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  • 301.
    Boström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Calibrating Random Forests2008In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA'08), IEEE Computer Society, 2008, p. 121-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     When using the output of classifiers to calculate the expected utility of different alternatives in decision situations, the correctness of predicted class probabilities may be of crucial importance. However, even very accurate classifiers may output class probabilities of rather poor quality. One way of overcoming this problem is by means of calibration, i.e., mapping the original class probabilities to more accurate ones. Previous studies have however indicated that random forests are difficult to calibrate by standard calibration methods. In this work, a novel calibration method is introduced, which is based on a recent finding that probabilities predicted by forests of classification trees have a lower squared error compared to those predicted by forests of probability estimation trees (PETs). The novel calibration method is compared to the two standard methods, Platt scaling and isotonic regression, on 34 datasets from the UCI repository. The experiment shows that random forests of PETs calibrated by the novel method significantly outperform uncalibrated random forests of both PETs and classification trees, as well as random forests calibrated with the two standard methods, with respect to the squared error of predicted class probabilities.

     

     

  • 302.
    Boström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Estimating class probabilities in random forests2007In: ICMLA 2007. Sixth International Conference onMachine Learning and Applications, 2007., IEEE Computer Society, 2007, p. 211-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For both single probability estimation trees (PETs) and ensembles of such trees, commonly employed class probability estimates correct the observed relative class frequencies in each leaf to avoid anomalies caused by small sample sizes. The effect of such corrections in random forests of PETs is investigated, and the use of the relative class frequency is compared to using two corrected estimates, the Laplace estimate and the m-estimate. An experiment with 34 datasets from the UCI repository shows that estimating class probabilities using relative class frequency clearly outperforms both using the Laplace estimate and the m-estimate with respect to accuracy, area under the ROC curve (AUC) and Brier score. Hence, in contrast to what is commonly employed for PETs and ensembles of PETs, these results strongly suggest that a non-corrected probability estimate should be used in random forests of PETs. The experiment further shows that learning random forests of PETs using relative class frequency significantly outperforms learning random forests of classification trees (i.e., trees for which only an unweighted vote on the most probable class is counted) with respect to both accuracy and AUC, but that the latter is clearly ahead of the former with respect to Brier score.

  • 303.
    Boström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Feature vs. Classifier Fusion for Predictive Data Mining: a Case Study in Pesticide Classification2007In: 10th International Conference on Information Fusion, 2007, IEEE Press, 2007, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two strategies for fusing information from multiple sources when generating predictive models in the domain of pesticide classification are investigated: i) fusing different sets of features (molecular descriptors) before building a model and ii) fusing the classifiers built from the individual descriptor sets. An empirical investigation demonstrates that the choice of strategy can have a significant impact on the predictive performance. Furthermore, the experiment shows that the best strategy is dependent on the type of predictive model considered. When generating a decision tree for pesticide classification, a statistically significant difference in accuracy is observed in favor of combining predictions from the individual models compared to generating a single model from the fused set of molecular descriptors. On the other hand, when the model consists of an ensemble of decision trees, a statistically significant difference in accuracy is observed in favor of building the model from the fused set of descriptors compared to fusing ensemble models built from the individual sources.

  • 304.
    Boström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maximizing the Area under the ROC Curve with Decision Lists and Rule Sets2007In: Proceedings of the 7th SIAM International Conference on Data Mining / [ed] C. Apte, B. Liu, S. Parthasarathy, D. Skillicorn, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics , 2007, p. 27-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision lists (or ordered rule sets) have two attractive properties compared to unordered rule sets: they require a simpler classi¯cation procedure and they allow for a more compact representation. However, it is an open question what effect these properties have on the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Two ways of forming decision lists are considered in this study: by generating a sequence of rules, with a default rule for one of the classes, and by imposing an order upon rules that have been generated for all classes. An empirical investigation shows that the latter method gives a significantly higher AUC than the former, demonstrating that the compactness obtained by using one of the classes as a default is indeed associated with a cost. Furthermore, by using all applicable rules rather than the first in an ordered set, an even further significant improvement in AUC is obtained, demonstrating that the simple classification procedure is also associated with a cost. The observed gains in AUC for unordered rule sets compared to decision lists can be explained by that learning rules for all classes as well as combining multiple rules allow for examples to be ranked according to a more fine-grained scale compared to when applying rules in a fixed order and providing a default rule for one of the classes.

  • 305.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Brohede, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Nilsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    On the Definition of Information Fusion as a Field of Research2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A more precise definition of the field of information fusion can be of benefit to researchers within the field, who may use uch a definition when motivating their own work and evaluating the contribution of others. Moreover, it can enable researchers and practitioners outside the field to more easily relate their own work to the field and more easily understand the scope of the techniques and methods developed in the field. Previous definitions of information fusion are reviewed from that perspective, including definitions of data and sensor fusion, and their appropriateness as definitions for the entire research field are discussed. Based on strengths and weaknesses of existing definitions, a novel definition is proposed, which is argued to effectively fulfill the requirements that can be put on a definition of information fusion as a field of research.

  • 306.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On Evidential Combination Rules for Ensemble Classifiers2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, IEEE , 2008, p. 553-560Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensemble classifiers are known to generally perform better than each individual classifier of which they consist. One approach to classifier fusion is to apply Shafer’s theory of evidence. While most approaches have adopted Dempster’s rule of combination, a multitude of combination rules have been proposed. A number of combination rules as well as two voting rules are compared when used in conjunction with a specific kind of ensemble classifier, known as random forests, w.r.t. accuracy, area under ROC curve and Brier score on 27 datasets. The empirical evaluation shows that the choice of combination rule can have a significant impact on the performance for a single dataset, but in general the evidential combination rules do not perform better than the voting rules for this particular ensemble design. Furthermore, among the evidential rules, the associative ones appear to have better performance than the non-associative.

  • 307.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Utilizing Information on Uncertainty for In Silico Modeling using Random Forests2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2009), University of Skövde , 2009, p. 59-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on uncertainty of measurements or estimates of molecular properties are rarely utilized by in silico predictive models. In this study, different approaches to handling uncertain numerical features are explored when using the stateof- the-art random forest algorithm for generating predictive models. Two main approaches are considered: i) sampling from probability distributions prior to tree generation, which does not require any change to the underlying tree learning algorithm, and ii) adjusting the algorithm to allow for handling probability distributions, similar to how missing values typically are handled, i.e., partitions may include fractions of examples. An experiment with six datasets concerning the prediction of various chemical properties is presented, where 95% confidence intervals are included for one of the 92 numerical features. In total, five approaches to handling uncertain numeric features are compared: ignoring the uncertainty, sampling from distributions that are assumed to be uniform and normal respectively, and adjusting tree learning to handle probability distributions that are assumed to be uniform and normal respectively. The experimental results show that all approaches that utilize information on uncertainty indeed outperform the single approach ignoring this, both with respect to accuracy and area under ROC curve. A decomposition of the squared error of the constituent classification trees shows that the highest variance is obtained by ignoring the information on uncertainty, but that this also results in the highest mean squared error of the constituent trees.

  • 308.
    Botinis, Antonis
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Bakakou-Orphanou, Aikaterini
    Department of Linguistics, University of Athens.
    Tafroglou, Harris
    Department of Linguistics, University of Athens.
    Christopoulou, Anastasia
    Department of Linguistics, University of Athens.
    Produced pauses, perceived pauses and thematic units2004In: FONETIK 2004: The XVIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference, 2004, p. 96-99Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigate produced and perceived pauses in relation to thematic units of Greek radio news, defined by both listeners and readers. The results indicate: (1) perceived pauses are more than both produced pauses and thematic units; (2) the number of thematic units by listeners and readers does not differ substantially; (3) an agreement of ≥ 80% among listeners and readers results in a substantial drop of thematic units; (a) neither short and long pause nor hypertheme and hypotheme categories are adequately perceived.

  • 309.
    Botinis, Antonis
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Charabalakis, Christoforos
    Department of Linguistics, University of Athens, Greece.
    Fourakis, Marios
    Department of Speech and Hearing Science, The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.
    Gawronska, Barbara
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Athens 2006 ISCA Workshop on Experimental Linguistics2005In: Proceedings Fonetik 2005: The XVIIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference May 25–27 2005 / [ed] Anders Eriksson and Jonas Lindh, 2005, p. 131-134Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper refers to the forthcoming ISCA (In-ternational Speech Communication Associa-tion) Workshop “Experimental Linguistics” in Athens, Greece, in 2006. The major objectives of the Workshop are (1) the development of ex-perimental methodologies in linguistic research with new perspectives for the study of lan-guage, (2) the unification of linguistic knowledge in relation to linguistic theory based on ex-perimental evidence, (3) the design of multifac-tor linguistic models and (4) the integration of interdisciplinary expertise in linguistic applica-tions. Key knowledge areas ranging from cog-nition and neurophysiology to perception and psychology are organised in invited lectures as well as in oral and poster presentations along with interdisciplinary panel discussions.

  • 310.
    Boudagh, Amira
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Datorns betydelse för personer med lindrig utvecklingsstörning.: En studie om datorns roll för individers självkänsla inom skolformen Särvux.2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 311.
    Brandt Heedman, Ulrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Leijon, Erika
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    "Det är dubbelt så kul som svenska och alla andra ämnen": Elevers förhållningssätt till matematikundervisning i relation till läroplanen2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the autumn of 2011 the Swedish Government decided to make an investment in mathematics in schools, due to declining student performance, as seen from an international perspective. The investment focused on, for example, more hours of instruction in class, and competence development for teachers. With this investment in mind, we have chosen to study the question of why pupil performance becomes worse, from the pupils' perspective. For example, do they find the teaching of mathematics meaningful?

    The study aims to explore the attitudes of pupils in fourth grade towards mathematics teaching and its relevance in their daily lives. Furthermore, the study aims to compare these attitudes with the mission expressed regarding the subject of mathematics and mathematics teaching in the curriculum. Because of the new curriculum, we have chosen to compare the aim of mathematics teaching with the pupils’ responses. The data collection was done through group interviews and the analysis was done using qualitative content analysis. To support our analysis we have used three concepts: perceptions, experience and meaningfulness.

    The result shows that pupils perceive mathematics as something very positive. They can also see meaningfulness in mathematics, but mostly as a knowledge that will be used in the future. The pupils get experience in mathematics through their own work in a book, or through work in pairs. The result also shows that pupils' perceptions highly correspond with the aims of the mathematics teaching in the curriculum. Finally, we discuss the result supported by our theoretical concepts. For example, we discuss why the pupils' positive view of mathematics changes during the time they go to school. We also discuss how students come to the conclusion that mathematics is important in the future.

  • 312.
    Branislava, Golic
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Informationssystemstrategier för lyckad elektronisk handel mellan företag2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Strategisk roll av informationssystem har börjat diskuteras i allt större utsträckning i och med uppkomsten av den Internetbaserade elektroniska handeln mellan företag, Business-to-Business (B2B). För att kunna uppskatta den strategiska betydelsen av införandet av ett sådant system krävs att företagen begrundar sin allmänna affärsstrategi utifrån informationssystemets potential. Befintliga ramverk för informationssysystemsutveckling innehåller riktlinjer för kartläggning av de strategiska förändringarna men räcker inte till för att enskilt utvärdera B2B:s strategiska bidrag. En sammanställning av flera befintliga ramverk har resulterat i ett nytt ramverk som mer enhetligt kan analysera företagens allmänna affärsstrategi med avseende på B2B. I sin tillämpning har ramverket uppvisat förmågan att väcka en diskussion kring de potentiella förändringarna i företagens strategiska läge utifrån deras informationssystems utvecklingsmöjligheter.

  • 313.
    Brax, Christoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Anomaly Detection in the Surveillance Domain2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the post September 11 era, the demand for security has increased in virtually all parts of the society. The need for increased security originates from the emergence of new threats which differ from the traditional ones in such a way that they cannot be easily defined and are sometimes unknown or hidden in the “noise” of daily life.

    When the threats are known and definable, methods based on situation recognition can be used find them. However, when the threats are hard or impossible to define, other approaches must be used. One such approach is data-driven anomaly detection, where a model of normalcy is built and used to find anomalies, that is, things that do not fit the normal model. Anomaly detection has been identified as one of many enabling technologies for increasing security in the society.

    In this thesis, the problem of how to detect anomalies in the surveillance domain is studied. This is done by a characterisation of the surveillance domain and a literature review that identifies a number of weaknesses in previous anomaly detection methods used in the surveillance domain. Examples of identified weaknesses include: the handling of contextual information, the inclusion of expert knowledge and the handling of joint attributes. Based on the findings from this study, a new anomaly detection method is proposed. The proposed method is evaluated with respect to detection performance and computational cost on a number datasets, recorded from real-world sensors, in different application areas of the surveillance domain. Additionally, the method is also compared to two other commonly used anomaly detection methods. Finally, the method is evaluated on a dataset with anomalies developed together with maritime subject matter experts. The conclusion of the thesis is that the proposed method has a number of strengths compared to previous methods and is suitable foruse in operative maritime command and control systems.

  • 314.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    Training Systems and Information Fusion, Business Area Electronic Defence Systems, Saab AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Study of Anomaly Detection in Data from Urban Sensor Networks2012In: Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 9th International Conference, MDAI 2012, Girona, Catalonia, Spain, November 21-23, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Yasuo Narukawa, Beatriz López, Mateu Villaret, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 185-196Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many sensor systems used in urban environments, the amount of data produced can be vast. To aid operators of such systems, high-level information fusion can be used for automatically analyzing the surveillance information. In this paper an anomaly detection approach for finding areas with traffic patterns that deviate from what is considered normal is evaluated. The use of such approaches could help operators in identifying areas with an increased risk for ambushes  or improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

  • 315.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Evaluating Precise and Imprecise State-Based Anomaly Detectors for Maritime Surveillance2010In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Fusion, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. Article number 5711997-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend the State-Based Anomaly Detection approach by introducing precise and imprecise anomaly detectors using the Bayesian and credal combination operators, where evidences over time are combined into a joint evidence. We use imprecision in order to represent the sensitivity of the classification regarding an object being  normal or anomalous. We evaluate the detectors on a real-world maritime dataset containing recorded AIS data and show that the anomaly detectors outperform   previously proposed detectors based on Gaussian mixture models and kernel density estimators. We also show that our introduced anomaly detectors perform slightly better than the State-Based Anomaly Detection approach with a sliding window.

  • 316.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Laxhammar, Rikard
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Approaches for detecting behavioural anomalies in public areas using video surveillance data2008In: Proceedings of SPIE Europe 2008, 16–18 September 2008, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom / [ed] David A. Huckridge; Reinhard R. Ebert, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2008, p. Article number 711318-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 317.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    An approach for increased supply chain security by using automatic detection of anomalous vehicle behavior2009In: CD-ROM Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2009), 2009, p. 165-176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the development of low-cost GPS transceivers has made it possible to equip all trucks in a fleet with equipment for automatically reporting the status of the trucks to a fleet management system. The downside is that the huge amount of information that is gathered must be evaluated in real-time by an operator. We propose the use of a data-driven anomaly detection algorithm that learns "normal" vehicle behaviour and detects anomalous behaviour such as smuggling, accidents and hijacking, The algorithm is evaluated on real-world data from trucks and commuters equipped with GPS transceivers. The results give initial support to the claim that anomaly detection based on statistical learning can be used to support human descision making. This ability can increase supply chain security by alerting an operator on anomalous vehicle behaviour.

  • 318.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Enhanced situational Awareness in the Maritime Domain: An Agent-based Approach for Situation Management2009In: Intelligent Sensing, Situation Management, Impact Assessment, and Cyber-Sensing: Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009 / [ed] Stephen Mott, John F Buford, Gabriel Jakobson, SPIE Press , 2009, p. Aticle ID 735203-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime Domain Awareness is important for both civilian and military applications. An important part of MDA is detection of unusual vessel activities such as piracy, smuggling, poaching, collisions, etc. Today's interconnected sensorsystems provide us with huge amounts of information over large geographical areas which can make the operators reach their cognitive capacity and start to miss important events. We propose and agent-based situation management system that automatically analyse sensor information to detect unusual activity and anomalies. The system combines knowledge-based detection with data-driven anomaly detection. The system is evaluated using information from both radar and AIS sensors.

  • 319.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Laxhammar, Rikard
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    An ensemble approach for increased anomaly detection performance in video surveillance data2009In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2009), Seattle, Washington, USA, 6–9 July 2009, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 694-701Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased societal need for surveillance and the decrease in cost of sensors have led to a number of new challenges. The problem is not to collect data but to use it effectively for decision support. Manual interpretation of huge amounts of data in real-time is not feasible; the operator of a surveillance system needs support to analyze and understand all incoming data. In this paper an approach to intelligent video surveillance is presented, with emphasis on finding behavioural anomalies. Two different anomaly detection methods are compared and combined. The results show that it is possible to best increase the total detection performance by combining two different anomaly detectors rather than employing them independently.

     

  • 320.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Smedberg, Martin
    Saab Microwave Systems, Saab AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Finding behavioural anomalies in public areas using video surveillance data2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, p. 1655-1662Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In this paper we propose an approach forvdetecting anomalies in data from visual surveillancevsensors. The approach includes creating a structure for representing data, building “normal models” by filling the structure with data for the situation at hand, and finally detecting deviations in the data. The approach allows detections based on the incorporation of a priori knowledge about the situation and on data-driven analysis. The main advantages with the approach compared to earlier work is the low computational requirements, iterative update of normal models and a high explainability of found anomalies. The proposed approach is evaluated off-line using real-world data and the results support that the approach could be used to detect anomalies in real-time applications.

     

  • 321.
    Brinck Woollett, Åsa
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Individanpassningens ytterligheter: Några betygsmässigt hög- respektive lågpresterande gymnasieelevers åsikter kring engelskundervisningens utformning.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s society there is a discussion regarding students’ level of knowledge and personalisation. The classrooms consist of heterogenic groups of students with different learning needs and levels of knowledge. The purpose of the present study is to find out how the students who participated perceive the teaching of English as an additional language with regards to personalisation, and how they believe differentiation can help develop and deepen their learning.

     

    This study has been conducted using a qualitative method with interviews as the core, complemented by observations. The results have been analysed and interpreted hermeneutically.

     

    The results show that those students who have a positive attitude to English education, irrespective of their grade, are those who see the benefit of knowing English outside the classroom, and thereby create a connection between reality and studying English. Those who lack this connection have a negative attitude. Basing teaching in reality renders personalisation viable for the individual within a teaching group. Even when the students give some examples of how the teaching can be adjusted to their needs, most of them believe that the teacher must adjust the teaching to fit the class as a whole and they do not expect any personalisation.

     

  • 322.
    Broberg, Yvonne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Yrkeslärares erfarenheter - styrkor och svagheter: En studie om identitetsskapande inom tre olika arenor2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is to identify important factors affect, how teachers' professional identity and role are shaped and changed during and after teacher training. Study's focus is to identify important factors bearing on how teachers' professional identity and role are shaped and changed during and after a teacher training. Respondents included in study are all teachers in vocational subject in upper secondary school. They also have experience from at practical profession before they began to work as teachers and started the teacher training. Method used in this study is the life stories of narrative nature. The questions revolved around the nature of studies and professional lives. It’s found that teachers experience a noticeable difference between the learning in the former profession and learning in academic studies. By participating in different groups during their training, partly with students in other categories partly with those with similar background. In this context the former professional exercise got a different and more important meaning. The conclusion is that institutional learning is of an entirely different character than learning to a practical profession can be, and this will require time for reflection. The question is whether the gap that seems to exist can be overcome if students' professional experiences are procured in a manner that does not neglect scientific fact.

  • 323.
    Brodén, Ola
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Slöjdens mening och nytta: För eleven i grundskolans senare år2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to understand the meaning and use of the subject craft inthe Swedish compulsory school seen through about the subject.The study is based on the following question:· What sort of knowledge does craft lead to according to the pupils?· What meaning and use does craft have according to the pupils?The first part of the literature section is about the creation, history and development ofthe craft subject until the curriculum of today. The conception of knowledge is dealtwith through the curriculum, philosophy of Aristoteles and the sociocultural theory ofVygotskij.The second part of the literature section is about the competences of craft. They are thepedagogical process, body and communicative competences and entrepreneuriallearning.Diary notes from pupils and observations in the classroom are the empirical method inthe study. The craft competences the pupils wrote about and I also saw in myobservations were entrepreneurial, bodily and communicative and process competences.A sense of joy is also characteristic of the subject.The result shows that the meaning and use the pupils see in the subject are its characterof concretion, commitment and participation.In the discussion the literature and the result are connected whit reflections. A questionthis study contributed to is if and how the aesthetic subjects can be used as a startingpoint in the theoretical subjects. The result of the study shows that there are severalbenefits in the craft subject that should be used in other subjects to improve the results.

  • 324.
    Brohede, Kristin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Holst, Caroline
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    ATT SE MÖJLIGHETERNA: En studie om barns koncentrationssvårigheter inom Reggio Emilia2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Concentration difficulties is something that preschool teachers should be aware of in order to meet the children in preschool. An educational philosophy that is now current is Reggio Emilia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find out how preschool teachers, who work in four Reggio Emilia-inspired preschools, say they are working with and relating to children's concentration difficulties. We have used a qualitative method and selected interviews with semi-structured questions as data-collection method. We have interviewed four preschool teachers who all work in Reggio Emilia-inspired preschools. We have also made observations that formed the basis of the interviews.

    The result showed, for instance, that the teacher's child perspective and their democratic and reflective attitude are the foundation for the work with children's concentration difficulties. It was found that it is important to have the children's interests and needs as the starting point to make it easier to stimulate and motivate children and thereby reduce the concentration difficulties. The result showed that teachers' presence among the children is important in order to get to know the children and thus see what their needs are. To reduce concentration difficulties the respondents also said that it is important to have a well-thought-out environment with 'rooms in the rooms' and where all children have something they enjoy doing. The conclusion we can make from this study is that Reggio Emilia mainly helps in work with children's concentration difficulties, but we can also see that Reggio Emilia, to some extent, aggravate some children's situation.

  • 325.
    Brohede, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Bounded recovery in distributed discrete real-time simulations2006Report (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis proposal defines the problem of recovery in distributed discrete real-time simulations with external actions; real-time simulations with simulation actions in the real world. A problem that these simulations encounter is that they cannot rely on rollback-based recovery (use of checkpoints) for two reasons. First, some actions in the "real world" cannot be undone, and second, the time allowed for recovery tends to be short and bounded. As a result there is a need for some form of error masking for this category of simulations. We propose an infrastructure for these simulations with external actions based on an active distributed real-time database that features replication of the distributed simulation. The degree of replication is based on the dependability requirements of the individual nodes in the simulation.

    A guideline for how to decompose a distributed real-time simulation into parts with different requirements on the replication protocol is also defined as an interesting topic to investigate further. We introduce the simulation infrastructure "Simulation DeeDS" featuring a replication-based recovery strategy for the category of simulations mentioned. We also show that some information fusion applications are indeed examples of applications that need real-time simulation with external actions and as such can benefit from the proposed infrastructure.

  • 326.
    Brohede, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten F
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Distributed Whiteboard Infrastructure for Information Fusion Simulations2009In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual IEEE Software Engineering Workshop (SEW-32) / [ed] Breitman, K; Sterritt, R; Bohner, S, IEEE Computer Society Press , 2009, p. 134-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that architecural ideas from DeeDS, a distributed real-time database, can be used to create a whiteboard infrastructure usable in information fusion applications as well as in fault tolerant simulations. We discuss the need for faulttolerant real-time simulation in information fusion, and how this can be supported by the whiteboard infrastructure. There are many reasons to perform real-time simulations (including environment simulation) - the use of real hardware or systems can be prohibitively expensive or dangerous to people and equipment, or may simply not be available at all. The combination of real and simulated objects, or nodes, is of particular interest when it is prohibitively expensive, dangerous, or impossible to test sufficient numbers of collaborating nodes in a realistic application. The need for fault tolerance of such real-time simulations, with a mixture of real and simulated nodes, occurs because it is difficult/impossible to restart physical nodes or wait for restart of simulated nodes, if one or more simulation instances fail. The key problem when mixing real and simulated nodes is the occurrence of "external actions" that cannot easily be undone and redone when a failure has occurred. We describe a natural approach to support multiple degrees of fault tolerance in realtime simulations, based on optimistic synchronization on top of a whiteboard architecture. The whiteboard architecture is a natural and useful infrastructure metaphor for information fusion, an information-based exchange that allows real and simulated nodes to be freely mixed.

  • 327.
    Brohede, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Using Distributed Active Real-Time Database Functionality in Information-Fusion Infrastructures2005In: RTiS 2005: proceedings of Real time in Sweden 2005, the 8th Biennial SNART Conference on Real-Time Systems / [ed] Sten F. Andler, Anton Cervin, Skövde: Skövde University , 2005, p. 5-10Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a list of requirements that need to be

    addressed by an infrastructure for information fusion where

    applications have real-time requirements. The requirements are

    grouped into configuration requirements, temporal requirements,

    and robustness requirements. We show how the functionality of

    a distributed active real-time database system (DARTDBS) can

    meet many of the given requirements, and therefore, argue that

    it is suitable for use in an information-fusion infrastructure with

    real-time requirements. The design of a particular DARTDBS,

    the DeeDS architecture and prototype, is presented as proof

    of concept. A comparison with some alternative infrastructures

    is briefly discussed. We describe a small distributed real-time

    simulation experiment using DeeDS as infrastructure, and discuss

    open questions such as how to deal with uncertainty management

    of information sources, recovery of information fusion nodes, and

    harmonizing data structures from different information sources.

  • 328.
    Brohede, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Son, Sang Hyuk
    Department of Computer Science, University of Virginia, 151 Engineer’s Way, P.O. Box 400740, USA.
    Optimistic database-driven distributed real-time simulation (05F-SIW-031)2005In: Fall 2005 Simulation Interoperability Workshop: Fall SIW 2005, Curran Associates, Inc., 2005, p. 223-228Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present an optimistic synchronization protocol for distributed real-time simulations that uses a database as communication and storage mechanism. Each node in the simulation is also a database node and communication in the simulation is done by storing and reading to the database. The underlying replication protocol in the database then makes sure that all updates are propagated. The progress in the simulation is optimistic, i.e., each node tries to simulate as far ahead as possible without waiting for input from any other node. Since the simulations are said to be real-time we must guarantee that no events can be delivered too early nor too late. Also, recovery of a node must be done within predictable time due to the real-time constraints. Since all updates in the simulation are done through transactions we have a well-defined foundation for recovery and we show how the recovery can be done deterministically. For the simulation to function (and keep deadlines) during network partitions we allow local commits in the database. This requires that all data required on a specific node must be reachable from that node, i.e., no remote accesses should be needed. However, allowing local commits may introduce conflicting updates. These conflicts are detected and solved predictably

  • 329.
    Brolin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Case, Keith
    Inadequate presented information and its effect on the cognitive workload2011In: Manufacturing Sustainability: Proceedings of the 28th International Manufacturing Conference (IMC 28) / [ed] Geraghty, J & Young, P, 2011, p. 121-129Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Distribuerade belastningsattacker: Klassificering och utvärdering2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av Internet ökar varje år och företag blir i takt med detta mer och mer beroende av att kunna erbjuda sina kunder tjänster här. Ett hot mot dessa tjänster är den distribuerade belastningsattacken. En belastningsattacks mål är att göra en server på Internet otillgänglig för vanliga användare genom att antingen överbelasta den med stora mängder data för att skada serverns bandbredd eller att göra ett stort antal uppkopplingsförfrågningar för att skada serverns kapacitet att behandla meddelanden. Vid en distribuerad belastningsattack använder en angripare sig av många datorer på Internet vilka inte är dennes egna för att göra sin attack mycket starkare. Målet med detta projekt har varit att klassificera och utvärdera skyddsmetoder mot detta med avseende på faktorerna kostnad samt effektivitet. Resultatet visar att den mest kostnadseffektiva skyddsmetoden är klassbaserad köbildning.

  • 331.
    Brunö, Viktor
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Etablera sig som låtskrivare: Hur ser processen ut?2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete undersöker jag hur man kan etablera sig som låtskrivare, vilkakontakter man behöver, vilken kunskap man bör ha. Rapporten beskriver delvis minaupplevelser av marknaden samt grundas på information från intervjuer med etableradesvenska kompositörer. Parallellt med examensarbetet deltar jag i projektet Soundmasters (Sedefinition sida 3) vilket ger mig ett kontaktnät samt tillgång till karriärrådgivare.

  • 332.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A Computational Model for Gossip Initiation2010In: Aspects of Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue: SemDial2010, 14th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue / [ed] Pawel Lupkowski and Matthew Purver, Poznan: Polish Society for Cognitive Science , 2010, p. 139-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are interested in creating non-player characters (NPCs) in games that are capable of engaging in gossip conversations. Gossip could for instance be used to spread news, manipulate, and create tension between characters in the game, so it can have a functional as well as a social purpose. To accomplish this we need a computational model of gossip and such a model does not yet exist. As a first step in that direction we therefore present a model for initiating gossip that calculates whether it is appropriate for the NPC to start a gossip conversation based on the following factors: The (perceived) relationship between the NPC and the player character (PC); the relationship between each of the participants and the potential target; the news value of the gossip story; and how sensitive the story is.

  • 333.
    Brusk, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Artstein, Ron
    USC, Institute for Creative Technologies, 13274 Fiji Way, Marina del Rey, CA 90292, United States.
    Traum, David
    USC, Institute for Creative Technologies, 13274 Fiji Way, Marina del Rey, CA 90292, United States.
    Don't tell anyone!: Two Experiments on Gossip Conversations2010In: Proceedings of the SIGDIAL 2010 Conference: The 11th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue, 24-15 September 2010, Tokyo, Japan / [ed] Raquel Fernández, Yasuhiro Katagiri, Kazunori Komatani, Oliver Lemon, Mikio Nakano, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2010, p. 193-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to get a working definition that matches people’s intuitive notion of gossip and is sufficiently precise for computational implementation. We conducted two experiments investigating what type of conversations people intuitively understand and interpret as gossip, and whether they could identify three proposed constituents of gossip conversations: third person focus, pejorative evaluation and substantiating behavior. The results show that (1)  conversations are very likely to be considered gossip if all elements are present,  no intimate relationships exist between the participants, and the person in  focus  is  unambiguous. (2) Conversations that have at most one gossip element are not considered gossip. (3) Conversations that lack one or two elements or have an ambiguous element lead to inconsistent judgments. 

  • 334. Bräutigam, Marcus
    et al.
    Chawade, Aakash
    Gharti-Chhetri, Gokarna
    Lindlöf, Angelica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Olsson, Olof
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Jonsson, Rickard
    Development of a Swedish winter oat with gene technology and molecular breeding2006In: Sveriges utsädesförenings tidskrift, ISSN 0039-6990, Vol. 116, no 1-2, p. 23-35Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 335.
    Bräutigam, Marcus
    et al.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Göteborg University, Box 462, 403 20 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindlöf, Angelica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Zakhrabetkova, Shakhira
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Göteborg University, Box 462, 403 20 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gharti-Chhetri, Gokarna
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Göteborg University, Box 462, 403 20 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Olsson, Olof
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Göteborg University, Box 462, 403 20 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Generation and analysis of 9792 EST sequences from cold acclimated oat, Avena sativa2005In: BMC Plant Biology, ISSN 1471-2229, E-ISSN 1471-2229, Vol. 5, p. 18-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Oat is an important crop in North America and northern Europe. In Scandinavia, yields are limited by the fact that oat cannot be used as a winter crop. In order to develop such a crop, more knowledge about mechanisms of cold tolerance in oat is required.

    Results

    From an oat cDNA library 9792 single-pass EST sequences were obtained. The library was prepared from pooled RNA samples isolated from leaves of four-week old Avena sativa (oat) plants incubated at +4°C for 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours. Exclusion of sequences shorter than 100 bp resulted in 8508 high-quality ESTs with a mean length of 710.7 bp. Clustering and assembly identified a set of 2800 different transcripts denoted the Avena sativa cold induced UniGene set (AsCIUniGene set). Taking advantage of various tools and databases, putative functions were assigned to 1620 (58%) of these genes. Of the remaining 1180 unclassified sequences, 427 appeared to be oat-specific since they lacked any significant sequence similarity (Blast E values > 10-10) to any sequence available in the public databases. Of the 2800 UniGene sequences, 398 displayed significant homology (BlastX E values ≤ 10-10) to genes previously reported to be involved in cold stress related processes. 107 novel oat transcription factors were also identified, out of which 51 were similar to genes previously shown to be cold induced. The CBF transcription factors have a major role in regulating cold acclimation. Four oat CBF sequences were found, belonging to the monocot cluster of DREB family ERF/AP2 domain proteins. Finally in the total EST sequence data (5.3 Mbp) approximately 400 potential SSRs were found, a frequency similar to what has previously been identified in Arabidopsis ESTs.

    Conclusion

    The AsCIUniGene set will now be used to fabricate an oat biochip, to perform various expression studies with different oat cultivars incubated at varying temperatures, to generate molecular markers and provide tools for various genetic transformation experiments in oat. This will lead to a better understanding of the cellular biology of this important crop and will open up new ways to improve its agronomical properties.

  • 336.
    Brüggemann, Mårten
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Gitarr + Plattformsspel = Sant: Vilka fördelar och nackdelar har införandet av en från konventionerna för genren avvikande spelkontroll på speldesignen i ett plattformsspel?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen är en reflekterande text över ett verk gjort som examensarbete vid Högskolan i Skövde. Verket är ett datorspel som skapades med syftet att experimentera med icke konventionella kontrollsystem.

    En stagnation i utvecklingen av den konventionella handkontrollen har kunnat anas i de senaste konsolgenerationsskiftena. Handkontrollernas komplexitet har nått en nivå när den på allvar börjar orsaka brister i användarvänlighet. Det finns dock ett bevisligen stort intresse för alternativa kontrollsystem hos spelare. Detta talar försäljningssiffror för Guitar Hero (Activision, 2006) och Nintendo Wii om. De spelkontroller som följer med dessa spel skiljer sig markant från den konventionella handkontrollen och kan bidra till en utforskning och utveckling av de konventionella handkontrollerna. Trender visar dock på att utveckling av spel till de oortodoxa kontrollerna ofta stannar efter det väldigt specifika spel som är tänkt att spelas med den oortodoxa kontrollen. De generella fördelar som kan dras ur en alternativ kontroll kan därför vara svåra att påvisa.

    Med detta som bakgrund skapades Fret Nice, spelet som uppsatsen reflekterar över. Fret Nice är ett plattformsspel i 2D som följer en mängd av de konventioner som finns i den genren. Spelet är dock styrt med gitarrkontrollen från Guitar Hero (Activision, 2006) och har därför fått modifierats för att passa de restriktioner som denna kontroll har i jämförelse med en vanlig handkontroll. En analys av gitarrkontrollen, dess användning i Fret Nice samt hur valet att använda gitarrkontrollen i Fret Nice direkt har påverkat de konventioner som finns i speldesign för plattformsspel går att läsa i uppsatsen.

    De fördelar som fåtts av gitarrkontrollen i Fret Nice är bland annat en mer naturlig mappning av vissa rörelser i spelet som följd av den fysiska prestation många av reglagen på gitarrkontrollen kräver. En del nya spelmoment i Fret Nice har hämtats direkt ur gitarrkontrollens utformning och har därmed lett till för genren helt unika situationer. Gitarrkontrollens mekanik har dock ibland satt restriktioner på de konventioner i plattformsspel som utövats. Bland annat har hastigheten för spelkaraktärens rörelse fått sänkas något på grund av tajmingsvårigheter som följer av fördröjningar i gitarrkontrollens mekanik.

    Att använda alternativa kontroller i konventionella genrer skapar helt nya upplevelser som i sin tur leder till att genrerna kan förnyas. De flesta alternativa kontrollerna ger användaren tillfälle att utnyttja fler av kroppens förmågor än vad som krävs av att trycka på en knapp på en handkontroll. Dessa nya sätt att spela ger mer underhållningsvärde i själva kontrollerandet av spelet, något som ofta glömts bort i utvecklandet av handkontrollen. De spel som använt sig av oortodoxa kontroller har i sin tur lagt tyngden på spelarens användande av den specifika kontrollen, och mindre vikt vid omväxling i spelens spelmoment. Fret Nice är ett spel som kombinerar båda dessa fall och kan därför erbjuda underhållning både i spelet och i spelandet.

  • 337.
    Buason, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Bergfeldt, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Brains, Bodies and Beyond: Competitive Co-Evolution of Robot Controllers, Morphologies and Environments2005In: Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, ISSN 1389-2576, E-ISSN 1573-7632, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 25-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a series of simulation experiments that incrementally extend previous work on neural robot controllers in a predator-prey scenario, in particular the work of Floreano and Nolfi, and integrates it with ideas from work on the ‘co-evolution’ of robot morphologies and control systems. The aim of these experiments has been to further systematically investigate the tradeoffs and interdependencies between morphological parameters and behavioral strategies through a series of predator-prey experiments in which increasingly many aspects are subject to self-organization through competitive co-evolution. Motivated by the fact that, despite the emphasis of the interdependence of brain, body and environment in much recent research, the environment has actually received relatively little attention, the last set of experiments lets robots/species actively adapt their environments to their own needs, rather than just adapting themselves to a given environment.

  • 338.
    Buason, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    NFFP3+ Concepts and Methods2004Report (Other academic)
  • 339.
    Bubenko Jr, Janis
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Stirna, Janis
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    An Intentional Perspective on Enterprise Modeling2010In: Intentional Perspectives on Information Systems Engineering / [ed] Selmin Nurcan, Camille Salinesi, Carine Souveyet, Jolita Ralyté, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 215-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Modeling (EM) has two main purposes: (1) Developing the business, which entails developing business vision, strategies, redesigning the way the business operates, developing the supporting information systems, etc., and (2) ensuring the quality of the business where the focus is on sharing the knowledge about the business, its vision and the way it operates, and ensuring the acceptance of business decisions through committing the stakeholders to the decisions made. In addition, EM has also shown to be useful as a general tool for articulating, discussing, and solving organizational problems. Based on a number of case studies, interviews and observations this chapter defines what is required from EM when adopted for these purposes and intentions respectively. More precisely, it addresses the following types of requirements; documents and models required as input, models that should be developed, requirements on the modeling language, requirements on the modeling process, tool requirements and model quality requirements. The defined requirements are then discussed taking a specific EM method, Enterprise Knowledge Development (EKD) as example.

  • 340.
    Buco, Damir
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Rasism i spel: En undersökning i konsten att balansera på en tråd av kontemporär politisk korrekthet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en C-uppsats i ämnet medier: Dataspelsutveckling som ska leda till min filosofie kandidatexamen. Då de etiska frågeställningarna, speciellt rasism, vid utvecklande av spel har väckt mitt intresse valde jag att skriva en C-uppsats med fokus på detta ämne.

    Uppsatsen behandlar frågeställningarna om hur en speldesigner kan undvika stark kritik när hon gör ett spel som utspelas i miljöer och kontexter där det förekommer rasism eller etniska motsättningar samt hur en speldesigner balanserar realism och abstraktion i ett spel som utspelas i verklighetsbaserade miljöer. Teorier och texter som använts för att komma fram till ett svar på frågeställningen är bland annat Rollings och Adams (2003) teori om den etiska dimensionen och diskuterande texter från Chan (2005) och Everett och Watkins (2008) samt Williams m.fl. (2009) som behandlar rasism och rasbaserade stereotyper i spel. De spel som har analyserats närmare är Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas (2004) och Resident Evil 5 (2009) som båda har fått utstå kritik i media för att vara rasistiska eller för att förespråka negative stereotyper.

    Mitt syfte är att föra en diskussion om skildringar av ras och etniska grupper i spel och hur dessa skulle kunna presenteras av en speldesigner på ett fördelaktigt sätt.

    Genom detta arbete kom jag fram till bland hur en speldesigner skulle kunna ändra på vissa variabler för att få ett bredare accepterat spel. Från Andrew och Rollings (2004) teori kunde jag dra slutsatsen att hur kritiskt bemött ett spel blir står i direkt relation till två variabler: kontroversiellt innehåll och visuell realism.

  • 341.
    Bui, Kim-Kim
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Face Processing in Schizophrenia: Deficit in Face Perception or in Recognition of Facial Emotions?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder characterized by social dysfunction. People with schizophrenia misinterpret social information and it is suggested that this difficulty may result from visual processing deficits. As faces are one of the most important sources of social information it is hypothesized that people suffering from the disorder have impairments in the visual face processing system. It is unclear which mechanism of the face processing system is impaired but two types of deficits are most often proposed: a deficit in face perception in general (i.e., processing of facial features as such) and a deficit in facial emotion processing (i.e., recognition of emotional facial expressions). Due to the contradictory evidence from behavioural, electrophysiological as well as neuroimaging studies offering support for the involvement of one or the other deficit in schizophrenia it is early to make any conclusive statements as to the nature and level of impairment. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the key mechanism and abnormalities underlying social dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  • 342.
    Bylander, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Gradh, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    ”Jag behöver inte lite mer hjälp”: Förskollärares intentioner och agerande i bemötandet av barn i tamburen ur genusperspektiv2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool, as an institution, has a big responsibility to counteract traditional gender role behavior. According to preschools curriculum, Lpfö 98/2010, girls and boys are suppose to always have the same opportunities and preschool is not allowed to have a stereotyped view of gender role when treating children. This study is interesting because it illustrates intentions and actions when children and preschool teachers interact in the hallway. The purpose of this study was to research about preschool teacher’s intentions and actions when in treatment with boys and girls in the hallway, through a gender perspective. The following questions were tied to this study: Which intentions do preschool teachers have regarding interplay with children? What kind of actions can be distinguished in the interplay between preschool teachers and boys or girls?

    This is a qualitative study. We made video observations to get an understanding of how preschool teachers interact and treat boys and girls in the hallway. Then we interviewed preschool teachers, one at a time, to find out their intentions and expectations regarding the situation in the hallway and the interaction with boys and girls, among other things. The result of this study shows than differences regarding interactions and treatment with boys and girls is not apparent. The result rather shows that aspects like – To develop independence, individual ability, individual care, verbal and nonverbal communication and also bringing up the child as an individual is of importance when looking at how interaction and treatment is expressed in the hallway. How these aspects affect the situation in the hallway and what kind of conditions and possibilities the children gets is reflected by us in the discussion of the result.

  • 343.
    Bylund, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Förskolan och digitala medier: En undersökning om hur interaktiva barnböcker och pekskärmsenheter kan användas i förskolemiljö.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper has researched how interactivity, through interactive children’s books on mobile devices with touch screen, can affect the involvement in reading for children in the ages three to five years old. This has been done by creating an interactive children’s book and then conducting participative observations over six occasions at three different preschools where the children got to test the developed product. The observations were then supplemented with opinions on digital learning from preschool teachers from each of the schools through the use of semi-structured interviews.

    The result from this research shows a tendency that the involvement of the kids can be increased by introducing interactivity to children’s books by the use of mobile devices with touch screen. However the research is at too small a scale and both the product and the research contain too many flaws for an actual theory to be constructed. Instead a hypothesis is constructed that would need to be evaluated during a longer period of time and through more rigorous research.

  • 344.
    Bylund, Jesper
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    How to write an effectively communicating design document for games2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this reflexive report I detail my process for creating effective documentation for computer game design. I begin by explaining the background of my work, the goals and limitations I had during this thesis, my goal being to find good practices about writing effective design documents. One chapter is dedicated to the methods I used while writing both the documentation, as found in appendix A, and this report. I then document and discuss my work process and the choices I made as well as the basis of those choices, I also reflect on the effects of my changes. My analysis is based on my iterative work, external sources and private experiences. Based on my work I conclude that creating documents that are easily searched and that only document the information crucial for implementation leads to effective abstract design documents.

  • 345.
    Bystedt, Pontus
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    BILLBOARDS I SPEL: En illusion av 3d-karaktärer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Billboarding är en teknik som ofta används i tv- eller dataspel för att prestandaeffektivt skapa objekt i en spelmiljö. Tekniken går ut på att istället för en 3d-modell ritas en bild med genomskinlig bakgrund ut på ett polygonplan som alltid vrids mot spelaren. Hur skulle detta kunna utvecklas? Problemformuleringen för denna studie lyder: Hur uppfattar betraktaren karaktärer som representeras av billboards ur flera vinklar istället för en 3d-modell?En spelmiljö med både 3d-karaktärer och billboardskaraktärer skapades. Billboardskaraktärerna bestod av bilder av 3d-karaktärerna för att ge illusionen av att de också var 3d-karaktärer. Kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes för att ta reda på olika respondenters uppfattning om dessa billboardskaraktärer. Resultatet blev positivt. Även om ett fåtal kunde skilja på 3d-karaktärerna och billboardskaraktärerna kunde ingen genomskåda att billboardskaraktärerna inte var 3d-karaktärer. Resultatet skulle kunna utvecklas ytterligare genom att testa billboardskaraktärer på detta sätt i en större miljö och/eller använda videotexturer istället för bilder.

  • 346.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Möller, S.
    Volvo Information Technology AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    De Vin, Leo
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Sundin, A.
    National Institute for Working Life - West, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A Roadmap Towards Cost Calculation Methods Connected to Ergonomics Analysis and Simulation2005In: Ergonomics as a tool in future development and value creation : proceedings: NES2005 in Oslo - Norway, Nordic Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Conference, 10-12 October 2005 / [ed] Bo Veiersted, Knut Inge Fostervold, Kristian S. Gould, Oslo: Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2005, p. 312-316Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 347.
    Bältsjö, Ivar
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Interaktiv manual för en fysisk produkt: Hur interaktivitet påverkar instruktioner för skapandet av en fysisk produkt.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning syftar till att undersöka huruvida interaktivitet kan göra instruktioner för en fysisk uppgift mer effektiva. För att göra detta skapades två applikationer som instruerade i vikningen av en origamifigur i form av en båt. En version implementerade interaktiva element medan den andra inte gjorde det. Testpersoner fick genomföra halva uppgiften med vardera applikationen och sedan fylla i en enkät. Inga definitiva svar hittades i undersökningen, men den skulle kunna användas som grund eller inspiration för vidare forskning.

  • 348.
    Bärkås, Karina
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Nätverksoperativsystem för lokala nätverk1998Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Val av nätverksoperativsystem är något som blivit viktigt att besluta i många företag och organisationer. Nätverken får fler och fler tjänster, många som ursprungligen utvecklades för Internet. Organisationerna och företagen måste hänga med i utvecklingen för att kunna få ett nätverk som är lätt att administrera och som är användarvänligt. Det finns ett flertal nätverksoperativsystem att välja på. De två vanligaste är Windows NT och Novell NetWare.

    Denna rapport innehåller en undersökning av ett flertal faktorer som kan vara viktiga att ta hänsyn till vid val av nätverksoperativsystem. Faktorerna som tas upp är hanterbarhet, skalbarhet, prestanda, säkerhet, feltolerans, Internet verktyg, integrering, kompatibilitet och migrering. Undersökningen tar fram olikheter mellan NT och NetWare avseende faktorerna. Integrering har varit viktigt att undersöka för att kunna lösa problem med flera användarplattformar. Detta för att underlätta systemadministration och göra systemet mer användarvänligt. Metoden som använts för att få fram fakta är en litteraturstudie av böcker och aktuella datatidskrifter.

  • 349.
    Bågenholm, Johan
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Vad är våra röster värda?: En rapport om röstskådespel i spel2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport undersöks om röstskådespel i interaktiva medier kan bidra till att karaktärer upplevs mer verklighetstrogna samt hur repliker kan skrivas för att bidra till detta. Undersökningen är baserad på forskning inom psykologi och lingvistik. Genom att använda ett ”Choose-your-own-adventure”-scenario i fyra varianter samt två protokoll undersöks hur testpersonerna uppfattar deras karaktär och vilken skillnad röstskådespel gjorde på denna uppfattning. Testpersonerna beskriver även hur de upplever röstskådespel i dagens spel samt vilken påverkan röstskådespelarna har på deras upplevelse och lockelse till spel. Resultaten kunde inte visa konkreta, statistiskt signifikanta skillnader i karaktärsuppfattning mellan spel med eller utan röstskådespelare. Undersökningen kan inte heller visa statistiskt signifikanta skillnader mellan olika sätt att skriva repliker.

  • 350.
    Bödker Malmqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Andersson, Anna-Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Läsförståelse i skolan: En kvalitativ enkätstudie om lärares undervisning i läsförståelse i årskurs 1-32013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we are presenting teachers views on teaching reading comprehension based on a qualitative survey. The study has been implemented in nine different schools with teachers that teach in grade 1-3. The importance of reading comprehension is presented in the introduction of this survey by authors such as Lundberg (2010), Lundberg and Herrlin (2009) and Westlund (2009). In the introduction we also present an image of Swedish pupils reading comprehension in an international perspective, surveys like PISA 2009 and PIRLS 2006 presented by Skolverket are examples.  Pupils reading comprehension, according to previously surveys gotten worse. The study also receives a theoretical setting with a sociocultural perspective. This in relation to Vygotskys Zone of proximal development.

    The result we present shows that the primary factor that has influenced the teachers in their teaching is the pupils´ interests and development zone. In relation to this the teachers are controlled by external resources such as economy, personal and time. The variation of working methods is of significant meaning for adapting it to each and every pupil. In the finish line of the result an incidence of how teachers consider the science as an impact on their teaching in reading comprehension. 

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