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  • 301.
    Bjurkvist, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Tydén, Teija
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Stressprevention hos skolbarn: Skolsköterskors förebyggande insatser2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

     

    Title: Prevention of stress in school children – School nurses preventive interventions

    Author: Bjurkvist Sara; Tydén Teija

    Department: School of Health and Education, University of Skövde

    Course: Master Degree project in Nursing, OM854A, 15ECTs

    Supervisor: Larsson Margaretha

    Examinator: Thorstensson Stina

    Pages: 21

    Keywords: School nurses, stress, prevention, nursing, children

    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    Background:  Stress is a common health problem in society. Children are as exposed to stress as adults but have a lack of ability to cope with it, compared to adults. School nurses meet children in their daily life and have opportunity to prevent stress in several interventions.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine how school nurses work stress preventive in children.

    Method: A qualitative research method was selected for the study. The result emerged through qualitative content analysis. Ten school nurses from various schools in Sweden were interviewed, using e-mail survey.

    Results: Four major categories and four subcategories emerged during the analysis. Major categories were: to be available, create manageability, to relieve recovery, and cooperation.

    Conclusion: School nurses work stress preventive in children, but experience lack of time as a blocking element to perform the work fully. Therefore valuable support to children can be lost. School nurses need to clarify their work and profession to enable prevention against stress in children.

  • 302.
    Björk, Helén
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att kommunicera trygghet i omvårdnaden av barn: en litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nurses´ have the responsibility to make sure that children are treated according to childrens rights, and to interact with them. The background present a study where children experience that nurses doesn’t listen to them. Children are vulnerable because they are inferior to both parents and nurses because of their advantage in age and knowledge. That’s why it’s important for nurses to give children an opportunity to participate in decisionmaking, to make them feel included, respected and listened to as individuals. In that way nurses can communicate security. The aim of this study is to describe how nurses communicate security in nursing care with children. The study is a literature review made as a metasynthesis. Qualitative studies were chosen to be able to get the experiences of children, parents and nurses. The result from the analysis shows that through talking, creating an individualized relationship, being receptive to and using a symbolic language all are prerequisites to communicate security. A prerequisite to be able to do this is for nurses to take their time. The interest for this subject among nurses is discussed and the author experience it to be relevant to all nurses, not just children’s nurses because all nurses can meet children in their work. Conclusion: Giving the child time, letting the child participate, being receptive, create a relaionship with the child and give individualized information, to talk to the child and use symbolic language as a complement while talking. These are ways of communicating security in nursing with children.

  • 303.
    Björk, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Nyström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Livet med borderline en berg och dalbana: En kvalitativ studie av bloggar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Living with a diagnosis like borderline can make everyday life problematic and contribute to less well-being for these people. Borderline affects the individual's lifeworld and his or her's health experience.There is a noticeable increase in this patient group in various healthcare contexts. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe women's experiences of living with borderline. Method: A qualitative content analysis with inductive approach. Data were collected from six blogs. Results: From the analysis of the data emerged four categories; Be different, an inner chaos, Different interactions with others, Feelings that swim over and Targeted turn in life with nine subcategories. Conclusion: This study has contributed more knowledge about people's experiences of living with borderline. People with borderline experience strong feelings that affect their lives, interaction with other people is affected by the negative. These people need support from both related and professional healthcare professionals to get the help needed for future hopes.

  • 304.
    Björk, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Barn med tumörsjukdom2009In: Pediatrisk omvårdnad / [ed] Inger Hallström & Tor Lindberg, Stockholm: Liber, 2009, 1, p. 233-238Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 305.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Jenholt Nolbris, Margaretha
    Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och hälsa, Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet / Centrum för barns rätt till hälsa, Drottning Silvias barn- och ungdomssjukhus, Göteborg.
    Hedman Ahlström, Britt
    Institutionen för omvårdnad, hälsa och kultur, Högskolan Väst, Trollhättan.
    Att vara barn och möta sjukdom2012In: Att möta familjer inom vård och omsorg / [ed] Benzein Eva, Hagberg Margaretha, Saveman, Britt-Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 191-206Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 306.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hammarlund, Kina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hallström, Inger
    Lund University, Department of Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Living an everyday life shaded with traces from the cancer trajectory – families' lived experiences in a six year follow up2012In: Pediatric Blood & Cancer, ISSN 1545-5009, E-ISSN 1545-5017, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 1130-1130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 307.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nordström, B.
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund.
    Wiebe, T.
    Department of Pediatrics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, S-22185 Lund, Sweden.
    Hallström, I.
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences/The Vårdal Institute, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Returning to a changed ordinary life - families' lived experience after completing a child's cancer treatment2011In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 163-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to illuminate the families' lived experience after completing a child's cancer treatment. The study took place at a University Hospital in southern Sweden. Interviews were carried out with 10 mothers, eight fathers, four patients and two siblings from a total of 10 families. The interviews were analysed with a hermeneutical phenomenological approach. One essential theme emerged from their stories, ‘returning to a changed ordinary life – incorporating a trying and contradictory experience’. The families felt relieved that the treatment was over yet they experienced strains in their daily life. Family members felt changed and especially the parents needed to focus on themselves in order to recover. Closeness with other people, especially their own family, was important. The previously sick children felt a loss of concern from their parents when treatment had ended, in contrast to siblings who experienced increased attention from their parents. Parents experienced being in uncharted territory and sometimes missed the security of hospital. For professionals it is important to offer the family a structured follow-up to help them in their daily life after the child's treatment is completed.

  • 308.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nordström, Berit
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hallström, Inger
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Vårdal Institute, Lund University.
    Needs of young children with cancer during their initial hospitalization: An observational study2006In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 210-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe young (under the age of 7) children's needs as expressed by their behavior, body language and verbal expression through observations during their initial hospitalization after being diagnosed with cancer. Twelve children under the age of seven were followed during 26 hours with non-participant unstructured observations. Field notes were written after each observation and transcribed into a narrative text, which was analyzed by content analysis at both manifest and latent level. Five themes were identified, of which "need to have the parent close by" was the most prominent. The other themes were "need to play and feel joy," "need for participation in care and treatment," "need for a good relationship with the staff," and "need for physical and emotional satisfaction." The results indicate that the children needed their parents and the parents' presence helped the children to express other needs. Professionals need to support the child and his or her parents so that the parents in their turn can support and alleviate their child's hospitalization and cancer treatment. © 2006 by Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses.

  • 309.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. CHILD Research Group, Department of Nursing Science, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Sundler, Annelie J.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Hallström, Inger
    Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hammarlund, Kina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Like being covered in a wet and dark blanket: Parents' lived experiences of losing a child to cancer2016In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 25, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to illuminate parents' lived experiences of losing a child to cancer. Method: Interviews and a narrative about parents' experiences of losing a child to cancer were gathered from six parents of children whom had participated in a longitudinal study across the child's illness trajectory. The analysis of the data was inspired by van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Results: One essential theme emerged: Like being covered in a wet and dark blanket, as well as six related themes: Feeling conflicting emotions, Preparing for the moment of death, Continuing parenting after death, Recollecting and sharing memories, Working through the sorrow and New perspectives in life. Conclusion: There is a need for good palliative care. If not, there is a risk that the parent will perseverate and blame themselves for not being a good parent during the suffering child's last time in life. Meetings with the parents six months and two years after the child's death might facilitate healing through the grief process. 

  • 310.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Thelin, Anna
    Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping.
    Peterson, Inger
    Ryhov Hospital, Jönköping.
    Hammarlund, Kina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    A journey filled with emotions - mothers' experiences of breastfeeding their preterm infant in a Swedish neonatal ward2012In: Breastfeeding Review, ISSN 0729-2759, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study took place in a 10-bed neonatal ward in a hospital in the south of Sweden and includes mothers having given birth to a preterm infant born before the 37th week of gestation. The aim of the study was to illuminate mothers' experiences of breastfeeding a preterm infant in a neonatal ward. Data collection includes written protocols from twelve mothers. These protocols were analysed thematically. The results indicated that the mothers should be offered a private place where they can breastfeed or express breastmilk, and that the breastmilk should not be placed in a shared area. The mothers described that they did not want to be separated from their preterm infant during the night. Finally, they also pointed out the importance of support from the health professionals for establishing an exclusive breastfeeding regime.

  • 311.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Pediatrics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden / Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences/The Vårdal institute, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wiebe, Thomas
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Pediatrics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden / Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences/The Vårdal institute, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hallström, Inger
    Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Pediatrics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden / Division of Nursing, Department of Health Sciences/The Vårdal institute, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    An Everyday Struggle - Swedish Families' Lived Experiences During a Child's Cancer Treatment2009In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 423-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to elucidate families' lived experience during a child's cancer treatment. Interviews were conducted with members of 11 affected families. A hermeneutical phenomenological approach was chosen. "Focus on the ill child-An everyday struggle" emerged as an essential theme. The families' lived experience of daily life was described as "feeling drained," "disrupting family life," "feeling locked up and isolated," "retaining normality," "becoming experts," and "changing perspectives." The result indicates that life during a child's cancer treatment is a taxing period and that the entire family is in need of support to ease their burdens. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 312.
    Björk, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, Lund University, Sweden.
    Wiebe, Thomas
    Department of Pediatrics, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Hallström, Inger
    Department of Nursing/the Vårdal Institute, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Striving to survive: Families' lived experiences when a child is diagnosed with cancer2005In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 265-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a child is ill with cancer, this affects the whole family for long periods. The aim of this study was to elucidate the family's lived experience when a child in the family was diagnosed with cancer. A descriptive inductive design with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach including interviews with 17 families (parents, children, and siblings) was chosen. The families' lived experience was described as a 2-fold essential theme comprising "a broken life world" and an immediate "striving to survive." The families' secure everyday life disappeared and was replaced by fear, chaos, and loneliness. When striving to make the child and the family survive, family members strove to feel hope and have a positive focus, to gain control, and to feel close to other people. Phenomenological human science research can deepen the understanding of the meaning of being a family with a child who is ill with cancer and can help pediatric oncology staff become increasingly thoughtful, and thus better prepared to take action to diminish the chaos occurring in the family. © 2005 by Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses.

  • 313.
    Björkelund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson-Hange, Dominique
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Kate
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Calle
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomstrand, Ann
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bondyr-Carlsson, Dorota
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rödström, Kerstin
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Agneta
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundh, Valter
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Weman, Lilian
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zylberstein, Dimitri
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Odontol, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Jonkoping Univ, Sch Hlth Sci, Jonkoping, Sweden.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med Primary Hlth Care, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors with a 36-year perspective: Observations from 38- and 50-year-olds in the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 140-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To study secular trends in cardiovascular risk factors in four different cohorts of women examined in 1968-1969, 1980-1981, 1992-1993 and 2004-2005. Design. Comparison of four representative cohorts of 38- and 50-year-old women over a period of 36 years. Setting. Gothenburg, Sweden with similar to 450 000 inhabitants. Subjects. Four representative samples of 38- and 50-year-old women were invited to free health examinations (participation rate 59-90%, n =1901). Main outcome measures. Body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), leisure time exercise, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking, levels of haemoglobin, b-glucose, s-cholesterol, s-triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. Results. There was no significant difference in mean BMI from 1968-1969 versus 2004-2005. Mean leisure time exercise was significantly higher in later born cohorts; in 1968, around 15% were physically active compared with 40% in 2004. SBP and DBP, mean s-cholesterol and s-triglyceride levels were significantly lower in both 38- and 50-year-old cohorts in 2004-2005 versus 1968-1969. HDL-cholesterol (not measured until 1992-1993), showed a significantly higher mean level in 2004-2005. Reduction of risk factors was apparent in women with a high as well as low level of physical activity. Smoking declined most in women with high levels of physical activity. Conclusions. Several cardiovascular risk factors related to lifestyle have improved in middle-aged women from the 1960s until today. Most of the positive trends are observed in women with both low and high physical activity.

  • 314.
    Björklund, Terese
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    attityder gentemot patienter med fetma ur patient- och sjuksköterskeperspektivet: en litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fetma är en växande folksjukdom. Den ökade förekomsten av fetma leder till attsjukvården i större utsträckning kommer att möta patienter med fetma. Syftet med studienvar att ur ett patient- och sjuksköterskeperspektiv belysa vilka attityder sjuksköterskan hargentemot vuxna patienter med fetma. En litteraturöversikt har använts för att sammanställatidigare forskning som berör sjuksköterskans attityder mot patienter med fetma. Studienomfattar sju vetenskapliga artiklar som resulterat i två huvudteman med tillhörandeunderteman som redovisar resultatet inom ämnet. Resultatet visar att negativa attityder motvuxna patienter med fetma förekommer bland sjuksköterskor. Förutfattade meningar finnsangående fetman och dess orsaker, patienterna ses som mindre socialt accepterade ochmindre attraktiva. Orsaken till fetma beror enligt sjuksköterskan på individens arv ochegna val. Studien pekar även på det känsliga ämnet och att sjuksköterskan känner obehag isin relation till patienten. Hennes egen kroppsuppfattning påverkar vilken inställning honhar inför mötet med patienten, detta skapar en frustration hos sjuksköterskan som försvårarrelationen mellan sjuksköterska och patient. En frustration uppstår även i förtroendet tillpatienten då sjuksköterskan är rädd att förolämpa patienten vid motivationen tillviktnedgång.

  • 315.
    Björkman, Berit
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University.
    Sigstedt, Bo
    Jönköping University.
    Enskär, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Children's experience of going through an acute radiographic examination2012In: Radiography, ISSN 1078-8174, E-ISSN 1532-2831, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 84-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s experience of radiographic examinations remains largely unexplored, although most radiographers examine children on a daily basis. In order to provide the high quality care that meets the needs of patients it was considered important to undertake research focused upon the patients’ experience of radiographic practice.

    The aim of the study was to investigate children’s experiences undergoing a radiographic examination for a suspected fracture.

    Inclusion criteria were Swedish-speaking children between 3 and 15 years of age who were submitted for a radiographic examination with an acute condition of the upper or lower extremity. Patients were informed of the study and together with the escorting parent or relative asked for consent to participate.

    During the examination the child was videotaped and immediately after, the child was interviewed in a nearby facility. The interview contained open-ended questions and was conducted while watching the videotape together with the child and their parent or relative and the researcher.

    Qualitative content analysis was used in analyzing the collected data. The analysis resulted in two categories - “feeling uncomfortable” and “feeling confident”. The subcategories contained in these categories were “pain in relation to injury and examination”, “the waiting time is strenuous”, “worries for the future and consequences of the injury”, “confidence in parental presence”, “confidence in radiographic staff and examination procedure”, and finally “recognition entails familiarity”.

    The results revealed that for the younger children, the experience of undergoing an acute radiographic examination was associated with pain and anxiety, but for the older children, the anxiety was more connected to whether the injury had caused a fracture and any anticipated future consequences or complications.

  • 316.
    Björkner, Linda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Cehic, Sanela
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    När kroppen sviker: Patienters erfarenheter av dagligt liv med kronisk njursvikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Kronisk njursvikt är ett växande folkhälsoproblem. Sjukdomen är allvarlig och bidrar till ökat lidande då den medför omfattande symtom, begränsar livsvärlden och kräver livsstilsförändringar. Behandlingen är komplex. För att sjuksköterskan ska kunna ge god vård och stärka välbefinnande hos patienter behöver hen ha förståelse för patienters erfarenheter av livet med kronisk njursvikt. Syfte: Att beskriva patienters erfarenheter av dagligt liv med kronisk njursvikt. Metod: Litteraturbaserad metod som bygger på kvalitativa studier. Resultat: Ur analysen framkom tre huvudteman: Identifiera sig med sjukdomen, support från omgivningen och förändrad självbild med sex underteman. Konklusion: Kronisk njursvikt leder till både fysiska och psykiska förändringar, vilket resulterar i ett sjukdom- och livslidande för patienter och en annan livsvärld att förhålla sig till än innan sjukdomen.

  • 317.
    Björkén, Anette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Norman, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att belysa sjuksköterskors omhändertagande av patienter som drabbats av aneurysm2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 318.
    Björling, Emanuel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Cagius, Sanna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Varje sekund är ett liv: En studie om patienters upplevelse av att befinna sig i livets slutskede2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Everyone knows for sure that we will once die. When someone approaches the end of life, problems of mental, physical, social and existential nature arise. Death can be met in different ways and how that meeting will be is individual. The patient goes through different phases along the way, resulting in suffering and questioning of life. Purpose: To highlight the patient's experience of being in the end of life. Method: The study is a qualitative narrative literature study based on autobiography, which reflect the experiences of being in the end of life. Result: Patients in the end of life have a need to seek the meaning of why the disease has affected them. They argue about existence and how the upcoming death affects them and their relatives. Patients describe the feeling of setback when the condition deteriorates after a period of improvement. They think about what is actually important in life and how sorrow is handled. Conclusion: It is an important topic to address when relatively little material is available. More research is needed to better provide patients with the care they need.

  • 319.
    Björnehäll, Elin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att leva med ett transplanterat hjärta: Patienters perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Heart transplants have been performed since 1967. Today it’s primarily patients with severe heart failure who are considered for the procedure. After the transplant a lifelong immunosuppressive medication for the patients follows, and they need regular check-ups to lower the risk of rejection of the heart. The nurse’s responsibility was for example to give the patients’ and their families’ information about the procedure.

    Aim: The aim was to describe patients’ experiences of living with a transplanted heart.

    Method: A descriptive content analysis was used to analyze seven blogs.

    Results: The first period following the transplant was experienced as difficult. The patients created new relevant goals with help of nurse, family and friends in order to adjust to the new life and lifelong medication. The patients’ experienced how they got a new perspective of life. Because of the gratitude of survival, the patients chose to spread knowledge about organ donation further.

    Conclusion: The heart transplant meant a big adjustment for the patients, to a new life. Feelings like anxiety, resignation and gratitude were now a part of their life. Support from family, friends and nurse was appreciated by the patients in order to get back to a life without a non-functioning heart.

  • 320.
    Blanck, Jonna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Johansson, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Wahlström, Sanna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans roll i omvårdnaden av patienter med suicidala tankar2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nurses have an important role caring with the suicidal patient as they often are the first to encounter these individuals. In order to develop their skills, nurses need to understand the complexity of the problem around the thoughts of wanting to die. The purpose of the study was to compile and elucidate research that describes how nurses can provide care to suicidal patients. The method used was a literature review. The results were divided into seven themes that can guide the nurse in the work: to be there, give time and listen, to recognize and assess risk factors, working in a team, to be attentive to own attitudes, to give hope, to be able to process their feelings, increased knowledge of the causes of suicide. Even though the study is not deep-going, it can serve as guidance for both the work with the patient and how nurses themselves can process their feelings and experiences, which is considered important in the work with an often mental demanding group of patients.

  • 321.
    Blinzinger, Jonna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Åström, Jennie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Patienters upplevelse av att leva med tarmstomi: En litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The gastrointestinal tract is an important part for an individual to experience physical and psychological health. Inflammatory bowel diseases and cancer in the intestine are factors that can lead to an intestinal stoma. An intestinal stoma can be permanent or temporary and involve different parts of the intestinal. With an intestinal stoma comes a responsibility which includes self-care and care of the intestinal stoma for the patient. The intestinal stoma entails bodily changes where support and teaching increase the understanding of the new body. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe patients experience of living with an intestinal stoma. Method: This study is a literature review which is based on qualitative and quantitative articles. Results: The results of this study are presented in four areas: Social cohabitation- for better or worse, Limitations in everyday life, Acceptance of the intestinal stoma and The meeting with medical care. Conclusion: Patients experience to live with an intestinal stoma can both be positive and negative. The acceptance of the new life situation includes the patient’s relationship to the nurse, friends and family. Patients acceptance to the intestinal stoma is crucial for how the body perceives and effects the psychological health.

  • 322.
    Blixt, Ingrid
    et al.
    Mälarhospital, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ekström, Anette
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Process-oriented training in breastfeeding for health professionals decreases women’s experiences of breastfeeding challenges2014In: International Breastfeeding Journal, ISSN 1746-4358, E-ISSN 1746-4358, Vol. 9, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The World Health Organization recommends promoting exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Women much too often end breastfeeding earlier than they planned, but women who continue to breastfeed despite problems more often experience good support and counselling from health professionals. The aim in this study was to evaluate the effects of a process-oriented training in breastfeeding support counselling for midwives and child health nurses, in relation to women’s satisfaction with breastfeeding counselling, problems with insufficient breast milk, pain or nipple sores in relation to exclusive breastfeeding shorter or longer than 3 months.

    Methods: An intervention through process-oriented training for health professionals regarding support in childbearing and breastfeeding took part in the south west of Sweden. The present study was performed in Sweden, in 2000- 2003. Ten municipalities were paired, and within each pair, one was randomly assigned to the group of five intervention (IG) municipalities and one to the group of five control municipalities. Primiparas (n=540) were asked to participate in a longitudinal study to evaluate the care they received. A survey was distributed at 3 days, 3 months and 9 months postpartum. Data collection for control group A (n=162) started before the intervention was initiated. Data for control group B (n=172) were collected simultaneously with the intervention group (IG) (n=206).Women were also divided into two groups depending on whether they exclusive breastfed < 3 months or ≥ 3 months.

    Results: Women in IG were more satisfied with the breastfeeding counselling (p=0.008) and felt the breastfeeding counselling was more coherent (p=0.002) compared with control groups, when the exclusively breastfeeding was < 3 months. In addition fewer women in the IG, among the group exclusively breastfeeding < 3 months, had problems with insufficient breast milk compared to the control groups (p=0.01).

    Conclusion: A process-oriented training for health professionals in support influenced women's ability to solve breastfeeding problems such as the experience of insufficient breast milk production. Women with exclusive breastfeeding lasting ≥ 3 months more often had breastfeeding duration in conformity with their planned breastfeeding duration, compared with women who had breastfeeding duration < 3 months.

    Trial registration: ACTRN12611000354987

  • 323.
    Blixt, Ingrid
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Mälarsjukhuset Eskilstuna / Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland, Uppsala universitet.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ekström, Anette
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Utbildning minskar amningsproblem2014In: Amningsnytt, ISSN 1102-7207, no 4, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 324.
    Blom, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Söderqvist, Mercedes
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    VACCINATION IS MORE THAN JUST AN INJECTION – To vaccinate a student with fear of needles2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Vaccinationer är en del av skolsköterskors förebyggande arbete. Stickrädsla är en vanlig åkomma, upp till 10 % av befolkningen i världen uppskattas ha det. Skolsköterskor möter någon gång under sin tid, stickrädda elever. God information innan vaccinationen har visat att stickrädsla minskar. Syftet: Att belysa skolsköterskors upplevelse av att vaccinera stickrädda elever. Metod: Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ metod. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med åtta skolsköterskor i två mindre städer, i mellersta Sverige. Resultatet har analyserats med innebördsanalys. Resultat: Analysen resulterade i fyra rubriker till resultatet; Skolsköterskors förhållningssätt påverkar bemötandet av elever, En inbjudande miljö påverkar hur vaccinationen upplevs av skolsköterskor och elever, Föräldrars förhållningssätt kan hjälpa eller stjälpa skolsköterskor vid vaccination, Avledning vid vaccination underlättar arbetet för skolsköterskor. Konklusion: Skolsköterskor måsta ha en god kunskap om hur olika faktorer kan påverka den stickrädda elever. Skolsköterskor upplever ofta en tidspress vilket påverkar mötet med stickrädda elever som i sin tur påverkar skolsköterskors vaccinationer. Skolsköterskor upplever att belöning har en god effekt för att lugna elever och underlätta för skolsköterskor att utföra sitt arbete. Hur föräldern är delaktig är betydelsefullt för skolsköterskors upplevelse. Det finns tre olika förhållningssätt bland föräldrar, den tysta, den bestämda och den tveksamma som låter elever själv välja. Dessa påverkar vaccinationstillfället och upplevelsen av mötet för verksamma skolsköterskor.

  • 325.
    Blom, Helen
    et al.
    Department of Intensive Care Unit, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Christina
    Department of Intensive Care Unit, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Participation and support in intensive care as experienced by close relatives of patients: A phenomenological study2013In: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing, ISSN 0964-3397, E-ISSN 1532-4036, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to explore participation and support as experienced by close relatives of patients at an intensive care unit (ICU).

    Method: This study used the phenomenological approach as developed by Dahlberg et al. (2008) as a method for reflective lifeworld research. Seven close relatives of critically ill patients cared for at an ICU were interviewed. The data were analysed with a focus on meanings.

    Results: Being allowed to participate in the care of critically ill patients at an ICU is impor-tant for close relatives to the patients. Their experiences can be described as having four constituents: participation in the care of and being close to the patient; confidence in the care the patient receives; support needed for involvement in caregiving; and vulnerability.

    Conclusion: Participation with and support from health-care professionals are important for the relatives’ well-being and their ability to contribute to the patients’ care. Health-care profes-sionals, especially critical care nurses, need to create an atmosphere that invites relatives to participate in the care provided at an ICU.

  • 326.
    Blom, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Färnestav, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Förutsättningar för sjuksköterskor att ge god palliativ vård: en kvalitativ litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Palliative care should relieve suffering and promote well-being of patients suffering from a fatal disease. Palliative care is divided into two phases and there are differences between countries and cultures. Most nurses meet patients in palliative stages during their professional career and need to be able to see the whole person behind the patient for the relationship to be caring.

    Aim: To illuminate the prerequisites for nurses to provide good palliative care.

    Method: Literature review with inductive design and qualitative method. The analysis consists of eleven quality-reviewed articles. Based on the analysis, a new entirety was found which formed the result.

    Result: Four prerequisites emerge (1) Education and knowledge: continuous education in communication, improvement work and caring for patients with severe dementia. (2) Good relations and good cooperation: with good relations and good cooperation between healthcare professionals, patients and relatives palliative care becomes good and effective. (3) Open and honest communication: when communication works care becomes safer and the patient avoids unnecessary suffering (4) Clear documentation: the patient's needs, actions performed by healthcare professionals and their evaluation must be clearly documented.

    Conclusion: Nurses need continuous education, the communication needs to work to create good relations and the documentation needs development.

  • 327.
    Blomberg, Karin
    et al.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    Department of Nursing, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Kullén Engström, Agneta
    School of Health, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Ulla
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Gustafsson, Margareta
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Swedish nursing students' experience of stress during clinical practice in relation to clinical setting characteristics and the organisation of the clinical education2014In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 23, no 15-16, p. 2264-2271Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Blomberg, Karin
    et al.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Ann-Kristin
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Allvin, Renée
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden / Clinical Skills Centre, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    Department of Nursing, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ewertsson, Mona
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kullén Engström, Agneta
    School of Health, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Ulla
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sundler, Annelie Johansson
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Gustafsson, Margareta
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Work stress among newly graduated nurses in relation to workplace and clinical group supervision2016In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 329.
    Blomberg, Karin
    et al.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden / Department NVS, Section for Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Kay
    Department NVS, Section for Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Browall, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department NVS, Section for Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Ann-Kristin
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nyman, Maria Hälleberg
    Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Langius-Eklöf, Ann
    Department NVS, Section for Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Symptoms and self-care strategies during and six months after radiotherapy for prostate cancer - Scoping the perspectives of patients, professionals and literature2016In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 21, p. 139-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Under-diagnosed and uncontrolled symptoms in patients with prostate cancer during radiotherapy can have a negative impact on the individual's quality of life. An opportunity for patients to report their symptoms systematically, communicate these symptoms to cancer nurses and to receive self-care advice via an application in an Information and Communication Technology-platform could overcome this risk. The content in the application must precisely capture symptoms that are significant to both patients and health care professionals. Therefore, the aim of the study was to map and describe symptoms and self-care strategies identified by patients with prostate cancer undergoing radiotherapy, by health care professionals caring for these patients, and in the literature.

    METHODS: The study combines data from interviews with patients (n = 8) and health care professionals (n = 10) and a scoping review of the literature (n = 26) focusing on the period during and up to 6 months after radiotherapy.

    RESULTS: There was a concordance between the patients, health care professionals, and the literature on symptoms during and after radiotherapy. Urinary symptoms, bowel problems, pain, sexual problems, fatigue, anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment and irregular symptoms were commonly described during the initial treatment period. Self-care strategies were rarely described in all three of the sources.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results show which symptoms to regularly assess using an Information and Communication Technology-platform for patients with newly-diagnosed prostate cancer during radiotherapy. The next step is to evaluate the efficacy of using the platform and the accuracy of the selected symptoms and self-care advice included in a smartphone application.

  • 330.
    Blomqvist, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Gustavsson Cederström, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att leva med diabetes typ 2 ur ett genusperspektiv: En kvantitativ studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes type 2 is classified as a public disease and may take time to detect due to the progressively deterioration of insulin secretion. Genetic factors and lifestyle factors have a strong influence over the development of the disease. Having type 2 diabetes can lead to strong emotional experiences. Meeting every patient with type 2 diabetes from a gender perspective is of great importance. Objective: The purpose was to describe patients' experiences of living with type 2 diabetes from a gender perspective. Method: A prospective cross-sectional study has been conducted with collected data from 3 different health- care centers in southern Sweden, where both men (n = 17) and women (n = 10) participated. Result: The women felt more uncomfortable in social relationships with others, due to their diabetes. In spite of that, the women estimated themselves higher than men on experienced co-existence with others today. Knowledge of diet and exercise was estimated higher by women. The men felt more depressed by their treatment plan and felt more alone in their diabetes than women. Conclusion: Diabetes type 2 can be a life-changing disease. Social relationships can be important for finding support in the disease but also creating a sense of being disturbed in social contexts. Knowledge of self-care is important in preventing future complications and premature death.

  • 331.
    Blomsterberg, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Carlsson, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Mödrars upplevelser av känslor och relationen till sina barn vid matning med modersmjölksersättning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is common for mothers not to breastfeed today, still it is of low value by society. The research available about these mothers´ experiences of connection to their children, is limited. A district nurse should be able to support motherhood in different manners, for example by practical knowledge and in a way, that identifies mothers’ experiences about not breastfeeding. 

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe how mothers who give formula milk to their infants, experience feelings and the relationship to their infants. 

    Method: Ten interviews with mothers were conducted. Qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach and a deductive approach was used. The inductive part consisted of open questions and the MIRF-scale was used in the deductive part. 

    Results: Eight subcategories and three main categories emerged. The categories resulted in a theme: “Experiences of creating a parenting roll and how the relationship with the children varied and developed emotionally over time.” 

    Conclusion: The mothers expressed strong, mostly positive feelings towards their children. Mothers who tried to breastfeed and could not continue, were particularly vulnerable and in need of support. Feeling inadequate as a mother because of not being able to breastfeed, could affect the mother´s mental health negatively and cause delayed maternal feelings.      

  • 332.
    Blomén, Alice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Gustafsson, Linnéa
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Mitt spruckna hjärta: En litteraturbaserad studie av individers upplevelser av det dagliga livet efter en hjärtinfarkt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Myocardial infarction affects people all over the world and can result in death. After the myocardial infarction the individuals initiate their recovery. The individuals have to cope with lifestyle changes and at the same time dealing with the crisis that they are in. Aim: To describe individual's experiences of the daily life after a myocardial infarction. Method: A literature based study including twelve qualitative articles. Results: The individuals daily life drasticly changed after the myocardial infarction and all obstacles were not as easy to overcome.Three themes emerged from the analysis; New reality to relate to, A second chance and Help to rocery, with eight subthemes. Conclusion: Myocardial infarction is a disease that affects the whole individual. The individuals need to work with physical as well as psychic aspects of their well-being during the recovery. The nurse is a support during the hospital stay that helps the patient return to the home and their daily life. However the health care needs to take responsibility for the need of information that the individuals require more seriously.

  • 333.
    Boberg, Lena
    et al.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Szekeres, Ferenc L. M.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Arner, Anders
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Signaling and metabolic properties of fast and slow smooth muscle types from mice2018In: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0031-6768, E-ISSN 1432-2013, Vol. 470, no 4, p. 681-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to improve the classification of smooth muscle types to better understand their normal and pathological functional phenotypes. Four different smooth muscle tissues (aorta, muscular arteries, intestine, urinary bladder) with a 5-fold difference in maximal shortening velocity were obtained from mice and classified according to expression of the inserted myosin heavy chain (SMHC-B). Western blotting and quantitative PCR analyses were used to determine 15 metabolic and 8 cell signaling key components in each tissue. The slow muscle type (aorta) with a 12 times lower SMHC-B had 6-fold lower expression of the phosphatase subunit MYPT1, a 7-fold higher expression of Rhokinase 1, and a 3-fold higher expression of the PKC target CPI17, compared to the faster (urinary bladder) smooth muscle. The slow muscle had higher expression of components involved in glucose uptake and glycolysis (type 1 glucose transporter, 3 times; hexokinase, 13 times) and in gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, 43 times), but lower expression of the metabolic sensing AMP-activated kinase, alpha 2 isoform (5 times). The slow type also had higher expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (hormone-sensitive lipase, 10 times; lipoprotein lipase, 13 times; fatty acid synthase, 6 times; type 2 acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, 8 times). We present a refined division of smooth muscle into muscle types based on the analysis of contractile, metabolic, and signaling components. Slow compared to fast smooth muscle has a lower expression of the deactivating phosphatase and upregulated Ca2+ sensitizing pathways and is more adapted for sustained glucose and lipid metabolism. © 2018 The Author(s)

  • 334.
    Bodare, Linnea
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Vad händer när sjuksköterskor mår dåligt? Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av arbetsmiljön: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    BAKGRUND: Sjuksköterskor bär ansvaret över patienters omvårdnad och säkerhet. Arbetsmiljön är direkt kopplad till sjuksköterskors tillfredställelse över arbetet. När sjuksköterskor tappar kontrollen över arbetet riskeras patientsäkerheten. SYFTE: Att belysa sjuksköterskors upplevelser av arbetsmiljön och hur den inverkar på arbetet inom somatisk slutenvård. METOD: En litteraturöversikt baserad på sex kvalitativa artiklar och fem kvantitativa artiklar. RESULTAT: Fem teman uppkom under analysprocessen; En jämställd relation med läkare tillåter sjuksköterskor att tillämpa sin kompetens, Stödjande relationer och tid för kompetensutveckling, Att få sina röster hörda och att få delta i beslut, Möjlighet att tillämpa sitt omvårdnadskunnande, samt Försämring av hälsan. DISKUSSION: Ungefär varannan sjuksköterska är missnöjd över sin arbetsmiljö vilket innefattar underbemanning och icke-stödjande relationer. Detta leder till en ohälsosam arbetsbelastning som skapar stress. När sjuksköterskor inte har kontroll påverkas patienters omvårdnad vilket gör att sjuksköterskor upplever att de utfört ett dåligt arbete. KONKLUSION: Kvalitativ omvårdnad uppnås genom en god arbetsmiljö. Sjuksköterskor och sjukhusledningen behöver därför införa åtgärder för att motverka en dålig arbetsmiljö.

  • 335.
    Bodén, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Wendel, Carina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Endometrios hos unga kvinnor: upplevelser av skolhälsovården2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Endometriosis, a disease that gives symptoms like dysmenorrhea or abnormal bleedings during menstruation, often appears during the early adolescent and several years passes from onset of the symptoms to the point of diagnosis. The women with this diagnose often describes the feeling of not being understood, even during their adolescence. The disease may appear with troubles for the women that gives effects upon physical, mental and social impact which can be seen. The aim was to investigate what kind of support the women had got from there school nurse during junior high school and high school to affect the quality of life. A method of a quantitative study with qualitative influences was used. The respondents were found through the Swedish Endometriosis Associations youth section. A questionnaire was sent out to 59 women and 24 responded. The result showed that few of the women were satisfied with the support they received during their time in school. Almost all the women expressed that there was a lack of knowledge, support and understanding from the school nurse. Consequently, the women were not satisfied with the health care encounter. Lack of understanding and knowledge was found even at social advice and guidance centres for young people and physicians. The availability of the school nurses varied between different schools. The resources should be used to give knowledge to school nurses and the adolescents to improve the adolescents quality of life.

  • 336.
    Boernhorst, C.
    et al.
    BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Bel-Serrat, S.
    Univ Zaragoza, Fac Hlth Sci, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
    Pigeot, I.
    BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Huybrechts, I.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium / Int Agcy Res Canc, Dietary Exposure Assessment Grp, F-69372 Lyon, France.
    Ottavaere, C.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Sioen, I.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    De Henauw, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium / Univ Coll Ghent, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Fac Hlth Care Vesalius, Ghent, Belgium.
    Mouratidou, T.
    Univ Zaragoza, Fac Hlth Sci, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
    Mesana, M. I.
    Univ Zaragoza, Fac Hlth Sci, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
    Westerterp, K.
    Maastricht Univ, Dept Human Biol, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Bammann, K.
    BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, Bremen, Germany / Univ Bremen, Inst Publ Hlth & Nursing Res, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Lissner, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pala, V.
    Fdn IRCSS Ist Nazl Tumori, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, Dept Prevent & Predict Med, Milan, Italy.
    Rayson, M.
    BioTel Ltd Clifton, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Krogh, V.
    Fdn IRCSS Ist Nazl Tumori, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, Dept Prevent & Predict Med, Milan, Italy.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Fac Hth Sci, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
    Validity of 24-h recalls in (pre-)school aged children: Comparison of proxy-reported energy intakes with measured energy expenditure2014In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 79-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & aims: Little is known about the validity of repeated 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) as a measure of total energy intake (El) in young children. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of proxy-reported El by comparison with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly labeled water (DLW) technique. Methods: The agreement between El and TEE was investigated in 36 (47.2% boys) children aged 4-10 years from Belgium and Spain using subgroup analyses and Bland-Altman plots. Low-energy-reporters (LER), adequate-energy-reporters (AER) and high-energy-reporters (HER) were defined from the ratio of El over TEE by application of age- and sex-specific cut-off values. Results: There was good agreement between means of El (1500 kcal/day) and TEE (1523 kcal/day) at group level though in single children, i.e. at the individual level, large differences were observed. Almost perfect agreement between El and TEE was observed in thin/normal weight children (EI: 1511 kcal/day; TEE: 1513 kcal/day). Even in overweight/obese children the mean difference between El and TEE was only 86 kcal/day. Among the participants, 28(78%) were classified as AER, five (14%) as HER and three (8%) as LER. Conclusion: Two proxy-reported 24-HDRs were found to be a valid instrument to assess El on group level but not on the individual level. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  • 337.
    Boernhorst, C.
    et al.
    BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Huybrechts, I.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium / Int Agcy Res Canc, Dietary Exposure Assessment Grp, F-69372 Lyon, France.
    Ahrens, W.
    BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Michels, N.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Pala, V.
    Fdn IRCSS Ist Nazl Tumori, Dept Prevent & Predict Med, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Molnar, D.
    Univ Pecs, Fac Med, Dept Pediat, H-7623 Pecs, Hungary.
    Russo, P.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, I-83100 Avellino, Italy.
    Barba, G.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, I-83100 Avellino, Italy.
    Bel-Serrat, S.
    Univ Zaragoza, Escuela Univ Ciencias Salud, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Escuela Univ Ciencias Salud, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
    Papoutsou, S.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, CY-2027 Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Ctr Hlth & Behav Sci, EE-11619 Tallinn, Estonia.
    Loit, H. M.
    Center of Health and Behavioral Science, National Institute for Health Development, Hiiu 42, 11619Tallinn, Estonia.
    Lissner, L.
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Dietary Exposure Assessment Grp, F-69372 Lyon, France.
    Pigeot, I.
    BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
    Prevalence and determinants of misreporting among European children in proxy-reported 24 h dietary recalls2013In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 109, no 7, p. 1257-1265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary assessment is strongly affected by misreporting (both under-and over-reporting), which results in measurement error. Knowledge about misreporting is essential to correctly interpret potentially biased associations between diet and health outcomes. In young children, dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents but little is known about determinants of misreporting here. The present analysis was conducted within the framework of the multi-centre IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary-and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study and is based on 6101 children aged 2-9 years with 24 h dietary recall (24-HDR) and complete covariate information. Adapted Goldberg cut-offs were applied to classify the 24-HDR as 'over-report', 'plausible report' or 'under-report'. Backward elimination in the course of multi-level logistic regression analyses was conducted to identify factors significantly related to under-and over-reporting. Next to characteristics of the children and parents, social factors and parental concerns/perceptions concerning their child's weight status were considered. Further selective misreporting was addressed, investigating food group intakes commonly perceived as more or less socially desirable. Proportions of under-, plausible and over-reports were 8.0, 88.6 and 3.4%, respectively. The risk of under-reporting increased with age (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.05, 1.83), BMI z-score of the child (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.10, 1.37) and household size (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01, 1.25), and was higher in low/medium income groups (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.13, 1.86). Over-reporting was negatively associated with BMI z-scores of the child (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.69, 0.88) and higher in girls (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.27, 2.28). Further social desirability and parental concerns/perceptions seemed to influence the reporting behaviour. Future studies should involve these determinants of misreporting when investigating diet-disease relationships in children to correct for the differential reporting bias.

  • 338.
    Bogered, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ivehag, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjuksköterskors kommunikation med patienter som har svårt med språket i det land som de kommer till: En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In today's society, it is common for people to move from one country to another. Nurses encounter people who have a different language and cultural background who have difficulty understanding the language of the country they come to. Communication barriers can arise due to language shortages and can therefore lead to a negative impact on the patient's health and life world. Aim: Describe nurses' experiences of communication in the meeting with patients with a different language and cultural background who have difficulty with the language of the country they come to. Method: A literature-based study analyzing 10 qualitative articles. Result: Four subjects were identified from the analysis: Time effects communication, Need for intercultural competence, Strategies for overcoming communication barriers and Importance of use of interpreters. Nurses need help from communication strategies and interpreters to improve communication in the healthcare meeting. Nurses demonstrate that time and attendance are needed to form a respectful and credible relationship that positively affects communication. The need for intercultural competence creates a better idea of ​​how patients with different cultures and languages ​​benefit the communication. Conclusion: Being present, giving time and creating trust and security for the patient were important for nurses but there was no time for this. Nurses can use their body language and an interpreter as a help to overcome communication barriers with patients who have difficulty with the language of the country they come to.

  • 339.
    Boldeanu, Silvia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Merging brain-computer interfaces and virtual reality: A neuroscientific exploration2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) blend methods and concepts researched by cognitive neuroscience, electrophysiology, computer science and engineering, resulting in systems of bi-directional information exchange directly between brain and computer. BCIs contribute to medical applications that restore communication and mobility for disabled patients and provide new forms of sending information to devices for enhancement and entertainment. Virtual reality (VR) introduces humans into a computer-generated world, tackling immersion and involvement. VR technology extends the classical multimedia experience, as the user is able to move within the environment, interact with other virtual participants, and manipulate objects, in order to generate the feeling of presence. This essay presents the possibilities of merging BCI with VR and the challenges to be tackled in the future. Current attempts to combine BCI and VR technology have shown that VR is a useful tool to test the functioning of BCIs, with safe, controlled and realistic experiments; there are better outcomes for VR and BCI combinations used for medical purposes compared to solely BCI training; and, enhancement systems for healthy users seem promising with VR-BCIs designed for home users. Future trends include brain-to-brain communication, sharing of several users’ brain signals within the virtual environment, and better and more efficient interfaces.

  • 340.
    Bolin, Ingalena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Caldana, Ulrika
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    En för alltid förändrad tillvaro: En litteraturöversikt som belyser hur det är att leva med positivt BRCA2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cancer rates are increasing and the predisposition for breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and prostate cancer due to BRCA mutations is documented. By highlighting the impact emotional awareness of living with the heritable cancer risk nurses may have the possibility to support those affected. Aim: To create knowledge about how to live with positive BRCA and the result produces an augmented reality in health care. Method: A literature review based on 14 qualitative articles read through CINAHL. Results: The result is presented in three themes and eight subthemes. The theme On hold for cancer highlights how women and men suffer medical and psychological implications from being diagnosed with positive BRCA. It also highlights the impact of change in health and the impact for the future prospect. The theme Struggle against cancer describes strategies for improving the diagnosis, the choice between surveillance and preventive surgery and the loss of something important. The theme On the road towards support and understanding tells the story about finding support or being left on your own finding strategies for better health. Conclusion: BRCA-positive patient are able through the listening ear of nurses find the much-needed counseling for management of the high risk of developing cancer.

  • 341.
    Bolling, Jessica Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    BVC-sjuksköterskors upplevelser av arbetet med omsorgssviktande familjer2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many children in Sweden are exposed to maltreatment. Among the purposes of the Child health care (CHC) are to decrease mortality, infirmity and handicaps among mothers and their children, and to decrease hurtful strains for parents and their children. CHC-nurses get critizism for not reporting child maltreatment in high enough numbers to the Social service. The aim of this study was to chart how CHC-nurses finds their work with families suffering from maltreatment. Ten CHC-nurses were interviewed with semistructured interviews. The study has a qualitative approach and the interviews were analysed with the help of content analysis. In the result it appears that CHC-nurses experiences working with families suffering from maltreatment is very emotional. The support from collegues, psychlogists and co-operation with Mother Health Care, pre-school and Social Service is valuable. It’s hard to judge which who are exposed to maltreatment because the definition is unclear. There’s a wish to be able to help more families without needing to report to the Social service. The prevented work by the CHC agains maltreatment should get a more prominent clear position in CHC’s standard program for the entire family.

  • 342.
    Boman, Kajsa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Heart rate variability: A possible measure of subjective wellbeing?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wellbeing and subjective wellbeing (SWB) has become some the most important goals of our time, both individually and societally. Thus, there is a need for reliable ways to measure SWB, as concerns regarding many current measures have been raised. Due to the interwoven nature of physiology and psychology, heart rate variability (HRV) has the potential to assess psychological processes in a physiological manner. HRV is an attractive measure since it is inexpensive, easy and non-invasive. Hence, the aim is to, from a cognitive neuroscientific standpoint, investigate whether HRV could serve as an objective measure to assess SWB. Most studies demonstrate associations between HRV and SWB, in particular between high frequency (HF)-HRV and positive affect (PA). However, the one study fully matching the theoretical framework only showed an inverse correlation between HRV and negative affect (NA). Plausibly implying that HRV does not serve as a reliable measure of SWB, but may be able to indicate inverse associations with NA, and possibly index certain aspect of SWB such as deactivated PA. The study of the relationship between HRV and SWB is still in its infancy and results are inconsistent. The lack of common standards regarding measurements, implementation details, and variable values, make results difficult to compare and generalize. Further standardizations and research are much needed before accurate conclusions can be drawn.

  • 343.
    Borell, Magdalena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Tranberg, Sofie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Attityder från vårdpersonal i omvårdnaden av överviktiga patienter: En litteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nurses and doctors play a major role in the care of obese patients and that this population receive the same treatment under the same conditions as patients who are not overweight. Within healthcare, there may be negative attitudes that patients with high BMI are lazy and undisciplined. Our purpose was twofold. The first part seeks to describe if there were negative attitudes of health professionals towards obese patients. The second part of the purpose was to describe the obese patient´s experiences of health professionals´ attitudes. This was a literature survey to compile the research situation. 14 articles were analyzed and put in the result, they were both quantitative and qualitative studies. Two themes were produced, to these eight sub-themes emerged. Health-care workers' attitudes were found to be influenced by a number of factors. This led to some extent that patients avoided seeking medical care. The results showed that health professionals were aware that there were negative attitudes towards overweight patients. Despite this, many overweight patients’ experienceed disparaging attitudes when visiting health professionals. Health professionals had a number of negative attitudes. It was found that patients were affected by these attitudes, whether they are their own experience or they do occur.

  • 344.
    Borg, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Trygghetsarbetets hälsopåverkan hos elever ur ett personalperspektiv på en grundskola i en skånsk kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Mental illness in students a growing problem. The Swedish school has the task of working with students' safety and to conduct systematic quality work against discrimination and offensive treatment. Purpose: The purpose was to investigate whether pedagogues and student health personnel at a primary school in a municipality in Skane felt that the safety efforts have a positive effect on the students' health. Method: A cross-sectional study with qualitative elements was conducted by educators (n = 65) at an elementary school in Skåne. The data collection was done through a digital survey that was sent out via e-mail. The collected data was analyzed in the statistics program SPSS. Qualitative answers were presented in text form. Result: The response rate was 34%, a too low response rate to be able to generalize the result. Of the respondents, 73% felt that they were participant in the safety work, 91% felt that safety had an effect on the students' health and 67% did not experience any health differences between the sexes. However, there are some differences in which efforts work best and worst in relation to gender. Student initiatives that involve social exchange are perceived to be most positive and punishment most negative. There is a demand for systematic security work. Conclusion: The result links to previous research that both confirms and demonstrates areas for improvement. The existence of the security plan is fundamental. Requested clarity and follow-up can be an expression of the area's size and the difficulty of obtaining a comprehensive picture of the safety work. Different forms of social exchange are what are considered to have an effect on the students' health and should therefore be given priority. Security work can benefit from collegial learning and the content of the safety plan may need to be supplemented. Success factors and improvement proposals can contribute to a clearer anchoring. However, the low response rate should be taken into account and any implementation of proposals should be reconciled with staff.

  • 345.
    Borgström, Annika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Helldén, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skolsköterskors erfarenhet av att samarbeta med skolpersonal kring fysisk aktivitet hos elever i grundskolan under skoltid: En intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Målet för folkhälsa är att skapa förutsättningar för en god hälsa på lika villkor för hela befolkningen. Fysisk aktivitet har en positiv effekt på förebyggandet av sjukdomar och inlärning. Eftersom barns vardag till stor del präglas av skolan är skolan en viktig plattform i arbetet med folkhälsa. Skolsköterskans arbete i skolan är hälsofrämjande och förebyggande. Skolsköterskan som träffar alla barn och unga i skolan har tillsammans med övrig skolpersonal möjligheter att skapa förutsättningar och uppmuntra till fysisk aktivitet.Skolsköterskans samarbete med övrig skolpersonal sker i mindre team men kan också ske i ett större interprofessionellt samarbete. I vården finns det många exempel på hur ett samarbete mellan olika professioner skapar kvalitet och effektiva samarbeten. Syfte: Studiens syfte är att undersöka skolsköterskors erfarenhet av att samarbeta med övrig skolpersonal kring fysisk aktivitet hos elever under skoltid. Metod: I studien användes en kvalitativ metod med induktiv ansats. Datainsamlingen genomfördes med semistrukturerade intervjuer. Sju skolsköterskor deltog i studien. Resultat: Efter analys och tolkning visade studiens resultat på två kategorier: Främjar samarbete och Hinder i samarbete.Konklusion: Studiens resultat visar att ledningens inställning till samarbete är avgörande för att minimera hinder och skapa förutsättningar.

  • 346.
    Borgström, Juliana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Cyclical Women: Menstrual Cycle Effects on Mood and Neuro-Cognitive Performance2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During roughly forty years of a woman’s life-span, the fertile female human body prepares itself monthly for the possibility of pregnancy. Science has shown that the fluctuation of the sex steroids progesterone and estrogen have a crucial role in the female body's physiology, determining the menstrual cycle and its general phases. This biological dance of hormones governing the cycle influences a lot of physical, mental and cognitive aspects of life for a fertile ovulating woman. Although the question of whether these changes also affect women's cognitive performance is still unclear, some evidence has been gathered that could bring us closer to answers. Recent research findings show that this hormonal interplay might have a significant role in cognitive and psychological development - modulating brain activity, cognitive performance, higher cognition, emotional status, sensory processing, appetite and more. This thesis aims to uncover to what extent the menstrual cycle affects brain functions, neurobiology, mood, well-being and cognitive performance in menstruating cisgender women.

  • 347.
    Bortas, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Wahll, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Insatser för att förebygga och minska risk för arbetsrelaterad stress: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 348.
    Borén, Fanny
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Barns möjlighet till naturkontakt: En kvalitativ studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A sedentary lifestyle is getting more common among children, and outdoor play today is challenged by television and computer games. Many families live in cities with limited access to nature. Nature provides spontaneous physical activities as well as it offers mental recovery. Children who experience early exposure to nature often demonstrate an interested in nature as adults. This study examines the possibilities of access to nature for Swedish children aged 5-12 years.Methods: Ten mothers were interviewed about their children’s interaction with nature. Group 1 included five mothers with children who had regular contact with nature, and group 2 included five mothers with children who didn’t have regular contact with nature.Results: The children of mothers who lived in the countryside and mothers who were involved with nature related associations had regular access to nature, while mothers who lived in urban areas ended up giving their children less opportunities to access to nature. Mothers who had regular access to nature as children were more likely to enjoy nature as adults. Contact with nature was more frequent during the summer months.Discussion: Residential context and parents commitment were important in relation to the aspect of whether children had regular nature contact or not.

  • 349.
    Boström, Kristina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The key to understanding PTSD: Contrasting post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traumatic incidences happen all around the globe. Some of the people who experience trauma

    develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while some do not. Even more interesting is

    that some also experience growth afterwards (post-traumatic growth; PTG). The purpose of

    this paper is to look at neural aspects of why some people develop PTSD and others PTG after

    a traumatic event. To fulfill the aim, both PTSD and PTG will be reviewed to create an image

    of the existing research in behavioral and neurological terms. In addition to looking at the

    constructs separately, a chapter will also look at studies where both PTSD and PTG are

    acknowledged collaterally in participants. When looking deeper into the theories of PTSD

    divisions occur, and more research is needed to establish the most prominent explanation of

    PTSD. PTG on the other hand has only been studied for a short period of time but yields

    important insights into trauma-related outcomes. These fields need to be submerged and new

    multidisciplinary definitions are needed for future research. The key to PTSD is suggested to

    emerge within the new field.

  • 350.
    Boström, Patrik
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Arousal-induced memory augmentation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional events are often better preserved in memory than events without an emotional component. Emotional stimuli benefit from capturing and holding the attention of a perceiver to a higher degree than more emotion-neutral stimuli. Arousal associated with experiencing emotionally valenced stimuli or situations affects every major stage in creating, maintaining and retrieving lasting memories. Presented in this thesis were models delineating the behavioral and neurological mechanisms that might explain arousal-induced effects on subsequent memory outcome. Based on a study of relevant literature, findings were presented in this thesis that highlight amygdala activation as crucial for the enhancement of memory generally associated with emotional arousal. The amygdala modulates processing in other areas of the brain involved in memory. Heightened levels of norepinephrine, stemming from sympathetic nervous system activation, underlies observable arousal-induced memory effects and seem to be a crucial component in enabling glucocorticoid augmentation of memory. Arousal seems to further amplify the biased competition between stimuli that favors the neural representation of motivationally relevant stimuli and stimuli of a sensory salient nature. The aim of this thesis was to outline the impact of emotional arousal on different stages of memory processing, including processes for memory formation, strengthening of memory traces, and eventual subsequent retrieval. 

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