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  • 301.
    Elmgren, Ing-Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Skolsköterskans arbete utifrån ett salutogent förhållningssätt: en litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this literature study was to describe how the school nurse can adopt the salutogenic perspective in her health promoting work. The articles were examined in order to identify what was written about the school nurse’s work from the salutogenic perspective. In parallel, Eriksson’s, Orem’s, and Newman’s nursing theories were examined from the same perspective. Health promotion enables people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Aaron Antonovsky coined the term salutogenesis to describe why certain people can stay healthy despite stressful situations, and even grow and develop. The concept “sense of coherence” (SOC) is an important factor in this context. The Salutogenic model was a new way to develop knowledge in nursing. As caregivers capable of structuring life experiences and providing health information and services, nurses can foster and strengthen SOC. Salutogenesis promoted the understanding and the identification of factors relevant to child protection. It was also found that many factors, e.g., gender, lifestyle, habits and school climate correlated with SOC. The study showed a strong support for adopting the Salutogenic model in school health work, and that nursing theories can be used as analytical tools in the application of this model in practice.

  • 302.
    Elovson, Anette
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av läkemedelshantering2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drug related problems (DRP) are a major concern for hospital readmissions. These problems have physical, physiological and economical implications for the patients and for society. Research has shown that many patients´ have a lack of knowledge about their drug therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate patients´ perceptions of the medication use process in hospitals as well as in their own home environment, and in addition to establish foundations to provide a better medication use process. The research was based on eleven interviews using a qualitative method with a phenomenological approach. A qualitative content analysis was applied. The study shows that patients´ have a feeling that they have to trust their caregivers for what they say and what they do and there is no other choice. Lack of information leads to questioning if its´ the right medication he or she received. The results show that certain main factors are important for a functional medication use process. The main factor being that a good medication use process is based on good knowledge, communication and involvement.

  • 303.
    Elovson, Anette
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Patientinformationens betydelse för en säker läkemedelshantering2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of information regarding the medication use process could be a reason for admission in hospitals with drug related problems. A well informed patient with a good knowledge can reduce risks for mismanagement in the medication use process. Patient education should be seen as an important component in patient care. The aim of this study was to highlight the importance of nurse’s role in patient information regarding safe medication use process. The research was based upon literature reviews and scientific articles witch can be found on the databases CINAHL, PubMed and ELIN during the period of Septem-ber and October 2007. Findings indicate that the nurses’ contribution to medication educa-tion is commonly limited. Lack of information is a key concern for many patients leading to a wide range of medication related problems. Medication programmes increase knowl-edge of medication and contribute to an effective patient education. Nurses, physicians and pharmacists should work collaboratively to reduce medication mismanagement. Conclu-sions show that nurses play an important role in identifying drug related problems. Provid-ing patients with relevant individual information about their medication use process may help to reduce anxiety about the prescription medication they are taking.

  • 304.
    Elster, Annelie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Wänegård, Madeleine
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Omvårdnadsbehov hos kvinnor i samband med missfall2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are about 10-15% of all pregnancies which ends up in a miscarriage. Many of those women who go through a miscarriage suffer from depression and anxiety. The aim of this study is to describe the need of care and support women that have gone through a miscarriage have, so that they can receive better suited help when they see a nurse regarding the miscarriage. The method which was used was a qualitative literature study with ten qualitative articles, one quantitative and one who was both. The result is built on two major themes: needs in the public room and needs in the private room and four subthemes for every major theme that were identified in the analysis. The result shows that nurses and other hospital staff need to be more empathic and sympathetic. The women have a need of having someone to talk to and every woman should get an opportunity to go to a follow-up meeting at the hospital. The women also need to mourn in their own way and if they have the right kind of caring and support from professionals, families and friends they can recover more quickly.

  • 305.
    Eng , Caroline
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Schön, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hur anhörigvårdare till personer med demens upplever sin situation.: En litteraturöversikt.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 306.
    Engelin, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hokkinen, Lovisa
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Familjens upplevelser när ett barn får diagnosen astma: Och sjuksköterskans betydelse2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Earlier studies have focused on the physiological aspects of coping with asthma, both on patients and their relatives. Asthma is a disease that has been increasing over the last decades and it puts a lot of emotional and psychological stress on the entire family.

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to observe the family’s experiences when a child has asthma, and illuminate the importance of the nurse.

    Method: For this literature review, data was collected from the databases Academic Search Elite and CINAHL. During analyse four themes appeared. These were the first period after diagnose, adapting, when asthma becomes a part of life. The last theme was named the importance of the nurse.

    Result: The result showed that parents to children whose been newly diagnosed with asthma feels insecure, afraid and feel doubts their capability to care for their child. The parents also reported that they had a tougher economical situation due to higher absence from work, medicines and changes required in their home environment. It also showed that the nurse and the information from healthcare providers have a central role in the parents coping capabilities.

  • 307.
    Engqvist, Inger
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Experiences of postpartum psychosis from the perspectives of women with the diagnosis and psychiatric nurses2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Postpartum psychosis occurs in approximately two out of every 1000 women after childbirth. Although rare, it is a very serious illness with a potential for suicide and infanticide. The suffering associated with this illness and the effects on the entire family system are severe. Nurses need a comprehensive understanding of this disorder, how women present andexperience the illness and the nursing care required to keep women and their newborns safe. They also need to promote early detection to facilitate prompt treatment. To date, there is little research examining the women’s experiences and the nursing care provided to this population.Two descriptive qualitative studies were completed. One study analyzed internet narratives of ten women with the diagnosis of postpartum psychosis and the other study analyzed ten interviews with psychiatric nurses working on inpatient psychiatric units in Sweden. These two studies and subsequent secondary analyses addressed four research questions. How do women diagnosed with postpartum psychosis describe theirexperience?What are psychiatric nurses’ descriptions of women with postpartum psychosis and what are their responses to these women when caring for them on an inpatient psychiatric unit?What nursing care strategies are used by nurses in caring for women with postpartum psychosis?How do psychiatric nurses describe the use of presence when caring for women with PPP?The women described overwhelming fear, a detachment and inability to care for their babies, delusions and hallucinations, shame and guilt, sleep deprivation, a sense of being controlled, disorganized, confused and paranoia during hospitalization. A number also felt abandoned and discontented with the nursing staff and the nursing care they received. The nurses described a kaleidoscope of symptoms and a range of positive and negative emotionalresponses they had towards the women. Nursing strategies included satisfying basic needs, keeping the women and babies safe and secure, connecting the women with reality, creating a partnership, teaching the women and their family members, giving hope and facilitating recovery. The nurses described their use of physical presence in great detail and the learning that took place in the context of caring for this population.Future research studies need to examine the on-going interaction ofpatients and nurses on inpatient psychiatric units. Nurses and nursing studentsneed education about disease manifestations, women’s experiences, nursingcare strategies and ways to address nurses’ own emotional reactions.

  • 308.
    Engqvist, Inger
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ferszt, Ginete
    University of Rhode Island.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Swedish registered psychiatric nurses' descriptions of presence when caring for women with post-partum psychosis: An interview study2010In: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1445-8330, E-ISSN 1447-0349, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 313-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of nursing presence has been widely used in nursing and is a significant component of nursing practice. In order to increase our understanding of nursing presence, it needs to be studied in different contexts. In this study, a secondary analysis of interviews with 10 registered psychiatric nurses (RPN) in Sweden was conducted to explore nurses’ descriptions of presence when caring for women with post-partum psychosis (PPP). Based on the research question: ‘How do RPN describe nursing presence in the context of caring for women with PPP?’ content analysis was used to analyze the data. Three categories emerged: the use of presence to protect, the use of presence to facilitate recovery, and the use of presence for learning. The findings underscore the importance of recognizing nursing presence as a strategy to improve psychiatric nursing for the benefit of the woman and her child, and as an important part of psychiatric nursing when providing compassionate and effective nursing care to this population.

  • 309.
    Engqvist, Inger
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ferszt, Ginette
    College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, United States.
    Åhlin, Arne
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Solna, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Psychiatric Nurses' Descriptions of Women with Postpartum Psychosis and Nurses' Responses: An Exploratory Study in Sweden2009In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 23-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Postpartum psychosis is the most serious type of psychiatric illness related to childbirth. This interview study with nine psychiatric nurses in Sweden explored psychiatric nurses’ descriptions of women with psychosis occurring in the postpartum period and nurses’ responses when providing care to these women. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. The nurses described delusions, disconnection, aggression, changed personality, self-absorption, insomnia, chaos, quietness, suicidal ideation, and ‘strange eyes.’ The description of strange eyes noted by the nurses has not been found in the literature, warranting further investigation. When providing care, the nurses responded with sadness, sympathy, empathy and compassion, discomfort, anger, anxiety, and happiness. These findings underscore the importance of nurses recognizing their negatively charged emotions which could interfere with providing compassionate and effective nursing care to this population.

     

  • 310.
    Engqvist, Inger
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ferszt, Ginette
    College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, United States.
    Åhlin, Arne
    Skaraborg Hospital.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Women's Experience of Postpartum Psychotic Episodes: Analyses of Narratives From the Internet2011In: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, ISSN 0883-9417, E-ISSN 1532-8228, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 376-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to gain an insight into women's experiences of postpartum psychosis (PPP). Ten narratives taken from the Internet, which met the definition of PPP, were analyzed using cross-case and content analyses. The results revealed women's experience of having unfulfilled dreams, being enveloped by darkness, having disabling symptoms, and being abandoned. The women's experiences point to the importance of further education of nurses and doctors concerning PPP. It is vital not only for those working in psychiatric health care but also midwives and nurses who are working in maternity wards and child welfare centers. This would facilitate early recognition of signs and symptoms of the disorder, which, in turn, would make early treatment possible, thus supporting recovery. Furthermore, greater knowledge could contribute to providing more effective and compassionate care for these women.

  • 311.
    Engqvist, Inger
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nilsson, Agneta
    Academy of Sahlgrenska, University of Gothenburg, Institute of Nursing, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjöström, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Strategies in caring for women with Postpartum Psychosis: an interview study with psychiatric nurses2007In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 1333-1342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim and objective. The aim of this study was to explore strategies in caring for women with postpartum psychosis used by nurses.

    Background. The most serious type of psychiatric illness in connection with childbirth is postpartum psychosis. Nearly two in 1000 newly delivered women are stricken by postpartum psychosis. Most of these patients need psychiatric care to recover. While earlier studies point to the need for psychiatric care, knowledge of specific nursing strategies in caring for postpartum psychosis patients remains limited.

    Methods. Interviews with 10 experienced psychiatric nurses were carried out, transcribed verbatim and an inductive content analysis was made.

    Result. The main strategies for care found in this study were: (i) To create a patient–nurse relationship and (ii) To apply nursing therapeutic interventions. Presence, continuity and nurse-patient partnership contributed to create a relationship and incorporate the rest of the care team. To satisfy the patients’ basic needs and feeling of security was the foundation of the nursing therapeutic interventions. Confirmation and giving hope were also used as nursing therapeutics as well as information to the patient and her relatives about her illness.

    Conclusion. The conclusion of the study is that strategies used by nurses are a combination of general and psychiatric nursing approaches but the specificity in caring knowledge for caring patients with postpartum psychosis requires further development.

    Relevance to clinical practice. The result of the study indicates that it is important to organize patient care for postpartum psychosis with continuity and consistency and to support the nurse to create a relationship and therapeutic intervention with the patient. The present study shows the importance of further developing specific nursing theories that can be applied when caring for patients with postpartum psychosis. It also shows the need for further pedagogical education for mental health

  • 312.
    Engqvist, Inger
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Institute of Health and Caring Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Experiences of the first days of postpartum psychosis: An interview study with women and next of Kin in Sweden2013In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 82-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore accounts of the first days of postpartum psychosis from different perspectives, that is, that of the women and their next of kin. Interviews were conducted with seven women with postpartum psychosis and six interviews were done with the next of kin. The overall theme was Shades of Black with A Ray of Light, revealing a difficult experience of darkness, despair, and suffering. For the women, the experience cannot be shared fully other than with those who have lived through it themselves. For the next of kin, the illness is incomprehensible and it proved difficult to express in words what these relatives believe the women were going through. The women and their next of kin spoke about loss of sleep, being in an unreal world, thoughts that moved from having a wanted to an unwanted baby, being infanticidal, and having suicidal ideation. The women and their next of kin described the situations in different ways. The women gave an account of their illness in the strongest of terms, while the language used by the next of kin was much milder. The findings underscore the importance of recognizing the next of kin as key sources in early recognition of the disorder, which would make early treatment possible and support recovery. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  • 313.
    Engqvist, Inger
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Psychiatry, Skaraborg Hospitals, Falköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Institute of Health and Caring Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Involving the family in the care and treatment of women with postpartum psychosis: Swedish psychiatrists' experiences2013In: Psychiatry Journal, ISSN 2314-4327, E-ISSN 2314-4335, article id 897084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe Swedish psychiatrists’ experiences of involving the family in the treatment of women with postpartum psychosis. A qualitative design was used, and semistructured qualitative research interviews were conducted with nine psychiatrists from the south of Sweden. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Four categories were found: the family as a resource, the family as coworkers, preparing the family for the future, and the family as a burden. The result showed that the psychiatrists considered the family to be a resource to which they devoted a great deal of care and effort. It was particularly important to involve the partner, informing about the course of the illness and the steps that need to be taken in the event of a relapse and reducing any guilt feelings. The psychiatrists instilled confidence and hope for a future of health and further child bearing. The family members’ limited understanding of the treatment may impede the involvement of the family. Conclusion of the study was that the goal for family involvement was to facilitate the women’s care and treatment. Further studies are needed to provide suggestions on how to develop family involvement in the care of women suffering from postpartum psychosis.

  • 314.
    Engqvist, Inger
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    Institute of Health and Caring Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Men's experience of their partners' postpartum psychiatric disorders: narratives from the internet2011In: Mental Health in Family Medicine, ISSN 1756-834X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 137-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Postpartum psychiatric disorders (PPPD) can be serious and disabling, and may lead to long-term adverse consequences. Partners of women with PPPD are also affected by the illness, but their experiences are seldom described. The aim of this study was to explore men's experience of women with PPPD.

    Methods: Eleven written narratives from the internet were used to analyse men's perceived experience of their partner's PPPDs. Data were analysed using content analysis.

    Results: The men revealed a major disruption in their lives. They expressed fear, confusion and anger; they were also extremely concerned about their partners, and felt unable to help in overcoming the disorder. Most of the men described making sacrifices in order to hold the relationship and the family together. Although the disorder improved over time, they were left to face an uncertain future with a woman who seemed to be very different from the person they had known previously. Most of the men gained maturity and increased self-esteem, but for some the result was divorce, custody disputes and loneliness.

    Conclusions: The men in this study experienced the woman's PPPD as a difficult time, when everything familiar was turned upside down. Health professionals should pay more attention to men's mental health in the postpartum period. Furthermore, information regarding the possibility of these disorders should be given to expectant couples in prenatal classes. Further research is needed to ascertain how and to what extent this should be included in the education.

  • 315.
    Engqvist, Inger
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Åhlin, A.
    University of Rhode Island.
    Ferszt, G.
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nurses - psychiatrists' main collaborators when treating women with postpartum psychosis2010In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 494-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus was to describe Swedish psychiatrists’ experiences of collaboration with healthcare professionals when treating women with postpartum psychosis (PPP). A qualitative design was used, and semi-structured interviews were performed with nine psychiatrists working in psychiatric hospitals in Sweden. Data were analysed using manifest and latent content analysis. The results of these experiences were categorized in this study as: collaboration related to admission, collaboration during inpatient care and collaboration related to discharge. Collaboration with midwives and obstetricians was important in diagnosing the illness, as this often occurred on postnatal wards; and decisions about the form of care for the woman with PPP and for her baby demanded collaboration with various healthcare professionals. Collaboration with nurses was based on expectations and confidence in nurses’ competence, and was exceedingly important during inpatient care. When the woman was to be discharged, collaboration with healthcare teams, e.g. outpatient clinic, child health clinic and community services, was required. The conclusions were that psychiatrists collaborate with different professionals in the various phases of the caring process. They rely extensively on nurses’ competence when caring for women with PPP, and consider nurses to be their most important collaborators. Collaboration with midwives and obstetricians was

  • 316.
    Engqvist, Inger
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Åhlin, Arne
    Skaraborg Hospitals, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ferszt, Ginette
    University of Rhode Island, Rhode Island, United States.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Comprehensive Treatment of Women with Postpartum Psychosis across Health Care Systems from Swedish Psychiatrists' Perspectives2011In: Qualitative Report, ISSN 1052-0147, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 66-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies concerning the psychiatrist’s experiences of treating women with postpartum psychosis (PPP) or how they react to these women are limited in the literature. In this study a qualitative design is used. Data collection includes semi-structured interviews with nine Swedish psychiatrists working in psychiatric hospitals. The audio-taped interviews are transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. The findings consist of the categories: Protection, Treatment, Care, and Reactions.The psychiatrists describe emotions such as compassion, empathy and distress. A conclusion is that the psychiatrists focus on protecting the women from suicide and/or infanticide. Given the degree of stress the psychiatrists can experience caring for high risk challenging patients, health care organizations need to provide support and/or opportunities for peer supervision.

  • 317.
    Engstad, Lina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Färnestav, Hanna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av vad som påverkar arbetet med överviktiga barn inom barnhälsovården2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight among young children is a national and global increasing health problem. District nurses working in child health care has an important role, both in health promotion and prevention of children’s overweight. The aim of this study was to illustrate district nurses’ experiences of what influences their work with overweight children in child health care. The data was analysed by qualitative content analysis, with an inductive approach, described by Graneheim and Lundman. Eight interviews with Swedish district nurses active in child health care were conducted. From the result revealed five categories: the work is simplified with useful instruments, the significance of the district nurses’ intern and extern resources, the importance of support from colleagues and other professions, the conversation as working method, and parental involvement a prerequisite for a good work. The conclusions were that a closer cooperation is needed between professions, as well as greater accountability from the organization. District nurses’ experience facilitated the possibilities of a natural conversation with the parents, and was seen as an important asset. Continued research in this area is needed, possibly based on the parents’ point of view, to better understand the parents and develop the important work with overweight children.

  • 318.
    Enskär, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Being an Expert Nurse in Pediatric Oncology Care: Nurses' Descriptions in Narratives2012In: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1043-4542, E-ISSN 1532-8457, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pediatric oncology has become a highly specialized area, and the transition from novice nurse to expert can be complicated. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of nurses in pediatric oncology regarding the role of an expert nurse in pediatric oncology. Nurses (n = 66) working in pediatric oncology participated by writing their narratives. The data were analyzed by means of content analysis, and 3 categories were found: an expert has confidence in his or her knowledge, an expert provides high-quality care, and an expert is given possibilities for professional growth. It can be concluded that when nurses are given possibilities for continuous education and reflection, and have a feeling of satisfaction at being able to fulfill a child and his or her family's needs, this enhances their possibility to become experts and maintain expert competence.

  • 319.
    Enskär, Karin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ankarcrona, Elisabeth
    Ryhov County Hospital.
    Jörgensen, Anna
    Ryhov County Hospital.
    Huus, Karina
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping.
    Undocumented refugee children in Swedish healthcare: Nurses' knowledge concerning regulations and their attitudes about the care2012In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 75-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate nurses’ attitudes about care for undocumented refugee children and also to investigate the knowledge among nurses concerning the regulations for this care. The study is quantitative and based on a questionnaire sent to all nurses working in pediatric healthcare and medical care in a medium-sized county in Sweden. The overall response was 91 questionnaires (55.9%). Most of the respondents felt insecure or lacked knowledge of what regulations are valid when undocumented refugee children seek medical care or healthcare. Almost all nurses had a positive attitude toward caring for these children, but they feel they lack knowledge about the regulations regarding their care. To optimize the care situation for these children the regulations should be reviewed and altered to allow the nurse, legally and securely, to care for them.

  • 320.
    Erichsen Andersson, Anette
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, The Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Eriksson, Bengt
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg, The Sahlgrenska Academy.
    The application of evidence-based measures to reduce surgical site infections during orthopedic surgery - report of a single-center experience in Sweden2012In: Patient Safety in Surgery, ISSN 1754-9493, E-ISSN 1754-9493, Vol. 6, no 1, p. Article number 11-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Current knowledge suggests that, by applying evidence-based measures relating to the correct use of prophylactic antibiotics, perioperative normothermia, urinary tract catheterization and hand hygiene, important contributions can be made to reducing the risk of postoperative infections and device-related infections. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the application of intraoperative evidence-based measures, designed to reduce the risk of infection. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether the type of surgery, i.e. total joint arthroplasty compared with tibia and femur/hip fracture surgery, affected the use of protective measures.

    Method: Data on the clinical application of evidence-based measures were collected structurally on site during 69 consecutively included operations involving fracture surgery (n = 35) and total joint arthroplasties (n = 34) using a pre-tested observation form. For observations in relation to hand disinfection, a modified version of the World Health Organization hand hygiene observation method was used.

    Results: In all, only 29 patients (49%) of 59 received prophylaxis within the recommended time span. The differences in the timing of prophylactic antibiotics between total joint arthroplasty and fracture surgery were significant, i.e. a more accurate timing was implemented in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (p = 0.02). Eighteen (53%) of the patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty were actively treated with a forced-air warming system. The corresponding number for fracture surgery was 12 (34%) (p = 0.04).

    Observations of 254 opportunities for hand hygiene revealed an overall adherence rate of 10.3% to hand disinfection guidelines.

    Conclusions: The results showed that the utilization of evidence-based measures to reduce infections in clinical practice is not sufficient and there are unjustifiable differences in care depending on the type of surgery. The poor adherence to hand hygiene precautions in the operating room is a serious problem for patient safety and further studies should focus on resolving this problem. The WHO Safe Surgery checklist “time out” worked as an important reminder, but is not per se a guarantee of safety; it is the way we act in response to mistakes or lapses that finally matters.

  • 321.
    Erichsen Andersson, Annette
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jon
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Patients' experiences of acquiring a deep surgical site infection: An interview study2010In: American Journal of Infection Control, ISSN 0196-6553, E-ISSN 1527-3296, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 711-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The negative impact of surgical site infection (SSI) in terms of morbidity, mortality, additional costs, and length of stay (LOS) in the hospital is well described in the literature, as are risk factors and preventive measures. Given the lack of knowledge regarding patients’ experiences of SSI, the aim of the present study was to describe patients’ experiences of acquiring a deep SSI. Methods: Content analysis was used to analyze data obtained from 14 open interviews with participants diagnosed with a deep SSI. Results: Patients acquiring a deep SSI suffer significantly from pain, isolation, and insecurity. The SSI changes physical, emotional, social, and economic aspects of life in extremely negative ways, and these changes are often persistent. Conclusion: Health care professionals should focus on strategies to enable early diagnosis and treatment of SSIs. The unacceptable suffering related to the infection, medical treatment, and an insufficient patient-professional relationship should be addressed when planning individual care, because every effort is needed to support this group of patients and minimize their distress. All possible measures should be taken to avoid bacterial contamination of the surgical wound during and after surgery to prevent the development of SSI.

  • 322.
    Erichsen Andersson, Annette
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jón
    University of Gothenburg.
    Eriksson, Bengt I.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg.
    Traffic flow in the operating room: An explorative and descriptive study on air quality during orthopedic trauma implant surgery2012In: American Journal of Infection Control, ISSN 0196-6553, E-ISSN 1527-3296, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 750-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Understanding the protective potential of operating room (OR) ventilation under different conditions is crucial to optimizing the surgical environment. This study investigated the air quality, expressed as colony-forming units (CFU)/m³, during orthopedic trauma surgery in a displacementventilated OR; explored how traffic flow and the number of persons present in the OR affects the air contamination rate in the vicinity of surgical wounds; and identified reasons for door openings in the OR.

    Methods:Data collection, consisting of active air sampling and observations, was performed during 30 orthopedic procedures.

    Results:In 52 of the 91 air samples collected (57%), the CFU/m³ values exceeded the recommended level of <10 CFU/m³. In addition, the data showed a strongly positive correlation between the total CFU/m³ per operation and total traffic flow per operation (r=0.74;P=.001; n=24), after controlling for duration of surgery. A weaker, yet still positive correlation between CFU/m³ and the number of persons present in the OR (r=0.22;P=.04; n=82) was also found. Traffic flow, number of persons present, and duration of surgery explained 68% of the variance in total CFU/m³ (P=.001).

    Conclusions:Traffic flow has a strong negative impact on the OR environment. The results of this study support interventions aimed at preventing surgical site infections by reducing traffic flow in the OR.

  • 323.
    Ericson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Grob, Jennie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans stöd till familjer där överviktsproblematik finns bland barn och tonåringar: En litteraturöversikt2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight among children and adolescents have decreased and are now a health problem in the society. The leading cause to overweight is an unbalance between enegiintake and energiconsumption. The nurse must involve the whole family in the care of overweight child or adolescent to achieve good weight results. The long-term support from nurses is crucial for changing the families’ lifestyle. The aim of this study was to describe the nurse’s support to families with overweight children and adolescent from evidence based articles. The method that was used is a literature review based on 15 scientific articles and the result is shown that the nurse has an important role in the support of families with overweight children and adolescent. It is important for the nurse not to target the only overweight child or adolescent but to involve the whole family is of great importance since it is hard for one person alone to change its behavioural. Nurses need more education and motivation to develop and progress the support and care for the whole family.

  • 324.
    Ericson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Fagerlind, Magnus
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Incorporating Sunflower for Science in teacher education to increase the pedagogical information technology competence of teachers and teacher students in natural science2010In: Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education, 21st International Conference, March 29 - April 2, 2010, Sand Diego, California, USA / [ed] Gibson, D. & Dodge, B., Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2010, p. 463-468Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of information and communication technology in teaching is an excellent way to visualize processes as well as promote active learning in natural science, hence providing an additional dimension in teaching. KompLIT (Competence Enhancement of Teacher Education Information Technology) is a Swedish project that aims to increase the competence in pedagogical information technology for both teachers and teacher students. As part of this project the software Sunflower for Science has been tested and evaluated by both teachers and teacher students. Sunflower for Science consists of 26 programs in physics, chemistry and biology and uses an interactive approach that engages students with an activity-based learning. The outcome from the evaluation is that Sunflower for Science is very user-friendly, it promotes deeper learning as well as increases the students’ attitude towards chemistry.

  • 325.
    Erika, Aronsson
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    PATIENTERS UPPLEVELSER AV VÅRDEN PÅ AKUTMOTTAGNINGEN: En litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health professionals who work at an emergency department cares for a large number of patients over a short and often hectic period. The high demands that are put on the nursing staff can in some situations be overwhelming. The care of patients may suffer, as results patients are exposed to health care suffer. Aim: To investigate patients' experiences of having been treated at an emergency department. Method: A literature review based on eleven scientific articles was analyzed. Result: Results from the study resulted in four themes that described patient’s experience of having been treated at an emergency department. These consisted of The care provider´s way of caring are important, To maintain a good communication with the patient´s, Care environment has significant impact and The waiting time affect the wellbeingConclusion: Thru increased knowledge of patient’s perceptions of caring at an emergency department, the understanding of patients and their needs can increase and thus the caring at an emergency department can be improved.

  • 326.
    Eriksson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Erika
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans förebyggande åtgärder mot trycksår hos sängliggande patienter på sjukhus2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trycksår är ett vanligt förekommande problem som medför stort lidande för den som drabbas och bidrar till extra kostnader för samhället. Syftet med studien var att sammanställa vilka förebyggande omvårdnadsåtgärder sjuksköterskor använder sig av och om de är tillräckliga för att motverka trycksår hos sängliggande patienter på sjukhus. Metoden som användes var en litteraturgranskning där artiklar samlats inom ämnet och där fokus lagts på trycksår, omvårdnadsåtgärder och riskfaktorer. Resultatet visade att det är viktigt att sätta in preventiva åtgärder i god tid för att förhindra uppkomsten av trycksår. De omvårdnadsåtgärder som sjuksköterskan använder sig av idag är riskbedömning, tryckavlastning, observation och vård av huden, nutritionsstatus och dokumentation. Slutsatsen av studien visar att det är viktigt att göra en riskbedömning och använda sig av olika hjälpmedel för att förhindra uppkomsten av trycksår. Sjuksköterskan bör bli bättre på att dokumentera i patientjournalen och införskaffa sig ny kunskap.

  • 327.
    Eriksson, Christer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nordgren, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors bemötande av patienter med psykisk dysfunktion: Påverkas omvårdnaden av sjuksköterskors attityder?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The psychiatric reform act was passed in 1995 and this reform integrated patients back into their home communities and put them in contact with somatic care nurses on an outpatient basis. These changes put a high demand on the already limited resources of the municipality care profession. The objective was to determine if nurse´s attitudes influence the care for patients with mental illness. This review is based on additional science articles which were collected from the Cinahl and PsycINFO databases and manual search. The articles were analyzed with a method based on Friberg (2006). Nurses' attitudes towards mentally ill patients are influenced by perceptions that patients are aggressive, unpredictable, inward looking/apathetic and bizarre. These attitudes reflect negatively in the nurses' care and assessment. Fear, condemnation, aggression and distancing are four different approaches taken by nurses caring for mentally ill patients. In particular nurses within the somatic care have the most negative attitudes towards mentally ill patients. Misconceptions and negative attitudes have a negative impact on the care and treatment of the mentally ill. Nurses' experience combined with higher education has been demonstrated to have a positive impact.

  • 328.
    Eriksson, Eva
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Tranberg, Louisa
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors omvårdnad för att främja hälsa och välbefinnande hos patienter med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom.: En litteraturöversikt.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth largest cause of death in Europe and the United States and is expected to become the third largest. COPD is a slowly progressive disease characterized by chronic airway obstruction and the treatment is mainly symptomatic. The decreased ability to function makes the patient’s life-world shrink. The nursing profession therefore must be able to recognize and look after the healthy part of the patient and through a holistic approach meet the patient’s basic and specific needs of care from all dimensions. The purpose of this study was to highlight research that describes how nursing care can promote health and well-being in patients with COPD. The method used in this study was a qualitative literature review. The literature was based on ten scientific, qualitative and quantitative articles published in scientific journals. The analysis of the scientific work revealed two clear themes; nurses' attitudes and nursing care. Both describe how nursing care can be molded in the best way to meet the patient's entire life situation and thereby enhance the patient’s experience of wellbeing. This study points to the importance of nurses, in their care of their patient’s, see the individual’s life-world and there through creates a good healthcare relationship which in turn makes the patient feel safe and increases the ability to self care.

  • 329.
    Eriksson, Irene
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Urinary tract infection: a serious health problem in old women2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection in women of all ages but the incidence and prevalence increase with age. Despite the high incidence of UTI, little is known about its impact on morale or subjective wellbeing and daily life in old women. UTI in older people can be a complex problem in terms of approach to diagnosis, treatment and prevention because in these patients it frequently presents with a range of atypical symptoms such as delirium, gastrointestinal signs and falls. Even if UTI has been shown to be associated with delirium it has frequently been questioned whether UTI can cause delirium or if it is only accidentally detected when people with delirium are assessed.

    The main purpose of this thesis was to describe the prevalence of UTI, to identify factors associated with UTI among very old women and to illuminate the impact of a UTI on old women’s health and wellbeing.

    This thesis is based on two main studies, the GErontological Regional DAtabase (GERDA) a cross-sectional, population-based study carried out in the northern parts of Sweden and Finland during 2005-2007 and a qualitative interview study in western Sweden 2008-2009. Data were collected from structured interviews and assessments made during home visits, from medical records, care givers and relatives. UTI was diagnosed if the person had a documented symptomatic UTI, with either short- or long-term ongoing treatment with antibiotics, or symptoms and laboratory tests judged to indicate the presence of UTI by the responsible physician or the assessor.

    One hundred and seventeen out of 395 women (29.6%) were diagnosed as having suffered from at least one UTI during the preceding year and 233 of these 395 (60%) had had at least one diagnosed UTI during the preceding 5 years. These old women with UTI were more dependent in their activities of daily living, and had poorer cognition and nutrition. In these women, UTI during the preceding year was associated with vertebral fractures, urinary incontinence, inflammatory rheumatic disease and multi-infarct dementia.

    Eighty-seven of 504 women (17.3%), were diagnosed as having a UTI with or without ongoing treatment when they were assessed, and almost half (44.8%) were diagnosed as delirious or having had episodes of delirium during the past month. In all, 137 of the 504 women (27.2%) were delirious or had had episodes of delirium during the past month and 39 (28.5%) of them were diagnosed as having a UTI. Delirium was associated with Alzheimer’s disease, multi-infarct dementia, depression, heart failure and UTI.

    Forty-six out of 319 women (14.4%) were diagnosed as having had a UTI with or without ongoing treatment and these had a significantly lower score on the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), (10.4 vs 11.9, p=0.003) than those without UTI, indicating a significant impact on morale or subjective wellbeing among very old women. The medical diagnoses significantly and independently associated with low morale were depression, UTI and constipation.

    The experience of suffering from repeated UTI was described in interviews conducted with 20 old women. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The participants described living with repeated UTI as being in a state of manageable suffering and being dependent on alleviation. Being in a state of manageable suffering was described in terms of experiencing physical and psychological inconveniences, struggling to deal with the illness and being restricted regarding daily life. Being dependent on alleviation was illustrated in terms of having access to relief but also experiencing receiving inadequate care.

    In conclusion, UTI is very common among old and very old women and is a serious health problem. UTI seems to be associated with delirium and to have a significant impact on the morale or subjective wellbeing of old women and those affected suffer both physically and psychologically and their social life is limited. UTI was also associated with vertebral fractures, urinary incontinence, inflammatory rheumatic disease and multi-infarct dementia which might raise the suspicion that UTI can have serious medical effects on health in old women.

  • 330.
    Eriksson, Irene
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Urinvägsinfektion: ett allvarligt hälsoproblem hos gamla kvinnor2012In: Ä : En tidning för Riksföreningen Sjuksköterskan inom Äldrevård, ISSN 2001-1164, no 4, p. 30-32Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 331.
    Eriksson, Irene
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Bergman, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Avancerad klinisk omvårdnad vid akuta infektioner inom primärvård2011In: Avancerad klinisk sjuksköterska: Avancerad klinisk omvårdnad i teori och praxis / [ed] Lisbeth Fagerström, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, 1, p. 281-298Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I följande kapitel beskrivs hur en avancerad klinisk sjuksköterska (AKS) inom primärvården arbetar med patienter som söker vård för akuta infektioner. Akuta infektioner är en av de vanligaste orsakerna till att patienter söker primärvård. Det gäller såväl vuxna och äldre som barn och ungdomar.

  • 332.
    Eriksson, Irene
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Buskerud.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University.
    Do urinary tract infections affect morale among very old women?2010In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 8, p. 73-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is among the most common bacterial infections in women of all ages but the incidence increases with older age. Despite the fact that UTI is a common problem it is still poorly investigated regarding its connection with experienced health and morale. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of a diagnosed, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) with or without ongoing treatment on morale or subjective wellbeing among very old women.

    Methods:In a cross-sectional, population-based study, 504 women aged 85 years and older (range 84-104) were evaluated for ongoing UTI. Of these, 319 (63.3%), were able to answer the questions on the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) which was used to assess morale or subjective wellbeing.

    Results: In the present study sample of 319 women, 46 (14.4%) were diagnosed as having had a UTI with or without ongoing treatment when they were assessed. Women with UTI with or without ongoing treatment had significantly lower PGCMS scores (10.4 vs 11.9, p = 0.003) than those without UTI, indicating a significant impact on morale or subjective wellbeing among very old women. Depression (p < 0.001), UTI (p = 0.014) and constipation (p = 0.018) were the medical diagnoses significantly and independently associated with low morale in a multivariate regression model.

    Conclusions: As UTI seems to be independently associated with low morale or poor subjective wellbeing, there needs to be more focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of UTI in old women.

  • 333.
    Eriksson, Irene
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University.
    Prevalence and factors associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in very old women2010In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 132-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) and associated factors among very old women. In a cross-sectional, population-based study in Sweden and Finland, 532 women were asked to participate and 395 (74.2%) were possible to evaluate for UTI. Data were collected from structured interviews and assessments made during home visits, from medical charts, caregivers and relatives. UTI diagnosis documented in medical records during the preceding 1 and 5 years was registered. About one-third (117/395, 29.6%) were diagnosed as having suffered from at least one UTI in the preceding year and 60% in the preceding 5 years. In a multivariate logistic regression model, UTI in the preceding year, was associated with vertebral fractures (odds ratio (OR) = 3.2; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.4–7.1), incontinence (OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.8–4.5), inflammatory rheumatic disease (OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 1.4–5.7) and multi-infarct dementia (OR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3–4.5). UTI is a major public health problem in very old women and were independently associated with vertebral fractures, urinary incontinence, inflammatory rheumatic disease and multi-infarct dementia which might indicate that UTI is not a harmless disease.

  • 334.
    Eriksson, Irene
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Health and Life Sciences, University of Buskerud, Kongsberg, Norway.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden / Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Urinary tract infection in very old women is associated with delirium2011In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 496-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate whether urinary tract infection (UTI) in a representative sample of 85-, 90- and ≥95-year-old women is associated with delirium.

    Methods: In 504 out of 643 women (78.4%) it was possible to evaluate UTI and delirium. Assessments such as the Organic Brain Syndrome (OBS) Scale, the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) were performed during home visits. Delirium, dementia and depression were diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. A diagnosed, symptomatic UTI with or without ongoing treatment, documented in medical records or detected in association with the assessments, was registered.

    Results: Eighty-seven of 504 women (17.2%), were diagnosed as having a UTI with or without ongoing treatment when they were assessed, and almost half of them (44.8%) were diagnosed to be delirious or having had episodes of delirium during the past month. One hundred and thirty-seven of the 504 women (27.2%) were delirious or had had episodes of delirium during the past month and 39 (28.5%) of them were diagnosed to have a UTI. In a multivariate logistic regression model, delirium was significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (OR = 5.8), multi-infarct dementia (OR = 5.4), depression (OR = 3.1), heart failure (OR = 2.3) and urinary tract infection (OR = 1.9).

    Conclusions: A large proportion of very old women with UTI suffered from delirium which might indicate that UTI is a common cause of delirium. There should be more focus on detecting, preventing and treating UTI to avoid unnecessary suffering among old women.

  • 335.
    Eriksson, Irene
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Preconditions needed for establishing a trusting relationship during health counselling - an interview study2008In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 17, no 17, p. 2352-2359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. To examine the preconditions needed by district nurses to build a trusting relationship during health counselling of patients with hypertension. Background. Trust has been found to be an important aspect of the patient-nurse relationship. Little research has focused on how trust is formed in patient-nurse relationships or the conditions the development process requires when working with health counselling; in particular not in relation to hypertension. Design. Qualitative study. Method. Qualitative data were collected through open-ended interviews with all (10) district nurses from three primary health care districts of western Sweden. All interviewees work with the health counselling of patients with hypertension. A latent content analysis was performed with thematic coding of the content of the interviews. Results. The first theme that emerged from the analysis, the nurses' competence, describes the nurses' consciousness of their method of expression, both oral and non-verbal, as well as their pedagogical competence and their ability to be reliable in their profession. The second theme, the patient meeting, describes the continuity in the patient meeting and creating respectful communication. Conclusion. The results show an awareness of preconditions influencing building a trusting relationship. When creating a trusting relationship the communication and pedagogical competences of district nurses have considerable importance. Despite this awareness they state that it is easy to fall into a routinised way of working. Relevance to clinical practice. The implications of this study might be used as support and guidance for district nurses when developing their competence in health counselling in relations to patients with hypertension. This knowledge is also important when planning for nurse-led clinics for this patient group.

  • 336.
    Eriksson, Irene
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Institutionen för omvårdnad, Umeå universitet.
    Urinvägsinfektion - ett allvarligt hälsoproblem hos gamla kvinnor2012In: Äldres värdighet, delaktighet och hälsa: Resultat från GERDA Botnia-projektet / [ed] Susanne Jungerstam, Mikael Nygård, Birgitta Olofsson, Tony Pellfolk & Maria Sund, Vasa: Yrkeshögskolan Novia , 2012, p. 177-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 337.
    Eriksson, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ålands Centralsjukhus, Finland.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Science, Linköpings University.
    Forsum, Urban
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kärnsjukhuset, Skövde.
    Larsson, Per Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Prevalence of BV on the Åland Islands. Reply to Professor Donders2011In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 226-226Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Eriksson, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Forsum, Urban
    Linköping University.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    The prevalence of BV in the population on the Åland Islands during a 15-year period2010In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 118, no 11, p. 903-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe the prevalence and age distribution of bacterial vaginosis (BV) during an observation period of 15 years in a population study with cross-sectional samples of adult women living on the Åland Islands. The Åland Islands form an archipelago in the Baltic Sea and are a province of Finland. Every fifth year, specific age groups in the adult female population are invited to participate in a screening program for early diagnosis of cervical cancer using a papanicolaou (PAP)-stained vaginal smear. Women in the age groups of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 years are called each year. BV diagnosis of the PAP-stained smears uses the classification according to Nugent. The PAP-stained smears from the screening program of cervical cancer 1993, 1998, 2003, and 2008 were used in this study. A total of 3456 slides were investigated and 271 women could be followed for the 15-year observation period. The prevalence of BV declined from 15.6% in 1993 to 8.6% in 2008. The highest prevalence occurred among the age groups of 35 and 50 years. Among the 271 women who could be followed for the 15-year observation period, two-third showed normal ⁄ intermediate flora and one-third were infected with BV at least once. As this is a cross-sectional population study spanning 15 years, the prevalence of BV in the female adult population of the Åland Islands can be estimated. The prevalence has declined between 1993 and 2008 from 15.6% to 8.6%.

  • 339.
    Eriksson, Katarina
    et al.
    Alands Cent Sjukhus, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Mariehamn, Finland / Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nilsson, Maud
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Forsum, Urban
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden .
    Vaginal retention of locally administered clindamycin2011In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 119, no 6, p. 373-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by a lack of, or very few, lactobacilli and high numbers of small, mostly anaerobic bacteria, an obvious treatment modality would be eradication of the BV-associated bacterial flora followed by reintroduction of lactobacilli vaginally. As probiotic treatment with lactobacilli is one tool for improving the cure rate when treating BV, it is necessary to know the length of time after treatment that clindamycin can be found in the vagina and if this could interfere with the growth of the probiotic lactobacilli. We evaluated the vaginal concentration of clindamycin in 12 women for 8 days to obtain data on the concentration of clindamycin in the vagina after intravaginal treatment with the drug. The participants were examined five times between two menstrual periods: before treatment, the day after treatment was finished, and 3, 5 and 8 days post-treatment. The first day post-treatment clindamycin 0.46 x 10-3 to 8.4 x 10-3 g/g vaginal fluid (median 2.87 x 10-3) was found. Thereafter, the concentration of clindamycin decreased rapidly. In 10 patients clindamycin was found after 3 days. A very low concentration was still present 5 days after treatment in four patients. After 8 days no clindamycin was found. Clindamycin is rapidly eliminated from the vagina, within 3-8 days, after local administration. Our results indicate that treatment with probiotic lactobacilli could be problematic if carried out within 5 days after cessation of clindamycin treatment.

  • 340.
    Eriksson, Marléne
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Eskebrink, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Varför cellprovstagning? Kvinnors uppfattning om varför det är viktigt att gå på gynekologisk cellprovskontroll2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the program for cervical cancer screening in Sweden women between the ages of 23 –60 years are called. The aim of the screening is to find abnormalities in the cell layers in anearly stage before it becomes cancer. At our practice at an antenatal clinic we discoveredthe fact that many women failed to come to their appointment. Therefore the aim of thisstudy is to describe why women find it important to participate in a cervical cancerscreening program. The method used for this study is qualitative analyses of fact from theoutcome of an inductive approach. By using this way to analyse fact the focus in put ondifferences and similarities of the results. When using qualitative analyses, there can beseveral different interpretations of the written text. Twelve women were positive toparticipate in the study. They were interviewed directly after having their test in thecervical cancer screening program at the antenatal clinic. The result came out in threegeneral categories, such as fear of cancer, joining the screening just because being calledand the chance of being declared fit. The result also shows that the women whoparticipated in the study thought that the cervical cancer screening was a chance to get acheck on their gynaecological health and saw the visit at their midwife as a chance toconverse and get some information from their midwife.

  • 341.
    Eriksson, Mats O. G.
    et al.
    MK Natur- och miljökonsult, Lindome, Sweden.
    Paltto, Heidi
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology, Swedish Agricultural University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vattenkemi och fiskbeståndens sammansättning i storlommens Gavia arctica häckningssjöar, samt en jämförelse med smålommens Gavia stellata fiskesjöar2010In: Ornis Svecica, ISSN 1102-6812, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 3-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breeding  performance  of  Black-throated  Diver  Gavia arctica was compared to water chemistry, light penetration and density of fish in 122 breeding lakes in Sweden with a total of 184 pairs (1.5 pairs per lake, about 3% of the national population). The breeding lakes were on average nutrient-poor, and 12% of them had a low buffering capacity (alkalinity <0.10 meq/l). Perch Perca fluviatilis, roach Rutilus rutilus and pike Esox lucius, three species characteristic for nutrient-poor lakes, were found in more than 90% of the lakes. Salmonid fish occurred in half of the  lakes,  compared  to  >90%  of  the  fishing lakes  used by Red-throated Diver. Reproduction was related to high abundance of Perch, and the survival of chicks to light penetration. Poor nutrient status in combination with low pH or alkalinity in approximatively 10% of the breeding lakes  of  Black-throated  Diver  and  probably  more  than 30% of the fishing lakes of Red-throated Diver, indicate susceptibility  of  exposure  to  methylmercury. This  finding should be considered in relation to recent reports of increased contents of mercury in freshwater fish.

  • 342.
    Eriksson, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Persson, Melissa
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Stöd och bemötande som föräldrar till barn diagnostiserade med cancer behöver från sjuksköterskor: en litteraturbaserad studie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer does not only affect the child, but also the parent. Since the parents’ are the child’s secure base in life, it is important to also help the parent.PROBLEM: As a nurse it is important to have access to comprehensive knowledge about these parents´ expressed needs of support and how they want to be met. AIM: The purpose of this study is to describe parents’ need of how to be met and supported by nurses when their child has cancer. METHOD: A qualitative literature-based review of previous research, where thirteen scientific qualitative articles were analyzed. RESULTS: The parents’ expressed need of how to be met and supported by nurses is to receive: adapted and adequate information, a good interpersonal relationship with the nurse and to feel participation in their child’s care. CONCLUSION: It is a big challenge to provide parents with adapted and adequate information and to establish interpersonal relationship with them. As a nurse it is important to be perceptive to the needs of the parents, not least because the nurse through parents increases the child’s wellbeing.

  • 343.
    Eriksson, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Åsa
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Föräldrars upplevelse av möten med vården då de söker vård för sitt barn med Downs syndrom: Parent´s experience of encounters with health care when they seek care for their child with Down´s syndrome2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund: Att ha ett barn med Downs syndrom, betyder ofta en regelbunden kontakt med vården, på grund av hälsoproblem som kan bero på syndromet. Ett bra möte är viktigt för alla, men troligen är det viktigare för dessa familjer. Syftet var att belysa hur föräldrar till barn med Downs syndrom upplevde möten då de sökte vård för sitt barn. Metod: Data insamlades genom intervjuer med sex föräldrar. Intervjuerna blev inspelade och därefter transkriberade. När data analyserades framträdde fyra teman: personalens osäkerhet, känslan av att inte bli trodd, att vara advokat för sitt barn och behovet av trygghet. Resultat: Resultatet visade att föräldrarna var mycket nöjda med de möten de haft på specialistnivå men då de sökt sig dit specialisterna inte finns kände de en viss otrygghet. Föräldrarna kände även ibland att de inte blev trodda, de kände sig ofta då ifrågasatta som föräldrar. Konklusion: föräldrarna sökte hjälp och vård där de kände sig tryggast. Vårdpersonalen behöver mer träning i hur de på bästa sätt bemöter barn med funktionsnedsättning och deras föräldrar. Att bli bemött på ett felaktigt sätt kan orsaka ett onödigt vårdlidande.

  • 344.
    Erixon, Michaela
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hopp och Förtvivlan! Föräldrars upplevelser av att leva tillsammans med ett barn som har akut lymfatisk leukemi: en studie av självbiografier2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Parents are faced with a new and difficult reality when their children suffer from acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Their life becomes a chaos in which many emotions and experiences will shape their lives and their lives change drastically. They lose control of the various situations they are forced to go through which uncertainty and powerlessness is possibly the worst experience of all. The purpose of this study was to highlight parents' experiences of living with a child who has acute lymphoblastic leukemia.The chosen method is a qualitative approach "to analyze the stories' on which the study is based on the basis of autobiographies. The results showed that parents' perceptions of their plight was characterized by four main themes, such as, to fall into a chaos of emotions, to manage the child's suffering, the staff role and to return to normal. The conclusion brought a result which contributed to a better understanding, learning and insight for their parents' experiences. This allows the nurse is able to handle traumatic experiences in a more sympathetic manner. Then it means that the family can get the best and individual care inorder to meet the parents ' wishes and needs.

  • 345.
    Ernholm, Isak
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    HUR SAMTAL OM SEXUALITET FRÄMJAS BLAND SJUKSKÖTERSKOR: En litteraturöversikt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A persons sexual health may be affected by a number of diseases and different treatments, for example cancer and chemotherapy. Patients who experience sexual health problems often feel a need for information and want to talk about their illness with a health professional.. Nurses have a responsibility to deal with patients’ sexual issues and problems, however, even though expectations lies with them to initiate the conversation, studies reveal it rarely happens. Method: Litterature review. Objective: To compile and highlight research that describes how conversations about sexuality with patients is promoted among nurses. Results: The analysis revealed seven themes that describe how conversations about sexuality is promoted among nurses, namely by: Having knowledge, Being comfortable and responsible, Having a good patient relationship, Motivational patient situations, Having a good working environment, High job position and education and Having experience. Discussion: The results show a number of different factors that promotes nurse-patient conversations about sexuality, although, only a few with sufficient reliability to be a generalisable conclusion. Factors such as, age, experience, job position and marital status show uncertain results with low congruence. Knowledge, education and to feel comfortable with the topic are the main factors underpinning nurses’ ability to discuss sexuality with patients.

  • 346.
    Etezadi Amoli, Mahmood Reza
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Evaluation of different modifications of TRIzol Reagent method for total RNA isolation from bull spermatozoa2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transcriptional profile of spermatozoa can be used to assess male fertility; differences in spermatozoa attributes require adjustment of protocols for RNA isolation. Ten RNA precipitation modifications of heated TRIzol protocol were applied to total RNA extraction form bull spermatozoa. Motile spermatozoa were isolated from cryopreserved semen straws prepared from an ejaculate of a fertile bull. To evaluate total RNA purity and quantity, Ribogreen RNA detection system and Nanodrop 2000 were used. In RiboGreen assay, a consistent standard curve was not obtained, thus the measurements were ignored. Total RNA purity and concentrations also were assessed using Nanodrop. The A260/280 ratio obtained from Nanodrop showed a good range in the isolated total RNA samples (1.9±0.4). However, all RNA samples presented very low A260/230 ratios (≥1.26). It might be the effect of low concentration of the isolated total RNA. Statistical analysis of total RNA concentrations showed using manufacturer standard protocol had the highest concentration yield. Using either ethanol or Isopropanol as RNA precipitant and changing the incubation temperature had not significant effect on RNA concentration yields. However incubating samples in freezer overnight lowered the total RNA concentration. Using glycogen as a RNA carrier increased the total RNA precipitation yield. In other similar studies the highest total RNA concentration was obtained by using RNA carrier. Validating these findings by qRT-PCR and Bioanalyser might be helpful to enhance the total RNA extraction yield from bull sperm as well as for subsequent genomic studies of bull fertility.

  • 347.
    Evervall, Katarina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Finna nyckeln när orden går i baklås: Att möta och vägleda barn med selektiv mutism.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Selektiv mutism är en barndomsdiagnos som inte är allmänt känd. De här barnen förmår sig prata i vissa sociala situationer men kan tala problemfritt i andra. Om ett barn går helt tyst  i  förskolan/skolan  under  flera  år  kan  detta  orsaka  lidande  och  påverka  barnets utveckling.  Hälso-  och  sjukvården  har  en  skyldighet  att  diagnostisera  och  informera  om selektiv   mutism.   Efter   fastställd   diagnos   behövs   evidensbaserad   behandling.   En litteraturbaserad studie genomfördes med syfte att utifrån tidigare forskning sammanställa behandling som är gynnsam för barn med selektiv mutism. Resultatet presenteras genom två huvudteman med tre respektive fyra underteman. Huvudteman är ”Att skapa en allians ”och  ”Att  arbeta  målinriktat”.  Resultatet  visar  att  barn  med  selektiv  mutism  kräver, känslighet  och  ”timing”  av  insatser  för  att  skapa  en  trygg,  tillitsfull  relation  och  en arbetsallians  där  barnet  kan  finna  motivation  till  att  stegvis  övervinna  sin  rädsla  för  att prata.  Behandling  som  gav  resultat  vid  selektiv  mutism  används  även  inom  psykiatrisk omvårdnad  vid  andra  ångestdiagnoser.  Psykiatrisjuksköterskans  kunskap  är  användbar  i hälso- och sjukvården för att informera, samordna och erbjuda evidensbaserad behandling för barn med selektiv mutism.

  • 348.
    Evetun Irdell, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hedlund, Frida
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Saliba, Chantal
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans bedömning vid telefonrådgivning: En litteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A telephone nurse is a nurse that during most of its working time is engaged in healthcare advice via the telephone. The advent of the telephone healthcare advice has probably meant that individuals, who initially wouldn’t have sought help, if they needed to meet healthcare providers face to face, now actually have the confidence to turn to healthcare. For telephone healthcare advice is professional care to identify, assess and advise on individuals’ reactions to actual or potential health problems. AIM: The aim of this literature review was to illuminate how the nurses´ assessment was affected during giving telephone advice. METHOD: This literature review has a qualitative approach and was conducted through twelve analyzed articles which were from the nurses’ point of view. FINDINGS: Two categories emerged from analyzing the articles. These were ethical dilemmas and assessment tools. The first category deals with the ethical dilemmas the telenurses’ are facing while giving advice via the telephone. The second category present which tools the telephone nurses have available or needs for assessment. DISCUSSION: It seems like the telenurses’ are drawn between the limited accesses to healthcare, the care seekers’ agenda and the demands of how them as nurses’ are expected to act.  CONCLUSION:   Possessing coping strategies related to stress and responsibility are valuable factors for the telenurses’ assessment process. Future research is felt to be needed on the subject of how the nurse deals with stress and the feeling of responsibility.

     

  • 349.
    Fabricius, Jaqueline
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Petra
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Förändrad familjesituation hos premenopausala kvinnor som drabbats av bröstcancer och deras behov av stöd: En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Breastcancer is one of the most common cancer types. There are only five percent who get sick under the age of 40. Because of the low number of young women who become ill, there is reason to believe that the care for them is not adapted to their life situation. Because the small number the knowledge about the women´s experiences be flawed and therefore the care for them is difficult to adapt.AIM: The aim of this study is to examine how women suffering from breast cancer before menopause are affected in their family situation and their need for support.METHOD: This study is a literature review based on nine scientific articles.RESULTS: The results show that young women felt misfit in the breastcancer care. They experience that there is no care for women in their age. It is a difficult situation to live in the middle of life with children, partner and carrier during the diagnosis and treatment of breastcancer which for many leads to a life suffering.CONCLUSIONS: It is important to illuminate the young women’s experience to make the care more fitted to them. This knowledge facilitates nurse’s work to see every patient as unique, and treat them after that.

  • 350.
    Fabricius, Jaqueline
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Petra
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Förändrad familjesituation hos premenopausala kvinnor som drabbats av bröstcancer och deras behov av stöd: En litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Breastcancer is one of the most common cancer types. There are only five percent who get sick under the age of 40. Because of the low number of young women who become ill, there is reason to believe that the care for them is not adapted to their life situation. Because the small number the knowledge about the women´s experiences be flawed and therefore the care for them is difficult to adapt.AIM: The aim of this study is to examine how women suffering from breast cancer before menopause are affected in their family situation and their need for support.METHOD: This study is a literature review based on nine scientific articles.RESULTS: The results show that young women felt misfit in the breastcancer care. They experience that there is no care for women in their age. It is a difficult situation to live in the middle of life with children, partner and carrier during the diagnosis and treatment of breastcancer which for many leads to a life suffering.CONCLUSIONS: It is important to illuminate the young women’s experience to make the care more fitted to them. This knowledge facilitates nurse’s work to see every patient as unique, and treat them after that.

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