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  • 251.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Boström, Sven
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wayland, Matthew T.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, England.
    Morphological observations on three Baltic species of Corynosoma Lühe, 1905 (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae)2019Ingår i: European Journal of Taxonomy, ISSN 2118-9773, Vol. 514, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Necropsies of Baltic grey (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Pusa hispida) presented a rare opportunity to study their acanthocephalan fauna. Both species hosted adults of three species of the genus Corynosoma Lithe, 1904, namely C. magdaleni Montreuil, 1958, C. semerme (Forsell, 1904) Lithe 1911 and C. strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) Lithe 1904. A comparative morphological analysis of these three species of Corynosoma, combining both light and scanning electron microscopy, was performed for the first time. Sexual dimorphism in the size and shape of the trunk was observed in both C. magdaleni and C. semerme, but there was insufficient material to investigate this phenomenon in C. strumosum. Genital spines were not observed in any of the female acanthocephalans. Three possible explanations for the presence of genital spines in some females, but not others are (i) cryptic speciation, (ii) phenotypic variation and (iii) loss by extraction or shearing when the copulatory cap is released. Copulatory caps were observed on female C. semerme. The size and morphology showed considerable variability and all caps were strongly autofluoresecent.

  • 252.
    Leverin, Malin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Skogsbrukets påverkan på artmångfalden hos mossor och lavar: Är artmångfalden större i en skog vid kontinuitetsskogsbruk än vid trakthyggesbruk?2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges vanligaste skogsbruksmetod, trakthyggesbruket, har medfört problem för skogens artmångfald. År 2010 fanns det i Sverige 319 stycken hotade mossor och lavar som var kopplade till skogen. Varav vissa arter är beroende av lång skoglig kontinuitet, gammal multnande ved, skogsbrand eller andra naturliga fenomen som enbart finns i en mer eller mindre orörd skog. Alternativet till denna skogsbruksmetod finns i kontinuitetsskogsbruket som var vanligt förr, innan skogsbruket blev till en industri. På den tiden då bönderna själva plockade ut det virke dom behövde för sin egen överlevnad kunde skogen fortfarande fungera som ett ekosystem. Denna rapport avser jämföra och redogöra för eventuella skillnader i artmångfalden av mossor och lavar mellan de tre skogstyperna naturskog, kontinuitetsbrukad och trakthyggesbrukad skog. Undersökningen har baserats på fyra olika kontinuitetsbrukade skogar i Skåne, Västra Götaland och Östergötlands län. Utifrån dessa skogars förutsättningar har sedan trakthyggesbrukade skogar och naturskogar valts ut i acceptabel närhet. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att de trakthyggesbrukade skogarna avviker signifikant i artmångfald från de andra skogstyperna. Naturskogarna och de kontinuitetsbrukade skogarna är rikare i artmångfald och har mer kongruenta värden, dock är förekomsten av epifyter högre i naturskogen. Resultatet visar också att förekomsten av signalarter är högre i en skog vid kontinuitetsskogsbruk än vid trakthyggesbruk.

  • 253.
    Li, Kaitao
    et al.
    Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA.
    Cheng, Xiaoxiao
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Tilevik, Andreas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Davis, Simon J.
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Zhu, Cheng
    Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA.
    In situ and in silico kinetic analyses of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor, programmed cell death ligands, and B7-1 protein interaction network2017Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 292, nr 16, s. 6799-6809Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor with an essential role in maintaining peripheral tolerance and is among the most promising immunotherapeutic targets for treating cancer, autoimmunity, and infectious diseases. A complete understanding of the consequences of PD-1 engagement by its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, and of PD-L1 binding to B7-1 requires quantitative analysis of their interactions at the cell surface. We present here the first complete in situ kinetic analysis of the PD-1/PD-ligands/B7-1 system. Consistent with previous solution measurements, we observed higher in situ affinities for human (h) than murine (m) PD-1 interactions, stronger binding of hPD-1 to hPD-L2 than hPD-L1, and comparable binding of mPD-1 to both ligands. However, in contrast to the relatively weak solution affinities, the in situ affinities of PD-1 are as high as those of the T cell receptor for agonist pMHC and of LFA-1 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1) for ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) but significantly lower than that of the B7-1/CTLA-4 interaction, suggesting a distinct basis for PD-1- versus CTLA-4-mediated inhibition. Notably, the in situ interactions of PD-1 are much stronger than that of B7-1 with PD-L1. Overall, the in situ affinity ranking greatly depends on the on-rate instead of the off-rate. In silico simulations predict that PD-1/PD-L1 interactions dominate at interfaces between activated T cells and mature dendritic cells and that these interactions will be highly sensitive to the dynamics of PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression. Our results provide a kinetic framework for better understanding inhibitory PD-1 activity in health and disease.

  • 254.
    Lidén, Josefin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Intrinsic Motivation and its Neural Correlates2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Why is motivation important? The answer is simple to most of us: it is what makes people push forward and act. Intrinsic motivation is the kind of motivation that arises from within a person, making her or him strive towards a goal for no other reward than the feeling it will bring. Additionally, this kind of motivation has shown correlations with enhanced learning, creativity, performance, optimal development, and well-being. While intrinsic motivation has long been a topic within the field of psychology, the neural correlates underlying it have only recently become of interest for researchers, and studies have shown some interesting but also contradictory findings. Therefore, the aim of this literature review thesis is to investigate the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation further. Firstly, a background review of motivation in general and intrinsic motivation in particular is presented, focusing on concepts such as the self-determination theory, flow, and cognitive evaluation theory. This is followed by a chapter on motivation- and intrinsic motivation from a neuroscientific perspective, concerning concepts such as the reward system, the undermining effect, and studies examining the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation. These studies show that there was activity in several different areas when participants were intrinsically motivated. However, a frequent pattern of activity in dopaminergic pathways involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was detected in most studies, indicating the involvement of these areas in particular when a person is intrinsically motivated.

  • 255.
    Liljebjer, Mattias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Mental Visualisering i Ledarskap2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats skall undersöka kopplingen mellan mental visualisering och ledarskap. Då tiderna förändras så ändras även rollen för en god ledare efter de nya förutsättningarna. Jag skall först undersöka vad som utmärker en ledarroll och vilka egenskaper som karktäriserar en god ledare. En sådan egenskap som jag tittar djupare på är mental visualisering; vart och hur är denna egenskap aktiv i en hjärna? Slutligen kommer jag försöka besavara hur eller om visualisering är en kritisk egenskap hos en god ledare.

  • 256.
    Lindberg, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Relations Between the Capgras and Cotard Delusions2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Delusions are commonly thought of as bizarre and fascinating; a delusion is a false belief that is held despite counterevidence. They have also been hard to study, in part because of the many forms that they can take. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have made it possible to study delusions more empirically, by using methods such as Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to locate neural correlates. The Capgras delusion is a syndrome in which a patient has the belief that someone has been replaced by an impostor. The Cotard delusion is a syndrome in which a patient has the belief that oneself does not exist or is dead. These two delusions have been found to have some curious similarities. This thesis investigates how the Capgras and Cotard delusions relate to each other, with a focus on the neural correlates. The nature of delusions is explained, along with the Capgras and Cotard delusions. Relevant case reports for each delusion are presented. Neural correlates are also reviewed and compared between the delusions. Studies on the similarities in face recognition impairments are included, as well as on attribution styles. The findings demonstrated in this thesis show that the Capgras and Cotard delusions relate to each other in several ways, including in terms of overlapping neural correlates, in face recognition impairments, attribution styles and the fact that both delusions sometimes co-exist and follow each other. It is possible that the Capgras and Cotard delusions share fundamentally similar causes.

  • 257.
    Lindberg, Markus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neural correlates of lucid dreaming and comparisons with phenomenological aspects2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the neural correlates of lucid dreaming has recently gained more underlying data. By exploring seven studies that investigated the neural basis of lucid dreaming, this essay sought to examine which neural correlates are associated with lucid dreaming and how proposed neural correlates relate to phenomenological aspects. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was judged as the region most associated with lucid dreaming, in support of a DLPFC hypothesis. Support for reactivation of DLPFC in lucid dreaming consisted of data from electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and transcranial direct current stimulation. Phenomenological aspects associated with this region involved meta-awareness, working-memory, decision-making, and conscious perception. Other regions of interest were parietal areas, frontal areas, and precuneus. Data was not always compatible, implying need for further research. The possibility of further research was judged as promising, based on a recent study inducing lucid dreaming in a significant percent of its test subjects.

  • 258.
    Linde, Helene
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Alkoholens effekt på kognitiva funktioner med fokus på minnet2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol är den vanligaste och mest accepterade drogen i världen. I västvärlden uppskattas 90 % ha konsumerat alkohol någon gång i livet varav 30 % utvecklar alkoholrelaterade problem. Alkoholkonsumtionen är störst i länder med högt ekonomiskt välstånd samtidigt som antalet nykterister i dessa länder är lågt. Alkohol har en global inhiberingseffekt på hjärnan vilket ofta leder till negativa konskevenser för samhället, enskilda individer samt dess närstående. Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en omfattande överblick om de negativa konsekvenser alkohol har på kognitiva funktioner med fokus på minnet. Alkoholen påverkar främst hippocampus vilket leder till försämringar av minnet. Studier har visat att tillfällig kraftig alkoholkonsumtion stör inkodningen av ny episodisk information vilket leder till uppkomsten av begränsade perioder där minnen delvis eller helt saknas, vilket kallas för minnesluckor. Andra processer relaterade till minnet som long-term potentiation och long-term depression i hippocampus förhindras till viss del eller blockeras helt av alkohol. Studier har även visat att både tillfällig och långvarig alkoholkonsumtion leder till försämringar av kognitiva funktioner som minnet och exekutiva funktioner vilket ofta involverar förändrad neural aktivitet i frontalloben. Alkoholvolymen och alkoholkoncentrationen i blodet är två faktorer som har en avgörande roll för alkoholens effekt på kognitiva funktioner. Risken för uppkomsten av minnesluckor ökar vid tillfällig kraftig alkoholkonsumtion när alkoholvolymen är hög och alkoholkoncentrationen i blodet stiger fort till höga nivåer. Alkoholberoende utvecklas däremot genom att det sker fysiologiska förändringar av signalsubstanserna i hjärnan. Långvarig alkoholkonsumtion kan leda till utvecklandet av Korsakoff syndrom som innefattar amnesi.

  • 259.
    Lindersson, Carl
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Threatening Measures, at Face Value: Electrophysiology Indicating Confounds of the Facial Width-to-Height Ratio2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies support that the relative width of the upper face (facial width-to-height ratio; fWHR) has evolved to signal threat, but these studies rely greatly on subjective facial ratings and measurements prone to confounds. The present study objectively quantifies threat perception to the magnitude of the observers’ electrophysiological reaction, specifically the event-related potential (ERP) called the late positive potential (LPP), and investigate if brow height and jaw width could have confounded previous fWHR studies. Swedish and international students (N = 30, females = 11, Mage = 24 years, SDage = 2.9) were shown computer-generated neutral faces created with the underlying skeletal morphology varying in brow ridge height, cheekbone width and jaw width. Participants first rated how threatening each face was and then viewed 12 blocks of 64 faces while their electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The results supported that the LPP could be used to index threat perception and showed that only brow height significantly affected both facial ratings (p < .001, ɳp2 = .698) and magnitude of the LPP within the 400 to 800 ms latency (p = .02, d = .542). Hence, brow height, not facial width, could explain previous findings. The results contradict the hypothesis that fWHR is an evolved cue of threat and instead support the overgeneralisation hypothesis in that faces with similar features to anger will be perceived as more threatening.

  • 260.
    Lindhe, Hanna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Emotional Brain and Sleep: A review of the relationship between sleep and emotional brain functioning2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do we need to sleep? Not only is getting enough sleep important for our overall health and well-being, it is perhaps of utmost importance for normal brain functioning. Scientific findings derived from studying sleep deprivation suggests that sleep also plays an important role in our emotional functioning, which has led researchers to propose a causal and intimate relationship between sleep and emotional brain functioning. Without sleep it seems as our emotional processing become impaired in various ways. Along with advances in cognitive neuroscience, it is now possible to characterize mechanisms underlying emotional brain processes. In pursuit of the possible functions of sleep, researchers have also proposed that rapid eye movement sleep, might support a process of affective brain homeostasis and recalibration that optimally prepares the organism for next-day social and emotional functioning. This thesis reviews current behavioral and neurophysiological evidence focused on the relationship between sleep and emotional brain functioning, and the role of rapid eye movement sleep in emotional processing.

  • 261.
    Lindlöf, Angelica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Chawade, Aakash
    CropTailor AB, Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sikora, Per
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Olof
    CropTailor AB, Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Comparative Transcriptomics of Sijung and Jumli Marshi Rice during Early Chilling Stress Imply Multiple Protective Mechanisms2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id e0125385Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Low temperature is one of the major environmental factors that adversely affect plant growth and yield. Many cereal crops from tropical regions, such as rice, are chilling sensitive and, therefore, are affected already at <10°C. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that chilling susceptibility varies greatly among rice varieties, which indicates differences in the underlying molecular responses. Understanding these differences is vital for continued development of rational breeding and transgenic strategies for more tolerant varieties. Thus, in this study, we conducted a comparative global gene expression profiling analysis of the chilling tolerant varieties Sijung and Jumli Marshi (spp. Japonica) during early chilling stress (<24 h, 10°C).

    Methods and Results

    Global gene expression experiments were conducted with Agilent Rice Gene Expression Microarray 4x44K. The analysed results showed that there was a relatively low (percentage or number) overlap in differentially expressed genes in the two varieties and that substantially more genes were up-regulated in Jumli Marshi than in Sijung but the number of down-regulated genes were higher in Sijung. In broad GO annotation terms, the activated response pathways in Sijung and Jumli Marshi were coherent, as a majority of the genes belonged to the catalytic, transcription regulator or transporter activity categories. However, a more detailed analysis revealed essential differences. For example, in Sijung, activation of calcium and phosphorylation signaling pathways, as well as of lipid transporters and exocytosis-related proteins take place very early in the stress response. Such responses can be coupled to processes aimed at strengthening the cell wall and plasma membrane against disruption. On the contrary, in Jumli Marshi, sugar production, detoxification, ROS scavenging, protection of chloroplast translation, and plausibly the activation of the jasmonic acid pathway were the very first response activities. These can instead be coupled to detoxification processes.

    Conclusions

    Based on the results inferred from this study, we conclude that different, but overlapping, strategies are undertaken by the two varieties to cope with the chilling stress; in Sijung the initial molecular responses seem to be mainly targeted at strengthening the cell wall and plasma membrane, whereas in Jumli Marshi the protection of chloroplast translation and detoxification is prioritized.

  • 262.
    Ling, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Construction of a fusion protein for anchoring the inflammatory receptor NLRP3 to the cell membrane2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The innate immune system are a cooperation of many components – receptors being one of them. Both membrane-bound and cytosolic receptors play a large role in the defence system against pathogens and danger. NLRP3 is a receptor which assembles a protein complex called inflammasome in response to cytosolic stress and is responsible for many autoimmune diseases if it malfunctions. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome leads to secretion of inflammatory cytokines and in many cases to programmed cell death. The structure, function and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is still not fully understood and the urge to understand the mechanisms behind are important for future medical improvements. The aim was to anchor the NLRP3 inflammasome by the cell membrane - By Overlap PCR, the NLRP3 cDNA was fused extracellular and trans-membrane parts of the TLR4 cDNA to anchor the NLRP3 to the membrane and in turn analyse the inflammasome with LPI™ technology. Multiple primers and a TLR4 nucleotide were designed and the NLRP3 was amplified with specific overhangs by PCR. The fusion protein was successfully linked together by Overlap PCR but not confirmed by sequencing. The gene fusion demands high quality primers for amplification and further evaluation must be made to the details of the laboratory. To anchor the protein complex to the cell membrane, continue to be of full importance and can be an asset in many structural studies and biopharmaceuticals trials.

  • 263.
    Lingvall, Johanna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Impact of Motor Imagery on Sport Performance and the Brain's Plasticity2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    New neuroimaging techniques have made it possible to examine imagery and found evidence for that imagery share similar neural correlates as in perception. Imagery can be used in different areas to enhance performance, and it is a popular technique in sports. Similar to physical practice (PP), motor imagery (MI) can result in brain plasticity. The aim of this thesis is to describe what imagery means and describe different theories of imagery. This is to further look into what impact MI has on performance in different sports, and then to further see if there are any changes in brain plasticity as a result of using MI. There is a lack of studies done on MI, performance and brain plasticity in sport. To answer the latter focus of this thesis, studies of healthy persons and patient studies using MI to improve performance and examining changes in the brain have been used. In order to do that this thesis aims to do a literature review. The results indicate that MI combined with PP can improve sport performance. It has also been showed that MI alone can be as good as PP. Most studies found that MI combined with PP can result in brain plasticity, and only one study did not found evidence for it. It has also showed that MI alone can result in brain plasticity. Future research should include larger samples, matching subjects, and comparing the effects of MI in several kinds of sports.

  • 264.
    Liu, Oscar H.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    RNAseq Analysis of Gastric Bacteria in Helicobacter pylori-Associated Carcinogenesis2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than half of the world's population, and is known to be involved in several diseases including gastric cancer. Its close interactions with the stomach and host immune system serves as a good model to study the co-adaptation and co-evolution of the organisms in the stomach micro-environment. In this project, we utilized RNA-seq and data analysis tools to investigate differentially expressed genes by H. pylori in patients at different stages of early gastric cancer development. We also investigated the abundance and diversity of bacterial genera other than H. pylori, and looked for correlations with H. pylori presence and number. For differential gene expression of H. pylori, one gene was differentially expressed between samples of corpus atrophy without metaplasia vs. samples of antrum gastritis, and eight genes were found to be differentially expressed between samples of corpus atrophy with metaplasia vs. samples with pan-gastritis. When samples were clustered into different groups based on the expression data, 52 genes (shared or unique to the specific comparison groups) were found to be differentially expressed, but no apparent patterns were observed that could be explained by medical or sample collection data. For bacterial diversity and abundances, we found several genera colonizing the stomach, of which some have been previously identified. While most of these bacteria colonize regardless of the presence of H. pylori, the abundance of three genera, Wolinella, Campylobacter, and Veillonella, seem to be correlated with the presence of H. pylori.

  • 265.
    Liu, Oscar H.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    RNAseq Analysis of Gastric Bacteria in Helicobacter pylori-Associated Carcinogenesis2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than half of the world's population, and is known to be involved in several diseases including gastric cancer. Its close interactions with the stomach and host immune system serves as a good model to study the co-adaptation and co-evolution of the organisms in the stomach micro-environment. In this project, we utilized RNA-seq and data analysis tools to investigate differentially expressed genes by H. pylori in patients at different stages of early gastric cancer development. We also investigated the abundance and diversity of bacterial genera other than H. pylori, and looked for correlations with H. pylori presence and number. For differential gene expression of H. pylori, one gene was differentially expressed between samples of corpus atrophy without metaplasia vs. samples of antrum gastritis, and eight genes were found to be differentially expressed between samples of corpus atrophy with metaplasia vs. samples with pan-gastritis. When samples were clustered into different groups based on the expression data, 52 genes (shared or unique to the specific comparison groups) were found to be differentially expressed, but no apparent patterns were observed that could be explained by medical or sample collection data. For bacterial diversity and abundances, we found several genera colonizing the stomach, of which some have been previously identified. While most of these bacteria colonize regardless of the presence of H. pylori, the abundance of three genera, Wolinella, Campylobacter, and Veillonella, seem to be correlated with the presence of H. pylori.

  • 266.
    Ljungberg, Eira
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    A review of brain areas associated with long-term mindfulness meditation practice2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in mindfulness meditation has increased immensely in psychology practice and research the past few decades. Yet, considerably little is known about the neurological mechanisms underlying mindfulness meditation and its effects on the human mind and behaviour. That is why this thesis aims to identify the brain regions that has been consistently associated with mindfulness meditation practice. When looking at both long-term and short-term effects of mindfulness meditation this thesis identified twelve brain areas consistently associated with mindfulness meditation: the cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, somatosensory cortices, the insula, hippocampus, inferior temporal and fusiform gyrus, precuneus and corpus callousum. By looking at the functions associated with these brain regions one might gain some insight into why and in what way mindfulness meditation also affects individuals behaviourally, cognitively and emotionally. Although the results are promising they are compromised by low methodological quality, especially due to small sample groups and difficulty deciding the causation in cross-sectional studies.

  • 267.
    Ljungström, Andreas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Moral Intuition Versus Moral Reasoning In the Brain2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans express complex moral behaviour, from altruism to antisocial acts. The investigationof the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying our moral minds is of profoundimportance for understanding these behaviours. By reviewing recent findings in cognitive andmoral neuroscience, along with other relevant areas of research, the current study aims to: (1)Investigate the neural correlates of moral intuition and moral reasoning, and see how thesetwo systems relate to moral judgement and moral behaviour. (2) Examine how the moralintuitive system and the moral reasoning system relate to one another. Neuroscientificevidence suggests that these two systems are supported by different areas in the brain. Whiletheir relationship is argued to be both sequential, integrative and competitive, evidenceindicates that the moral reasoning system primarily functions as a post hoc rationalization ofour intuitive-driven judgements and behaviours. While our moral intuitive system motivateskin altruism, both moral intuition and moral reasoning serve to uphold reciprocal altruism.

  • 268.
    Ljungström, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Claesson, Berndt E. B.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ovemyr, Ida
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Berit
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Brodin, Anna-Karin
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Andersson, Rune
    Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Clinical evaluation of commercial nucleic acid amplification tests in patients with suspected sepsis2015Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikel-id 199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a serious medical condition requiring timely administered, appropriate antibiotic therapy. Blood culture is regarded as the gold standard for aetiological diagnosis of sepsis, but it suffers from low sensitivity and long turnaround time. Thus, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have emerged to shorten the time to identification of causative microbes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility in everyday practice in the emergency department of two commercial NAATs in patients suspected with sepsis.

    METHODS: During a six-week period, blood samples were collected consecutively from all adult patients admitted to the general emergency department for suspicion of a community-onset sepsis and treated with intravenous antibiotics. Along with conventional blood cultures, multiplex PCR (Magicplex™) was performed on whole blood specimens whereas portions from blood culture bottles were used for analysis by microarray-based assay (Prove-it™). The aetiological significance of identified organisms was determined by two infectious disease physicians based on clinical presentation and expected pathogenicity.

    RESULTS: Among 382 episodes of suspected sepsis, clinically relevant microbes were detected by blood culture in 42 episodes (11%), by multiplex PCR in 37 episodes (9.7%), and by microarray in 32 episodes (8.4%). Although moderate agreement with blood culture (kappa 0.50), the multiplex PCR added diagnostic value by timely detection of 15 clinically relevant findings in blood culture-negative specimens. Results of the microarray corresponded very well to those of blood culture (kappa 0.90), but were available just marginally prior to blood culture results.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of NAATs on whole blood specimens in adjunct to current culture-based methods provides a clinical add-on value by allowing for detection of organisms missed by blood culture. However, the aetiological significance of findings detected by NAATs should be interpreted with caution as the high analytical sensitivity may add findings that do not necessarily corroborate with the clinical diagnosis.

  • 269.
    Ljungström, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital / The swedish strategic program against antibiotic resistance.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Tilevik, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    The diagnostic value of PCT as biomarker in patients suspected with community-onset bacterial sepsis2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 270.
    Ljungström, Lars
    et al.
    Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Diana
    Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Andersson, R.
    Institute of Biosciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden.
    Neutrophil to lymphocyte count ratio performs better than procalcitonin as a biomarker for bacteremia and severe sepsis in the emergency department2015Ingår i: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 19, nr Suppl 1, artikel-id P66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 271.
    Ljungström, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / CARe–Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Rune
    CARe–Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Usener, Barbara
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Tilevik, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin, neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio, C-reactive protein, and lactate in patients with suspected bacterial sepsis2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikel-id e018704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Early recognition is a key factor to achieve improved outcomes for septic patients. Combinations of biomarkers, as opposed to single ones, may improve timely diagnosis and survival. We investigated the performance characteristics of sepsis biomarkers, alone and in combination, for diagnosis of verified bacterial sepsis using Sepsis-2 and Sepsis-3 criteria, respectively.

    METHODS:

    Procalcitonin (PCT), neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate were determined in a total of 1,572 episodes of adult patients admitted to the emergency department on suspicion of sepsis. All sampling were performed prior to antibiotic administration. Discriminant analysis was used to construct two composite biomarkers consisting of linear combinations of the investigated biomarkers, one including three selected biomarkers (i.e., NLCR, CRP, and lactate), and another including all four (i.e., PCT, NLCR, CRP, and lactate). The diagnostic performances of the composite biomarkers as well as the individual biomarkers were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

    RESULTS:

    For diagnosis of bacterial sepsis based on Sepsis-3 criteria, the AUC for PCT (0.68; 95% CI 0.65-0.71) was comparable to the AUCs for the both composite biomarkers. Using the Sepsis-2 criteria for bacterial sepsis diagnosis, the AUC for the NLCR (0.68; 95% CI 0.65-0.71) but not for the other single biomarkers, was equal to the AUCs for the both composite biomarkers. For diagnosis of severe bacterial sepsis or septic shock based on the Sepsis-2 criteria, the AUCs for both composite biomarkers were significantly greater than those of the single biomarkers (0.85; 95% CI 0.82-0.88 for the composite three-biomarker, and 0.86; 95% CI 0.83-0.89 for the composite four-biomarker).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Combinations of biomarkers can improve the diagnosis of verified bacterial sepsis in the most critically ill patients, but in less severe septic conditions either the NLCR or PCT alone exhibit equivalent performance.

  • 272.
    Ljungström, Lars R.
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital / CARe (Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research), Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde / CARe (Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research), Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Claesson, Berndt E. B.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Andersson, Rune
    CARe (Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research), Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Clinical Molecular Microbiology, Unilabs, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Respiratory viral infections are underdiagnosed in patients with suspected sepsis2017Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 36, nr 10, s. 1767-1776Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim was to investigate the prevalence and clinical relevance of viral findings by multiplex PCR from the nasopharynx of clinically septic patients during a winter season. During 11 weeks of the influenza epidemic period in January-March 2012, consecutive adult patients suspected to be septic (n = 432) were analyzed with cultures from blood and nasopharynx plus multiplex PCR for respiratory viruses on the nasopharyngeal specimen. The results were compared with those from microbiology analyses ordered as part of standard care. During the winter season, viral respiratory pathogens, mainly influenza A virus, human metapneumovirus, coronavirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were clinically underdiagnosed in 70% of patients positive by the multiplex PCR assay. During the first four weeks of the influenza epidemic, few tests for influenza were ordered by clinicians, indicating low awareness that the epidemic had started. Nasopharyngeal findings of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae by culture correlated to pneumonia diagnosis, and in those patients laboratory signs of viral co-infections were common but rarely suspected by clinicians. The role of respiratory viral infections in patients presenting with a clinical picture of sepsis is underestimated. Specific antiviral treatment might be beneficial in some cases and may reduce spread in a hospital setting. Diagnosing viral infections may promote reduction of unnecessary antibiotic use. It can also be a tool for decisions concerning patient logistics, in order to minimize exposure of susceptible patients and personnel.

  • 273.
    Lubovac-Pilav, Zelmina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Borràs, Daniel M.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Ponce, Esmeralda
    Dominican University of California, United States of America.
    Louie, Maggie C.
    Dominican University of California, United States of America / College of Pharmacy, Touro University of California, United States of America .
    Using expression profiling to understand the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on mcf-7 breast cancer cells2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 12, artikel-id e84646Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium is a metalloestrogen known to activate the estrogen receptor and promote breast cancer cell growth. Previous studies have implicated cadmium in the development of more malignant tumors; however the molecular mechanisms behind this cadmium-induced malignancy remain elusive. Using clonal cell lines derived from exposing breast cancer cells to cadmium for over 6 months (MCF-7-Cd4, -Cd6, -Cd7, -Cd8 and -Cd12), this study aims to identify gene expression signatures associated with chronic cadmium exposure. Our results demonstrate that prolonged cadmium exposure does not merely result in the deregulation of genes but actually leads to a distinctive expression profile. The genes deregulated in cadmium-exposed cells are involved in multiple biological processes (i.e. cell growth, apoptosis, etc.) and molecular functions (i.e. cadmium/metal ion binding, transcription factor activity, etc.). Hierarchical clustering demonstrates that the five clonal cadmium cell lines share a common gene expression signature of breast cancer associated genes, clearly differentiating control cells from cadmium exposed cells. The results presented in this study offer insights into the cellular and molecular impacts of cadmium on breast cancer and emphasize the importance of studying chronic cadmium exposure as one possible mechanism of promoting breast cancer progression.

  • 274.
    Lund, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Släktskapets påverkan på tillväxt, storlek, mortalitet och defekter hos yngel vid uppfödning hos Grönfläckig padda (Bufo viridis).2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete syftar till att svara på hypotesen som säger att det är skillnader i tillväxt, storlek, dödlighet och deformationer hos besläktade yngel av grönfläckig padda (Bufo viridis) gentemot obesläktade yngel vid uppfödning. Tidigare australiensisk studie visar att kemiska ämnen som paddorna själva utsöndrar påverkar tillväxt och överlevnad. Det förekommer även att syskon favoriserar och känner igen varandra och således blir konkurrensen syskon emellan inte lika stark. Yngel från fem olika honor delades in i grupper och placerats i akvarietankar med antingen besläktade individer från en och samma hona eller blandade. Där har de vuxit upp från ägg till yngel. De yngel som föddes upp tillsammans med sina syskon var större än yngel som fötts upp med obesläktade yngel. Det var ingen skillnad i procentuell tillväxt över tid mellan besläktade och obesläktade individer. Vid de första mättillfällena var det skillnad i storlek, viket indikerar att mekanismen som styr tillväxt är som starkast i ett tidigt utvecklingsskede för att sedan avta. Tidigare studie på grönfläckig padda i Sverige visar på liknande resultat och dessa motsäger resultat från en australiensisk studie där tillväxten varit mindre i början och större i slutet. Dödligheten från ägg till yngel var större hos de obesläktade individerna. Sammantaget ger det en indikation om att mekanismen bakom exempelvis storlek, tillväxt och dödlighet är mer komplexa än vad som framkommit i tidigare arbeten. Resultatet visar på skillnader som kan ligga till grund för utvecklandet av nya metoder vid uppfödning av grönfläckig padda och som även kan hjälpa till vid bevarandet av den svenska populationen. 

  • 275.
    Lundh, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Coleman, Scott
    Motion and Sports Lab, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Riad, Jacques
    Orthopaedic Department, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden / Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Movement deviation and asymmetry assessment with three dimensional gait analysis of both upper- and lower extremity results in four different clinical relevant subgroups in unilateral cerebral palsy2014Ingår i: Clinical Biomechanics, ISSN 0268-0033, E-ISSN 1879-1271, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 381-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In unilateral cerebral palsy, movement pattern can be difficult to define and quantify. The aim was to assess the degree of deviation and asymmetry in upper and lower extremities during walking.

    Methods

    Forty-seven patients, 45 Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) I and 2 patients GMFCS II, mean age 17.1 years (range 13.1 to 24.0) and 15 matched controls were evaluated. Gait profile score (GPS) and arm posture score (APS) were calculated from three-dimensional gait analysis (GA). Asymmetry was the calculated difference in deviation between affected and unaffected sides.

    Findings

    The GPS was significantly increased compared to the control group on the affected side (6.93 (2.08) versus 4.23 (1.11) degrees) and on the unaffected side (6.67 (2.14)). The APS was also significantly increased on the affected side (10.39 (5.01) versus 5.52 (1.71) degrees) and on the unaffected side (7.13 (2.23)). The lower extremity asymmetry increased (significantly) in comparison with the control group (7.89 (3.82) versus 3.90 (1.01)) and correspondingly in the upper extremity (9.75 (4.62) versus 5.72 (1.84)). The GPS was not different between affected and unaffected sides, however the APS was different (statistically significant).

    Interpretation

    We calculated deviation and asymmetry of movement during walking in unilateral CP, identifying four important clinical groups: close to normal, deviations mainly in the leg, deviations mainly in the arm and those with deviation in the arm and leg. This method can be applied to any patient group, and aid in diagnosing, planning treatment, and prognosis.

  • 276.
    Lundin, Anders
    et al.
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Delsing, Louise
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Clausen, Maryam
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ricchiuto, Piero
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sanchez, José
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sabirsh, Alan
    Pharmaceutical Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ding, Mei
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden / Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK / UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, UK.
    Brolén, Gabriella
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hicks, Ryan
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Herland, Anna
    Department of Micro and Nanosystems KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falk, Anna
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Human iPS-Derived Astroglia from a Stable Neural Precursor State Show Improved Functionality Compared with Conventional Astrocytic Models2018Ingår i: Stem Cell Reports, ISSN 2213-6711, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 1030-1045Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In vivo studies of human brain cellular function face challenging ethical and practical difficulties. Animal models are typically used but display distinct cellular differences. One specific example is astrocytes, recently recognized for contribution to neurological diseases and a link to the genetic risk factor apolipoprotein E (APOE). Current astrocytic in vitro models are questioned for lack of biological characterization. Here, we report human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived astroglia (NES-Astro) developed under defined conditions through long-term neuroepithelial-like stem (ltNES) cells. We characterized NES-Astro and astrocytic models from primary sources, astrocytoma (CCF-STTG1), and hiPSCs through transcriptomics, proteomics, glutamate uptake, inflammatory competence, calcium signaling response, and APOE secretion. Finally, we assess modulation of astrocyte biology using APOE-annotated compounds, confirming hits of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in adult and hiPSC-derived astrocytes. Our data show large diversity among astrocytic models and emphasize a cellular context when studying astrocyte biology.

  • 277.
    Lundin, Zebastian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Correlates of Internet Addiction: Contextualized by a Comparison with ADHD2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, people are interacting with the Internet. The emergence of this phenomenon has been positively contributing to the rapid development of our society in the last decades. However, negative reports about excessive usage are coming to the surface and questions about potential negative consequences are being raised. Internet addiction (IA) has been suggestedas a new type of disorder. There is a new field of research emerging with the aim to investigate its nature. This review compiles the most relevant literature on neuroimaging techniques used to identify the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of IA. Based on identified comorbidity between IA and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a comparison between the neural correlates of IA and ADHD is attempted, in order to illustrate the importance of bringing more attention to IA. The findings present structural, functional and neurochemical alterations in brain regions associated with emotional processing, cognitive control and reward processing. Similarities between the two disorders interms of structural and functional alterations in regions associated with emotional processing and cognitive control are highlighted.Limitations regarding lack of consensus of the operational definition, narrow selection criteria of participants and a need for subcategories inside the term IA are pointed out. The thesis concludes that as of now the discovered alterations may be considered as biological markers underlying the disorder and IA is a field of research worthy of more attention.

  • 278.
    Lutimba, Stuart
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Science for Life Laboratory.
    Determination of specificity and affinity of the Lactose permease (LacY) protein of Escherichia coli through application of molecular dynamics simulation2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins are essential in all living organisms. They are involved in various critical activities and are also structural components of cells and tissues. Lactose permease a membrane protein has become a prototype for the major facilitator super family and utilises an existing electrochemical proton gradient to shuttle galactoside sugars to the cell. Therefore it exists in two principle states exposing the internal binding site to either side of the membrane. From previous studies it has been suggested that protonation precedes substrate binding but it is still unclear why this has to occur in the event of substrate binding. Therefore this study aimed to bridge this gap and to determine the chemical characteristics of the transport pathway. Molecular dynamics simulation methods and specialised simulation hardware were employed to elucidate the dependency of substrate binding on the protonation nature of Lactose permease. Protein models that differed in their conformation as well as their protonation states were defined from their respective X-ray structures. Targeted molecular dynamics was implemented to drive the substrate to the binding site and umbrella sampling was used to define the free energy of the transport pathway. It was therefore suggested that protonation for sugar binding is due to the switch-like mechanism of Glu325 in the residue-residue interaction (His322 and Glu269) that leads to sugar binding only in the protonated state of LacY. Furthermore, the free energy profile of sugar transport path way was lower only in the protonated state which indicates stability of sugar binding in the protonated state.

  • 279.
    Lymperopoulou, Ioana Anca
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    A cognitive neuroscience perspective of emotions2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions have a remarkable capacity to mobilize an individual and shape a person’s behavior in order to ultimately lead to a higher wellbeing. The importance of emotions is further emphasized by pathological cases of people who suffer from an inability to normally regulate their emotional life, such as people who suffer from major depression disorder (MDD), eating disorders, or borderline personality disorder. Given the central role emotions play in our lives, it is very easy to understand the great interest cognitive neuroscientists have in this research field. Emotions have been approached in the last decades from different angles and as such, distinct theories arose. The goal of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of the emotion theories that exist, with a focus on three of the fastest developing cognitive theories of emotions: Frijda’s action-readiness, Russell’s core affect and the communicative theory. Additionally, the neural correlates of emotions will be discussed, focusing on the role of amygdala in the negative emotion of fear. Neuroimaging studies that reveal a correlation between the amygdala and emotions, fear in particular, will be described. Given that the ability of self-regulation is crucial for the achievements of our aims and goals, fMRI studies designed to investigate neural the underpinnings of emotion regulation will be presented. The process of cognitive reappraisal will be used to point towards the brain regions that act as down-regulators for the activity of amygdala while processing negatively valenced stimuli.

  • 280.
    Långsjö, Jaakko W.
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University hospital, Finland / Intensive Care Unit, Tampere University Hospital, Central Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, Harry
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University hospital, Finland / Department of Pharmacology, Drug Development and Therapeutics, University of Turku, Finland.
    Harnessing anaesthesia and brain imaging for the study of human consciousness2014Ingår i: Current pharmaceutical design, ISSN 1381-6128, E-ISSN 1873-4286, Vol. 20, nr 26, s. 4211-4224Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 281.
    Löf, Kasper
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Investigating the Neural Correlates of Perceived Social Isolation: Is Perceived Social Isolation Confined to the Social Brain?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Loneliness, or the perceived discrepancy of ones relationships in terms of quality, is known as Perceived Social Isolation (PSI). Studies have shown that PSI is both increasing and is correlated with health risks. Specifically, PSI is not only related with risks of mortality but is also linked with variations in the brain. Having few social contacts, or being Objectively Socially Isolated (OSI) does not qualify as PSI. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the neural correlates of PSI, as distinguished from OSI. The true role of PSI is still unknown, however, arguments can be made that PSI serves an important role in survival. The social brain, which allows for social cognition is used as a basis for understanding PSI in this thesis. In this thesis, I found that individuals suffering from PSI have increased attention towards social threat, and a preference to engage in positive social stimuli. Further, PSI affects both social cognition and the social brain. However, regional brain activity was not confined to the social brain. The results showed that PSI may be related to both affective and attentional networks of the brain. PSI also affects activity in the ventral striatum. Further, PSI is related to varied regional brain size. I argue that PSI can be reduced by mainly fixing maladaptive cognitive patterns.

  • 282.
    Löfstrand, Emelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Empathy for Pain: And its Neural Correlates2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of empathy has been fascinating laymen and scholars for centuries and has recently been an important subject for cognitive neuroscientific study. Empathy refers to the ability to understand and share others’ emotions and a characteristic of this ability is the capacity to empathize with others in pain. This review intends to examine and read up on the current state of the field of the neural and behavioral mechanisms associated with empathy for pain. The neural underpinnings of the first-hand experience of pain have been shown to be activated in a person observing the suffering individual, and this similarity in brain activity has been referred to as shared networks. This phenomenon plays an important role in the study of empathy. However, different factors have been shown to influence empathy for pain, such as age, gender, affective link between observer and sufferer, as well as phylogenetic similarity. This thesis discusses these differences, as well as atypical aspects affecting the empathic ability such as synaesthesia for pain, psychopathy and Asperger’s disease. Further, empathy for pain can be modulated by the individual observing someone in pain. For example, caregivers often down-regulate their empathic response to patients in pain, possibly in order to focus on their treatment and assistance. Also, paying attention to harmful stimuli heightens the perception of pain; therefore, the painful experience can be less remarkable when focusing on something else. The effect of empathy from others directed to oneself when suffering is discussed, as well as the consistency and limitations of presented research.

  • 283.
    Lönn, Josefina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Well-being and Dispositional Optimism in Uganda and Sweden: An empirical and neurobiological investigation2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Uganda´s well-being ranks among the worst in the world, while Sweden´s well-being ranks among the best. This thesis investigates if there is a difference in well-being and dispositional optimism in Uganda and Sweden. The neurobiology underlying well-being and optimism is also examined. The neural correlations of well-being and optimism are connected to areas in the limbic system and cerebral cortex. Prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex are two curial regions involved in both well-being and optimism. Amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus are central areas for hedonic well-being, dispositional optimism, and optimism bias. In this thesis 284 Ugandans and 256 Swedes completed a questionnaire based survey. Greater hedonic well-being was found among Swedes, whereas greater eudiamonic well-being was found among Ugandans. Swedes reported greater global life satisfaction than Ugandans, but Ugandans expressed higher satisfaction with their current lives compared with Swedes. In relation to dispositional optimism, Ugandans were found to be both more optimistic and more pessimistic than Swedes. This unexpected dispositional optimism pattern is discussed and future research directions are proposed.

  • 284.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    et al.
    Department of psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding2018Ingår i: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066XArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in personality have been shown to be larger in more gender equal countries. We advance this researchby using an extensive personality measure, the IPIP-NEO-120, with large country samples (N > 1000), from 22countries. Furthermore, to capture the multidimensionality of personality we measure sex differences with a multivariateeffect size (Mahalanobis distance D). Results indicate that past research, using univariate measures of effect size, haveunderestimated the size of between-country sex differences in personality. Confirming past research, there was a strongcorrelation (r = .69) between a country’s sex differences in personality and their Gender Equality Index. Additionalanalyses showed that women typically score higher than men on all five trait factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and that these relative differences are larger in more gender equal countries. Wespeculate that as gender equality increases both men and women gravitate towards their traditional gender roles.

  • 285.
    MacGregor, Oskar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Trivial Love2015Ingår i: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 497-500Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 286.
    MacGregor, Oskar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    WADA's Whereabouts Requirements and Privacy2015Ingår i: Routledge Handbook of Drugs and Sport / [ed] Verner Møller, Ivan Waddington & John M. Hoberman, London: Routledge, 2015, s. 310-321Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 287.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde.
    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing ACR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit reduced accumulation of arsenics and increased tolerance to arsenate2015Ingår i: Transgenic tobacco plants expressing ACR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit reduced accumulation of arsenics and increased tolerance to arsenate, Omics International Conference , 2015, Vol. 2, s. 32-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing ACR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit reduced accumulation of arsenics and increased tolerance to arsenate.

    Toxic metals such as arsenics, lead, cadmium or chromium are the major environmental pollutants that severely contribute to contamination of the global food chain directly through their accumulation in the edible parts of the cultivated crops or indirectly via meat-milk pathway. Fortunately, plant genetic engineering has the potential for developing new crop cultivars for removal of the toxic substances from the polluted sources or for avoiding accumulation of these contaminants in the edible parts. Previously, we have identified and studied four key genes that are involved in accumulation of arsenics in plants (J Biol. Systems 2010, 18/1:1-19; J Mol. Modeling 2012, DOI 10.1007/s00894-012-1419 and J Mol. Modeling 2014, DOI 10.1007/s00894-014-2104). In this study, we have cloned and transformed the ACR2 gene (arsenic reductase 2) of Arabidopsis thaliana into tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum). Our results revealed that the transgenic tobacco plants are more tolerant to arsenic than the wild-type control plants. These plants can grow on medium containing 200 µM arsenate, whereas the non-transgenic plants can hardly survive under this condition. Furthermore, when exposed to 100 µM arsenate for 35 days accumulation of arsenics in shoots of the transgenic plants decreases significantly (28 µg/g d wt.) compared to that observed in the non-transgenic control plants (40 µg/g d wt.). This study shows that A. thaliana ACR2 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of plants to develop new cultivars that can be grown on arsenic contaminated fields and can supply harmless foods containing no or significantly reduced amount of arsenics.

  • 288.
    Mandiramoorthy, Selva Kumar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    To identify novel oncogenes for the design of novel tools for diagnosis and treatment of cancer2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled cell growth that destroys the healthy tissue of the body. It is one of the deadliest diseases in the world that alters many cellular mechanisms and features. In this report, a list of 22 upregulated oncogenes is studied to identify the novel oncogene. The need to determine the novel oncogene is to develop the anti-cancer agent. To determine the novel oncogene, gene enrichment analysis (GEA) was performed. It is a method to identify classes of genes that are over-represented in the large set of genes to determine the phenotypes of the organisms. DAVID and PANTHER are the methods used to carry on this study as it has Gene Ontology (GO) embedded in it. The GEA uses fishers exact test to determine the enriched gene by the standard p-value of 0.05. To further study the oncogene Network Enrichment Analysis was performed with EVINET. We found that microtubule was significantly enriched in NEA. The genes significantly enriched for GO microtubule were studied. The significantly enriched microtubule in NEA might then be used as a target for anti-cancer agent and used to develop the drug in the future.

  • 289.
    Marcišauskas, Simonas
    et al.
    Division of Systems and Synthetic Biology, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kristjansdottir, Björg
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Waldemarson, Sofia
    Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, Medicon Village, Lund, Sweden.
    Sundfeldt, Karin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Univariate and classification analysis reveals potential diagnostic biomarkers for early stage ovarian cancer Type 1 and Type 22019Ingår i: Journal of Proteomics, ISSN 1874-3919, E-ISSN 1876-7737, Vol. 196, s. 57-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomarkers for early detection of ovarian tumors are urgently needed. Tumors of the ovary grow within cysts and most are benign. Surgical sampling is the only way to ensure accurate diagnosis, but often leads to morbidity and loss of female hormones. The present study explored the deep proteome in well-defined sets of ovarian tumors, FIGO stage I, Type 1 (low-grade serous, mucinous, endometrioid; n = 9), Type 2 (high-grade serous; n = 9), and benign serous (n = 9) using TMT–LC–MS/MS. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD010939. We evaluated new bioinformatics tools in the discovery phase. This innovative selection process involved different normalizations, a combination of univariate statistics, and logistic model tree and naive Bayes tree classifiers. We identified 142 proteins by this combined approach. One biomarker panel and nine individual proteins were verified in cyst fluid and serum: transaldolase-1, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A (ALDOA), transketolase, ceruloplasmin, mesothelin, clusterin, tenascin-XB, laminin subunit gamma-1, and mucin-16. Six of the proteins were found significant (p <.05) in cyst fluid while ALDOA was the only protein significant in serum. The biomarker panel achieved ROC AUC 0.96 and 0.57 respectively. We conclude that classification algorithms complement traditional statistical methods by selecting combinations that may be missed by standard univariate tests. Significance: In the discovery phase, we performed deep proteome analyses of well-defined histology subgroups of ovarian tumor cyst fluids, highly specified for stage and type (histology and grade). We present an original approach to selecting candidate biomarkers combining several normalization strategies, univariate statistics, and machine learning algorithms. The results from validation of selected proteins strengthen our prior proteomic and genomic data suggesting that cyst fluids are better than sera in early stage ovarian cancer diagnostics. 

  • 290.
    Martinez Maestre, Andreu
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    PVC: Proximity Value Clustering: A new clustering method without human interaction2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 291.
    Martínez Enguita, David
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Identification of personalized multi-omic disease modules in asthma2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is a respiratory syndrome associated with airflow limitation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation of the airways in the lungs. Despite the ongoing research efforts, the outstanding heterogeneity displayed by the multiple forms in which this condition presents often hampers the attempts to determine and classify the phenotypic and endotypic biological structures at play, even when considering a limited assembly of asthmatic subjects. To increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and functional pathways that govern asthma from a systems medicine perspective, a computational workflow focused on the identification of personalized transcriptomic modules from the U-BIOPRED study cohorts, by the use of the novel MODifieR integrated R package, was designed and applied. A feature selection of candidate asthma biomarkers was implemented, accompanied by the detection of differentially expressed genes across sample categories, the production of patient-specific gene modules and the subsequent construction of a set of core disease modules of asthma, which were validated with genomic data and analyzed for pathway and disease enrichment. The results indicate that the approach utilized is able to reveal the presence of components and signaling routes known to be crucially involved in asthma pathogenesis, while simultaneously uncovering candidate genes closely linked to the latter. The present project establishes a valuable pipeline for the module-driven study of asthma and other related conditions, which can provide new potential targets for therapeutic intervention and contribute to the development of individualized treatment strategies.

  • 292.
    Mauritsson, Karl
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Ecological and Edaphic Correlations of Soil Invertebrate Community Structure in Dry Upland Forests of Eastern Africa2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural forests are characterised by great vegetation diversity and create habitats for a major part of Earth’s terrestrial organisms. Plantation forests, which are mainly composed of a few genera of fast-growing trees, constitute an increasing fraction of global forests, but they only partly compensate for loss of area, habitat and ecological functions in natural forests. Plantation forests established near natural forests can be expected to serve as buffers, but they seem to be relatively poor in invertebrate species and it is not clear why. This bachelor’s degree project aimed at establishing the ecological and edaphic factors that correlate with soil invertebrate diversity in dry upland forests and surrounding plantation forests in eastern Africa. Some aspects of the above-ground vegetation heterogeneity were investigated since this was assumed to influence the heterogeneity of the soil environment, which is considered as critical for soil biodiversity. The obtained knowledge may be valuable in conservation activities in East African forests, which are threatened by destruction, fragmentation and exotic species.

    The study area was Karura Forest, a dry upland forest in Nairobi, Kenya. Three different sites were investigated; a natural forest site characterized by the indigenous tree species Brachylaena huillensis and Croton megalocarpus, and two different plantation forest sites, characterized by the exotic species Cupressus lusitanica and Eucalyptus paniculata, respectively. For each forest type, six plots were visited. Soil invertebrates were extracted from collected soil and litter samples by sieving and Berlese-Tullgren funnels. The invertebrates were identified, and the taxonomic diversity calculated at the order level. The ecological and edaphic factors, measured or calculated for each plot, were tree species diversity, ratio of exotic tree species, vertical structure of trees, vegetation cover, vegetation density, litter quality, soil pH, soil temperature and soil moisture.

    One-way ANOVA was used to compare soil invertebrate diversity and other variables between different forest types. Akaike’s Information Criterion and Multiple Linear Regression were used to establish linear models with variables that could explain measured variations of the diversity.

    There was some evidence for higher soil invertebrate diversity in natural forests than in surrounding plantation forests. The abundance of soil invertebrates was also clearly higher in natural forests, which indicates that natural forests are more important than plantation forests for conservation of soil invertebrate populations. Soil invertebrate diversity (in terms of number of orders present) was found to be influenced by forest type and litter quality. The diversity was higher at places with high amounts of coarse litter, which here is considered as more heterogenous than fine litter. The dependence on forest type was partly a consequence of differences in soil pH since Eucalyptus trees lower soil pH and thereby also soil biodiversity. No relation to heterogeneity of above-ground vegetation was found.

    For future conservation activities in Karura Forest Reserve it is recommended to continue removing exotic plant species and replanting indigenous trees, to prioritize the removal of Eucalyptus trees before Cypress trees, to only remove a few trees at a time and to establish ground vegetation when doing so.

  • 293.
    Mazzaferro, Eugenia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Identification and characterization of causal genes for LDL cholesterol levels and downstream effects on atherosclerosis2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and results from progression of atherosclerosis, which is triggered in part by elevated plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol. Genome-wide association studies have identified many loci that are associated with circulating lipid levels and bioinformatics tools have been implemented to prioritize positional candidate genes. This project aims to better understand the genetics underlying the regulation of plasma LDL levels and their effect of atherosclerosis using a zebrafish (Danio rerio) model system. A multiplex line with the genes abcg5, abcg8, myrf, col4a3bpa, col4a3bpb, st3gal3, ywhaqa and ywhaqb targeted by CRISPR/Cas9 technique was established using zebrafish with fluorescently labeled macrophages (Tg[mpeg1:mCherry]) and neutrophils (Tg[mpo:EGFP]). Monodansylpentane cadaverase was used to visualize lipids droplets, together with macrophages and neutrophils, in 384 overfed larvae, allowing the visualization and quantification of vascular atherogenic traits at 10 days post-fertilization. Euthanized larvae were homogenized for the quantification of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, glucose and protein levels. DNA was extracted and larvae were paired-end sequenced for the CRISPR-targeted sites. Linear regression analysis to compare the wild-type larvae against homozygous mutants and additive models for orthologous genes were performed. The lower accumulation of lipids and the lower co-localization of macrophages and neutrophils in the vasculature suggested that the larvae with mutations in the gene abcg5, abcg8, col4a3bpb, and ywhaqb resulted in larvae more protected against atherosclerotic phenotype. The study suggested that loss of function of the targeted genes was associated with atherogenic traits, helping to understand the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.

  • 294.
    McBean, G. J.
    et al.
    School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Science, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    López, M. G.
    Instituto Teófilo Hernando for Drug Discovery, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Wallner, Fredrik K.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Redoxis AB.
    Redox-based therapeutics in neurodegenerative disease2017Ingår i: British Journal of Pharmacology, ISSN 0007-1188, E-ISSN 1476-5381, Vol. 174, nr 12, s. 1750-1770Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This review describes recent developments in the search for effective therapeutic agents that target redox homeostasis in neurodegenerative disease. The disruption to thiol redox homeostasis in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis is discussed, together with the experimental strategies that are aimed at preventing, or at least minimizing, oxidative damage in these diseases. Particular attention is given to the potential of increasing antioxidant capacity by targeting the Nrf2 pathway, the development of inhibitors of NADPH oxidases that are likely candidates for clinical use, together with strategies to reduce nitrosative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We describe the shortcomings of compounds that hinder their progression to the clinic and evaluate likely avenues for future research.

  • 295.
    McCoy, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Comparing consensus modules using S2B and MODifieR2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    It is currently understood that diseases are typically not caused by rogue errors in genetics but have both molecular and environmental causes from myriad overlapping interactions within an interactome. Genetic errors, such as that seen by a single-nucleotide polymorphism can lead to a dysfunctional cell, which in turn can lead to systemic disruptions that result in disease phenotypes. Perturbations within the interactome, as can be caused by many such errors, can be organized into a pathophenotype, or “disease module”. Disease modules are sets of correlated variables that can represent many of a disease’s activities with subgraphs of nodes and edges. Many methods for inferring disease modules are available today, but the results each one yields is not only variable between methods but also across datasets and trial attempts. In this study, several such inference methods for deriving disease modules are evaluated by combining them to create “consensus” modules. The method of focus is Double-Specific Betweenness (S2B), which uses betweenness centrality across separate diseases to derive new modules. This study, however, uses S2B to combine the results of independent inference methods rather than separate diseases to derive new modules. Pre-processed asthma and arthritis data are compared using various combinations of inference methods. The performance of each result is validated using Pathway Scoring Algorithm. The results of this study suggest that combining methods of inference using MODifieR or S2B may be beneficial for deriving meaningful disease modules.

  • 296.
    Mehrbani Azar, Yashar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Protein expression analysis of PI3K/AKT pathway components in cells expressing INPP5K and MYO1C2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In an Experimental Rat model for endometrial carcinoma (EC) a minimal region of recurrent deletion/allelic loss at the neighborhood of the Tp53 gene has been identified. A similar observation of deletion at the homologous position on human chromosome 17 unassociated with TP53 mutation has been reported in several human cancer types. Thus an important tumor suppressor activity located close to, but distinct of TP53 is suggested. Detailed molecular analysis of this candidate region in a tumor model suggested Myo1c (myosin 1C) and Inpp5k (inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase K), also known as Skip (skeletal muscle and kidney enriched inositol polyphosphate phosphatase), as the best candidates. These two genes are suggested to be involved in glucose metabolism through PI3K/AKT signaling and neither of them has earlier been reported as a tumor suppressor gene. The present work aimed to investigate the potential correlation of MYO1C and/or INPP5K proteins with components of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway involved in cell growth and survival. Cells were transfected with increasing amounts of MYO1C- or INPP5K- gene expression constructs and protein extracts of the cells were subjected to Western Blot analysis for 13 important components of the signaling pathway: p110β\α\δ, p85, pAkt308&473, 14-3-3β, PTEN, Akt, pErk, Erk, Ras, p4EBP1 and 4EBP1. The analysis showed dose-dependent changes in the expression levels of several of these proteins, and the observed changes for the most part were directed towards negative regulation of cell proliferation and survival. The presented data further extended the initial hypothesis for potential tumor suppressor activities of MYO1C and INPP5K proteins through PI3K/AKT pathway.

  • 297.
    Mohamed, Ahmed
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Deciphering the ontogeny of unmutated and mutated subsets of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer that affects the B cells of the immune system causing problems in the process of producing antibodies. It can be sorted into mutated and unmutated CLL based on the percentage of somatic mutations in the Immunoglobulin Heavy chain Variable region (IgHV). The B cells of healthy individuals can be sorted into three groups; CD27dull memory B cells (MBCs), CD27bright MBCs and naïve B cells. The hypothesis for the project was that the unmutated CLL subset originates from CD27dull MBCs and the mutated CLL subset originates from CD27bright MBCs. RNA-sequencing data from healthy individuals were acquired from a collaboration partner in Rome and CLL-patients were collected from public datasets available online. Several bioinformatic tools were used to analyze the data. First, the quality of the data files was checked, then adapter sequence from the sequencing process and low-quality bases were removed (trimming). Good quality of the files was confirmed after the trimming. Secondly, these files were mapped against the human reference genome (GRCh38/hg38) for alignment, then the resulted data was used to check for genes that showed differential expression between the different groups. Results were analyzed and visualized using Venn diagrams, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and heatmap plots and random forest. A list of 85 genes was generated based on the different comparisons and was used in one PCA plot that showed clear separation between the different groups. The SWAP70 gene was analyzed for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The study concluded five genes that could be used as biomarkers for CLL and the diagnosis of its subtypes where some of them were discussed in previous studies. Also, the mutated CLL subset showed a similar behavior to the healthy individuals and this could validate the original hypothesis and justifies the better disease prognosis for this subtype.

  • 298.
    Montasser, Mona
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Rethinking the role of anxiety: Using cognitive reappraisal in the classroom2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis provides an overview of the literature both in the field of academic anxiety and emotion regulation. The two research fields have proceeded independently in the literature at least until recently and the thesis highlights their integration. The thesis aims to answer: what happens in the brain during cognitive reappraisal and how can we use cognitive reappraisal as a strategy for dealing with academic anxiety. Brain-imaging studies show that cognitive reappraisal (an emotion regulation strategy) involves many different higher-order cognitive processes, such as emotion processing, manipulation of appraisals in working memory, inhibiting the old and selecting new appraisals. Different regions of the prefrontal cortex are believed to support these functions, moreover, the prefrontal cortex modulates amygdala activity and decreases negative emotions. Previous research in the lab and in the classroom suggests that cognitive reappraisal might be a strategy for dealing with academic anxiety. The arousal reappraisal intervention encourages students to reinterpret their increased arousal as beneficial to their performance. Only a small number of studies have tested the intervention in academic contexts, however the results are promising, e.g. students improved exam performance. The goal is to teach students that it is possible to perform well regardless of one’s anxiety. The findings presented in this thesis provide an initial glimpse into the fruitful integration of these two research fields. 

  • 299.
    Monteiro, Anita-Ann
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Detection of exosomal mirna from different volumes of biofluids as biomarkers for the diagnosis of sepsis: Future diagnostics of sepsis2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Sepsis, a life-threatening condition which results from a dysregulation of host response to infection and leads to multiple organ dysfunction, is a cause for great concern. The current gold standard of detection – Blood culturing – is a highly time-consuming process and so, research has proposed the use of biomarkers. Current biomarkers, C-reactive protein and Procalcitonin, though good indicators, individually show certain limitations with respect to the specificity and sensitivity. Hence, as a step forward from singleplex biomarkers, the development of a multi-marker panel was suggested. For this purpose, the use of microRNAs (miRNAs) were employed to serve as potential biomarkers for the detection of sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine whether a higher concentration of miRNA would be obtained from a larger volume of plasma as well as to see if the miRNA present in blood can be used for the diagnosis of sepsis. Extractions were carried out using the QIAGEN exoRNeasy Plasma: Midi & Maxi Kits from plasma and Norgen’s Total RNA Purification Kit from blood. The samples were analysed and quantified using the Qubit® microRNA assay kit & Qubit® 3.0 Fluorometer and the NanoDrop™ 2000 Spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that there was a significant difference between miRNA concentrations in the two volumes of plasma analysed. Based on the accurate Qubit measurements and readings, it was concluded that a larger volume of plasma, does yield a higher concentration of miRNA. In addition, it was also established that the miRNA detected in blood, could be used as probable biomarkers for the diagnosis of sepsis.

  • 300.
    Monzur, Sadia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Effect of nox2/4 inhibitors in t98g cells during a mimicked ischemic stroke2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Stroke, an immensely complicated cerebrovascular disease is harvesting lives of millions over the globe and has been designated as world’s second largest killer. Improvement of pre and post treatment for this pathology to reduce the death toll has become an urgency since there are very limited therapeutic options for stroke patients, while efforts to give direct neuro-protection to the brain cells on set of ischemic stroke has been hugely unsuccessful. As oxidative stress plays a key role in brain damage during this pathology and NOX enzymes are the main source reactive oxygen species inducing this stress, at present NOX inhibitors have come to lime light for treating this condition but available Nox inhibitors lack of certain qualities and exhibit side effects that hold them back form clinical trials. In this study in vitro efficacy of NOX inhibitors M4, M107 and M114 patented by Glucox Biotech AB was evaluated along with a positive control, VAS2870, in cellular model of ischemic stroke using the T98G cell line through detection of gene expression of Nox2/4 genes, cell viability assay and ROS assay. Results indicate that these inhibitors decrease cell mortality significantly by inhibiting the enzymes activity and lowering the ROS. In the future there is great hope that these inhibitors could be used clinically due to their uniqueness and may hold the key to ameliorate the suffering from stroke, and save lives.

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