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  • 301.
    Bergström, Evelyn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Bega, Arijana
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Upplevelser av att leva med lungcancer: En litteraturbaserad studie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lung cancer is a disease with poor prognosis, with many people that falls ill each year. It is a disease which leads to numerous and severe symptoms that create much suffering. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe patients' experiences of living with lung cancer in daily life. Methods: A literature study was conducted with a qualitative approach. Twelve scientific articles were reviewed and analyzed according to a model for a literature study. Results: Six categories were identified: live with uncertainty, stigma and guilt, experience of disease-related symptoms, a changed self-esteem, to get support and be confirmed and thrown between hope and despair. Discussion: There was a need for patients to live as independent as possible, social support and the support from health professionals was crucial for them to cope with it. Support overall was important for patients to be able to handle most situations. By acquiring knowledge about patients' with lung cancers experiences the nurse can be a better support for the patient in order to alleviate patients suffering.

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    examensarbete
  • 302.
    Bergström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hammar, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ANHÖRIGAS UPPLEVDA SITUATION NÄR EN NÄRSTÅENDE VÅRDAS PÅ EN INTENSIVVÅRDSAVDELNING: -En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The intensive care unit is a department where critically and acute sick patients are being treated. The department has specialized routines, equipment to treat and screening. Nurses on a intensive care unit are responsible for the treatment of patients as well as the leadership of the workforce. The nurses are also responsible to acknowledge the patient’s relatives. Therefore, it is of great importance for the nurses to understand relatives’ experiences in this situation, to be able to give treatment of good quality to relatives too. Aim: To describe the experience of relatives to patients who are being treated at the intensive care unit. Method: A literature review of scientific articles with a qualitative standpoint, aimed towards the experiences of relatives to intensive care unit patients. Results: Relatives experienced that a lot of factors affected them negatively. Routines, equipment and treatment were experienced as unfamiliar and confusing. The situation made it hard for the relatives to experience being close to the patient. Relatives experienced that good communication and information made the situation positive. Relatives experienced that being a part and having a say in the patients’ treatment were important. Conclusion: To be a relative at the intensive care unit can feel unfamiliar and differ from other kinds of departments. There are rules, equipment and situations that makes it difficult for the relatives to see the context of the situation. It is of great importance that the healthcare is attentive and give the relatives the possibility to understand the context.

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  • 303.
    Bergström, Marina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Wiklander, Shaghayegh
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Unga kvinnors användande av sexualitet som självskadebeteende: En kvalitativ studie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Young girls that self-harm themselves have recent years been in focus. Thosewho earlier in life have been sexually abused are overrepresented among these women thatself-harm themselves through their sexuality.Aim: The aim of this study was to illustrate young women’s experiences of sexuality as aself-harm behavior.Method: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach of own written stories.Result: Young women that harm themselves with their sexuality seek acknowledgement forinstance by publishing pictures on the internet to receive positive feedback on theirappearance. Further they use their sexuality to achieve a rush and a sense of suffice and bythat mitigate their anxiety. These women need a lot of support from their surroundings inorder to understand and process their self-harm behavior.Conclusion: School nurses need to pay attention that sexuality as a self-harm behavior existsin all social classes. The school nurse can through continuity and a trustworthy attitude createa good relation that is based on a genuine interest of wanting to understand these youngwomen from a life-world perspective. To be able to offer these young women the supportthey are in need of it is important that the school nurse dare to be present, listen and ask the question.

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  • 304.
    Bergström, Natalie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal stress resilience2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience refers to the fact that some individuals cope well with stressful experiences. Many factors contribute to this sort of resilience, such as the early environment, the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTPLR), the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axis, and emotion regulation techniques. The aim of this thesis is to investigate which factors contribute to resilience, with a particular focus on the emotion regulation technique of cognitive reappraisal. The results show that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala each play a crucial role when it comes to stress regulation. Studies have found that the PFC inhibits the amygdala response, but that the PFC is vulnerable to exposure to chronic stress. As a result, the PFC might fail to inhibit the amygdala response. Individuals who use cognitive reappraisal techniques – which has been associated particularly with frontal and parietal brain activity – seem to be less prone to this sort of problem, and, as a result, more resilient to stress.

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  • 305.
    Bernanker Lundaahl, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Klint Carlander, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ungdomars syn på sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen i skolan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sex och samlevnad är en av många faktorer som har betydelse för hälsa och välbefinnande hos såväl vuxna som ungdomar. Alla elever har rätt att få sex- och samlevnadsundervisning i skolan. I arbetet med att stärka ungdomars förmåga att göra medvetna och ansvarstagande val som rör sexualitet och relationer är sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen en viktig del.

    Syfte: Att beskriva hur förstaårselever på gymnasiet upplever den sex- och samlevnadsundervisning som de hade i högstadiet.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes med kvalitativ metod med induktiv ansats och data analyserades med innehållsanalys. Fyra fokusgrupper genomfördes med totalt 20 deltagare. 

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i tre kategorier; Eleverna beskriver att sex- och samlevnadsundervisning är av stor betydelse, Att ha erfarenhet av en undervisning som upplevs bristfällig samt elevernas önskemål om förändring i undervisningen.

    Slutsats: Ungdomarna upplever att sex- och samlevnadsundervisning är viktig men att undervisningen i detta ämne också har brister. Det finns behov av att lyssna på och respektera unga människors åsikter gällande undervisningen i sex- och samlevnad. Detta för att anpassa undervisningen utifrån ungdomars livsvärld och deras behov och därmed bidra med betydelsefull kunskap i ämnet. Skolsköterskors omvårdnadsperspektiv kan tänkas bidra till den öppenhet och följsamhet för individens unika behov vilket efterfrågas av deltagarna. 

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  • 306.
    Bernhard, Pauline
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neurala korrelat till medkänsla med speciellt fokus på självmedkänsla2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    fulltext
  • 307.
    Bernvik, Erika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Jakobsson van Stam, Ebba
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Blivande förstagångspappors förväntningar inför förlossningen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Childbirth is part of the transition to parenthood. The transition is eased by support from midwives. It’s within the midwives area of responsibility to offer support to parents. Childbirth experiences are affected by received support and expectations of labour. Fathers’ childbirth experiences affect their well-being and parenting.

    Aim: Describe expecting first-time fathers’ expectations of the labour.

    Method: Qualitative individual semi-structured interviews with six expecting first-time fathers, whose women were in gestational week 29 to 35. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Expecting fathers’ find it hard to imagine what will happen during childbirth. They expect that after the delivery they will be able to have a quiet moment alone with their families to adjust to their new life-situation. Besides this, fathers expect that they will have an important supportive role during childbirth. Midwives are expected to support both the labouring mother and the father during childbirth.

    Conclusion: Midwives should support parental couples based on their individual needs of support. Support to expecting fathers enables them to be supportive during childbirth. First-time fathers expects support to be important during childbirth to create a feeling of security for themselves.

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    Blivande förstagångspappors förväntningar inför förlossningen
  • 308.
    Bernvik, Erika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Jakobsson van Stam, Ebba
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av lidande relaterat till cytostatikabehandlingen vid bröstcancer: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and a common treatment is chemotherapy, which comes with side effects. Suffering can be categorized in three different forms. Ethical principles are used to motivate choice of treatment. Aim: To describe women's experience of suffering related to chemotherapy during breast cancer. Method: The study is a literature review based on qualitative research. Eleven articles were reviewed and summarized by using Friberg (2012). Results: Women with breast cancer experience suffering when undergoing chemotherapy. They feel loss of their identity when their looks changes. People around them treat them differently and they are not able to do the same things as before in the role of mother, wife, friend and colleague. Suffering also consists of physical symptoms related to the treatment and the illness period, but some of the symptoms do not go away after treatment. Discussion: Physical side effects lead to psychological side effects as women experiences loss of identity, guilt and shame. Health care professionals have an important role in informing and to counter women in a good way to reduce suffering. Chemotherapy leads to suffering due to the illness and treatment, but it is also related to their existence. 

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  • 309.
    Berthenet, Elvire
    et al.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Yahara, Koji
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Japan.
    Thorell, Kaisa
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pascoe, Ben
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Meric, Guillaume
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Mikhail, Jane M.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom / Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    Engstrand, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Burette, Alain
    Centre Hospitalier Interrégional Edith Cavell/Site de la Basilique, Brussels, Belgium.
    Megraud, Francis
    Centre National de Référence des Campylobacters et des Hélicobacters, Bordeaux, France / University Bordeaux, France.
    Varon, Christine
    University Bordeaux, France.
    Atherton, John C.
    Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Smith, Sinead
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Wilkinson, Thomas S.
    Swansea University Medical School, Swansea University, Microbiology and Infectious Disease Group, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Hitchings, Matthew D.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Falush, Daniel
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Sheppard, Samuel K.
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    A GWAS on Helicobacter pylori strains points to genetic variants associated with gastric cancer risk2018In: BMC Biology, ISSN 1741-7007, E-ISSN 1741-7007, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Helicobacter pylori are stomach-dwelling bacteria that are present in about 50% of the global population. Infection is asymptomatic in most cases, but it has been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Epidemiological evidence shows that progression to cancer depends upon the host and pathogen factors, but questions remain about why cancer phenotypes develop in a minority of infected people. Here, we use comparative genomics approaches to understand how genetic variation amongst bacterial strains influences disease progression.

    RESULTS:

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 173 H. pylori isolates from the European population (hpEurope) with known disease aetiology, including 49 from individuals with gastric cancer. We identified SNPs and genes that differed in frequency between isolates from patients with gastric cancer and those with gastritis. The gastric cancer phenotype was associated with the presence of babA and genes in the cag pathogenicity island, one of the major virulence determinants of H. pylori, as well as non-synonymous variations in several less well-studied genes. We devised a simple risk score based on the risk level of associated elements present, which has the potential to identify strains that are likely to cause cancer but will require refinement and validation.

    CONCLUSION:

    There are a number of challenges to applying GWAS to bacterial infections, including the difficulty of obtaining matched controls, multiple strain colonization and the possibility that causative strains may not be present when disease is detected. Our results demonstrate that bacterial factors have a sufficiently strong influence on disease progression that even a small-scale GWAS can identify them. Therefore, H. pylori GWAS can elucidate mechanistic pathways to disease and guide clinical treatment options, including for asymptomatic carriers.

  • 310.
    Bezrukova, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson Hellström, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av vad i arbetssituationen som medverkar till stress, utbrändhet och utmattning: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Stress är vanligt förekommande i sjuksköterskeyrket och kan även leda till utbrändhet och utmattning. Sjuksköterskor arbetar under högt tempo med stort ansvar. Även nära relation med patienter ingår i sjuksköterskeyrket. Ohälsosam arbetsmiljö kan både påverka sjuksköterskors hälsa och patientsäkerheten och kan därmed leda till allvarliga konsekvenser. Syfte: Är att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av vad i arbetssituationen som medverkar till stress, utbrändhet och utmattning. Metod: Metoden som användes var en litteraturöversikt där både kvalitativa och kvantitativa artiklar ingår. Resultat: Ur analysen framkom två huvudkategorier; Känslor av otillräcklighet och Brister i omgivande organisation med nio underkategorier. Konklusion: Sammanfattningsvis tenderar upplevelse av stress, utbrändhet och utmattning hos sjuksköterskor förekomma i flera länder. För att sjuksköterskor ska kunna må bra på sina arbeten krävs att verksamheten åtgärdar problemen som framkommit.

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  • 311.
    Bharadwaj, Mausumi
    et al.
    Division of Molecular Genetics & Biochemistry, Institute of Cytology & Preventive Oncology (ICMR), NOIDA, India.
    Hussain, Showket
    Division of Molecular Genetics & Biochemistry, Institute of Cytology & Preventive Oncology (ICMR), NOIDA, India.
    Tripathi, Richa
    Division of Molecular Genetics & Biochemistry, Institute of Cytology & Preventive Oncology (ICMR), NOIDA, India.
    Singh, Neha
    Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.
    Mehrotra, Ravi
    Division of Cytopathology, Institute of Cytology & Preventive Oncology (ICMR), NOIDA, India.
    Human Papillomavirus (HPV): Diagnosis and Treatment2014In: Animal Biotechnology: Models in Discovery and Translation / [ed] Ashish Verma & Anchal Singh, Elsevier, 2014, p. 95-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Binder, Pauline
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Women’s and Children’s Health (IMCH), Akademiska Hospital/Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Annica
    Department of Woman and Child Health/Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Swedish University of Agriculture, Skara, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    Department of Woman and Child Health/Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hi-TENS combined with PCA-morphine as post caesarean pain relief2011In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 547-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:  to examine effectiveness and overall opiate consumption between high-sensory transcutaneous  electrical  nerve  stimulation  (Hi-TENS)  combined  with  patient-controlled  analgesia  with morphine and patient-controlled analgesia with morphine alone following elective (e.g. scheduled) caesarean birth. Design:  randomised, controlled study. Setting:  a county hospital in south-west Sweden. Participants:  42 multiparous women. Measurements and findings:  participants were randomly assigned and connected to patient-controlled analgesia  with  morphine  alone  or  in  combination  with  Hi-TENS  apparatus.  Levels  of  morphine consumed were calculated every third hour during the first 24 hours post partum. Pain and sedation were assessed by visual analogue scale at one, three, six, nine, 12 and 24 hours post partum. Total consumption  of  morphine  differed  significantly  between  the  groups:  morphine  with  TENS  was 16.2+/-12.6 mg and morphine alone was 33.1+/-20.9 mg (p = 0.007). Assessment of pain relief showed no  significant  difference.  Sedation  differed  significantly  between  the  groups  (p = 0.045),  especially between three and 12 hours post partum (p = 0.011). Key conclusions and implications for practice:  pain relief from a combination of Hi-TENS and patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was as effective as patient-controlled analgesia with morphine alone, produced less sedation and reduced morphine use by approximately 50%. Women undergoing a caesarean section should be given the opportunity to make an informed choice about post operative pain relief before surgery. A presumed benefit of this treatment combination is that the mother is more alert and better able to interact with her newborn during the first hours after birth without drowsiness due to large doses of opiates.

  • 313.
    Birgersson, Elsa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Unga svenska kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med Anorexia Nervosa: En självbiografistudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) means a will-controlled weight loss and there is often a low disease insight. AN has the highest mortality rate among mental illnesses, and the number of people who are cared for because of the disease have tripled since the 1990s. Knowledge of young womens expirence of AN are needed to be able to in a deeper level understand and help young women living with the disease. Purpose: To describe young Swedish women's experiences of living with Anorexia nervosa. Method: The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The data material consists of five autobiographies. Results: The analysis revealed three categories; the influence on self- esteem, difficulties in the relationship with family and friends and the disease regulates everyday life with six subcategories. Conclusion: Young women with AN have a need of control that causes a social inhibition and anxiety. These women need confirmation from both their environment and health care that they have a disease.

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    Unga svenska kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med Anorexia Nervosa: En självbiografistudie
  • 314.
    Birgersson, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ljunggren, Madelen
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    ETT SÅRAT HJÄRTA: Upplevelser av hälsa och välbefinnande i vardagen efter en hjärtinfarkt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 100 people suffer from heart attacks in Sweden every day, showing that myocardial infarction is a major problem in society. In implementing good health care it is important for health professionals to create an overall picture of these patients' experiences of health and wellbeing in their daily life. The purpose of this study is therefore to emphasize patients' experiences of health and wellbeing in daily life after a heart attack, with Katie Eriksson's health positions as theoretical base. A qualitative study based on seven autobiographies was conducted. Analysis of the data revealed seven major categories, showing the patients' experiences  the daily life after a heart attack: Feeling of insecurity, A stressful life situation, A lifelong disease, Striving for a normal daily life, The need for support and information, Lifestyle changes and A second chance. To get a picture of the experiences of health and wellbeing in these different situations, each category was added to Katie Eriksson's health positions. The findings show that all four health positions are represented in the daily life of patients' suffering from a heart attack. Patients are more likely to experience health and wellbeing as time passes after the heart attack.

     

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    Ett sårat hjärta
  • 315.
    Birtic, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskan och patienten med schizofreni: En vårdande relation2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Patienter som har diagnosen schizofreni är inte unikt samlade inom den psykiatriska vården utan finns inom alla vårdspecialiteter. En viktig del av omvårdnadsarbetet hos de sjuksköterskor vilka möter dessa patienter är etablerandet av en vårdande relation med dem. Det är i denna relation som omvårdnaden tillämpas. Syftet med studien var att sammanställa och belysa forskning som beskriver sjuksköterskans vårdrelation med en patient som har diagnosen schizofreni. I en systematisk litteraturstudie granskades och analyserades åtta vetenskapliga artiklar vilket resulterade i tre huvudteman relaterade till vårdrelationen: ´etablera en vårdande relation´, ´främjar utvecklingen av vårdrelationen´ samt ´hämmar utvecklingen av vårdrelationen´. Innehållet i dessa teman framhäver att vårdrelationen är ett komplex fenomen bestående av många aspekter. Genom en förståelse utav dessa aspekters proportioner samt påverkan kan de utav sjuksköterskor ägnas medvetna åtgärder i syfte att stärka relationen till patienten och öka kvaliteten på omvårdnaden.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 316.
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Ulla
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kullén Engström, Agneta
    School of Health, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Gustafsson, Margareta
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nursing students' assessment of the learning environment in different clinical settings2014In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 304-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Nursing students perform their clinical practice in different types of clinical settings. The clinical learning environment is important for students to be able to achieve desired learning outcomes. Knowledge is lacking about the learning environment in different clinical settings. Aim: The aim was to compare the learning environment in different clinical settings from the perspective of the nursing students. Design: A cross-sectional study with comparative design was conducted. Method: Data was collected from 185 nursing students at three universities by means of a questionnaire involving the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) evaluation scale. An open-ended question was added in order to ascertain reasons for dissatisfaction with the clinical placement. Results: The nursing students' satisfaction with the placement did not differ between clinical settings. However, those with clinical placement in hospital departments agreed more strongly that sufficient meaningful learning situations occurred and that learning situations were multi-dimensional. Some students reported that the character of the clinical setting made it difficult to achieve the learning objectives. Conclusion: In the planning of the clinical placement, attention must be paid to whether the setting offers the student a meaningful learning situation where the appropriate learning outcome may be achieved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 317.
    Bixby, Honor
    et al.
    Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ezzati, Majid
    Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
    Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults2019In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 569, no 7755, p. 260-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities1,2. This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity3-6. Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.

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  • 318.
    Biörck-Markusson, Linda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Mokhayer, Zohreh
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att vårdas i slutenvård för anorexia nervosa: Patienters upplevelser2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are different types of eating disorders. Among these are anorexia nervosa the most serious. It is mostly young women who develop the disease, but also young men can become ill. Anorexia nervosa affects patient´s body image negatively, which results in the patient starving him- or herself and/or exercising frenetically. Aim: The aim was to describe patients with anorexia nervosa experiences of care during hospitalization. Method: A literature review with qualitative approach was chosen as the method to answer the aim of the study. Results: It emerged five themes from the analysis. These are; “The importance of a good relationship”, “An objectified care”, “The importance of support”, “The feeling of being monitored” and “The importance of experiencing participation”. These themes describe patients' experiences of care in hospitalization. Conclusion: The patients experienced the care to be both positive and negative. It was of great importance to the patients if they experienced a good relationship with the nurses. In order to overcome the disease, it was important that patients felt involved in their own care. For the patients to recover from anorexia nervosa, the patients needed to be treated like individuals and not like the stereotype of the disease.

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  • 319.
    Bjaaland, Helen
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ambivalens inför rutinmässigt navelsträngs-pH: Hur barnmorskor inom förlossningsvård resonerar kring det nyfödda barnets nytta av navelsträngs-pH2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Umbilical-cord-pH is routinely tested at almost all births in Sweden, however views differ regarding the benefits. Studies show that umbilical-cord-pH gives clinical benefits in high-risk deliveries that are not found in low-risk deliveries. Umbilical-cord-pH is not viewed as a risk for the child. It is important to visualize midwives’ reasoning regarding the pH-sampling since it is their responsibility.

    Aim: To visualize how midwives in delivery care reason regarding the new-born child's benefit from umbilical-cord-pH.

    Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six certified midwives who worked in a delivery ward. Qualitative content analysis was used.

    Results: The result is presented in three categories: Umbilical-cord-pH is useful for children born poorly; Umbilical-cord-pH does not benefit the healthy child and Umbilical-cord-pH is taken (anyway) on all children. An overall theme links these categories: Ambivalence to routinely take Umbilical-cord-pH, which shows the ambivalence the midwives feel regarding umbilical-cord-pH on healthy children.

    Conclusion: The midwives follow the established routine and test the umbilical-cord-pH of all children. They emphasize that the umbilical-cord-pH is of great benefit to the child who is born poorly, a well-established routine provides safety. Nevertheless, midwives wish to make individual assessments of the healthy children. New guidelines are needed if this is to be done in a medically secure manner.

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  • 320.
    Bjerkeli, Pernilla J.
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden / Unit for Social Epidemiology, Clinical Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Anna K.
    Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lesén, Eva
    Nordic Health Economics AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte
    Research and Development, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden / Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine at Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundell, Karolina Andersson
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine at Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Refill Adherence in Relation to Substitution and the Use of Multiple Medications: A Nationwide Population Based Study on New ACE-Inhibitor Users2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0155465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Generic substitution has contributed to economic savings but switching products may affect patient adherence, particularly among those using multiple medications. The aim was to analyse if use of multiple medications influenced the association between switching products and refill adherence to angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Sweden.

    STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: New users of ACE-inhibitors, starting between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2007, were identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Refill adherence was assessed using the continuous measure of medication acquisition (CMA) and analysed with linear regression and analysis of covariance.

    RESULTS: The study population included 42735 individuals whereof 51.2% were exposed to switching ACE-inhibitor and 39.6% used multiple medications. Refill adherence was higher among those exposed to switching products than those not, but did not vary depending on the use of multiple medications or among those not. Refill adherence varied with age, educational level, household income, country of birth, previous hospitalisation and previous cardiovascular diagnosis.

    CONCLUSION: The results indicate a positive association between refill adherence and switching products, mainly due to generic substitution, among new users of ACE-inhibitors in Sweden. This association was independent of use of multiple medications.

  • 321.
    Bjerkeli, Pernilla J.
    et al.
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Mulinari, Shai
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Merlo, Juan
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Testosterone prescribing in the population — a short social epidemiological analysis in Sweden2016In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 11-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: In recent years, there has been an increased interest for use of pharmaceutical testosterone among elderly men. However, it is still scarcely studied if this use is conditioned by socioeconomic factors in the general population of elderly men.

    METHODS: Using individual-level data from a population-based cohort of men aged 65-84 years in the County Scania, Sweden, we analysed testosterone use in 2006 in relation to demographic and socioeconomic factors by means of multiple logistic regression. We also analysed national data at the ecological level to investigate trends in prescribing between 2006 and 2014.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of testosterone use in Sweden among 65- to 84-year-old men increased by 83%, from 3.3 per 1000 men in 2006 to 6.0 in 2014. Testosterone use was more than twice as common in men in the highest income quintile compared with those in the lowest (0.68% versus 0.25%, odds ratio 2.69 and 95% confidence interval 1.80-4.02). Besides in the high-income group, testosterone use was highest in 65- to 69-year-old men, divorced men and, specially, in men with a previous hospital diagnose of hypogonadism.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show socioeconomic inequities in prescription of testosterone. This is a short analysis based on limited data, but because information on this topic is scarce, our analysis adds a relevant piece of evidence and highlights the need for further research.

  • 322.
    Bjerkeli, Pernilla J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, CRC, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Mulinari, Shai
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, CRC, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden / Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Zettermark, Sofia
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, CRC, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Merlo, Juan
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, CRC, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sociodemographic patterns in pharmacy dispensing of medications for erectile dysfunction in Sweden2018In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 209-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sociodemographic factors and pharmacy dispensing of medications for erectile dysfunction (ED) in the general population of middle-aged and elderly men. By considering a number of medical conditions that could promote or contraindicate use of ED medication, the analysis could help capture prescription patterns that might not be explained by medical needs.

    METHODS: Individual-level pharmacy dispensing data from 2006 for a population-based cohort of 216,148 men aged 45-79 years in the county Scania, Sweden, were analysed. Multiple logistic regression was applied, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to quantify the discriminatory accuracy (DA) of the associations. National trends in pharmacy dispensing of ED medication between 2006 and 2016 were also analysed.

    RESULTS: Pharmacy dispensing of ED medication increased between 2006 and 2016, particularly among men aged 65-79 years (from 6.8 to 9.2%). Dispensing of ED medication was positively associated with higher socioeconomic position, and divorced and widowed men were more likely to fill a prescription with ED medication than married men. These associations remained after adjusting for medical conditions. The DA of the associations was, however, rather low (AUC = 0.69 among 45-64 year olds and AUC = 0.65 among 65-79 year olds).

    CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy dispensing of ED medication seem linked to the individuals socioeconomic position, age and marital status suggesting sociodemographic disparities in the pharmacy dispensing targeting sexual function. However, the low DA of the associations shows the limited capacity of these factors to predict ED medication use at the individual level.

  • 323.
    Bjerkeli, Pernilla J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Skoglund, Ingmarie
    Department of Primary Health Care, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Research and Development Department, Region Västra Götaland, Borås, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Does early identification of high work related stress affect pharmacological treatment of primary care patients?: Analysis of Swedish pharmacy dispensing data in a randomised control study2020In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The study is part of a randomised controlled trial with the overall aim to evaluate if use of the Work Stress Questionnaire (WSQ), combined with feedback at consultation, can be used by healthcare professionals in primary health care to prevent sickness absence. The specific aim of the present study was to investigate whether there were differences in pharmacy dispensing of prescription medications between the intervention group and the control group. METHODS: The study was a randomized controlled trial. Non-sick-listed employed women and men, aged 18 to 64 years, seeking care at primary health care centres (PHCCs) were eligible participants. The intervention included early identification of work-related stress by the WSQ, general practitioner (GP) training and GP feedback at consultation. Pharmacy dispensing data from the Swedish Prescription Drug Register for a period of 12 months following the intervention was used. Primary outcomes were the number of different medications used, type of medication and number of prescribing clinics. Data was analysed using Mann Whitney U tests and chi-square tests. RESULTS: The study population included 271 individuals (132 in the intervention group and 139 in the control group). The number of different medications used per individual did not differ significantly between the control group (median 4.0) and the intervention group (median 4.0, p-value 0.076). The proportion of individuals who collected more than 10 different medications was higher in the control group than in the intervention group (15.8% versus 4.5%, p = 0.002). In addition, the proportion of individuals filling prescriptions issued from more than three different clinics was higher in the control group than in the intervention group (17.3% versus 6.8%, p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Systematic use of the WSQ combined with training of GPs and feedback at consultation may affect certain aspects of pharmacological treatment in primary health care patients. In this randomised control trial, analysis of pharmacy dispensing data show that patients in the intervention group had less polypharmacy and filled prescriptions issued from a smaller number of different clinics. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT02480855. Registered 20 May 2015.

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  • 324.
    Bjerkeli, Pernilla J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Vicente, Raquel Perez
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Mulinari, Shai
    Department of Sociology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Merlo, Juan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden / Center for Primary Health Care Research, Region Skåne, Malmö, Sweden.
    Overuse of methylphenidate: an analysis of Swedish pharmacy dispensing data2018In: Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 1179-1349, E-ISSN 1179-1349, Vol. 10, p. 1657-1665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify overuse of methylphenidate and to investigate patterns of overuse in relation to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Patients and methods: Swedish national, pharmacy dispensing data were analyzed for all 56,922 individuals aged 6-79 years, who filled a methylphenidate prescription between 2010 and 2011. Overuse was defined as having above 150% days covered by the dispensed amount during 365 days from the first prescription fill, assuming use at the maximum recommended daily dose. Results: In total, 4,304 individuals (7.6% of the methylphenidate users) were categorized as overusers. The risk of overuse increased with age (OR for 46-65 years vs 6-12 years 17.5, 95% CI 14.3-21.3), and was higher in men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.5) and individuals with low income (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2), as well as in individuals with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), health care visits (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4), previous ADHD medication use (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.4-2.8), and previous diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (OR 2.1 95% CI 2.0-2.3). Conclusion: Among individuals using methylphenidate in Sweden, 7.6% receive amounts that are larger than what they should have a medical need for, assuming that they were using the maximum recommended daily dose 365 days per year. Notably, the prevalence of overuse was associated with previous diagnosis of alcohol and drug misuse. The prevalence was also positively associated with higher age and previous use of ADHD medication. These findings may point toward a link between exposure time and overuse. However, future studies with long-term data are needed to investigate this.

  • 325.
    Bjurberg, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Academic achievement and personality traits: an empirical and neurobiological investigation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis explores how personality traits are connected to academic achievement. First, a theoretical discussion on the neurobiological basis of different personality traits is presented, where variance in brain- activity, volume and chemistry describes possible differences in personality. Traits previously linked to academic achievement is also described in terms of neurobiology. This is followed by an empirical investigation of the connection between personality traits and academic achievement. Previous research suggest the Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992a) personality traits of conscientiousness, order and self-discipline to be positively associated with academic achievement. Also, similar suggestions have been put forward concerning the Values in Action (VIA-IS; Peterson & Seligman, 2004) character strengths of love of learning, self-regulation and persistence and academic achievement. 90 students in a medium sized Swedish senior high school completed the two personality inventories and their grades were collected. Positive correlations were found for the personality traits conscientiousness, order, and self-discipline and for the character strengths persistence, love of learning, perspective and open-mindedness. The results partly supported the hypotheses as well as extended the knowledge about what factors contribute to academic achievement. Discussion of the results and suggestions for further research concludes the thesis.

    Keywords: personality trait, character strength, neurobiology, academic achievement, BFI, VIA-IS

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    Academic Achievement and Personality Traits: An empirical and neurobioogical investigation
  • 326.
    Bjurkvist, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Tydén, Teija
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Stressprevention hos skolbarn: Skolsköterskors förebyggande insatser2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

     

    Title: Prevention of stress in school children – School nurses preventive interventions

    Author: Bjurkvist Sara; Tydén Teija

    Department: School of Health and Education, University of Skövde

    Course: Master Degree project in Nursing, OM854A, 15ECTs

    Supervisor: Larsson Margaretha

    Examinator: Thorstensson Stina

    Pages: 21

    Keywords: School nurses, stress, prevention, nursing, children

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    Background:  Stress is a common health problem in society. Children are as exposed to stress as adults but have a lack of ability to cope with it, compared to adults. School nurses meet children in their daily life and have opportunity to prevent stress in several interventions.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine how school nurses work stress preventive in children.

    Method: A qualitative research method was selected for the study. The result emerged through qualitative content analysis. Ten school nurses from various schools in Sweden were interviewed, using e-mail survey.

    Results: Four major categories and four subcategories emerged during the analysis. Major categories were: to be available, create manageability, to relieve recovery, and cooperation.

    Conclusion: School nurses work stress preventive in children, but experience lack of time as a blocking element to perform the work fully. Therefore valuable support to children can be lost. School nurses need to clarify their work and profession to enable prevention against stress in children.

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  • 327.
    Björk, Helén
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att kommunicera trygghet i omvårdnaden av barn: en litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nurses´ have the responsibility to make sure that children are treated according to childrens rights, and to interact with them. The background present a study where children experience that nurses doesn’t listen to them. Children are vulnerable because they are inferior to both parents and nurses because of their advantage in age and knowledge. That’s why it’s important for nurses to give children an opportunity to participate in decisionmaking, to make them feel included, respected and listened to as individuals. In that way nurses can communicate security. The aim of this study is to describe how nurses communicate security in nursing care with children. The study is a literature review made as a metasynthesis. Qualitative studies were chosen to be able to get the experiences of children, parents and nurses. The result from the analysis shows that through talking, creating an individualized relationship, being receptive to and using a symbolic language all are prerequisites to communicate security. A prerequisite to be able to do this is for nurses to take their time. The interest for this subject among nurses is discussed and the author experience it to be relevant to all nurses, not just children’s nurses because all nurses can meet children in their work. Conclusion: Giving the child time, letting the child participate, being receptive, create a relaionship with the child and give individualized information, to talk to the child and use symbolic language as a complement while talking. These are ways of communicating security in nursing with children.

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  • 328.
    Björk, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Nyström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Livet med borderline en berg och dalbana: En kvalitativ studie av bloggar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Living with a diagnosis like borderline can make everyday life problematic and contribute to less well-being for these people. Borderline affects the individual's lifeworld and his or her's health experience.There is a noticeable increase in this patient group in various healthcare contexts. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe women's experiences of living with borderline. Method: A qualitative content analysis with inductive approach. Data were collected from six blogs. Results: From the analysis of the data emerged four categories; Be different, an inner chaos, Different interactions with others, Feelings that swim over and Targeted turn in life with nine subcategories. Conclusion: This study has contributed more knowledge about people's experiences of living with borderline. People with borderline experience strong feelings that affect their lives, interaction with other people is affected by the negative. These people need support from both related and professional healthcare professionals to get the help needed for future hopes.

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  • 329.
    Björk, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Barn med tumörsjukdom2009In: Pediatrisk omvårdnad / [ed] Inger Hallström & Tor Lindberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2009, 1, p. 233-238Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 330.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Jenholt Nolbris, Margaretha
    Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och hälsa, Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet / Centrum för barns rätt till hälsa, Drottning Silvias barn- och ungdomssjukhus, Göteborg.
    Hedman Ahlström, Britt
    Institutionen för omvårdnad, hälsa och kultur, Högskolan Väst, Trollhättan.
    Att vara barn och möta sjukdom2012In: Att möta familjer inom vård och omsorg / [ed] Benzein Eva, Hagberg Margaretha, Saveman, Britt-Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 191-206Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 331.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hammarlund, Kina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hallström, Inger
    Lund University, Department of Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Living an everyday life shaded with traces from the cancer trajectory – families' lived experiences in a six year follow up2012In: Pediatric Blood & Cancer, ISSN 1545-5009, E-ISSN 1545-5017, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 1130-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 332.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nordström, B.
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Wiebe, T.
    Department of Pediatrics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Hallström, I.
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences/The Vårdal Institute, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Returning to a changed ordinary life - families' lived experience after completing a child's cancer treatment2011In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 163-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to illuminate the families' lived experience after completing a child's cancer treatment. The study took place at a University Hospital in southern Sweden. Interviews were carried out with 10 mothers, eight fathers, four patients and two siblings from a total of 10 families. The interviews were analysed with a hermeneutical phenomenological approach. One essential theme emerged from their stories, ‘returning to a changed ordinary life – incorporating a trying and contradictory experience’. The families felt relieved that the treatment was over yet they experienced strains in their daily life. Family members felt changed and especially the parents needed to focus on themselves in order to recover. Closeness with other people, especially their own family, was important. The previously sick children felt a loss of concern from their parents when treatment had ended, in contrast to siblings who experienced increased attention from their parents. Parents experienced being in uncharted territory and sometimes missed the security of hospital. For professionals it is important to offer the family a structured follow-up to help them in their daily life after the child's treatment is completed.

  • 333.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nordström, Berit
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hallström, Inger
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Vårdal Institute, Lund University.
    Needs of young children with cancer during their initial hospitalization: An observational study2006In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 210-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe young (under the age of 7) children's needs as expressed by their behavior, body language and verbal expression through observations during their initial hospitalization after being diagnosed with cancer. Twelve children under the age of seven were followed during 26 hours with non-participant unstructured observations. Field notes were written after each observation and transcribed into a narrative text, which was analyzed by content analysis at both manifest and latent level. Five themes were identified, of which "need to have the parent close by" was the most prominent. The other themes were "need to play and feel joy," "need for participation in care and treatment," "need for a good relationship with the staff," and "need for physical and emotional satisfaction." The results indicate that the children needed their parents and the parents' presence helped the children to express other needs. Professionals need to support the child and his or her parents so that the parents in their turn can support and alleviate their child's hospitalization and cancer treatment. © 2006 by Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses.

  • 334.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. CHILD Research Group, Department of Nursing Science, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Sundler, Annelie J.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Hallström, Inger
    Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hammarlund, Kina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Like being covered in a wet and dark blanket: Parents' lived experiences of losing a child to cancer2016In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 25, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to illuminate parents' lived experiences of losing a child to cancer. Method: Interviews and a narrative about parents' experiences of losing a child to cancer were gathered from six parents of children whom had participated in a longitudinal study across the child's illness trajectory. The analysis of the data was inspired by van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Results: One essential theme emerged: Like being covered in a wet and dark blanket, as well as six related themes: Feeling conflicting emotions, Preparing for the moment of death, Continuing parenting after death, Recollecting and sharing memories, Working through the sorrow and New perspectives in life. Conclusion: There is a need for good palliative care. If not, there is a risk that the parent will perseverate and blame themselves for not being a good parent during the suffering child's last time in life. Meetings with the parents six months and two years after the child's death might facilitate healing through the grief process. 

  • 335.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Thelin, Anna
    Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping.
    Peterson, Inger
    Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping.
    Hammarlund, Kina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    A journey filled with emotions - mothers' experiences of breastfeeding their preterm infant in a Swedish neonatal ward2012In: Breastfeeding Review, ISSN 0729-2759, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study took place in a 10-bed neonatal ward in a hospital in the south of Sweden and includes mothers having given birth to a preterm infant born before the 37th week of gestation. The aim of the study was to illuminate mothers' experiences of breastfeeding a preterm infant in a neonatal ward. Data collection includes written protocols from twelve mothers. These protocols were analysed thematically. The results indicated that the mothers should be offered a private place where they can breastfeed or express breastmilk, and that the breastmilk should not be placed in a shared area. The mothers described that they did not want to be separated from their preterm infant during the night. Finally, they also pointed out the importance of support from the health professionals for establishing an exclusive breastfeeding regime.

  • 336.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Pediatrics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden / Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences/The Vårdal institute, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wiebe, Thomas
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Pediatrics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden / Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences/The Vårdal institute, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hallström, Inger
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Pediatrics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden / Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences/The Vårdal institute, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    An Everyday Struggle - Swedish Families' Lived Experiences During a Child's Cancer Treatment2009In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 423-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to elucidate families' lived experience during a child's cancer treatment. Interviews were conducted with members of 11 affected families. A hermeneutical phenomenological approach was chosen. "Focus on the ill child-An everyday struggle" emerged as an essential theme. The families' lived experience of daily life was described as "feeling drained," "disrupting family life," "feeling locked up and isolated," "retaining normality," "becoming experts," and "changing perspectives." The result indicates that life during a child's cancer treatment is a taxing period and that the entire family is in need of support to ease their burdens. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 337.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wiebe, Thomas
    Department of Pediatrics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Hallström, Inger
    Department of Nursing/the Vårdal Institute, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Striving to survive: Families' lived experiences when a child is diagnosed with cancer2005In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 265-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a child is ill with cancer, this affects the whole family for long periods. The aim of this study was to elucidate the family's lived experience when a child in the family was diagnosed with cancer. A descriptive inductive design with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach including interviews with 17 families (parents, children, and siblings) was chosen. The families' lived experience was described as a 2-fold essential theme comprising "a broken life world" and an immediate "striving to survive." The families' secure everyday life disappeared and was replaced by fear, chaos, and loneliness. When striving to make the child and the family survive, family members strove to feel hope and have a positive focus, to gain control, and to feel close to other people. Phenomenological human science research can deepen the understanding of the meaning of being a family with a child who is ill with cancer and can help pediatric oncology staff become increasingly thoughtful, and thus better prepared to take action to diminish the chaos occurring in the family. © 2005 by Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses.

  • 338.
    Björkelund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson-Hange, Dominique
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Kate
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Calle
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomstrand, Ann
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bondyr-Carlsson, Dorota
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rödström, Kerstin
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Agneta
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundh, Valter
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Weman, Lilian
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zylberstein, Dimitri
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Odontol, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, Jonkoping, Sweden.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors with a 36-year perspective: Observations from 38- and 50-year-olds in the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To study secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors in four different cohorts of women examined in 1968-1969, 1980-1981, 1992-1993 and 2004-2005. Design. Comparison of four representative cohorts of 38- and 50-year-old women over a period of 36 years. Setting. Gothenburg, Sweden with similar to 450 000 inhabitants. Subjects. Four representative samples of 38- and 50-year-old women were invited to free health examinations (participation rate 59-90%, n =1901). Main outcome measures. Body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), leisure time exercise, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking, levels of haemoglobin, b-glucose, s-cholesterol, s-triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. Results. There was no significant difference in mean BMI from 1968-1969 versus 2004-2005. Mean leisure time exercise was significantly higher in later born cohorts; in 1968, around 15% were physically active compared with 40% in 2004. SBP and DBP, mean s-cholesterol and s-triglyceride levels were significantly lower in both 38- and 50-year-old cohorts in 2004-2005 versus 1968-1969. HDL-cholesterol (not measured until 1992-1993), showed a significantly higher mean level in 2004-2005. Reduction of risk factors was apparent in women with a high as well as low level of physical activity. Smoking declined most in women with high levels of physical activity. Conclusions. Several cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle have improved in middle-aged women from the 1960s until today. Most of the positive trends are observed in women with both low and high physical activity.

  • 339.
    Björklund, Terese
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    attityder gentemot patienter med fetma ur patient- och sjuksköterskeperspektivet: en litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fetma är en växande folksjukdom. Den ökade förekomsten av fetma leder till attsjukvården i större utsträckning kommer att möta patienter med fetma. Syftet med studienvar att ur ett patient- och sjuksköterskeperspektiv belysa vilka attityder sjuksköterskan hargentemot vuxna patienter med fetma. En litteraturöversikt har använts för att sammanställatidigare forskning som berör sjuksköterskans attityder mot patienter med fetma. Studienomfattar sju vetenskapliga artiklar som resulterat i två huvudteman med tillhörandeunderteman som redovisar resultatet inom ämnet. Resultatet visar att negativa attityder motvuxna patienter med fetma förekommer bland sjuksköterskor. Förutfattade meningar finnsangående fetman och dess orsaker, patienterna ses som mindre socialt accepterade ochmindre attraktiva. Orsaken till fetma beror enligt sjuksköterskan på individens arv ochegna val. Studien pekar även på det känsliga ämnet och att sjuksköterskan känner obehag isin relation till patienten. Hennes egen kroppsuppfattning påverkar vilken inställning honhar inför mötet med patienten, detta skapar en frustration hos sjuksköterskan som försvårarrelationen mellan sjuksköterska och patient. En frustration uppstår även i förtroendet tillpatienten då sjuksköterskan är rädd att förolämpa patienten vid motivationen tillviktnedgång.

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  • 340.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University.
    Sigstedt, Bo
    Jönköping University.
    Enskär, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Children's experience of going through an acute radiographic examination2012In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 84-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s experience of radiographic examinations remains largely unexplored, although most radiographers examine children on a daily basis. In order to provide the high quality care that meets the needs of patients it was considered important to undertake research focused upon the patients’ experience of radiographic practice.

    The aim of the study was to investigate children’s experiences undergoing a radiographic examination for a suspected fracture.

    Inclusion criteria were Swedish-speaking children between 3 and 15 years of age who were submitted for a radiographic examination with an acute condition of the upper or lower extremity. Patients were informed of the study and together with the escorting parent or relative asked for consent to participate.

    During the examination the child was videotaped and immediately after, the child was interviewed in a nearby facility. The interview contained open-ended questions and was conducted while watching the videotape together with the child and their parent or relative and the researcher.

    Qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the collected data. The analysis resulted in two categories - “feeling uncomfortable” and “feeling confident”. The subcategories contained in these categories were “pain in relation to injury and examination”, “the waiting time is strenuous”, “worries for the future and consequences of the injury”, “confidence in parental presence”, “confidence in radiographic staff and examination procedure”, and finally “recognition entails familiarity”.

    The results revealed that for the younger children, the experience of undergoing an acute radiographic examination was associated with pain and anxiety, but for the older children, the anxiety was more connected to whether the injury had caused a fracture and any anticipated future consequences or complications.

  • 341.
    Björkner, Linda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Cehic, Sanela
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    När kroppen sviker: Patienters erfarenheter av dagligt liv med kronisk njursvikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Kronisk njursvikt är ett växande folkhälsoproblem. Sjukdomen är allvarlig och bidrar till ökat lidande då den medför omfattande symtom, begränsar livsvärlden och kräver livsstilsförändringar. Behandlingen är komplex. För att sjuksköterskan ska kunna ge god vård och stärka välbefinnande hos patienter behöver hen ha förståelse för patienters erfarenheter av livet med kronisk njursvikt. Syfte: Att beskriva patienters erfarenheter av dagligt liv med kronisk njursvikt. Metod: Litteraturbaserad metod som bygger på kvalitativa studier. Resultat: Ur analysen framkom tre huvudteman: Identifiera sig med sjukdomen, support från omgivningen och förändrad självbild med sex underteman. Konklusion: Kronisk njursvikt leder till både fysiska och psykiska förändringar, vilket resulterar i ett sjukdom- och livslidande för patienter och en annan livsvärld att förhålla sig till än innan sjukdomen.

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  • 342.
    Björkén, Anette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Norman, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att belysa sjuksköterskors omhändertagande av patienter som drabbats av aneurysm2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 343.
    Björling, Emanuel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Cagius, Sanna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Varje sekund är ett liv: En studie om patienters upplevelse av att befinna sig i livets slutskede2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Everyone knows for sure that we will once die. When someone approaches the end of life, problems of mental, physical, social and existential nature arise. Death can be met in different ways and how that meeting will be is individual. The patient goes through different phases along the way, resulting in suffering and questioning of life. Purpose: To highlight the patient's experience of being in the end of life. Method: The study is a qualitative narrative literature study based on autobiography, which reflect the experiences of being in the end of life. Result: Patients in the end of life have a need to seek the meaning of why the disease has affected them. They argue about existence and how the upcoming death affects them and their relatives. Patients describe the feeling of setback when the condition deteriorates after a period of improvement. They think about what is actually important in life and how sorrow is handled. Conclusion: It is an important topic to address when relatively little material is available. More research is needed to better provide patients with the care they need.

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  • 344.
    Björnberg, Jimmy
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Shatri, Adelina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Leva med depression: En studie av självbiografier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Depression är en allvarlig sjukdom och en av våra vanligaste folksjukdomar. Den är mångfasetterad och upplevs olika hos alla individer. Sjukdomen påverkar känslor, tankar och förmågan till vardagliga aktiviteter. Sjukdomen är stigmatiserad i samhället, där okunskap råder kring symtom och upplevelser. Okunskap medför ett stort lidande för den drabbade individen och risk för förlängd vårdtid eller fel diagnos finns. Syfte: Syftet är att belysa upplevelsen av att leva med depression. Metod: Kvalitativ metod med en analys av narrativer för analysering av fem självbiografier. Resultat: Upplevelser av depression delas in i olika kategorier som återspeglar upplevelser beroende på vart i depressionen individen befinner sig. ”Vägen ner i djupet” skildrar början på depressionen, där kognitiva processer och funktioner försämras. ”Att hamna på botten” skildrar det mörkaste av depressionen där ångest, panikattacker och tankar kring suicid infinner sig. Slutligen skildrar ”Vägen tillbaka till hälsa” återvändandet till hälsa och tillfrisknandet. Konklusion: Depression orsakar ett stort lidande hos den drabbade och tankar, känslor och handlingar är svåra att kontrollera. De starka känslor som depressionen bär med sig begränsar individen i vardagen och kan leda till social isolering. För att tillfriskna från depression krävs rätt behandling och acceptans för sjukdomen.

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  • 345.
    Björnehäll, Elin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att leva med ett transplanterat hjärta: Patienters perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Heart transplants have been performed since 1967. Today it’s primarily patients with severe heart failure who are considered for the procedure. After the transplant a lifelong immunosuppressive medication for the patients follows, and they need regular check-ups to lower the risk of rejection of the heart. The nurse’s responsibility was for example to give the patients’ and their families’ information about the procedure.

    Aim: The aim was to describe patients’ experiences of living with a transplanted heart.

    Method: A descriptive content analysis was used to analyze seven blogs.

    Results: The first period following the transplant was experienced as difficult. The patients created new relevant goals with help of nurse, family and friends in order to adjust to the new life and lifelong medication. The patients’ experienced how they got a new perspective of life. Because of the gratitude of survival, the patients chose to spread knowledge about organ donation further.

    Conclusion: The heart transplant meant a big adjustment for the patients, to a new life. Feelings like anxiety, resignation and gratitude were now a part of their life. Support from family, friends and nurse was appreciated by the patients in order to get back to a life without a non-functioning heart.

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    Att leva med ett transplanterat hjärta, patienters perspektiv
  • 346.
    Blanck, Jonna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Johansson, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Wahlström, Sanna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans roll i omvårdnaden av patienter med suicidala tankar2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nurses have an important role caring with the suicidal patient as they often are the first to encounter these individuals. In order to develop their skills, nurses need to understand the complexity of the problem around the thoughts of wanting to die. The purpose of the study was to compile and elucidate research that describes how nurses can provide care to suicidal patients. The method used was a literature review. The results were divided into seven themes that can guide the nurse in the work: to be there, give time and listen, to recognize and assess risk factors, working in a team, to be attentive to own attitudes, to give hope, to be able to process their feelings, increased knowledge of the causes of suicide. Even though the study is not deep-going, it can serve as guidance for both the work with the patient and how nurses themselves can process their feelings and experiences, which is considered important in the work with an often mental demanding group of patients.

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  • 347.
    Blinzinger, Jonna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Åström, Jennie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Patienters upplevelse av att leva med tarmstomi: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The gastrointestinal tract is an important part for an individual to experience physical and psychological health. Inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer in the intestine are factors that can lead to an intestinal stoma. An intestinal stoma can be permanent or temporary and involve different parts of the intestinal. With an intestinal stoma comes a responsibility which includes self-care and care of the intestinal stoma for the patient. The intestinal stoma entails bodily changes where support and teaching increase the understanding of the new body. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe patients experience of living with an intestinal stoma. Method: This study is a literature review which is based on qualitative and quantitative articles. Results: The results of this study are presented in four areas: Social cohabitation- for better or worse, Limitations in everyday life, Acceptance of the intestinal stoma and The meeting with medical care. Conclusion: Patients experience to live with an intestinal stoma can both be positive and negative. The acceptance of the new life situation includes the patient’s relationship to the nurse, friends and family. Patients acceptance to the intestinal stoma is crucial for how the body perceives and effects the psychological health.

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  • 348.
    Blixt, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mälarhospital, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ekström, Anette
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Process-oriented training in breastfeeding for health professionals decreases women’s experiences of breastfeeding challenges2014In: International Breastfeeding Journal, ISSN 1746-4358, E-ISSN 1746-4358, Vol. 9, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The World Health Organization recommends promoting exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Women much too often end breastfeeding earlier than they planned, but women who continue to breastfeed despite problems more often experience good support and counselling from health professionals. The aim in this study was to evaluate the effects of a process-oriented training in breastfeeding support counselling for midwives and child health nurses, in relation to women’s satisfaction with breastfeeding counselling, problems with insufficient breast milk, pain or nipple sores in relation to exclusive breastfeeding shorter or longer than 3 months.

    Methods: An intervention through process-oriented training for health professionals regarding support in childbearing and breastfeeding took part in the south west of Sweden. The present study was performed in Sweden, in 2000- 2003. Ten municipalities were paired, and within each pair, one was randomly assigned to the group of five intervention (IG) municipalities and one to the group of five control municipalities. Primiparas (n=540) were asked to participate in a longitudinal study to evaluate the care they received. A survey was distributed at 3 days, 3 months and 9 months postpartum. Data collection for control group A (n=162) started before the intervention was initiated. Data for control group B (n=172) were collected simultaneously with the intervention group (IG) (n=206).Women were also divided into two groups depending on whether they exclusive breastfed < 3 months or ≥ 3 months.

    Results: Women in IG were more satisfied with the breastfeeding counselling (p=0.008) and felt the breastfeeding counselling was more coherent (p=0.002) compared with control groups, when the exclusively breastfeeding was < 3 months. In addition fewer women in the IG, among the group exclusively breastfeeding < 3 months, had problems with insufficient breast milk compared to the control groups (p=0.01).

    Conclusion: A process-oriented training for health professionals in support influenced women's ability to solve breastfeeding problems such as the experience of insufficient breast milk production. Women with exclusive breastfeeding lasting ≥ 3 months more often had breastfeeding duration in conformity with their planned breastfeeding duration, compared with women who had breastfeeding duration < 3 months.

    Trial registration: ACTRN12611000354987

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  • 349.
    Blixt, Ingrid
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Mälarsjukhuset Eskilstuna / Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland, Uppsala universitet.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ekström, Anette
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Utbildning minskar amningsproblem2014In: Amningsnytt, ISSN 1102-7207, no 4, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Utbildning minskar amningsproblem
  • 350.
    Blom, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Söderqvist, Mercedes
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    VACCINATION IS MORE THAN JUST AN INJECTION – To vaccinate a student with fear of needles2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Vaccinationer är en del av skolsköterskors förebyggande arbete. Stickrädsla är en vanlig åkomma, upp till 10 % av befolkningen i världen uppskattas ha det. Skolsköterskor möter någon gång under sin tid, stickrädda elever. God information innan vaccinationen har visat att stickrädsla minskar. Syftet: Att belysa skolsköterskors upplevelse av att vaccinera stickrädda elever. Metod: Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ metod. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med åtta skolsköterskor i två mindre städer, i mellersta Sverige. Resultatet har analyserats med innebördsanalys. Resultat: Analysen resulterade i fyra rubriker till resultatet; Skolsköterskors förhållningssätt påverkar bemötandet av elever, En inbjudande miljö påverkar hur vaccinationen upplevs av skolsköterskor och elever, Föräldrars förhållningssätt kan hjälpa eller stjälpa skolsköterskor vid vaccination, Avledning vid vaccination underlättar arbetet för skolsköterskor. Konklusion: Skolsköterskor måsta ha en god kunskap om hur olika faktorer kan påverka den stickrädda elever. Skolsköterskor upplever ofta en tidspress vilket påverkar mötet med stickrädda elever som i sin tur påverkar skolsköterskors vaccinationer. Skolsköterskor upplever att belöning har en god effekt för att lugna elever och underlätta för skolsköterskor att utföra sitt arbete. Hur föräldern är delaktig är betydelsefullt för skolsköterskors upplevelse. Det finns tre olika förhållningssätt bland föräldrar, den tysta, den bestämda och den tveksamma som låter elever själv välja. Dessa påverkar vaccinationstillfället och upplevelsen av mötet för verksamma skolsköterskor.

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