognition. For example, Pothos and Busemeyer (PB) argue that there are empirical results concerning human decision-making and judgment that can be elegantly accounted for by quantum probability (QP) theory, while classical (Bayesian) probability theory fails. They suggest that the reason why QP works better is because some cognitive phenomena are analogous to quantum phenomena. This naturally gives rise to a further question about why they are analogous. Is this a pure coincidence, or is there a deeper reason? For example, could the neural processes underlying cognition involve subtle quantum effects, thus explaining why cognition obeys QP? PB are agnostic about this controversial issue, and thus their kind of program could be labeled as “weak quantum cognition” (analogously to the program of weak artificial intelligence as characterized by Searle). However, there is a long tradition of speculating about the role of subtle quantum effects in the neural correlates of cognition, constituting a program of “strong quantum cognition” (SQC) or “quantum cognitive neuroscience”. This paper considers the prospects of SQC, by briefly reviewing and commenting on some of the key proposals. In particular, Bohm and Hiley’s active information program will be discussed.

  • 331.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Helsinki.
    Hiley, Basil
    University of London.
    Pättiniemi, Ilkka
    University of Helsinki.
    Bohm's approach and individuality2015In: Individuals Across the Sciences / [ed] Guay, A. and Pradeu, T., Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 226-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Ladyman and Ross (LR) argue that quantum objects are not individuals (or are at most weakly discernible individuals) and use this idea to ground their metaphysical view, ontic structural realism, according to which relational structures are primary to things. LR acknowledge that there is a version of quantum theory, namely the Bohm theory (BT), according to which particles do have denite trajectories at all times. However, LR interpret the research by Brown et al.  as implying that "raw stuff" or haecceities  are needed for the individuality of particles of BT, and LR dismiss this as idle metaphysics. In this paper we note that Brown et al.'s research does not imply that haecceities are needed. Thus BT remains as a genuine option for those who seek to understand quantum particles as individuals. However, we go on to discuss some problems with BT which led Bohm and Hiley to modify it. This modified version underlines that, due to features such as context-dependence and non-locality, Bohmian particles have a very limited autonomy in situations where quantum effects are non-negligible. So while BT restores the possibility of quantum individuals, it also underlines the primacy of the whole over the autonomy of the parts. The later sections of the paper also examine the Bohm theory in the general mathematical context of symplectic geometry. This provides yet another way of understanding the subtle, holistic and dynamic nature of Bohmian individuals. We finally briefly consider Bohm's other main line of research, the "implicate order", which is in some ways similar to LR's structural realism.

  • 332.
    Radek, L.
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallionpää, R. E.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku,Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Karvonen, M.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku,Finland.
    Scheinin, A.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Maksimow, A.
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Långsjö, J.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Department of Intensive Care, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere,Finland.
    Kaisti, K.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vahlberg, T.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Biostatistics, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, H.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku,Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Dreaming and awareness during dexmedetomidine- and propofol-induced unresponsiveness2018In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 260-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Experiences during anaesthetic-induced unresponsiveness have previously been investigated by interviews after recovery. To explore whether experiences occur during drug administration, we interviewed participants during target-controlled infusion (TCI) of dexmedetomidine or propofol and after recovery. Methods: Healthy participants received dexmedetomidine (n = 23) or propofol (n = 24) in stepwise increments until loss of responsiveness (LOR1). During TCI we attempted to arouse them for interview (return of responsiveness, ROR1). After the interview, if unresponsiveness ensued with the same dose (LOR2), the procedure was repeated (ROR2). Finally, the concentration was increased 1.5-fold to achieve presumable loss of consciousness (LOC), infusion terminated, and the participants interviewed upon recovery (ROR3). An emotional sound stimulus was presented during LORs and LOC, and memory for stimuli was assessed with recognition task after recovery. Interview transcripts were content analysed. Results: Of participants receiving dexmedetomidine, 18/23 were arousable from LOR1 and LOR2. Of participants receiving propofol, 10/24 were arousable from LOR1 and two of four were arousable from LOR2. Of 93 interviews performed, 84% included experiences from periods of unresponsiveness (dexmedetomidine 90%, propofol 74%). Internally generated experiences (dreaming) were present in 86% of reports from unresponsive periods, while externally generated experiences (awareness) were rare and linked to brief arousals. No within drug differences in the prevalence or content of experiences during infusion vs after recovery were observed, but participants receiving dexmedetomidine reported dreaming and awareness more often. Participants receiving dexmedetomidine recognised the emotional sounds better than participants receiving propofol (42% vs 15%), but none reported references to sounds spontaneously. Conclusion: Anaesthetic-induced unresponsiveness does not induce unconsciousness or necessarily even disconnectedness.

  • 333.
    Rahman, Aminur
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Örebro University.
    Bioremediation of Toxic Metals for Protecting Human Health and the Ecosystem2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metal pollutants, discharged into the ecosystem as waste by anthropogenic activities, contaminate drinking water for millions of people and animals in many regions of the world. Long term exposure to these metals, leads to several lethal diseases like cancer, keratosis, gangrene, diabetes, cardio- vascular disorders, etc. Therefore, removal of these pollutants from soil, water and environment is of great importance for human welfare. One of the possible eco-friendly solutions to this problem is the use of microorganisms that can accumulate the heavy metals from the contaminated sources, hence reducing the pollutant contents to a safe level.

    In this thesis an arsenic resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA, a chromium resistant bacterium Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA and a nickel resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sp. BA2 were isolated and studied. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of these isolates are 500 mM sodium arsenate, 5.5 mM potassium chromate and 9 mM nickel chloride, respectively. The time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy analyses revealed that after 120 h of exposure, the intracellular accumulation of arsenic in B1-CDA and chromium in B2-DHA were 5.0 mg/g dwt and 320 μg/g dwt of cell biomass, respectively. However, the arsenic and chromium contents in the liquid medium were reduced to 50% and 81%, respectively. The adsorption values of BA2 when exposed to nickel for 6 h were 238.04 mg of Ni(II) per gram of dead biomass indicating BA2 can reduce nickel content in the solution to 53.89%. Scanning electron micrograph depicted the effect of these metals on cellular morphology of the isolates. The genetic composition of B1-CDA and B2-DHA were studied in detail by sequencing of whole genomes. All genes of B1-CDA and B2-DHA predicted to be associated with resistance to heavy metals were annotated.

    The findings in this study accentuate the significance of these bacteria in removing toxic metals from the contaminated sources. The genetic mechanisms of these isolates in absorbing and thus removing toxic metals could be used as vehicles to cope with metal toxicity of the contaminated effluents discharged to the nature by industries and other human activities.

  • 334.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jass, Jana
    The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Complete genome sequence of Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA: a bacterium that accumulates arsenics2016In: Genome Announcements, ISSN 2169-8287, E-ISSN 2169-8287, Vol. 4, no 1, article id e00999-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report the genomic sequence and genetic composition of an arsenic resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed that the genome size is ~4.5 Mb encompassing ~80% of the chromosomal DNA.

  • 335.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Örebro Universitet.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro Universitet.
    Desale, Prithviraj
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Kapadnis, Balu P.
    University of Pune, India.
    Hossain, Khaled
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    Iona College, New Rochelle, New York, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Isolation and characterization of a Lysinibacillus strain B1-CDA showing potential for bioremediation of arsenics from contaminated water2014In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 49, no 12, p. 1349-1360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to identify and isolate arsenic resistant bacteria that can be used for removing arsenic from thecontaminated environment. Here we report a soil borne bacterium, B1-CDA that can serve this purpose. B1-CDA was isolated fromthe soil of a cultivated land in Chuadanga district located in the southwest region of Bangladesh. The morphological, biochemicaland 16S rRNA analysis suggested that the isolate belongs to Lysinibacillus sphaericus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)value of the isolate is 500 mM (As) as arsenate. TOF-SIMS and ICP-MS analysis confirmed intracellular accumulation and removalof arsenics. Arsenic accumulation in cells amounted to 5.0 mg g¡1 of the cells dry biomass and thus reduced the arsenicconcentration in the contaminated liquid medium by as much as 50%. These results indicate that B1-CDA has the potential forremediation of arsenic from the contaminated water. We believe the benefits of implementing this bacterium to efficiently reducearsenic exposure will not only help to remove one aspect of human arsenic poisoning but will also benefit livestock and native animalspecies. Therefore, the outcome of this research will be highly significant for people in the affected area and also for humanpopulations in other countries that have credible health concerns as a consequence of arsenic-contaminated water.

  • 336.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Örebro University.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Comparative genome analysis of Lysinibacillus B1-CDA, a bacterium that accumulates arsenics2015In: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646, Vol. 106, no 6, p. 384-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, we reported an arsenic resistant bacterium Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA, isolated from an arsenic contaminated lands. Here, we have investigated its genetic composition and evolutionary history by using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Lysinibacillus genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of ~ 4.5 Mb in size encompassing ~ 80% of the chromosomal DNA. We found that the set of ordered contigs contains abundant regions of similarity with other Lysinibacillus genomes and clearly identifiable genome rearrangements. Furthermore, all genes of B1-CDA that were predicted be involved in its resistance to arsenic and/or other heavy metals were annotated. The presence of arsenic responsive genes was verified by PCR in vitro conditions. The findings of this study highlight the significance of this bacterium in removing arsenics and other toxic metals from the contaminated sources. The genetic mechanisms of the isolate could be used to cope with arsenic toxicity.

  • 337.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Örebro University.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, India.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Data in support of the comparative genome analysis of Lysinibacillus B1-CDA, a bacterium that accumulates arsenics2015In: Data in Brief, ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 5, p. 579-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a part of our long term project on bioremediation of toxic metals and other pollutants for protection of human health and the environment from severe contamination. The information and results presented in this data article are based on both in vitro and in silico experiments. In vitro experiments were used to investigate the presence of arsenic responsive genes in a bacterial strain B1-CDA that is highly resistant to arsenics. However, in silico studies were used to annotate the function of the metal responsive genes. By using this combined study consisting of in vitro and in silico experiments we have identified and characterized specific genes from B1-CDA that can be used as a potential tool for removal of arsenics as well as other heavy metals from the contaminated environment.

  • 338.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Örebro Universtitet.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Tathawade, Pune, India.
    Jass, Jana
    The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Alam Saud, Zahangir
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    Department of Zoology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, New York, USA.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Bioremediation of hexavalent chromium (VI) by a soil borne bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA2015In: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering, ISSN 1093-4529, E-ISSN 1532-4117, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 1136-1147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chromium and chromium containing compounds are discharged into the nature as waste from anthropogenic activities, such as industries, agriculture, forest farming, mining and metallurgy. Continued disposal of these compounds to the environment leads to development of various lethal diseases in both humans and animals. In this paper, we report a soil borne bacterium, B2-DHA that can be used as a vehicle to effectively remove chromium from the contaminated sources. B2-DHA is resistant to chromium with a MIC value of 1000 µg/mL potassium chromate. The bacterium has been identified as a Gram negative, Enterobacter cloacae based on biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene analysis. TOF-SIMS and ICP-MS analyses confirmed intracellular accumulation of chromium and thus its removal from the contaminated liquid medium. Chromium accumulation in cells was 320 µg/g of cells dry biomass after 120 h exposure and thus it reduced the chromium concentration in the liquid medium by as much as 81%. Environmental scanning electron micrograph revealed the effect of metals on cellular morphology of the isolates. Altogether, our results indicate that B2-DHA has the potential to reduce chromium significantly to safe levels from the contaminated environments and suggest the potential use of this bacterium in reducing human exposure to chromium, hence avoiding poisoning.

  • 339.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Investigation on Arsenic-Accumulating and Arsenic-Transforming Bacteria for Potential Use in the Bioremediation of Arsenics2017In: Handbook of Metal-Microbe Interactions and Bioremediation / [ed] Surajit Das, Hirak Ranjan Dash, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2017, p. 509-519Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, arsenic-accumulating and arsenic- transformingbacterial strains that can be employed as a sourcefor cost-effective and eco-friendly bioremediation of arsenicsfrom contaminated environments have been reviewed. Thischapter demonstrates that many naturally occurring bacterialstrains like B1-CDA have the potential for reducing arseniccontent in contaminated sources to safe levels. Therefore,the socioeconomic impact of this kind of microorganisms ishighly significant for those countries, especially in the developingworld, where impoverished families and villages aremost impacted. Therefore, this discovery should be consideredto be the most significant factor in formulating nationalstrategies for effective poverty elimination. Besides humanarsenic contamination, these bacterial strains will also benefitlivestock and native animal species, and the outcome ofthese studies is vital not only for people in arsenic-affectedareas but also for human populations in other countries thathave credible health concerns as a consequence of arseniccontaminatedwater and foods.

  • 340.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune-411033, India.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    Iona College, New Rochelle, NY, USA.
    Saha, Ananda K.
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Khaled
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Genome analysis of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA: A bacterium resistant to chromium and/or other heavy metalsIn: Genomics, ISSN 0888-7543, E-ISSN 1089-8646Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nahar, Noor
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Complete Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA: a Chromium-Resistant Bacterium2016In: Genome Announcements, ISSN 2169-8287, E-ISSN 2169-8287, Vol. 4, no 3, article id e00483-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, we reported a chromium-resistant bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, isolated from the landfills of tannery industries in Bangladesh. Here, we investigated its genetic composition using massively parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Enterobacter genomes. Assembly of the sequencing reads revealed a genome of ~4.21 Mb in size.

  • 342.
    Rahman, Aminur
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jass, Jana
    The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, SE-701 82 Örebro, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D.Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Pune-411033, India.
    Ghosh, Sibdas
    School of Arts and Science, Iona College, New Rochelle, NY 10801, USA.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Genome Sequencing Revealed Chromium and Other Heavy Metal Resistance Genes in E. cloacae B2-Dha2017In: Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology, E-ISSN 1948-5948, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 191-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The previously described chromium resistant bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae B2-DHA, was isolated from leather manufacturing tannery landfill in Bangladesh. Here we report the entire genome sequence of this bacterium containing chromium and other heavy metal resistance genes. The genome size and the number of genes, determined by massive parallel sequencing and comparative analysis with other known Enterobacter genomes, are predicted to be 4.22 Mb and 3958, respectively. Nearly 160 of these genes were found to be involved in binding, transport, and catabolism of ions as well as efflux of inorganic and organic compounds. Specifically, the presence of two chromium resistance genes, chrR and chrA was verified by polymerase chain reaction. The outcome of this research highlights the significance of this bacterium in bioremediation of chromium and other toxic metals from the contaminated sources.

  • 343.
    Rahman, M.
    et al.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Saud, Z. A.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, E.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Islam, K.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Karim, M. R.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh / Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh.
    Hoque, M. M.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Yeasmin, T.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Nikkon, F.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Hossain, K.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    The Ameliorating Effects Of Zingiber Zerumbet Linn On Sodium Arsenite-Induced Changes Of Blood Indices In Experimental Mice2012In: Life Sciences and Medicine Research, ISSN 1948-7886, p. LSMR-41-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of Zingiber zerumbet Linn powder on sodium arsenite-induced changes of blood indices in experimental mice. Swiss albino male mice were divided into four groups. The first group was used as control, while the second, third and fourth groups were treated with Z. zerumbet (L.) powder, sodium arsenite and Z. zerumbet (L.) powder plus sodium arsenite, respectively. Animals (third and fourth groups) were exposed to sodium arsenite at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight/day for 12 weeks. Exposure to sodium arsenite revealed a significant (p < 0.05) increase of serum urea, uric acid, triglyceride (TG), glucose levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Serum butyryl cholinesterase (BChE) activity significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in sodium arsenite-treated group as compared with control group. Interestingly, food supplemented with Z. zerumbet (L.) (50 mg/kg body weight/day) showed protective effect against sodium arsenite-induced increase of serum urea, uric acid and TG levels except serum glucose levels. Moreover, Z. zerumbet (L.) also abrogated the sodium arsenite-induced changes of BChE and ALP activities. Therefore, the ameliorating effects of Z. zerumbet (L.) on sodium arsenite-treated mice suggested the future application of Z. zerumbet (L.) to reduce or prevent arsenic toxicity in human.

  • 344.
    Rahman, Motiur
    et al.
    Plant Breeding & Gene Engineering Lab., Dept. of Botany, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ahmed, Bulbul
    Plant Breeding & Gene Engineering Lab., Dept. of Botany, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh / Dept. of Chemistry, Biochemistry & Physics, University of Quebec at Trois - Rivieres, Quebec, Canada.
    Islam, Rafiul
    Plant Breeding & Gene Engineering Lab., Dept. of Botany, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Monzur
    Plant Breeding & Gene Engineering Lab., Dept. of Botany, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    A Biotechnological Approach for the Production of Red Gerbera (Gerbera Jamesonii Bolus)2014In: Nova Journal of Medical and Biological Sciences, ISSN 2292-793X, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in vitro propagation of a red Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) variety was achieved by culturing flower bud, leaf segments and flower stalk segments of 80 days old field grown plants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentration (1.0-6.0 mg/l) of 6-benzyl adenine (BA) in combination with single concentration (1.0 mg/l) of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Lower concentration of BA (1.0 and 2.0 mg/l) with NAA induced the explants to form callus. On the other hand when the explants were cultured in higher concentration (5.0 mg/l) of BA produced shoots and 5.0 mg/l BA with 1.0 mg/l NAA was found to be the best for shoot proliferation of the three explants optimum response was obtained from flower buds. Further multiplication of shoots occurred upon transfer of shoot clumps to BA containing MS medium. Regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or indole-3-buteric acid (IBA) and maximum frequency (81%) of rooting with highest number (4) of roots per shoot was achieved in MS medium fortified with 0.3 mg/l IBA. The rooted shoots were acclimatized and successfully established in soil under natural environment with maximum 84% survivability.

  • 345.
    Railo, Henry
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for fast emergence of visual consciousness2015In: Neuroscience of Consciousness, ISSN 2057-2107, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental unsettled dispute concerns how fast the brain generates subjective visual experiences. Both early visual cortical activation and later activity in fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace correlate with conscious vision, but resolving which of the correlates causally triggers conscious vision has proved a methodological impasse. We show that participants can report whether or not they consciously perceived a stimulus in just over 200 ms. These fast consciousness reports were extremely reliable, and did not include reflexive, unconscious responses. The neural events that causally generate conscious vision must have occurred before these behavioral reports. Analyses on single-trial neural correlates of consciousness revealed that the late cortical processing in fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace (∼300 ms) started after the fastest consciousness reports, ruling out the possibility that this late activity directly reflects the emergence of visual consciousness. The consciousness reports were preceded by a negative amplitude difference (∼160–220 ms) that spread from occipital to frontal cortex, suggesting that this correlate underlies the emergence of conscious vision.

  • 346.
    Rehn, Therese
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Handlin, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Keeling, Linda J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Environment and Health, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dogs' endocrine and behavioural responses at reunion are affected by how the human initiates contact2014In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 124, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 347.
    Retz, Carolina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Andersson, Sofie
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital.
    Karlsson, Diana
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Quicker identification of Gram-positive cocci in clusters in patients with suspected sepsis2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sepsis is the primary cause of death from infection. Globally, an estimated 18 million people die from sepsis annually, exceeding deaths caused by HIV/AIDS, breast cancer, and prostate cancer combined1. Early sepsis diagnosis and targeted antimicrobial (AM) therapy reduce the length of intensive care for patients and cost by 30%2. The current gold standard, using blood cultures (BC), takes 12-72 h to detect pathogens in the blood and even longer to identify the exact pathogen and its AM susceptibility for optimal therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether the QuickFISHTMBC test (AdvanDx, Woburn, MA) could be robust, timesaving and specific in the clinical microbiology laboratory setting, for identification of the pathogens causing life-threatening bloodstream infections.

  • 348.
    Retz, Karolina
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde.
    Andersson, Sofie
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde .
    Andersson, Carl
    University of Skövde.
    Svensson, Kristina
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde .
    Ljungström, Lars
    The Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden .
    Enroth, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde .
    Tilevik, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Evaluation of the QuickFISH and the Sepsityper assays for early identification of etiological agents in bloodstream infection in a clinical routine setting2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 349.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Biological naturalism and biological realism2018In: The Routledge Handbook of Consciousness / [ed] Rocco J. Gennaro, New York: Taylor & Francis, 2018, 1, p. 188-201Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarizes the main principles of Biological Naturalism (BN) and Biological Realism (BR), and analyzes some of their similarities and differences. It contrasts the biological approach represented by BN and BR with another currently influential approach: information theories of consciousness, especially the Information Integration Theory. John Searle appears to accept the two main components of the supervenience relationship between consciousness and the brain: there can be no difference in conscious states without a corresponding difference in the underlying brain states (the covariance principle), and the conscious states owe their existence to the underlying brain states (the principle of ontological dependency). BN fails to offer a coherent account of how the first-person ontology of consciousness is related to the third-person ontology of neurophysiology. Searle suggests that BN solves (or dissolves) the philosophical mind-body problem, but this turns out to be a mere promissory note.

  • 350.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Foundations of Consciousness2018Book (Refereed)
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