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  • 301.
    Volanen, Salla-Maarit
    et al.
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lassander, Maarit
    Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hankonen, Nelli
    School of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Santalahti, Päivi
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hintsanen, Mirka
    Unit of Psychology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Simonsen, Nina
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Raevuori, Anu
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Adolescent Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Mullola, Sari
    Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Teacher Education, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vahlberg, Tero
    Department of Biostatistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    But, Anna
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Healthy Learning Mind - a school-based mindfulness and relaxation program: a study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial2016In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 4, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mindfulness has shown positive effects on mental health, mental capacity and well-being among adult population. Among children and adolescents, previous research on the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions on health and well-being has shown promising results, but studies with methodologically sound designs have been called for. Few intervention studies in this population have compared the effectiveness of mindfulness programs to alternative intervention programs with adequate sample sizes.

    METHODS/DESIGN: Our primary aim is to explore the effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness intervention program compared to a standard relaxation program among a non-clinical children and adolescent sample, and a non-treatment control group in school context. In this study, we systematically examine the effects of mindfulness intervention on mental well-being (primary outcomes being resilience; existence/absence of depressive symptoms; experienced psychological strengths and difficulties), cognitive functions, psychophysiological responses, academic achievements, and motivational determinants of practicing mindfulness. The design is a cluster randomized controlled trial with three arms (mindfulness intervention group, active control group, non-treatment group) and the sample includes 59 Finnish schools and approx. 3 000 students aged 12-15 years. Intervention consists of nine mindfulness based lessons, 45 mins per week, for 9 weeks, the dose being identical in active control group receiving standard relaxation program called Relax. The programs are delivered by 14 educated facilitators. Students, their teachers and parents will fill-in the research questionnaires before and after the intervention, and they will all be followed up 6 months after baseline. Additionally, students will be followed 12 months after baseline. For longer follow-up, consent to linking the data to the main health registers has been asked from students and their parents.

    DISCUSSION: The present study examines systematically the effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness program compared to a standard relaxation program, and a non-treatment control group. A strength of the current study lies in its methodologically rigorous, randomized controlled study design, which allows novel evidence on the effectiveness of mindfulness over and above a standard relaxation program.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN18642659 . Retrospectively registered 13 October 2015.

  • 302.
    Vuorio, Tina
    et al.
    Department of Family Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kautiainen, Hannu
    Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland / Unit of Primary Health Care, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Korhonen, Päivi
    Department of Family Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Health Center of Harjavalta, Central Satakunta Health Federation of Municipalities, Harjavalta, Finland.
    Determinants of sickness absence rate among Finnish municipal employees2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In addition to acute health problems, various aspects of health behavior, work-related and sociodemographic factors have been shown to influence the rate of sickness absence. The aim of this study was to concomitantly examine factors known to have an association with absenteeism. We hypothesized the prevalence of chronic diseases being the most important factor associated with sickness absence. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Occupational health care in the region of Pori, Finland. Subjects: 671 municipal employees (89% females) with a mean age of 49 (SD 10) years. Information about the study subjects was gathered from medical records, by physical examination and questionnaires containing information about physical and mental health, health behavior, work-related and sociodemographic factors. The number of sickness absence days was obtained from the records of the city of Pori. Main outcome measures: The relationship of absenteeism rate with sociodemographic, health- and work-related risk factors. Results: In the multivariate analysis, the mean number of chronic diseases (IRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.36), work ability (IRR 0.83, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.91), and length of years in education (IRR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.95) remained as independent factors associated with absenteeism. Conclusion: According to our results, chronic diseases, self-perceived work ability and length of years in education are the most important determinants of the rate of sickness absence. This implies that among working-aged people the treatment of chronic medical conditions is also worth prioritizing, not only to prevent complications, but also to avoid sickness absences. KEY POINTS Various sociodemographic, health- and work- related risk factors have been shown to influence sickness absence. The study aimed to find the most important determinants of absenteeism among several known risk factors in Finnish municipal employees. Chronic diseases, self-perceived work ability and education years remained as the most important determinants of sickness absence rates. Treatment of chronic medical conditions should be prioritized in order to reduce sickness absence rate. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

  • 303.
    Waldholm, Therese
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Är fysisk aktivitet lösningen på framtidens sömnlöshetsproblem?: En systematisk litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Insomnia is a major and growing public health problem for the adult population. Currently recommend medication and cognitive behavior therapy as treatment for the diagnosis, but no special recommendations are available for the purpose of preventing chronic insomnia och insomnia symptoms. Research shows that peoples living habits appear to be determining factors for their sleep quality, but it is still estimated that the area is relatively unexplored. Aim: This study investigate whether physical activity can prevent chronic insomnia and symptoms of insomnia in adults. Method: Systematic literature study in PubMed. Result: Physical activity was found to be associated with chronic insomnia and insomnia symptoms, and the association was affected by the body mass index (BMI) of the individual. Differences in intensity levels and physical activity were observed between the sexes and in different age groups. Discussion: The prescription of physical activity to individuals at risk for insomnia, or for treatment of those suffering from insomnia, represents a potential future public health strategy for the management and prevention of insomnia, however, cost-effectiveness of these strategies must be evaluated.

  • 304.
    Wamala, Sarah
    et al.
    Centre for Public Health, Stockholms Läns Landsting and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boström, Gunnel
    Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Bildt, Carina
    Gotland University College and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Does socioeconomic disadvantage explain why immigrants in Sweden refrain from seeking the needed medical treatment?2007In: Italian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1723-7807, E-ISSN 1723-7815, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: For the last 20 years, Sweden has changed from a homogeneous to multicultural society with about 20% of immigrants born in other countries. The existing Swedish studies have not shown coherent results on how access to health care services varies by ethnicity. The aim of this paper was to analyze the association between country of birth and refraining from seeking medical treatment and whether socioeconomic disadvantage modifies this association.Methods: Cross-sectional Swedish National Survey of Public Health 2004. A population-based sample comprising of 14,732 men (1,382 immigrants) and 17,115 women (1,717 immigrants) aged 21 to 84 years. Country of birth was categorised as being born in Sweden, other OECD countries or other countries (non-OECD). The main outcome was the self-reporting of refraining from seeking medical treatment during the past three months. Data was collected within a three-month period during the spring of 2004 and was based on a postal self-administered questionnaire linked to registry data from Statistics Sweden. The nonresponse rate was 37%.Main results: In spite of the fact that immigrants reported poorer health status, they were more likely to refrain from seeking medical treatment as compared to Swedish-born residents (odds for immigrants from other OECD countries were ORmen = 2.2, 95% CI 1.8-2.6 and ORwomen = 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1 and forimmigrants from other countries (ORmen = 3.1, 95% CI 2.4-3.4 and ORwomen = 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.9). Socioeconomic disadvantage (SDI) did not explain why immigrants fromother OECD countries had increased odds for refraining fromseekingmedical treatment. However SDI explained about 20%of the increased odds for refraining from seeking medical treatment among immigrants from other (non-OECD) countries.Conclusions: Socioeconomic disadvantage does not fully explain why immigrants refrain from seeking medical treatment. Public health strategies towards the goal “care on equal terms” cannot be achieved without addressing wider socioeconomic determinants including interactions between class and ethnicity.

  • 305.
    Wang, Shu Mei
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, School of Public Health, Fudan University, China.
    Zou, Jin Liang
    Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, School of Public Health, Fudan University, China.
    Gifford, Mervyn
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    School of Health & Medical Sciences, Department of Public Health Science, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Young students' knowledge and perception of health and fitness: A study in Shanghai, China2014In: Health Education Journal, ISSN 0017-8969, E-ISSN 1748-8176, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 20-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study investigated how young urban students conceptualize health and fitness and tried to identify their sources of information about health-related issues. The findings are intended to help make suggestions for policy makers to design and develop effective health-education strategies. Methods: Focus group discussions (FGDs) of 20 groups, each comprised of eight 10th-grade students, were carried out. In total 160 students participated in the FGDs. Results: Young students' knowledge and perceptions about health and fitness had certain limitations, although most of the students emphasized the importance of good health and felt that they knew the meaning of health and fitness. They were most concerned with physical health and failed to consider other aspects of health such as mental/psychological, behavioural and social aspects. This represents a lack of awareness of contemporary conceptions of health and illness. Conclusion: These findings are important when considering the design of effective high school health education strategies that meet state content standards and for influencing students to continue participating in health-promoting activities.

  • 306.
    Wegefelt, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Vuxnas uppfattning om att använda digitala verktyg inom området fysisk aktivitet2018Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Access to support is essential to prevent physical inactivity which is a majorpublic health problem. Digital tools have the potential to increase activity levels and aninterest has been raised to investigate adults' perception of such use.Aim: The purpose is to describe adult people's perception of facilitators and barriers to digitaltools in the field of physical activity.Method: A systematic literature review with a base in qualitative research was conducted inPubMed, where 15 articles were analyzed in a descriptive synthesis.Results: The result indicates that people experience the opportunity for goal setting,competition and support in digital tools as promoting. Technical barriers and insufficientpersonal adaptation is obstructing for use.Discussion: Online communication and support means a relatively new way to receivesupport. Involving digital tools in the healthcare sector in the future can provide greatopportunities for individuals as well as healthcare providers to gain transparency and controlin their own health. From a public health perspective, focus on accessibility and personaladaptation becomes particularly significant.

  • 307.
    Weimann, Hanna
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Div Occupat & Environm Med, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Björk, Jonas
    Lund Univ, Div Occupat & Environm Med, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Rylander, Lars
    Lund Univ, Div Occupat & Environm Med, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Bergman, Patrick
    Linnaeus Univ, Dept Sport Sci, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Neighborhood environment and physical activity among young children: A cross-sectional study from Sweden2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 283-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aims of this study were to investigate the association between the neighbourhood environment and physical activity among young children in a Scandinavian setting, and to assess the influences of seasonal variations, age, sex and parental education. Methods: Physical activity was assessed with an accelerometer and neighbourhood resources were estimated using geographic information systems for 205 Swedish children aged 4-11 years. Neighbourhood resources were generated as the sum of three neighbourhood attributes: (a) foot and bike paths, (b) non-restricted destinations and (c) recreational area, all within 300 m of each child's home. Physical activity was assessed as: (a) total volume of physical activity (i.e. counts per minute), (b) sedentary time and (c) moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The association between neighbourhood resources and physical activity was analysed using mixed linear models weighted by measurement time and adjusted for sex, age, season of activity measurement, type of housing and parental education. Results: Children were more physically active in areas with intermediate access to neighbourhood resources for physical activity compared to areas with worst access, while the difference between intermediate and best neighbourhood resource areas was less clear. The association between physical activity and neighbourhood resources was weaker than with seasonal variations but compatible in magnitude with sex, age, type of housing and parental education. Among specific neighbourhood attributes, the amount of foot and bike paths was associated with less sedentary time and more MVPA. Conclusions:This study provides some, not entirely consistent, evidence overall for an association between the neighbourhood environment and physical activity among young children in Scandinavia.

  • 308.
    Westman, Jolin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skiftarbetes inverkan på sjuksköterskors hälsa: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Shift work affects the circadian rhythm. Working night shift can, for instance, result in a disrupted circadian rhythm, which can have adverse effects on health. Nurses are a particularly vulnerable group in health care since they often work shifts.

     

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore how nurses are affected by shift work and what effects of shift work can have on nurses' health.

     

    Method The work was carried out as a literature review with a systematic approach, in which 10 scientific articles were selected from the databases; Academic Search Elite, CINAHL and MEDLINE. The articles were examined, analyzed, results were summarized and conclusions were drawn.

     

    Results Many nurses, often regardless of the type of shift work they have, suffer from insomnia, fatigue and gastrointestinal problems. Short rest between shifts and workload is mentioned in several articles as cause to the problems.

     

    Discussion Short rest between shifts can be a major contributing factor to the problems, circadian rhythm and shift work itself may not affect health as much as short rest and too little time for recovery in between shifts.

  • 309.
    Wiberger, Maja
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth Epidemiol & Community Med, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth Epidemiol & Community Med, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lisner, Lauren
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth Epidemiol & Community Med, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mehlig, Kirsten
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth Epidemiol & Community Med, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Papoutsou, Stalo
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth Epidemiol & Community Med, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Children consuming milk cereal drink are at increased risk for overweight: The IDEFICS Sweden study, on behalf of the IDEFICS Consortium2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 518-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aims of this study were to characterize milk cereal drink (MCD) consumption among Swedish children and to investigate the association between MCD and overweight in a longitudinally followed cohort of children over 2 years of age. Methods: In the Swedish cohort from IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary-and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) we examined early feeding practices and weight status when children were aged 2-9 years (2007/2008) and at 2-year follow-up. Weight and height were measured at both time points in 1077 children. Characteristics of MCD consumers were explored with logistic regression. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores at both time points and weight status at follow-up were regressed on explanatory factors using mixed linear and logistic regression, respectively. Results: Nearly 69% of children had consumed MCD. The MCD consumers were more likely than never-consumers to have two native Swedish parents, parents with less than 2 years of post-secondary education, and a shorter period of breastfeeding. MCD consumers had a higher BMI z-score at follow-up compared with baseline (difference in BMI z-score=0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.07, 0.17), while the average BMI z-score in non-consumers remained stable over time (0.00, 95% CI= -0.07, 0.07). MCD consumers were nearly five times more likely than non-consumers to become overweight during the follow-up (odds ratio (OR)= 4.78, 95% CI= 1.68, 13.59), independent of breastfeeding. Conclusions: MCD was consumed by the majority of children in this study. MCD consumption is associated with an increased risk for overweight and less exposure to breastfeeding. Our findings motivate future research aimed at investigating how MCD should be recommended.

  • 310.
    Wolters, M.
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Schlenz, H.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Foraita, R.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Galli, C.
    Univ Milan, Dept Pharmacol & Biomol Sci, DiSFeB, Milan, Italy.
    Rise, P.
    Univ Milan, Dept Pharmacol & Biomol Sci, DiSFeB, Milan, Italy.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Molnar, D.
    Univ Pecs, Natl Inst Hlth Promot, Pecs, Hungary.
    Russo, P.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Avellino, Italy.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Vyncke, K.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Queen Silvia Childrens Hosp, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Iacoviello, L.
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent, Lab Mol & Nutr Epidemiol, Pozzilli, Italy.;Casa Cura Montevergine, Lab Cardiovasc & Neurovasc Epidemiol, Mercogliano, Italy.
    Ahrens, W.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Fac Math & Comp Sci, Inst Stat, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Reference values of whole-blood fatty acids by age and sex from European children aged 3-8 years2014In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 38, p. S86-S98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To establish reference values for fatty acids (FA) especially for n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC PUFA) in whole-blood samples from apparently healthy 3-8-year-old European children. The whole-blood FA composition was analysed and the age-and sex-specific distribution of FA was determined. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Blood samples for FA analysis were taken from 2661 children of the IDEFICS (identification and prevention of dietary-and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort. Children with obesity (n = 454) and other diseases that are known to alter the FA composition (n = 450) were excluded leaving 1653 participants in the reference population. MEASUREMENTS: The FA composition of whole blood was analysed from blood drops by a rapid, validated gas chromatographic method. RESULTS: Pearson correlation coefficients showed an age-dependent increase of C18:2n-6 and a decrease of C18:1n-9 in a subsample of normal weight boys and girls. Other significant correlations with age were weak and only seen either in boys or in girls, whereas most of the FA did not show any age dependence. For age-dependent n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as for other FA that are correlated with age (16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9) percentiles analysed with the general additive model for location scale and shape are presented. A higher median in boys than in girls was observed for C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. CONCLUSIONS: Given the reported associations between FA status and health-related outcome, the provision of FA reference ranges may be useful for the interpretation of the FA status of children in epidemiological and clinical studies.

  • 311.
    Wolters, Maike
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Boernhorst, Claudia
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Schwarz, Heike
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Rise, Patrizia
    Univ Milan, Dept Pharmacol & Biomol Sci, DiSFeB, Milan, Italy.
    Galli, Claudio
    Univ Milan, Dept Pharmacol & Biomol Sci, DiSFeB, Milan, Italy.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Pala, Valeria
    Fdn IRCCS Ist Nazl Tumori, Dept Prevent & Predict Med, Epidemiol & Prevent Unit, Milan, Italy.
    Russo, Paola
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Avellino, Italy.
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Tornaritis, Michael
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Fraterman, Arno
    Med Versorgungszentrum Dr Eberhard & Partner Dort, Lab Med, Dortmund, Germany.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Univ Ghent, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Ghent, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Sect Epidemiol & Social Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Sect Epidemiol & Social Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molnar, Denes
    Univ Pecs, Natl Inst Hlth Promot, Pecs, Hungary.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Inst Stat, Fac Math & Comp Sci, Bremen, Germany.
    Association of desaturase activity and C-reactive protein in European children2017In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Desaturase enzymes influence the fatty acid (FA) composition of body tissues and their activity affects the conversion rate of saturated to monounsaturated FA and of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) to long-chain PUFA. Desaturase activity has further been shown to be associated with inflammation. We investigate the association between delta-9 (D9D), delta-6 (D6D) and delta-5 desaturase (D5D) activity and high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) in young children. METHODS: In the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) cohort study children were examined at baseline (TO) and after 2 y (T1). D9D, D6D, and D5D activities were estimated from TO product-precursor FA ratios. CRP was measured at TO and T1. In a subsample of 1,943 children with available information on FA, CRP, and covariates, the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of desaturase activity and CRP were analyzed. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, a D9D increase of 0.01 units was associated with a 11% higher risk of having a serum CRP Percentile 75 (P75) (OR, 99% CI: 1.11 (1.01; 1.22)) whereas D6D and D5D were not associated with CRP. No significant associations were observed between baseline desaturase activity and CRP 2 y later. CONCLUSION: Cross-sectionally, our results indicate a positive association of D9D and CRP independent of weight status. High D9D activity may increase the risk of subclinical inflammation which is associated with metabolic disorders. As D9D expression increases with higher intake of saturated FA and carbohydrates, dietary changes may influence D9D activity and thus CRP. However, it remains to be investigated whether there is a causal relationship between D9D activity and CRP.

  • 312.
    Wongsala, Manothai
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Anbäcken, Els-Marie
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Rosendahl, Sirpa
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Perspectives of Health, Participation and Security among Older Adults in Northeastern Thailand2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 313.
    Zaqout, M.
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Ghent, Belgium.
    Michels, N.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Ghent, Belgium.
    Bammann, K.
    Univ Bremen, Inst Publ Hlth & Nursing Res, Fac Human & Hlth Sci, Bremen, Germany.;Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Ahrens, W.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Sprengeler, O.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Molnar, D.
    Univ Pecs, Fac Med, Dept Pediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Hadjigeorgiou, C.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit EPI, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Konstabel, K.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, Ctr Behav & Hlth Sci, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Russo, P.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Unit Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Avellino, Italy.
    Jimenez-Pavon, D.
    Univ Zaragoza, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    De Henauw, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Ghent, Belgium.
    Influence of physical fitness on cardio-metabolic risk factors in European children. The IDEFICS study2016In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1119-1125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the associations of individual and combined physical fitness components with single and clustering of cardio-metabolic risk factors in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This 2-year longitudinal study included a total of 1635 European children aged 6-11 years. The test battery included cardio-respiratory fitness (20-m shuttle run test), upper-limb strength (handgrip test), lower-limb strength (standing long jump test), balance (flamingo test), flexibility (back-saver sit-and-reach) and speed (40-m sprint test). Metabolic risk was assessed through z-score standardization using four components: waist circumference, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), blood lipids (triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein) and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment). Mixed model regression analyses were adjusted for sex, age, parental education, sugar and fat intake, and body mass index. RESULTS: Physical fitness was inversely associated with clustered metabolic risk (P<0.001). All coefficients showed a higher clustered metabolic risk with lower physical fitness, except for upper-limb strength (beta = 0.057; P = 0.002) where the opposite association was found. Cardio-respiratory fitness (beta = -0.124; P<0.001) and lower-limb strength (beta = -0.076; P = 0.002) were the most important longitudinal determinants. The effects of cardio-respiratory fitness were even independent of the amount of vigorous-to-moderate activity (beta = -0.059; P = 0.029). Among all the metabolic risk components, blood pressure seemed not well predicted by physical fitness, while waist circumference, blood lipids and insulin resistance all seemed significantly predicted by physical fitness. CONCLUSION: Poor physical fitness in children is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Based on our results, this risk might be modified by improving mainly cardio-respiratory fitness and lower-limb muscular strength.

  • 314.
    Zaqout, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 4K3, Ghent, Belgium.
    Michels, Nathalie
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 4K3, Ghent, Belgium.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Börnhorst, Claudia
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Molnár, Dénes
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Siani, Alfonso
    Epidemiology and Population Genetics, Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
    Papoutsou, Stalo
    Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    Department of Chronic Diseases, National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 4K3, Ghent, Belgium.
    Associations between exclusive breastfeeding and physical fitness during childhood2018In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 545-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Exposure to breastfeeding improves the survival, health, and development of children; therefore, breast milk is recommended as the exclusive nutrient source for feeding term infants during the first 6 months. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the possible association between exposure to exclusive breastfeeding and physical fitness performance in children and, if so, whether this association is influenced by the breastfeeding duration.

    METHODS: A total of 2853 (52.3 % girls) European children from the IDEFICS study aged 6-11 years with complete data on physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, flexibility, balance, speed) and exclusive breastfeeding duration (never, 1-3, 4-6, 7-12 months) were included in the present study. Multivariate and mixed linear regression models were estimated and adjusted for sex, age, birth weight, diet, physical activity, body mass index, and parental factors (age, body mass index, educational attainment).

    RESULTS: We found a positive association between exclusive breastfeeding and lower-body explosive strength (β = 0.034) as well as flexibility (β = 0.028). We also found a positive association between breastfeeding and balance in boys (β = 0.039), while this association was negative in girls (β = -0.029). To improve lower-body explosive strength, 1-3 months of exclusive breastfeeding were enough; a longer duration did not lead to increasing benefit. In contrast, 4-6 months of breastfeeding were necessary to have any benefit on flexibility or balance, although this became nonsignificant after adjustment for body mass index and physical activity.

    CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive breastfeeding seems a natural way of slightly improving some physical fitness components (mainly lower-body muscle strength) and thus future health.

  • 315.
    Zeijlon, Jessika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lidestam, Magdalena
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Vad förebygger depression bland äldre: en litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Late-life depression is a major public health problem which causes emotional suffering among individuals and their relatives, and also leads to increased health care costs. In Sweden the prevalence of late-life depression is approximately 12-15 % among those aged 65 and older. The aim of this literature review was to compile and examine previous research considering late-life depression-preventive factors. Literature searches were made in the databases LibHub, PubMed and Cinahl using the keywords: prevention, depression, depressive symptoms, elderly, old and old people. Twelve scientific articles were selected and analyzed. Five main themes were identified. Theme activity showed conflicting results, dietary supplements were effective in one of two studies and social support was an important factor in preventing depression and counteracts the negative effects of stressful life events and economic stress. Cognitive strategies such as “positive restructuring” and CBT treatment were found to have an effect on depression symptoms. An intervention program including training of nursery care staff had significant effect, especially in nursing homes with a high prevalence of depression. Conclusion: Further literature studies and further deepening of the different themes are needed to draw accurate conclusions. There is a need for more research in this area, larger studies and longer follow-up is needed.

  • 316.
    Åman Svensson, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. mattias.aman.svensson@gmail.com.
    Att behandla depression hos äldre: en global utmaning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The older population makes up the largest group of people struck by mental depression. Meanwhile it is also the most rapidly increasing population group suffering from depression. There is a lack of research in this field and there are indications that older people do not respond to treatment in the same way as the younger population. The aim of this literature review is to examine methods of treatment for depression in the elderly population.Method: A systematic literature review with thematic content analysis of quantitative data.Results: Fifteen articles were included. The analysis resulted in four themes: Physical activity, Therapy, Social interaction, Medical treatment. Conclusion: There are indications of treatments with good effect, but it is difficult to identify possible clinical implications due to heterogeneity within the study population. More studies in the field focusing on subgroups are needed.

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