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  • 301.
    Jiong, Sun
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Redyuk, Sergey
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Tactile Interaction and Social Touch: Classifying Human Touch using a Soft Tactile Sensor2017In: HAI '17: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Human Agent Interaction, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2017, p. 523-526Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an ongoing study on affective human-robot interaction. In our previous research, touch type is shown to be informative for communicated emotion. Here, a soft matrix array sensor is used to capture the tactile interaction between human and robot and 6 machine learning methods including CNN, RNN and C3D are implemented to classify different touch types, constituting a pre-stage to recognizing emotional tactile interaction. Results show an average recognition rate of 95% by C3D for classified touch types, which provide stable classification results for developing social touch technology. 

  • 302.
    Jäger, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    From standard 3PL provider to service developer: a case study from the Swedish furniture industry2009In: World Review of Intermodal Transportation Research (WRITR), ISSN 1749-4729, E-ISSN 1749-4737, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 376-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The strong competition between companies has resulted in an increased outsourcing of activities that are not considered core activities. This has created an emerging business opportunity in logistics, attracting several new actors and companies to enter the market and fill the demand for new services. These actors represent several types of providers who are often called Third-Party Logistics (3PL) providers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the environment of a 3PL provider that also develops services. The focus is particularly on how the provider has evolved and identifying the key issues on how to be successful in the 3PL industry. The primary research strategy is a descriptive embedded single case study. The findings reveal that the case company has evolved from being a standard 3PL provider to a service developer, since it, in addition to traditional services, nowadays also provides more value-added services. These services involve a set of more standardised activities that can be combined according to each customer's wishes and requirements. The findings also reveal that the main requirements to be a successful service developer are a clear customer understanding and focus, value-added and customised services and reliable deliveries (both in terms of time and a low percentage of damaged goods), as well as the utilisation of Information and Communications Technology (ICT).

  • 303.
    Kanski, Janusz
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ilver, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Krister
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ulfat, Intikhab
    Department of Physics, University of Karachi, Pakistan.
    Leandersson, Mats
    MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sadowski, Janusz
    MAX-IV laboratory, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland.
    Di Marco, Igor
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Electronic structure of (Ga,Mn)As revisited2017In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 1-8, article id 023006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The detailed nature of electronic states mediating ferromagnetic coupling in dilute magnetic semiconductors, specifically (Ga,Mn)As, has been an issue of long debate. Two confronting models have been discussed emphasizing host band vs. impurity band carriers. Using angle resolved photoemission we show that the electronic structure of the (Ga,Mn)As system is significantly modified from that of GaAs throughout the valence band. Close to the Fermi energy, the presence of Mn induces a strong mixing of the bulk bands of GaAs, which results in the appearance of a highly dispersive band in the gap region of GaAs.

    For Mn concentrations above 1% the band reaches the Fermi level, and can thus host the delocalized holes needed for ferromagnetic coupling. Overall, our data provide a firm evidence of delocalized carriers belonging to the modified host valence band.

  • 304.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Production Engineering, Componenta, Nossebro, Sweden.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Production Engineering, Arkivator AB, Falköping, Sweden.
    Systemic change management: An opportunity for manufacturing organizations2008In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: FAIM 2008 / [ed] Leo J. de Vin, 2008, Vol. 1, p. 654-659Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines potential opportunities at two SMEs (small to medium-sized enterprises) to improve the decision making process for change in their manufacturing organizations. Present procedures of the decision making process for manufacturing system development have been studied by applying feedback systems thinking. A framework for systemic change management is proposed utilizing a bottom-up perspective to acknowledge individual competence and creativity. In conclusion applying system principles facilitates an environment for proactive developments towards a learning organization.

  • 305.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    An interactive decision support system using simulation-based optimization and knowledge extraction2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of simulation to improve existing manufacturing systems is not new, but simulation can also be used increase the understanding of production systems that have not yet been built. The power of simulation models can be further enhanced by using simulation-based optimization, in which an optimization algorithm tries to find optimal solutions, given certain objectives. However, extracting knowledge from the data resulting from simulation experiments and simulation-based optimization is a complex task. Therefore, tools are needed to assist users in this task. These tools can be visual, like diagrams, or can be generated by data mining. The process of running a study using simulation-based optimization to extract knowledge is a manual task that can in part be automated using existing tools, but to the author’s knowledge there is no software that implements the complete process. This work aims to develop a novel decision support system to support the generic decision process when using simulation and simulation-based optimization. The first step in setting up such a system is to understand how industry currently uses simulation and simulation-based optimization in manufacturing operations. Thus a questionnaire was distributed to manufacturing companies and organizations. The results showed that these techniques are being used, but that companies want more help with the analysis of the results as well as an automated guide in the decision process. This work proposes a system that supports a generic decision process by providing a tool with which a user can define a workflow in their organization, using simulation-based optimization as one component. The decision support system then provides tools for extracting knowledge in the form of diagrams and performs data mining for automated analysis. Data mining is part of the workflow as a tool for extracting knowledge after an optimization, as well as a tool for guiding optimization to suit the users’ preferences. The decision support system also provides for visualization of simulation models and optimization results using augmented reality. A head-mounted display helps users to see the results and model behaviors in 3D. This technology also makes it possible for users to collaborate, both in the same location and remotely. These visual and automatic analysis tools are shown to be effective in several application studies of real-world production scenarios in which data mining has been used to extract important knowledge that would be hard to obtain manually. Together with the automated workflow and efficient visualization of simulation and optimization results in augmented reality, the decision support system is believed to be an effective tool for extracting knowledge for general production systems design and analysis.

  • 306.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bernedixen, Jacob
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Pehrsson, Leif
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Combining augmented reality and simulation-based optimization for decision support in manufacturing2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] W. K. V. Chan, A. D’Ambrogio, G. Zacharewicz, N. Mustafee, G. Wainer, and E. Page, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 3988-3999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the idea of using Augmented Reality and simulation within manufacturing is not a new one, the improvement of hardware enhances the emergence of new areas. For manufacturing organizations, simulation is an important tool used to analyze and understand their manufacturing systems; however, simulation models can be complex. Nonetheless, using Augmented Reality to display the simulation results and analysis can increase the understanding of the model and the modeled system. This paper introduces a decision support system, IDSS-AR, which uses simulation and Augmented Reality to show a simulation model in 3D. The decision support system uses Microsoft HoloLens, which is a head-worn hardware for Augmented Reality. A prototype of IDSS-AR has been evaluated with a simulation model depicting a real manufacturing system on which a bottleneck detection method has been applied. The bottleneck information is shown on the simulation model, increasing the possibility of realizing interactions between the bottlenecks. 

  • 307.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Dudas, Catarina
    Volvo Group Trucks Operations.
    An Interactive, Cloud-Based Simulation Optimization System for Knowledge Discovery and Decision Support In Manufacturing2014In: Proceedings of the sixth Swedish Production Symposium, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing or improving a manufacturing system involves a series of complex decisions over time to satisfy the strategic objectives of the company. To select the optimal parameters of the system entities so as to achieve the desired overall performance of the system is a very complex task that has been proven to be difficult, even for a seasoned decision maker. One of the major barriers for more efficient decision making in manufacturing is that whilst there is in principle abundant data from various levels of the factory, these data need to be organized and transferred into knowledge suitable for decision-making support. The integration of decision-making support and knowledge management has been identified to be more and more important in both scientific research and from industrial companies. The concept of deciphering knowledge from multi-objective optimization was first proposed by Deb with the term innovization (innovation via optimization). By integrating the concept of innovization with simulation, a new set of powerful tools for manufacturing systems analysis, in order to support optimal decision making in design and improvement activities, is emerged. This method is so-called Simulation-based Innovization (SBI), which has been proven to produce promising results in our previous application studies. Nevertheless, to promote the wider use of such a new method requires the development of an integrated software toolset. The goal of this paper is therefore to outline a Cloud-computing based system architecture for implementing such a SBI-based Interactive Decision Support System.

  • 308.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    An interactive decision support system using simulation-based optimization and data mining2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal, and M. D. Rossetti, IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2112-2123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a decision support system (DSS) built on knowledge extraction using simulation-based optimization and data mining. The paper starts with a requirements analysis based on a survey conducted with a number of industrial companies about their practices of using simulations for decision support.Based upon the analysis, a new, interactive DSS that can fulfill the industrial requirements, is proposed.The design of the cloud-based system architecture of the DSS is then described. To show the functionality and potential of the proposed DSS, an application study has been performed for the optimal design of a hypothetical but realistic flexible production cell. How important knowledge with respect to different preferences of the decision maker can be generated as rules, using the new Flexible Pattern Mining algorithm provided in the DSS, will be revealed by the results of this application study.

  • 309.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Interactive and Intelligent Decision Support in Manufacturing using Simulation Based Innovization and Cloud Computing2014In: Industrial Simulation Conference, Skövde, June 11-13, 2014, 2014, p. 69-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation-based innovization is a method for extracting knowledge from a simulation model and optimization. This method can help decision makers to make high-quality decisions for their manufacturing systems so as to enhance the competitiveness of companies. Nevertheless, the simulation-based innovization process can be computationally costly and having these resources in-house can be expensive. By running the process in a cloud environment instead, the company only pays for the resources they are using. This paper proposes the concept of a cloud-based computing platform that can run the simulation-based innovization process and discuss its possibilities and challenges.

  • 310.
    Keshavarzmanesh, Shadi
    et al.
    The University of Western Ontario.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Feng, Hsi-Yung
    The University of British Columbia.
    A hybrid approach for dynamic routing planning in an automated assembly shop2010In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 768-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly turbulent environment of dynamic job-shop operations affects shop floor layout as well as manufacturing operations. Due to the dynamic nature of layout changes, essential requirements such as adaptability and responsiveness to the changes need to be considered in addition to the cost issues of material handling and machine relocation when reconfiguring a shop floor’s layout. Here, based on the source of uncertainty, the shop floor layout problem is split into two sub-problems and dealt with by two modules: re-layout and find-route. GA is used where changes cause the entire shop re-layout, while function blocks are utilised to find the best sequence of robots for the new conditions within the existing layout. This paper reports the latest development to the authors’ previous work.

  • 311.
    Keshavarzmanesh, Shadi
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Feng, Hsi-Yung
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Design and simulation of an adaptive and collaborative assembly cell2010In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 102-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, product-mix in small batches contributes to shop floor uncertainties, whereas distributed resources are handled collaboratively during assembly planning. There is a growing need to develop methods that can increase adaptability and flexibility in dynamic and collaborative job-shop assembly floors. Based on our previous work on an assembly planning framework using Function Blocks (FBs), a novel approach to assembly planning and control is developed, which enables adaptive decision making besides effective plan execution. Following our previous work, this paper reports the latest development of design and simulation of an FB communication network in Matlab-Simulink environment, and validates the methodology through an example.

  • 312.
    Keshavarzmanesh, Shadi
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Feng, Hsi-Yung
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Increasing Adaptability of Assembly Planning and Control with Embedded Decision-Making Capability2009In: Transactions of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution of SME, ISSN 1047-3025, Vol. 37, p. 533-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In our previous work, a framework and a new methodology for adaptive assembly process planning using function block (FB) concept was introduced. Function blocks are adopted to deal with dynamic job shop assembly floors, where product-mix often in small batches contributes to manufacturing uncertainty, making adaptability an important item on a company's wish list. FB-enabled assembly planning and control enables not only adaptive decision making but effective plan execution. Following our previous work, this paper reports the development of simulating a function block communication network in the Matlab Simulink environment and demonstrating the implementation of the methodology through an example.

  • 313.
    Keshavarzmanesh, Shadi
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Feng, Hsi-Yung
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Two-Stage Hybrid Adaptive Assembly Layout Planning2010In: Transactions of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution of SME, ISSN 1047-3025, Vol. 38, p. 735-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing environment today is highly turbulent. Hence, the potential to alter factory layout has transformed the layout problem from considering long-term material handling costs to considering essential requirements, such as adaptability and proactive responsiveness to dynamic changes. This is beyond the costs of material handling and machine relocation when reconfiguring the layout. As continuation of the authors’ previous work, this paper proposes to incorporate function block methodology in dealing with the layout issues in the frequently changing environment of job-shop assembly operations so as to increase the autonomy and adaptability of the assembly operations against changes.

  • 314.
    Keyvani, Ali
    et al.
    Product and Production Development Dep., Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Virtual Methods & IT, Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Research Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Product and Production Development Dep., Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ergonomic Risk Assessment of a Manikin’s Wrist Movements - a Test Study in Manual Assembly2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of digital human modeling (DHM) tools enables early assessment of ergonomic risks in the production development process. This early risk assessment can indicate needs for preventive actions in order to decrease risks for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. A method for the assessment of physical workload has been developed, for the analysis of wrist joint data produced by a DHM tool. The method is tested in a simulation model of an actual manual assembly station in industry where it is assumed that physical workload problems exist. The results show that the method can be successfully applied on an industrial case. In addition, presumptive risks and possible diagnoses are predicted based on the similarity of the simulated task’s motions with motions from other known work class profiles stored in a database based on epidemiological research.

  • 315.
    Koh, S.C. Lenny
    et al.
    The University of Sheffield.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Overview of Enterprise Networks and Logistics for Agile Manufacturing2010In: Enterprise Networks and Logistics for Agile Manufacturing / [ed] Wang, L. & Koh, S.C.L., Springer London, 2010, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for research and development of enterprise networks and logistics has been on an upward  trajectory  over  the  last  decades.  With  a  need  for  more  innovative  and  responsive enterprise network structure, technology and supply chain to deal with an ever-changing and highly  competitive  market,  the  agility  of  processes,  organisations  and  their  supply  chain, particularly in a manufacturing environment, need to be re-examined. This chapter provides an overview of the current status and potential future trends in this area. More specifically, this will be analysed within the context of agile manufacturing.

  • 316.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Managing Interruptions in Manufacturing: Towards a Theoretical Framework for Interruptions in Manufacturing Assembly2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of interruptions from ICT systems on assembly workers in manufacturing is examined in this thesis, as is how the risks of errors, increases in assembly time, increased cognitive load and resultant stress can be mitigated, as well as ensuring that important new information is acted upon. To these ends, a literature study was conducted, followed by two studies using an experimental approach in an environment that simulated a manufacturing assembly situation, and used tasks designed to be representative of manufacturing assembly tasks. The results of the literature study and the two studies are presented in four appended papers. The body of the thesis itself introduces similar material, and takes a step towards the creation of a theoretical framework that supports analysing the tasks and environments in question from a embodied and situated (DEEDS or 4E) viewpoint on cognition. This theoretical framework uses graphical representations similar to storyboards to support the analyst in maintaining an embodied and situated viewpoint during analyses of active tasks that require an examination of the interplay between brain, body, and environment. Supporting an embodied viewpoint during analysis has the purpose of facilitating the design of interruption coordination systems that take into account the embodied and situated nature of the tasks faced in manual tasks such as assembly in manufacturing.

  • 317.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Situating interruptions in manufacturing assembly2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interruptions have been studied extensively, with interruptions experiments where tasks performed on computers are interrupted by another task received on the same computer having receiving much of the focus. Additionally, many of the tasks used in existing research have been designed specifically to test the effect of interruptions on humans by making both the interrupting task and the task being interrupted quite difficult. The studies introduced here show that these commonly used tasks do not accurately represent some aspects of the manual tasks commonly performed by humans outside of laboratory experiments, with the experiments in this thesis focusing on manual tasks in assembly. A notable difference identified here is that interruptions in manual assembly tasks were seen to always contain a negotiation element, meaning that the person being interrupted could always modify to some extent when to respond to interruptions. Another central finding is that breakpoints for smart interruption systems need to be chosen using even more care than suggested by existing research because of an effect that can cause a notification to be completely missed when sent at a point that seemed opportune. This is due to apparent lulls in the activity containing preparation for the next action, or anticipation of action, using the Activity Theory (AT) terms used in the analysis of this effect. AT was identified as a useful tool for the analysis of manual assembly as it supports a hierarchical analysis of the activity and takes into account operator skill (task familiarity) in an easy to understand manner.AT was further used in an observational study where current approaches to interruption management were observed and explored. A surprising conclusion was that classical interruptions, as commonly defined, where one task is interrupted and another task must be completed before resuming the main (primary) task were exceedingly uncommon. This was found to be due to the high task familiarity (skill level) of the workers, the assembly activities being designed to minimise the risk of interruptions, and workers being trained to always finish the current operation before switching to another task. Workers did however engage in conversation and an interesting style of communication, dubbed ebb-and-flow style of negotiation, was identified. The differences between the results found in literature and the results of the studies were synthesised into a theoretical framework, or a collection of theories that work together to support the analysis of interruptions, and a visual support tool for the theoretical framework was created. This visual support tool, called an activity board both binds together the theories in a way that should make the theoretical framework easier to understand, and provides the beginnings of an analysis tool for interruption using the framework.

  • 318.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Showing uncertainty in aircraft cockpits using icons2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 2905-2912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines an icon set designed for displaying uncertainty surrounding threat levels of an approaching object in anaircraft cockpit. This is done through an experiment that compares an icon set designed for this experiment with two icon setsfrom existing research that were tested in static laboratory conditions. The experiment used a flight simulator to simulate realisticflight conditions. The results showed that the icon set designed for this experiment was easier to read. Guidelines for the designof icons for displaying uncertainty are presented based on the results of the experiment.

  • 319.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Classification of Collaboration Levels for Human-Robot Cooperation in Manufacturing2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018,  University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, p. 151-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 aims to support the factory of the future, which involves increased amounts of information systems and new ways of using automation. One new usage is collaboration between human and industrial robot in manufacturing, with both partners sharing work on a single task. Supporting human-robot collaboration (HRC) requires understanding the requirements of HRC as well as the differences to existing approaches where the goal is more automation, such as in the case of self-driving cars. We propose a framework that we call levels of collaboration to support this, and posit that this framework supports a mental model conducive to the design of lines incorporating HRC.

  • 320.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mind the body: How embodied cognition matters in manufacturing2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 5184-5191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodied cognition can provide human factors and applied ergonomics practitioners with better embodied cognition design principles. This paper investigates and analyzes observational video-recorded data from an experiment that simulated a manufacturing environment. The operator was interrupted during a primary assembly task via a handheld computing device which delivered different classes of notifications. The focus is on the embodied aspect of notifications in an active environment, and why one class of notifications called mediated notifications failed at a specific point previously thought to be suitable. Guidelines for analyzing tasks from an embodied cognition perspective that complements and expands traditional human factors and applied ergonomics approaches were developed and are included.

  • 321.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Missing mediated interruptions in manual assembly: Critical aspects of breakpoint selection2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 61, p. 90-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The factory of the future aims to make manufacturing more effective and easily customisable, using advanced sensors and communications to support information management. In this paper, we examine how breakpoint selection during interruption management can fail, even when using recommendations for interruption management from existing research. We present an experiment based on prior work where mediated interruptions (i.e. smart interruptions that should interrupt at opportune moments) were missed by participants when sent at one of two pre-defined breakpoints. These breakpoints were selected based on existing research to minimise the cost of interruption, which can involve longer times to complete tasks as well as making errors on tasks. Missing mediated interruptions in this way was unexpected, and the prior study was not configured to measure this effect, which has led to the experiment detailed here. We strive to explore whether there is a risk of missing notifications when mediated interruptions are used, and how this is affected by breakpoint selection. This was investigated through an experiment that uses tasks and environments that simulate a manufacturing assembly facility.

    The results indicate that the effect exists, i.e. that participants miss significantly more notifications when interrupted at fine breakpoints than when interrupted at coarse breakpoints. An embodied cognition perspective was used for analysis of the tasks to understand the cause of the effect. This analysis shows that an overlap between “action” and “anticipation of action” can account for why participants miss notifications at fine breakpoints. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems that minimise the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

  • 322.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Context aware interruptions: Existing research and required research2014In: Advances in Cognitive Engineering and Neuroergonomics / [ed] Kay Stanney & Kelly S. Hale, AHFE , 2014, p. 260-272Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies in various fields are developing information systems that are supposed to show information in a context sensitive manner. This involves modifying user interfaces based on the current activity and location of the user. The research that exists for context aware, task aware, and location aware systems come mostly from research in the office environment and using stationary work computers using standard mouse and keyboard-operated systems. Other environments, such as manufacturing environments, have not received the same research attention, and therefore research is required to see whether existing theories and frameworks apply to the manufacturing domain. Adding to this, context aware systems are now being created for new classes of devices such as mobile and wearable devices, to be used in multiple domains. All this requires an investigation and validation of older research, and shows how the research of the basic human factors surrounding new devices and domains has fallen behind the development of the devices themselves. This paper examines shortly how recent changes advances in technology affect what is required from the field of interruption research, as well as what is needed to support other domains than the office environment. 

  • 323.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Coordinating the interruption of assembly workers in manufacturing2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 58, p. 361-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how interruptions from information and communications technology systems affect errors and the time to complete tasks for assembly workers. Interruptions have previously been examined in laboratory experiments and office environments, but not much work has been performed in other authentic environments. This paper contains the results of an experiment that was performed in a simulated manufacturing assembly environment, which tested the effects of interruptions on a manual assembly task. The experiment used existing interruption coordination methods as a basis, and the results showed a difference in the effect of interruptions and interruption coordination between cognitively complex laboratory tasks and manual assembly tasks in an authentic environment. Most notably, the negative effects of interruptions delivered without consideration were smaller in this experiment. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems for minimizing the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

  • 324.
    Larsson, Carina
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Communicating performance measures: Supporting continuous improvement in manufacturing companies2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing enterprises are a key driver of economic growth (Eurostat, 2016). Implementing continuous improvement (CI) is commonly used to increase competitiveness (Hyland et al., 2007), but despite the well-known theory of CI, many manufacturing companies fail in implementing it (Bhasin, 2012; Nordin et al., 2012; Tiwari et al., 2007).

    An identified critical success factor in CI implementation is the evaluation of performance, including the performance evaluation system itself, the linkage between targets at different company levels, and continual evaluation of performance (Bakås et al., 2011; Scherrer-Rathje et al., 2009; Ukko et al., 2009). Another critical success factor in CI implementation is the communication of performance measures (Bakås et al., 2011; Ukko et al., 2009).

    This research explores the communication of performance measures. The aim is to support CI by improving the communication of performance measures, and to this end, this thesis concentrates on identifying the main challenges in the communication of performance measures supporting CI. The research scope is manufacturing companies in general, and manufacturing SMEs in particular. The relevant literature concerning the communication of performance measures in manufacturing companies is identified and summarized. Also, current practice is explored, focusing on how performance measures are communicated in manufacturing companies, and whether and how the communication supports CI. This has been done to identify divergences between current practice and theory. Finally, theory and empirical findings are synthesized to identify some of the main challenges to be addressed in order to succeed in CI.

    The main task is to support CI efforts in manufacturing SMEs, eliminating the identified divergences in the communication of performance measures by adapting these measures to these manufacturing SMEs. These challenges can be summarized as follows: 

    - using both financial performance measures as well as objective and subjective, non-financial performance measures  - aligning performance measures with strategy and targets  - integrating all performance measure communication, as related to both daily performance and CI, in the same communication loop.  - forming two-way communication channels between managers and operators  - aligning oral and written communication channels  - exploring how information systems can facilitate the communication of performance measures  - using and optimizing the visual communication of performance measures

  • 325.
    Larsson, Carina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Communicating continuous improvement in manufacturing companies: Divergencies between current practice and theory2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Succeeding with continuous improvement is important for manufacturing companies to increase the competitive edge. In order to succeed with continuous improvement, literature shows that communication of improvement indicators need to be integrated with communication of control indicators. This paper identifies divergencies between current practice and theory in the communication of CI, which can be a reason for why manufacturing companies fail in their CI implementation. An integration of control indicators and improvement indicators could improve continuous improvement results, increasing business performance.

  • 326.
    Larsson, Carina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönkoping University, Jönkoping, Sweden.
    How to visualize performance measures in a manufacturing SME2017In: Measuring Business Excellence, ISSN 1368-3047, E-ISSN 1758-8057, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 337-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify strengths and weaknesses in the communication of performance measures and propose guidelines for the visualization of performance measures supporting continuous improvement (CI) in manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The goal is to help manufacturing SMEs improve their communication of performance measures, thereby improving performance, and strengthening the company. Design/methodology/approach - This paper draws on both theoretical and empirical research. It begins with a literature review of theoretical guidelines for the visualization of performance measures. This theoretical information is then supplemented with a case study and a survey, both carried out at the Vara plant, a manufacturing SME with well-developed communication of performance measures. The case study involved all organizational levels in the company and focused on identifying strengths and weaknesses in visual communication of performance measures supporting CI. The information acquired from the literature survey and the case study was then used as the basis for a survey of the employees in one department as regards their perception, understanding and opinion of visual communication of performance measures. The analysis of the results led to the development of guidelines and a substantive proposal improving visualization of performance measures in this specific company, and in manufacturing SMEs in general. Findings - A model for the visualization of performance measures supporting CI in the company was carried out. The guidelines proposed for all such visualizations are as follows: keep the visualization as simple as possible without compromising understanding, use symbols and colors consistently, use simple words and do not include too much information in the visualization. The study also shows that it is important to support a written visualization with an oral presentation to explain the results. Originality/value - The originality of this paper lies in its focus on the visualization of performance measures in manufacturing SMEs and the guidelines and proposals developed.

  • 327.
    Larsson, Carina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Jönköping.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    University of Jönköping.
    Visual communication of performance meaures supporting continuous improvement: Challenges and opportunities for manufacturing SMEs2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a holistic view of visual communication of performance measures supporting continuous improvement in manufacturing SMEs. This is done by a theoretical part with a literature review, and an empirical part with case studies, including both the managers’ and the operators’ perspectives, and by focusing on manufacturing SMEs. The paper identifies five challenges and one opportunity in visual communication that SMEs perceive when using visual communication of performance measures, supporting continuous improvement.

  • 328.
    Larsson, Carina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. School of Engineering, Jönköping University.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Performance measurement communication supporting lean production in SMEs2014In: Performance management: Designing the high-performing organization, 2014, p. 714-725Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current status of performance measurement communication to support lean production in SMEs.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper is based on theoretical and empirical studies. A literature review of existing research in performance measurement communication, focusing on lean production in SMEs, was carried out. The empirical part is based on interviews with both managers and operators in SMEs in the south of Sweden working with lean production. Twenty-four interviews in eight companies / plants were carried out.

    Findings

    The paper provides a structured overview of current research in performance measurement communication. Performance measurement communication was categorised into three parts, which taken together could support lean production implementation in SMEs. It can be concluded that, although all existing research in performance measurement and communication, there is no operational guideline of how to communicate performance measurement. From the interviews it can be seen that the companies have improved their performance measurement communication during the lean production implementation, but that there is no common way of communicating performance measurements in SMEs.

  • 329.
    Larsson, Carina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Performance measurement follow-up supporting continuous improvements in manufacturing companies: a systematic review2015In: 22nd EurOMA conference: Operations management for sustainable competitiveness / [ed] Gerald Reiner, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performance measurement has been paid a lot of attention. This paper provides a systematic review of existing research in performance measurement follow-up, which so far has been less treated. The paper suggests a categorization of the follow-up phase into the performance measurement system, input to and output from the system, and operational activities. It is concluded that there is a lack of research concerning the operational activities in the follow-up phase. It is also concluded that most of the research concerning follow-up of performance measurement does not support continuous improvement explicitly, but concerns performance measurement follow-up in general.

  • 330.
    Lebram, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Design and Architecture of Sidh - a Cave Based Firefighter Training Game2009In: Design and Use of Serious Games / [ed] Marja Kankaanranta, Pekka Neittaanmäki, Springer Netherlands, 2009, p. 19-31Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the architecture of a game-based training simulator environment developed in collaboration with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency (SRSA). The learning objectives for the game relates to training of firefighters for Breathing Apparatus Entry, and in particular to develop systematic search strategies. The hardware and software system is based on off-the-shelf computer components in combination with tailor made units. The game has been developed as a Half-Life 2 mod - extended to be played in a cave using 5 standard gaming PCs in a local area network. The game environment is a cave where the player is surrounded by four 80" screens giving a 360 degree view of a virtual world. Each screen is projecting a fixed-angle view of the virtual world and the player's orientation in the virtual world corresponds to her orientation in the real world. A novel interaction model has been developed for the game in order for it to be played in the cave. The player navigates and performs game actions using course body movements which are captured through a set of sensors.

  • 331.
    Li, Cai
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Bredies, Katharina
    Department of Design, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lund, Anja
    Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    k-Nearest-Neighbour based Numerical Hand Posture Recognition using a Smart Textile Glove2015In: AMBIENT 2015: The Fifth International Conference on Ambient Computing, Applications, Services and Technologies / [ed] MaartenWeyn, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2015, p. 36-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors present an interdisciplinary project that illustrates the potential and challenges in dealing with electronic textiles as sensing devices. An interactive system consisting of a knitted sensor glove and electronic circuit and a numeric hand posture recognition algorithm based on k-nearestneighbour (kNN) is introduced. The design of the sensor glove itself is described, considering two sensitive fiber materials – piezoresistive and piezoelectric fibers – and the construction using an industrial knitting machine as well as the electronic setup is sketched out. Based on the characteristics of the textile sensors, a kNN technique based on a condensed dataset has been chosen to recognize hand postures indicating numbers from one to five from the sensor data. The authors describe two types of data condensation techniques (Reduced Nearest Neighbours and Fast Condensed Nearest Neighbours) in order to improve the data quality used by kNN, which are compared in terms of run time, condensation rate and recognition accuracy. Finally, the article gives an outlook on potential application scenarios for sensor gloves in pervasive computing.

  • 332.
    Li, Weidong
    et al.
    Coventry University, United Kingdom.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Li, Xinyu
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China.
    Gao, Liang
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China.
    Intelligent Optimisation for Integrated Process Planning and Scheduling2011In: Multi-objective Evolutionary Optimisation for Product Design and Manufacturing / [ed] Lihui Wang, Amos H. C. Ng, Kalyanmoy Deb, Springer London, 2011, p. 305-324Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, process planning and scheduling were performed sequentially, where scheduling was executed after process plans had been generated. Considering the fact that the two functions are usually complementary, it is necessary to integrate them more tightly so that the performance of a manufacturing system can be improved greatly. In this chapter, a multi-agent-based framework has been developed to facilitate the integration of the two functions. In the framework, the two functions are carried out simultaneously, and an optimization agent based on evolutionary algorithms is used to manage the interactions and communications between agents to enable proper decisions to be made. To verify the feasibility and performance of the proposed approach, experimental studies conducted to compare this approach and some previous works are presented. The experimental results show the proposed approach has achieved significant improvement.

  • 333.
    Lidberg, Simon
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Pehrsson, Leif
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Evaluating the impact of changes on a global supply chain using an iterative approach in a proof-of-concept model2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, p. 467-472Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing networks of supply-chains, where each chain is comprised of several actors with different purposes and performance measures, is a difficult task. There exists a large potential in optimizing supply-chains for many companies and therefore the supply-chain optimization problem is of great interest to study. To be able to optimize the supply-chain on a global scale, fast models are needed to reduce computational time. Previous research has been made into the aggregation of factories, but the technique has not been tested against supply-chain problems. When evaluating the configuration of factories and their inter-transportation on a global scale, new insights can be gained about which parameters are important and how the aggregation fits to a supply-chain problem. The paper presents an interactive proof-of-concept model enabling testing of supply chain concepts by users and decision makers.

  • 334.
    Lidberg, Simon
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Volvo Car Corporation.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Pehrsson, Leif
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Using Aggregated Discrete Event Simulation Models and Multi-Objective Optimization to Improve Real-World Factories2018In: Proceedings of the 2018 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] M. Rabe, A.A. Juan, N. Mustafee, A. Skoogh, S. Jain, and B. Johansson, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving production line performance and identifying bottlenecks using simulation-based optimization has been shown to be an effective approach. Nevertheless, for larger production systems which are consisted of multiple production lines, using simulation-based optimization can be too computationally expensive, due to the complexity of the models. Previous research has shown promising techniques for aggregating production line data into computationally efficient modules, which enables the simulation of higher-level systems, i.e., factories. This paper shows how a real-world factory flow can be optimized by applying the previously mentioned aggregation techniques in combination with multi-objective optimization using an experimental approach. The particular case studied in this paper reveals potential reductions of storage levels by over 30 %, lead time reductions by 67 %, and batch sizes reduced by more than 50 % while maintaining the delivery precision of the industrial system.

  • 335.
    Lidberg, Simon
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Volvo Car Corporation, Skövde, Sweden.
    Pehrsson, Leif
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Frantzén, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Applying Aggregated Line Modeling Techniques to Optimize Real World Manufacturing Systems2018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of discrete event simulation methodology in the analysis of higher level manufacturing systems has been limited due to model complexity and the lack of aggregation techniques for manufacturing lines. Recent research has introduced new aggregation methods preparing for new approaches in the analysis of higher level manufacturing systems or networks. In this paper one of the new aggregated line modeling techniques is successfully applied on a real world manufacturing system, solving a real-world problem. The results demonstrate that the aggregation technique is adequate to be applied in plant wide models. Furthermore, in this particular case, there is a potential to reduce storage levels by over 25 %, through leveling the production flow, without compromising deliveries to customers.

  • 336.
    Lind, Carl Mikael
    et al.
    Unit of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Division of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Sweden / Design & Human Factors, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mahdavian, Nafise
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Olivares, Jozé Antonio Diaz
    Division of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Yang, Liyun
    Unit of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Division of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Unit of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Division of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Prevention of Work: Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Using Smart Workwear – The Smart Workwear Consortium2019In: Human Systems Engineering and Design: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Human Systems Engineering and Design (IHSED2018): Future Trends and Applications, October 25-27, 2018, CHU-Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France / [ed] Tareq Ahram, Waldemar Karwowski, Redha Taiar, Springer, 2019, Vol. 876, p. 477-483Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse work-related physical exposures such as repetitive movements and awkward postures have negative health effects and lead to large financial costs. To address these problems, a multi-disciplinary consortium was formed with the aim of developing an ambulatory system for recording and analyzing risks for musculoskeletal disorders utilizing textile integrated sensors as part of the regular workwear. This paper presents the consortium, the Smart Workwear System, and a case study illustrating its potential to decrease adverse biomechanical exposure by promoting improved work technique. 

  • 337.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Manufacturing in the wild: viewing human-based assembly through the lens of distributed cognition2017In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 57-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interdisciplinary field of cognitive science has been and isbecoming increasingly central within human factors and ergonomics(HF&E) and, since at the same time, there has long been a call for a more systems perspective in the area with a somewhat wider unit of analysis. This paper argues that the theoretical framework of distributed cognition would greatly benefit the application of HF&E to manufacturing and would offer a more holistic understanding of the interactions between different entities within a greater context,including the social, cultural and materialistic. We aim to characterize and analyse manufacturing as a complex socio-technical system from a distributed cognition perspective; focusing on the use, mediation and integration of different forms of representations, tools and artefacts in this domain. We present illustrative examples fromauthentic manual assembly, showing the cognitively distributed nature of the work, ranging from scaffolding strategies of the individual worker to the emergent properties of a whole assembly line. The paper further proposes and provides benefits of using a distributed cognition framework as a novel approach in the toolboxfor the HF&E discipline, where it may have been found before, but the application to manufacturing has been absent.

  • 338.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards a framework for reducing cognitive load in manufacturing personnel2014In: Advances in Cognitive Engineering and Neuroergonomics / [ed] Kay Stanney & Kelly S. Hale, AHFE , 2014, p. 233-244Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in cognitive aspects of human performance has dramatically increased in recent years in manufacturing, complementing the area of physical ergonomics, and the expanded focus on cognitive aspects may offer significant insights and contributions to industrial domains. A considerably increased interest has been directed at the role and effects cognitive load has on human performance, and ultimately on production outcome. The main question addressed is: How can an understanding of cognitive load in manufacturing lead us to design better workplaces for the personnel at the shop floor? To answer this question, we have to consider how technology interacts with work environment and with human cognition from a systems perspective. Technology should be considered a resource in the design of a better working environment, aid those activities for which we are poorly suited cognitively, and enhance those cognitive skills for which we are ideally suited. This has resulted in a potential framework of factors that might have impact on high cognitive load, consisting of three levels; internal factors, external factors, and activity space. The initial framework focuses primarily on the former factors, identifying risks where a high cognitive load might lead to difficulty of work, negatively affecting production outcome.

  • 339.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wang, Wei
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards an Evaluation Framework of Safety, Trust, and Operator Experience in Different Demonstrators of Human-Robot Collaboration2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, p. 145-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in human-robot collaboration (HRC) are regarded as major aspects of the future Industry 4.0. HRC entails humans that cooperatively work with robots in dynamic, changing, and unpredictable settings where they should assist and learn from each other and automatically respond to changes. This requires research and development to investigate and evaluate how these hybrid collaborative systems should function and distribute work. The common practice is to focus on performance-related issues, which are highly influenced by human factors (HF). Because of the prevailing orientation towards HF, HRC runs the risk of not considering the modern understandings of human cognition and technology-mediated activity, in which humans are considered as actors (not factors) in a socio-material context. Although HF is dominant and well justified, the problem is that it may hinder general development, because it is not aligned with the modern understanding of cultivating a safety culture that promotes continuous improvements and development as an inherent attitude of companies and work practices. Taking an opposite approach, where the human operators working together with robots are playing active and positive roles in constructing safety, trust, and good operator experience. Hence, the collaborative human-robot system perspective addresses the need to develop and assess new evaluation methods that consider aspects like safety, trust, and operator experience from modern understandings of human cognition and technology-mediated activity, where also different levels of in human-robot collaboration have to be considered. This paper presents 1) the initial conceptual framework of HRC that addresses these above issues. It also describes 2) the design of a comparative analysis and benchmarking tasks of operators when interacting closely with robots, in three different demonstrators of varying levels of collaboration. The final outcome from this work should, in the long run, function as a roadmap for successful implementation of HRC in industry.

  • 340.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    On System Dynamics as an Approach for Manufacturing Systems Development2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvement work in manufacturing industry usually focuses on the utilisation of equipment. System dynamics simulation is a potential tool for increasing the utilisation of systems. By using group model building and simulation it facilitates a common view and better informed decisions for change. However, a gap between theory and practice of how to implement these projects is identified, consequently the major question for this thesis. The approach for solving this problem used industrial case studies with action research character; including modelling and interviews affecting the actors in the studied systems. Together with literature studies these efforts contribute with identifying how system dynamics projects can be performed for manufacturing systems development. It is shown that the support for how to implement system dynamics projects is unsatisfying and general. During the research progress a framework of guidelines has crystallised in order to bridge the presented gap of this thesis. Finally, the results are considered to make it easier to support manufacturing systems development using system dynamics.

  • 341.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards strategic development of maintenance and its effects on production performance: A hybrid simulation-based optimization framework2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing maintenance in manufacturing within an economical short-termism framework and taking the consequential long-term cost effects into account is hard. The increasing complexity of managing maintenance and its impact on the business results calls for more advanced methods to support long-term development through effective activities in the production system environment. This problem-based design science research has evolved into the novel concept of a hybrid simulation-based optimization (SBO) framework which integrates multi-objective optimization (MOO) with system dynamics (SD) and discrete-event simulation (DES) respectively. The objective is to support managers in their decision-making on the strategic and operational levels for prioritizing activities to develop maintenance and production performance.

    To exemplify the hybrid SBO framework this research presents an SD model for the study of the dynamic behaviors of maintenance performance and costs, which aims to illuminate insights for the support of the long-term strategic development of maintenance practices. The model promotes a system view of maintenance costs that includes the dynamic consequential costs as the combined result of several interacting maintenance levels throughout the constituent feedback structures. These levels range from the applied combination of maintenance methodologies to the resulting proactiveness in production, such as the ratio between planned and unplanned downtime, in continuous change based on the rate of improvements arising from root-cause analyses of breakdowns. The model creation and validation process have been supported by two large maintenance organizations operating in the Swedish automotive industry. Experimental results show that intended changes can have both short-term and longterm consequences, and that the system may show both obvious and hidden dynamic behavioral effects.

    The application of MOO distinguishes this work from previous research efforts that have mixed SD and DES. It presents a unique methodology to support more quantitative and objective-driven decision making in maintenance management, in which the outcome of an SD+MOO strategy selection process forms the basis for performance improvements on the operations level. This is achieved by framing the potential gains in operations in the DES+MOO study, as a result of the applied strategy in the SD model. All in all, this hybrid SBO framework allows pinpointing maintenance activities based on the analysis of the feedback behavior that generates less reactive load on the maintenance organization.

  • 342.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Machine Strategy Evaluation Using Group Model Building in System Dynamics2014In: System Dynamics Society: Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference of the System Dynamics Society / [ed] Pål Davidsen and Etiënne A. J. A. Rouwette, 2014, p. 24 s.-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling projects, in order to build richer understanding of the dynamics of real-world

    phenomena in manufacturing systems, benefit from utilizing System dynamics group model

    building. This paper describes a project utilizing such method in order to identify the

    interrelated dynamics of aging machinery equipment, competence development, and level of

    automation for accurate manufacturing systems development. These central aspects were

    identified by the project group during modeling and were considered vital in order to

    approach the proper Machine Strategy for the system of interest. Aspects of attention in the

    study also considered participants’ learning of the system of interest, participants’

    perception upon model results, and the comparison between utilizing group model building

    and the traditional modeler-client approach. It is shown that System dynamics group model

    building has potential use in manufacturing, and indeed that more efforts are needed for

    successful use in projects. For that reason the need of a framework for supporting system

    dynamics projects in manufacturing is identified.

  • 343.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Galar, Diego
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    A path forward: Systems thinking maintenance as part of shift in mind on added value2015In: / [ed] Sulo Lahdelma & Kari Palokangas, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The purpose and novelty with this recently started research is the introduction of a modelling concept that aims to include the interdependencies maintenance have with financial figures, customer behavior, and production, using systems thinking. It suggests on a path forward in acknowledging short- and long term effects from maintenance on the production system and its financial results. Using systems thinking modelling enables learning on consequences from strategies and policies on the studied system; enabling evaluation of future scenarios supporting decision makers in defining sustainable strategies of action on the policy-level. This paper provides a brief outline of the thoughts behind the research project and points the direction for future research by first introducing aspects regarding the problem and possibilities to address, then briefly introduce different modelling approaches that in part address the problem, which is summarized into a path forward, and finally includes an example of a model by the author of a machine strategy problem that connects the physical assets and actions with financial costs.

  • 344.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Galar, Diego
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    In Need for Better Maintenance Cost Modelling to Support the Partnership with Manufacturing2016In: Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective / [ed] Uday Kumar, Alireza Ahmadi, Ajit Kumar Verma & Prabhakar Varde, Springer, 2016, 1, p. 263-282Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of maintenance consequential costs has to be dealt with in manufacturing and is core of this paper. The need of sustainable partnership between manufacturing and maintenance is addressed. Stuck in a best practice thinking, applying negotiation as a method based on power statements in the service level agreement, the common best possible achievable goal is put on risk. Instead, it may enforce narrow minded sub optimized thinking even though not intended so. Unfortunately, the state of origin is not straightforward business. Present maintenance cost modelling is approached, however limits to its ability to address the dynamic complexity of production flows are acknowledged. The practical problem to deal with is units put together in production flows; in which downtime in any unit may or may not result in decreased throughput depending on its set up. In this environment accounting consequential costs is a conundrum and a way forward is suggested. One major aspect in the matter is the inevitable need of shift in mind, from perspective thinking in maintenance and manufacturing respectively towards shared perspectives, nourishing an advantageous sustainable partnership.

  • 345.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Jägstam, Mats
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kinnander, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bridging a Methodological Gap in Using System Dynamics in Manufacturing2009In: Proceedings of The International 3’rd Swedish Production Symposium, SPS’09 / [ed] B.-G. Rosén, The Swedish Production Academy , 2009, p. 19-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of manufacturing systems is dependent on human decision making. One important factor in the decision making process is the organisational ability to transform available information into useful knowledge. The ability is generally limited by the organisation's level of competence and use of methods. However, real systems are not simple and straightforward but dynamically complex and difficult to interpret in order to perform successful change. One tool for diagnosing and solving complex business problems is system dynamics. It is interesting for its capability to acknowledge dynamic complexity.

    This paper presents a framework of guidelines that facilitates implementing a system dynamics project for manufacturing systems development. It is the result of industrial case studies, supporting verification of the framework contents. This is presented in order to improve using system dynamics as a decision support in manufacturing. And it may bridge a gap between academic theory and industrial practice.

  • 346.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Production Engineering and Production Preparation, Arkivator AB, Falköping, Sweden .
    Jägstam, Mats
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Näsström, C.
    Production Engineering and Production Preparation, Arkivator AB, Falköping, Sweden.
    Cutting Tool Management: A Dynamic Assessment of Opportunities for Improvement2008In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: FAIM 2008 / [ed] Leo J. de Vin, 2008, Vol. 2, p. 1084-1091Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of time due to daily problems in need of attention restrains proper assessments of improvement opportunities. There is neither proper support at hand to deal with the dynamic complexity of human activity and systems in use. This paper explores if system dynamics simulation can be used to model tooling problems on a management problem level at a manufacturer and evaluates its use. System dynamics is a methodology designed to aid understanding of dynamically complex problems and increases decision making impact. The results focus on the achieved models which prove to have sense behaviour despite lack of thorough data. In conclusion the applied method provides with an analysis of complex problem situations applicable for a decision support, otherwise performed through good guessing. Main characteristics from reality have been included in model and an experimental laboratory to test future policies on achieved.

  • 347.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Investigating Maintenance Performance: A Simulation Study2016In: Proceedings of the 7th Swedish Production Symposium, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance can be performed in multiple procedures, and it is hard to justify investments in preventive work. It is a complex equation between the inherent complexity of maintenance and its tight dependencies with production, but also the aspect of direct cost and consequential costs from activities. A model is presented that quantify dynamics of maintenance performance in order to enable a systems analysis on the total of consequences from different strategies. Simulation offers experimenting and learning on how performance is generated. The model is based on parts of previous research on maintenance modelling, system dynamics, maintenance theory, and mapping of practical information flows in maintenance. Two experiments are presented that both take off from a reactive strategy of maintenance performance, and implement two different strategies for preventive maintenance. Using the model enriches the analysis on how the aspects of maintenance performance work together with different maintenance strategies.

  • 348.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, Sweden.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    A hybrid simulation-based optimization framework for supporting strategic maintenance to improve production performance2018In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 349.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Justifying Maintenance Studying System Behavior: A Multipurpose Approach Using Multi-objective Optimization2017In: 35th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society 2017: Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 16 - 20 July 2017 / [ed] J. Sterman, N. Repenning, Curran Associates, Inc., 2017, Vol. 2, p. 1061-1081Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial maintenance includes rich internaldynamic complexity on how to deliver value. While the technical development hasprovided with applicable solutions in terms of reliability and condition basedmonitoring, managing maintenance is still an act of balancing, trying to pleasethe short-termism from the economic requirements and simultaneously address thenecessity of strategic and long-term thinking. By presenting an analysis tojustify maintenance studying system behavior, this paper exemplifies thecontribution of the combined approach of a system dynamics maintenanceperformance model and multi-objective optimization. The paper reveals howinsights from the investigation, of the near optimal Pareto-front solutions inthe objective space, can be drawn using visualization of performance ofselected parameters. According to our analysis, there is no return back to thesingle use of system dynamics; the contribution to the analysis of exploringsystem behavior, from applying multi-objective optimization, is extensive.However, for the practical application, the combined approach is not areplacement – but a complement. Where the interpretation of the visualizedPareto-fronts strongly benefits from the understanding of the model dynamics, inwhich important nonlinearities and delays can be revealed, and thus facilitateon the selected strategical path for implementation.

  • 350.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, Sweden.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Quantitative analysis of a conceptual system dynamics maintenance performance model using multi-objective optimisation2018In: Journal of Simulation, ISSN 1747-7778, E-ISSN 1747-7786, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 171-189Article in journal (Refereed)
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