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  • 251.
    Kokkonen, Alexander
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Evaluation of next-generation sequencing as a tool for determining the presence of pathogens in clinical samples2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Metagenomic sequencing is an increasingly popular way of determining microbial diversity from environmental and clinical samples. By specifically targeting the 16S rRNA gene found in all bacteria, classifications of pathogens can be determined based on the variable and conserved regions found in the gene. Metagenomic sequencing can therefore highlight the vast difference in microbiological diversity between culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Today, this has expanded into various next-generation sequencing platforms which can provide massively parallel sequencing of the target fragment. One of these platforms is Ion-torrent, which can be utilized for targeting the 16S rRNA gene and with the help of bioinformatics pipelines be able to classify pathogens using the bacteria’s own variable and conserved regions. The overall aim of the present work is to evaluate the clinical use of Ion-torrent 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for determining pathogenic species from clinical samples, but also to set up a pipeline for clinical practice. Optimal DNA-extraction and quantification methods were determined towards each evaluated sample-type and DNA-eluates were sent for 16S rRNA Sanger and Next-generation sequencing. The result indicated that the next-generation sequencing shows a concordance in results towards the culturing-based method, but also the importance of experimental design and effective quality trimming of the NGS data. The conclusion of the project is that the Ion-torrent pipeline provided by the Public Health Agency of Sweden shows great promise in determining pathogens from clinical samples. However, there is still a lot of validation and standardisations needed for the successful implementation into a clinical setting.

  • 252.
    Kokkonen, Alexander
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Unilabs AB.
    Tilevik, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Tilevik, Andreas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Fagerlind, Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Enroth, Helena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde.
    Clinical use of 16SrRNA Ion TorrentNext-generation sequencing and bioinformatics pipeline2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 253.
    Kotta, Jonne
    et al.
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Vanhatalo, Jarno
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics and Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jänes, Holger
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia / Centre for Integrative Ecology, Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Orav-Kotta, Helen
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Rugiu, Luca
    Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Jormalainen, Veijo
    Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Bobsien, Ivo
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Viitasalo, Markku
    Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Virtanen, Elina
    Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyström Sandman, Antonia
    AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaeus, Martin
    AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jonsson, Per R.
    Department of Marine Sciences – Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Tjärnö, Strömstad, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Department of Marine Sciences – Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Tjärnö, Strömstad, Sweden.
    Integrating experimental and distribution data to predict future species patterns2019Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 1821Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictive species distribution models are mostly based on statistical dependence between environmental and distributional data and therefore may fail to account for physiological limits and biological interactions that are fundamental when modelling species distributions under future climate conditions. Here, we developed a state-of-the-art method integrating biological theory with survey and experimental data in a way that allows us to explicitly model both physical tolerance limits of species and inherent natural variability in regional conditions and thereby improve the reliability of species distribution predictions under future climate conditions. By using a macroalga-herbivore association (Fucus vesiculosus - Idotea balthica) as a case study, we illustrated how salinity reduction and temperature increase under future climate conditions may significantly reduce the occurrence and biomass of these important coastal species. Moreover, we showed that the reduction of herbivore occurrence is linked to reduction of their host macroalgae. Spatial predictive modelling and experimental biology have been traditionally seen as separate fields but stronger interlinkages between these disciplines can improve species distribution projections under climate change. Experiments enable qualitative prior knowledge to be defined and identify cause-effect relationships, and thereby better foresee alterations in ecosystem structure and functioning under future climate conditions that are not necessarily seen in projections based on non-causal statistical relationships alone.

  • 254.
    Koukoura, Angeliki
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Is Telling the Truth a New Index for Deception?: An Electrophysiological Approach2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 255.
    Kraish, Bashar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Analysis of SMN-1 in promotion of insulin secretion in C. elegans2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    smn-1 plays an important role in spinal muscle atrophy and it is a common cause of death of infants. Recently has been shown that smn-1 is also an important factor in secretion of insulin from pancreas β cells since the loss of smn-1 leads to hypoglycemia and reduces the number of β cells. The main secretion effect of smn-1 in C. elegans model organism has been analyzed in order to further understand the molecular mechanism and its role in secretion. To understand this effect, three transgenic GFP stairs have been used: DAF-28::GFP (insulin tagged with GFP), ANF::GFP (dense core vesicle cargo tagged with GFP) and secreted GFP, along with DAF-16/FOXO::GFP (transcription factor). Those strains were analyzed using a fluorescence microscope, western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) techniques to understand how the smn-1 mutation affects secretion mechanism. General secretion defects were observed, together with a defect in insulin secretion (DAF-28::GFP and ANF::GFP), while DAF-16::GFP indicated rescue effect on the sterility phenotype of smn-1 mutant. Western blot analysis has shown normal DAF-28::GFP expression, however the localization of DAF-28::GFP in non-neuronal neuronal cells was significant. By using qPCR, upregulation of daf-28 and daf-16 genes were detected in a strain that over expresses smn-1 gene (cMYC::SMN-1), indicating that the manipulation of the smn-1 level, leads to changes in gene expression. This study shown that using smn-1 mutant (ok355) and SMN-1 tagged with cMYC (cMYC::SMN-1) to study human disease spinal muscle atrophy in C. elegans, provides  useful information about the secretion pathway. 

  • 256.
    Kralj, Andrea
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The neurobiology underlying personality traits and conflict behavior: Examining the similarities in brain regions between agreeableness, aggression and dominating conflict style2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicts are part of our everyday life and the field of psychology describes how specific personality traits relate to specific conflict styles. However, the question remaining is why these relations exist? Recently, personality neuroscience has begun pinning down the neurobiology of personality traits, providing a deeper understanding of the human behavior. The present thesis utilizes the Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1990) of personality to investigate the neurobiology underlying the inverse relation between the specific personality trait of Agreeableness and dominating conflict style (a conflict management style characterized by aggressiveness, authoritarianism and/or need for dominance). Agreeableness overlaps both empathy and aggression which can work as each other’s opposites in explaining conflict behaviors. The goal of the thesis was to investigate whether the inverse relation between Agreeableness and dominating conflict style can be explained by brain regions. Brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex and regions involving anterior cingulate appear to be the most prominent neurobiology describing the relation. Serotonin is the neural substance involved in most cortical and subcortical brain structures and it also regulates the suppression of aggression, making it an important substance both within Agreeableness and the preference for dominating conflict style. The thesis will sum up with a discussion including some limitations within the research and further aspects such the consequences of the findings will be discussed.

  • 257.
    Kristensson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lundin, Anders
    AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, David
    Emeriti Bio, AZ Bioventure Hub, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Fryklund, Jan
    Emeriti Bio, AZ Bioventure Hub, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Fex, Tomas
    Emeriti Bio, AZ Bioventure Hub, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Delsing, Louise
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ryberg, Erik
    AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Plasminogen binding inhibitors demonstrate unwanted activities on GABAA and glycine receptors in human iPSC derived neurons2018Ingår i: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 681, s. 37-43, artikel-id S0304-3940(18)30351-3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasminogen binding inhibitors (PBIs) reduce the risk of bleeding in hemorrhagic conditions. However, generic PBIs are also associated with an increased risk of seizures, an adverse effect linked to unwanted activities towards inhibitory neuronal receptors. Development of novel PBIs serve to remove compounds with such properties, but progress is limited by a lack of higher throughput methods with human translatability. Herein we apply human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived neurons in combination with dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) technology to demonstrate robust and reproducible modulation of both GABAA and glycine receptors. These cells respond to GABA (EC50 0.33 ± 0.18 μM), glycine (EC50 11.0 ± 3.7 μM) and additional ligands in line with previous reports from patch clamp technologies. Additionally, we identify and characterize a competitive antagonistic behavior of the prototype inhibitor and drug tranexamic acid (TXA). Finally, we demonstrate proof of concept for effective counter-screening of lead series compounds towards unwanted GABAAreceptor activities. No activity was observed for a previously identified PBI candidate drug, AZD6564, whereas a discontinued analog, AZ13267257, could be characterized as a potent GABAA receptor agonist.

  • 258.
    Krus Hansson, Eric
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Default Mode Network and Its Role in Major Depressive Disorder2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates the relationship between a malfunctioning Default Mode Network (DMN) and the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A deeper understanding of how the DMN affects those brain processes which are implicated in MDD may offer new approaches to reduce the suffering of the very large number of MDD-afflicted patients. The MDD-DMN relationship has been investigated by studying scientific articles within the field of cognitive neuroscience and searching the articles for clues on how a malfunctioning DMN might correlate with the diagnosis of MDD. The essay concludes that there is much experimental evidence in support of there being a strong coupling between a malfunctioning DMN and the diagnosis of MDD.

  • 259.
    Kunze, Angelika
    et al.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden / Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Steel, Daniella
    Cellectis AB, Göteborg, Sweden / Abcam, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Dahlenborg, Kerstin
    Cellectis AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Cellectis AB, Göteborg, Sweden / AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Svedhem, Sofia
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Non-Invasive Acoustical sensing of Drug-Induced Effects on the Contractile Machinery of Human Cardiomyocyte Clusters2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 1-10, artikel-id e0125540Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an urgent need for improved models for cardiotoxicity testing. Here we propose acoustic sensing applied to beating human cardiomyocyte clusters for non-invasive, surrogate measuring of the QT interval and other characteristics of the contractile machinery. In experiments with the acoustic method quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), the shape of the recorded signals was very similar to the extracellular field potential detected in electrochemical experiments, and the expected changes of the QT interval in response to addition of conventional drugs (E-4031 or nifedipine) were observed. Additionally, changes in the dissipation signal upon addition of cytochalasin D were in good agreement with the known, corresponding shortening of the contraction-relaxation time. These findings suggest that QCM-D has great potential as a tool for cardiotoxicological screening, where effects of compounds on the cardiomyocyte contractile machinery can be detected independently of whether the extracellular field potential is altered or not.

  • 260.
    Kuzbiel, Dawid
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neural correlates of focused attention and open monitoring meditation2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Meditation, used initially as a vehicle for self-discovery and attainment of enlightenment, is today a tool for well-being among the general public and has even found its way into the clinical milieu. Meditation is challenging term to define and the variety of meditation practices, all with their own aims, pose a problem in terms of scientific understanding. A better sense of how these practices compare will help both general public and neuroscientists. Here, two of the fundamental practices originating from Buddhist tradition, focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) meditation are compared. FA meditation activates mainly right medial/lateral PFC, parts of the limbic system and ACC. These regions help with sustaining attention and monitoring goal-conflicting distractors. FA deactivates parts of the default mode network (DMN), responsible for non-task specific processes and mind wandering. OM meditation reduces pain by top-down regulation of the limbic system. OM engages left fronto-parietal and insular regions, which help with conscious access of thoughts and emotions. OM seems to affect parts of the DMN. The thalamus is involved in both practices, where it helps to relay sensory signals in accordance with the different aims of each practice. This thesis hopes to contribute to a better understanding of how two main categories of meditation compare concerning their neural correlates.

  • 261.
    Kärrström, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neural correlates of mindfulness related to stress: How mindfulness promotes wellbeing2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness practice is used to treat mental and physical symptoms. The problem is that research on the long-term effects and the neural changes involved, correlated with well-being, are inconsistent. The purpose of this review is to create a deeper understanding of mindfulness and its neural correlates related to stress. In mindfulness, one can use focused attention meditation (FA), involving anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal areas, thalamus, visual cortex, intraparietal sulcus, and amygdala. In open monitoring meditation (OM), ACC, PFC, insula, somatosensory cortex, limbic areas and amygdala are involved. In exposure to a high amount of stress, the grey matter volume decreases in the hippocampus, PFC, and amygdala. Research has also shown that 19 000 hours of mindfulness practice increases activation in areas involved in FA and OM. This increased activation might also enhance the subject’s ability to control emotions. After 44 000 hours of meditation, areas involved in FA showed less activation which might imply that more hours of mindfulness practice involve less cognitive activity and a calmer state of mind. Regardless of hours spent on meditating, a decreased activation in the amygdala and ACC occurs, which correlates with less response towards negative stimuli. The neural changes involved in mindfulness practice was related to less experienced stress and enhanced psychological well-being. For future research, an investigation of the interaction between attentional networks and stress would be of relevance.

  • 262.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    et al.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Asplund, A.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Abadie, A.
    Takara Bio Europe SAS, Paris, France.
    Novel human iPSC-derived hepatocytes with advanced functionality and long-term 2D cultures of human primary hepatocytes for metabolic disease studies2018Ingår i: Human Gene Therapy, ISSN 1043-0342, E-ISSN 1557-7422, Vol. 29, nr 12, s. A146-A146, artikel-id P406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 263.
    Laaksonen, L.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallioinen, M.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Långsjö, J.
    Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    Laitio, T.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, A.
    University of Turku. Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, J.
    Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Kaisti, K.
    Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
    Maksimow, A.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallionpää, R. E.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Rajala, V.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Johansson, J.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kantonen, O.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
    Nyman, M.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sirén, S.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Solin, O.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vahlberg, T.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Alkire, M.
    University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
    Scheinin, Harry
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Comparative effects of dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane, and S-ketamine on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in humans: a positron emission tomography study2018Ingår i: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 121, nr 1, s. 281-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionThe highly selective α2-agonist dexmedetomidine has become a popular sedative for neurointensive care patients. However, earlier studies have raised concern that dexmedetomidine might reduce cerebral blood flow without a concomitant decrease in metabolism. Here, we compared the effects of dexmedetomidine on the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) with three commonly used anaesthetic drugs at equi-sedative doses.

    MethodsOne hundred and sixty healthy male subjects were randomised to EC50 for verbal command of dexmedetomidine (1.5 ng ml−1n=40), propofol (1.7 μg ml−1n=40), sevoflurane (0.9% end-tidal; n=40) or S-ketamine (0.75 μg ml−1n=20) or placebo (n=20). Anaesthetics were administered using target-controlled infusion or vapouriser with end-tidal monitoring. 18F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose was administered 20 min after commencement of anaesthetic administration, and high-resolution positron emission tomography with arterial blood activity samples was used to quantify absolute CMRglu for whole brain and 15 brain regions.

    ResultsAt the time of [F18]fluorodeoxyglucose injection, 55% of dexmedetomidine, 45% of propofol, 85% of sevoflurane, 45% of S-ketamine, and 0% of placebo subjects were unresponsive. Whole brain CMRglu was 63%, 71%, 71%, and 96% of placebo in the dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane, and S-ketamine groups, respectively (P<0.001 between the groups). The lowest CMRglu was observed in nearly all brain regions with dexmedetomidine (P<0.05 compared with all other groups). With S-ketamine, CMRgludid not differ from placebo.

    ConclusionsAt equi-sedative doses in humans, potency in reducing CMRglu was dexmedetomidine>propofol>ketamine=placebo. These findings alleviate concerns for dexmedetomidine-induced vasoconstriction and cerebral ischaemia.

  • 264.
    Landegren, Nils
    et al.
    Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sharon, Donald
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, CA, USA / Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
    Shum, Anthony K.
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Khan, Imran S.
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Fasano, Kayla J.
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Hallgren, Åsa
    Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kampf, Caroline
    Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Freyhult, Eva
    Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Life Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ardesjö-Lundgren, Brita
    Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alimohammadi, Mohammad
    Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rathsman, Sandra
    Department of Laboratory Medicine/Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundh, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Motrich, Ruben
    Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba 5000, Argentina.
    Rivero, Virginia
    Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba 5000, Argentina.
    Fong, Lawrence
    University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.
    Giwercman, Aleksander
    Molecular Reproduction Research, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Perheentupa, Jaakko
    The Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00029, Finland.
    Husebye, Eystein S.
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, and Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen 5020, Norway.
    Anderson, Mark S.
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Snyder, Michael
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford 94305, CA, USA.
    Kämpe, Olle
    Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Transglutaminase 4 as a prostate autoantigen in male subfertility2015Ingår i: Science Translational Medicine, ISSN 1946-6234, E-ISSN 1946-6242, Vol. 7, nr 292, artikel-id 292ra101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1), a monogenic disorder caused by AIRE gene mutations, features multiple autoimmune disease components. Infertility is common in both males and females with APS1. Although female infertility can be explained by autoimmune ovarian failure, the mechanisms underlying male infertility have remained poorly understood. We performed a proteome-wide autoantibody screen in APS1 patient sera to assess the autoimmune response against the male reproductive organs. By screening human protein arrays with male and female patient sera and by selecting for gender-imbalanced autoantibody signals, we identified transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) as a male-specific autoantigen. Notably, TGM4 is a prostatic secretory molecule with critical role in male reproduction. TGM4 autoantibodies were detected in most of the adult male APS1 patients but were absent in all the young males. Consecutive serum samples further revealed that TGM4 autoantibodies first presented during pubertal age and subsequent to prostate maturation. We assessed the animal model for APS1, the Aire-deficient mouse, and found spontaneous development of TGM4 autoantibodies specifically in males. Aire-deficient mice failed to present TGM4 in the thymus, consistent with a defect in central tolerance for TGM4. In the mouse, we further link TGM4 immunity with a destructive prostatitis and compromised secretion of TGM4. Collectively, our findings in APS1 patients and Aire-deficient mice reveal prostate autoimmunity as a major manifestation of APS1 with potential role in male subfertility.

  • 265.
    Landron, Teddy
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Electroencephalographic frontal alpha asymmetry and biological markers of the immune system: A correlation study2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The immune system has been suggested as crucial in brain and psychological functioning. More precisely, immune markers reflecting immune system activity are important for psychological and mental health, as evident by their role in the physiopathology of depression and in the impairment of executive functions. Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA), an electroencephalographic marker of brain function, has also been linked to such psychopathology and is thought to reflect psychological processes underlying approach- versus withdrawal-related motivation and higher-order inhibitory control. Only a few studies have linked FAA to immune markers but notably found a negative association between IL-6, a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, and FAA. The aim of the present work is thus to study the relationship between various immune markers (including pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-6) and FAA. 35 healthy young male participants underwent a resting EEG recording and blood sampling from which immune markers were measured. The results did not suggest an association between IL-6 and FAA. No other immune markers were either suggested to be associated to FAA. The complexity of the immune system (e.g., effect of cytokines) is underlined and may explain the results. Despite such results, the implication of true negative correlations between FAA and circulating immune markers, as suggested in previous studies, is discussed in the light of the theoretical models of FAA.

  • 266.
    Larsson, Mathias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Stress and Seizures: Behavioural Stress-Reduction Interventions’ Efficiency in Lowering Seizure Frequency2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Epilepsy is the most common, chronic, serious neurological disease in the world, with an estimated 65 million people affected worldwide. Recent studies on people diagnosed with epilepsy suggest that stress might trigger epileptic seizures. Interventions aimed at lowering stress might be able to reduce the risk for epileptic seizures among epileptics. In an attempt to explore this possibility, I conducted a systematic review addressing the efficacy of behavioral interventions targeted at lowering stress on seizure frequency among an epileptic population. This article also investigated the efficacy of these interventions on lowering self-perceived stress in the same population. Three databases were searched for obtaining 54 references. After a systematic filtering process, a set of 2 studies was retained after the full search procedure. The results suggest stress-reducing behavioral interventions do not have any statistically significant effects on lowering seizure frequency but have a statistically significant effect on lowering self-perceived stress ratings among an epileptic population. The small but promising results from trials and systematic reviews not included in this review warrant further research into the topic. Limitations regarding search procedure included studies and consideration for further research and reading for the presented topics are discussed.

  • 267.
    Lawenius, Tove
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Sambandet mellan fetch och förekomst av stormusslor: En studie i Vänern2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sötvattensmusslor är viktiga i ekosystem där de finns, för människan utgör de även en ekosystemtjänst då de filtrerar vatten. De stora sötvattensmusslorna kallas stormusslor och finns i både sjöar och vattendrag i Sverige. I Vänern har fyra av de inhemska arterna noterats. Fetchen är längden på den öppna vattenytan från en punkt på land till närmsta land eller ö. Beroende på en strands storlek på fetch kan bottensedimentet se annorlunda ut. Musslorna är bottenlevande och spenderar mycket tid nedgrävda i bottensedimenten. När musslorna är uppe och filtrerar på bottenytan sitter de halvt nergrävda med bakänden uppåt. I denna rapport presenteras stormusslornas förekomst och dess relation till stränders fetch. Mer kunskap om stormusslorna behövs för att kunna utveckla ett mer anpassat naturvårdsarbete för dem.

    Inventering av musslor har skett på 20 olika platser i sydöstra Vänernområdet. Denna studie visar att en trend till ett samband finns mellan förekomst av stormusslor och lokalens fetch. Fetchen påverkar den maximala tätheten som musslorna kan uppnå. Analys ger statistisk signifikans på att tätheten minskar med ökad fetch. Tidigare forskning visar på liknande resultat. Emellertid tycks fler variabler vara beroende faktorer för hur mycket och om fetchen påverkar musslorna.

  • 268.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Berntsson, Ann-Charlotte
    Nordens ark.
    Niklasson, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Nordiskt honungsbi studeras på Nordens ark2019Ingår i: Yrfän, ISSN 2002-1151, nr 3, s. 22-25Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 269.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Boström, Sven
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Diversitet hos hakmaskar – tarmparasiter hos gråsälar i Östersjön2019Ingår i: Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 114, nr 2, s. 35-39Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Döda gråsälar i Östersjön har insamlats och undersökts genom obduktion på Naturhistoriska riksmuseet sedan 1970-talet. En relativt stor andel av de obducerade sälarna har haft sår i tarmarna,och troligen kan perforerade tarmsår vara en av orsakerna till att de har dött. Tarmsåren förorsakas av tre arter av hakmaskar i släktet Corynosoma, och dessa har blivit föremål för ingående morfologiska och ekologiska studier.

  • 270.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Boström, Sven
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wayland, Matthew T.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, England.
    Morphological observations on three Baltic species of Corynosoma Lühe, 1905 (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae)2019Ingår i: European Journal of Taxonomy, ISSN 2118-9773, Vol. 514, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Necropsies of Baltic grey (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Pusa hispida) presented a rare opportunity to study their acanthocephalan fauna. Both species hosted adults of three species of the genus Corynosoma Lithe, 1904, namely C. magdaleni Montreuil, 1958, C. semerme (Forsell, 1904) Lithe 1911 and C. strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) Lithe 1904. A comparative morphological analysis of these three species of Corynosoma, combining both light and scanning electron microscopy, was performed for the first time. Sexual dimorphism in the size and shape of the trunk was observed in both C. magdaleni and C. semerme, but there was insufficient material to investigate this phenomenon in C. strumosum. Genital spines were not observed in any of the female acanthocephalans. Three possible explanations for the presence of genital spines in some females, but not others are (i) cryptic speciation, (ii) phenotypic variation and (iii) loss by extraction or shearing when the copulatory cap is released. Copulatory caps were observed on female C. semerme. The size and morphology showed considerable variability and all caps were strongly autofluoresecent.

  • 271.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Jonsson, Annie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Bourlat, Sarah
    Centre for Molecular Biodiversity Research, Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    End biodiversity loss through improved tracking of marine threatened invertebrates2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 272.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Niklasson, Mats
    Nordens ark.
    Berntsson, AnnCharlotte
    Nordens ark.
    BIstånd till nordiska bin – en resurs för framtidens ekosystemtjänster2019Ingår i: NordBi-Aktuellt, nr 1, s. 5-6Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 273.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Norrström, Niclas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Lägesrapport inom INTERREG-projektet: BIstånd till nordiska bin2019Ingår i: NordBi-Aktuellt, nr 2, s. 5-6Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 274.
    Lennermo, Linnéa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Att drabbas av stroke: En litteraturstudie baserad på självbiografier2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Stroke innebär blödning eller propp i något eller några av hjärnans blodkärl och är en sjukdom som drabbar många människor världen över varje dag. Insjuknande i stroke kan medföra både fysiska och psykiska funktionsnedsättningar och kan således ha stora konsekvenser för den drabbade individen. Ökad kunskap kring upplevelser av att insjukna i stroke kan hjälpa sjuksköterskan att ge god och specifik omvårdnad, vilket kan vara avgörande för patientens hälsa och välbefinnande. Syfte: Att beskriva människors upplevelser av att drabbas av stroke. Metod: En litteraturstudie där sex självbiografiska böcker analyserades genom en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Ur analysen framkom fyra huvudkategorier: En förändrad livsvärld, Att hamna i andras händer, Att pendla mellan hopp och förtvivlan samt Omgivningens påverkan på välbefinnandet. Konklusion: Insjuknande i stroke kan medföra både psykiska och fysiska förändringar och kan ha stora konsekvenser på hälsa och välbefinnande hos den drabbade. Resultatet av denna studie kanbidra med kunskap och förståelse om hur stroke kan påverka en människa, vilket kan hjälpa sjukvårdspersonal att förbättra omvårdnaden av dessa patienter och således lindra lidande.

  • 275.
    Leverin, Malin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Skogsbrukets påverkan på artmångfalden hos mossor och lavar: Är artmångfalden större i en skog vid kontinuitetsskogsbruk än vid trakthyggesbruk?2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges vanligaste skogsbruksmetod, trakthyggesbruket, har medfört problem för skogens artmångfald. År 2010 fanns det i Sverige 319 stycken hotade mossor och lavar som var kopplade till skogen. Varav vissa arter är beroende av lång skoglig kontinuitet, gammal multnande ved, skogsbrand eller andra naturliga fenomen som enbart finns i en mer eller mindre orörd skog. Alternativet till denna skogsbruksmetod finns i kontinuitetsskogsbruket som var vanligt förr, innan skogsbruket blev till en industri. På den tiden då bönderna själva plockade ut det virke dom behövde för sin egen överlevnad kunde skogen fortfarande fungera som ett ekosystem. Denna rapport avser jämföra och redogöra för eventuella skillnader i artmångfalden av mossor och lavar mellan de tre skogstyperna naturskog, kontinuitetsbrukad och trakthyggesbrukad skog. Undersökningen har baserats på fyra olika kontinuitetsbrukade skogar i Skåne, Västra Götaland och Östergötlands län. Utifrån dessa skogars förutsättningar har sedan trakthyggesbrukade skogar och naturskogar valts ut i acceptabel närhet. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att de trakthyggesbrukade skogarna avviker signifikant i artmångfald från de andra skogstyperna. Naturskogarna och de kontinuitetsbrukade skogarna är rikare i artmångfald och har mer kongruenta värden, dock är förekomsten av epifyter högre i naturskogen. Resultatet visar också att förekomsten av signalarter är högre i en skog vid kontinuitetsskogsbruk än vid trakthyggesbruk.

  • 276.
    Li, Kaitao
    et al.
    Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA.
    Cheng, Xiaoxiao
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Tilevik, Andreas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Davis, Simon J.
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Zhu, Cheng
    Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA.
    In situ and in silico kinetic analyses of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor, programmed cell death ligands, and B7-1 protein interaction network2017Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 292, nr 16, s. 6799-6809Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor with an essential role in maintaining peripheral tolerance and is among the most promising immunotherapeutic targets for treating cancer, autoimmunity, and infectious diseases. A complete understanding of the consequences of PD-1 engagement by its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, and of PD-L1 binding to B7-1 requires quantitative analysis of their interactions at the cell surface. We present here the first complete in situ kinetic analysis of the PD-1/PD-ligands/B7-1 system. Consistent with previous solution measurements, we observed higher in situ affinities for human (h) than murine (m) PD-1 interactions, stronger binding of hPD-1 to hPD-L2 than hPD-L1, and comparable binding of mPD-1 to both ligands. However, in contrast to the relatively weak solution affinities, the in situ affinities of PD-1 are as high as those of the T cell receptor for agonist pMHC and of LFA-1 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1) for ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) but significantly lower than that of the B7-1/CTLA-4 interaction, suggesting a distinct basis for PD-1- versus CTLA-4-mediated inhibition. Notably, the in situ interactions of PD-1 are much stronger than that of B7-1 with PD-L1. Overall, the in situ affinity ranking greatly depends on the on-rate instead of the off-rate. In silico simulations predict that PD-1/PD-L1 interactions dominate at interfaces between activated T cells and mature dendritic cells and that these interactions will be highly sensitive to the dynamics of PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression. Our results provide a kinetic framework for better understanding inhibitory PD-1 activity in health and disease.

  • 277.
    Lidén, Josefin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Intrinsic Motivation and its Neural Correlates2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Why is motivation important? The answer is simple to most of us: it is what makes people push forward and act. Intrinsic motivation is the kind of motivation that arises from within a person, making her or him strive towards a goal for no other reward than the feeling it will bring. Additionally, this kind of motivation has shown correlations with enhanced learning, creativity, performance, optimal development, and well-being. While intrinsic motivation has long been a topic within the field of psychology, the neural correlates underlying it have only recently become of interest for researchers, and studies have shown some interesting but also contradictory findings. Therefore, the aim of this literature review thesis is to investigate the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation further. Firstly, a background review of motivation in general and intrinsic motivation in particular is presented, focusing on concepts such as the self-determination theory, flow, and cognitive evaluation theory. This is followed by a chapter on motivation- and intrinsic motivation from a neuroscientific perspective, concerning concepts such as the reward system, the undermining effect, and studies examining the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation. These studies show that there was activity in several different areas when participants were intrinsically motivated. However, a frequent pattern of activity in dopaminergic pathways involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was detected in most studies, indicating the involvement of these areas in particular when a person is intrinsically motivated.

  • 278.
    Liljebjer, Mattias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Mental Visualisering i Ledarskap2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats skall undersöka kopplingen mellan mental visualisering och ledarskap. Då tiderna förändras så ändras även rollen för en god ledare efter de nya förutsättningarna. Jag skall först undersöka vad som utmärker en ledarroll och vilka egenskaper som karktäriserar en god ledare. En sådan egenskap som jag tittar djupare på är mental visualisering; vart och hur är denna egenskap aktiv i en hjärna? Slutligen kommer jag försöka besavara hur eller om visualisering är en kritisk egenskap hos en god ledare.

  • 279.
    Lindberg, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Relations Between the Capgras and Cotard Delusions2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Delusions are commonly thought of as bizarre and fascinating; a delusion is a false belief that is held despite counterevidence. They have also been hard to study, in part because of the many forms that they can take. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have made it possible to study delusions more empirically, by using methods such as Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to locate neural correlates. The Capgras delusion is a syndrome in which a patient has the belief that someone has been replaced by an impostor. The Cotard delusion is a syndrome in which a patient has the belief that oneself does not exist or is dead. These two delusions have been found to have some curious similarities. This thesis investigates how the Capgras and Cotard delusions relate to each other, with a focus on the neural correlates. The nature of delusions is explained, along with the Capgras and Cotard delusions. Relevant case reports for each delusion are presented. Neural correlates are also reviewed and compared between the delusions. Studies on the similarities in face recognition impairments are included, as well as on attribution styles. The findings demonstrated in this thesis show that the Capgras and Cotard delusions relate to each other in several ways, including in terms of overlapping neural correlates, in face recognition impairments, attribution styles and the fact that both delusions sometimes co-exist and follow each other. It is possible that the Capgras and Cotard delusions share fundamentally similar causes.

  • 280.
    Lindberg, Markus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neural correlates of lucid dreaming and comparisons with phenomenological aspects2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the neural correlates of lucid dreaming has recently gained more underlying data. By exploring seven studies that investigated the neural basis of lucid dreaming, this essay sought to examine which neural correlates are associated with lucid dreaming and how proposed neural correlates relate to phenomenological aspects. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was judged as the region most associated with lucid dreaming, in support of a DLPFC hypothesis. Support for reactivation of DLPFC in lucid dreaming consisted of data from electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and transcranial direct current stimulation. Phenomenological aspects associated with this region involved meta-awareness, working-memory, decision-making, and conscious perception. Other regions of interest were parietal areas, frontal areas, and precuneus. Data was not always compatible, implying need for further research. The possibility of further research was judged as promising, based on a recent study inducing lucid dreaming in a significant percent of its test subjects.

  • 281.
    Linde, Helene
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Alkoholens effekt på kognitiva funktioner med fokus på minnet2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol är den vanligaste och mest accepterade drogen i världen. I västvärlden uppskattas 90 % ha konsumerat alkohol någon gång i livet varav 30 % utvecklar alkoholrelaterade problem. Alkoholkonsumtionen är störst i länder med högt ekonomiskt välstånd samtidigt som antalet nykterister i dessa länder är lågt. Alkohol har en global inhiberingseffekt på hjärnan vilket ofta leder till negativa konskevenser för samhället, enskilda individer samt dess närstående. Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en omfattande överblick om de negativa konsekvenser alkohol har på kognitiva funktioner med fokus på minnet. Alkoholen påverkar främst hippocampus vilket leder till försämringar av minnet. Studier har visat att tillfällig kraftig alkoholkonsumtion stör inkodningen av ny episodisk information vilket leder till uppkomsten av begränsade perioder där minnen delvis eller helt saknas, vilket kallas för minnesluckor. Andra processer relaterade till minnet som long-term potentiation och long-term depression i hippocampus förhindras till viss del eller blockeras helt av alkohol. Studier har även visat att både tillfällig och långvarig alkoholkonsumtion leder till försämringar av kognitiva funktioner som minnet och exekutiva funktioner vilket ofta involverar förändrad neural aktivitet i frontalloben. Alkoholvolymen och alkoholkoncentrationen i blodet är två faktorer som har en avgörande roll för alkoholens effekt på kognitiva funktioner. Risken för uppkomsten av minnesluckor ökar vid tillfällig kraftig alkoholkonsumtion när alkoholvolymen är hög och alkoholkoncentrationen i blodet stiger fort till höga nivåer. Alkoholberoende utvecklas däremot genom att det sker fysiologiska förändringar av signalsubstanserna i hjärnan. Långvarig alkoholkonsumtion kan leda till utvecklandet av Korsakoff syndrom som innefattar amnesi.

  • 282.
    Lindersson, Carl
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Threatening Measures, at Face Value: Electrophysiology Indicating Confounds of the Facial Width-to-Height Ratio2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies support that the relative width of the upper face (facial width-to-height ratio; fWHR) has evolved to signal threat, but these studies rely greatly on subjective facial ratings and measurements prone to confounds. The present study objectively quantifies threat perception to the magnitude of the observers’ electrophysiological reaction, specifically the event-related potential (ERP) called the late positive potential (LPP), and investigate if brow height and jaw width could have confounded previous fWHR studies. Swedish and international students (N = 30, females = 11, Mage = 24 years, SDage = 2.9) were shown computer-generated neutral faces created with the underlying skeletal morphology varying in brow ridge height, cheekbone width and jaw width. Participants first rated how threatening each face was and then viewed 12 blocks of 64 faces while their electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The results supported that the LPP could be used to index threat perception and showed that only brow height significantly affected both facial ratings (p < .001, ɳp2 = .698) and magnitude of the LPP within the 400 to 800 ms latency (p = .02, d = .542). Hence, brow height, not facial width, could explain previous findings. The results contradict the hypothesis that fWHR is an evolved cue of threat and instead support the overgeneralisation hypothesis in that faces with similar features to anger will be perceived as more threatening.

  • 283.
    Lindhe, Hanna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Emotional Brain and Sleep: A review of the relationship between sleep and emotional brain functioning2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Why do we need to sleep? Not only is getting enough sleep important for our overall health and well-being, it is perhaps of utmost importance for normal brain functioning. Scientific findings derived from studying sleep deprivation suggests that sleep also plays an important role in our emotional functioning, which has led researchers to propose a causal and intimate relationship between sleep and emotional brain functioning. Without sleep it seems as our emotional processing become impaired in various ways. Along with advances in cognitive neuroscience, it is now possible to characterize mechanisms underlying emotional brain processes. In pursuit of the possible functions of sleep, researchers have also proposed that rapid eye movement sleep, might support a process of affective brain homeostasis and recalibration that optimally prepares the organism for next-day social and emotional functioning. This thesis reviews current behavioral and neurophysiological evidence focused on the relationship between sleep and emotional brain functioning, and the role of rapid eye movement sleep in emotional processing.

  • 284.
    Lindlöf, Angelica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Chawade, Aakash
    CropTailor AB, Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sikora, Per
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Olof
    CropTailor AB, Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Comparative Transcriptomics of Sijung and Jumli Marshi Rice during Early Chilling Stress Imply Multiple Protective Mechanisms2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id e0125385Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Low temperature is one of the major environmental factors that adversely affect plant growth and yield. Many cereal crops from tropical regions, such as rice, are chilling sensitive and, therefore, are affected already at <10°C. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that chilling susceptibility varies greatly among rice varieties, which indicates differences in the underlying molecular responses. Understanding these differences is vital for continued development of rational breeding and transgenic strategies for more tolerant varieties. Thus, in this study, we conducted a comparative global gene expression profiling analysis of the chilling tolerant varieties Sijung and Jumli Marshi (spp. Japonica) during early chilling stress (<24 h, 10°C).

    Methods and Results

    Global gene expression experiments were conducted with Agilent Rice Gene Expression Microarray 4x44K. The analysed results showed that there was a relatively low (percentage or number) overlap in differentially expressed genes in the two varieties and that substantially more genes were up-regulated in Jumli Marshi than in Sijung but the number of down-regulated genes were higher in Sijung. In broad GO annotation terms, the activated response pathways in Sijung and Jumli Marshi were coherent, as a majority of the genes belonged to the catalytic, transcription regulator or transporter activity categories. However, a more detailed analysis revealed essential differences. For example, in Sijung, activation of calcium and phosphorylation signaling pathways, as well as of lipid transporters and exocytosis-related proteins take place very early in the stress response. Such responses can be coupled to processes aimed at strengthening the cell wall and plasma membrane against disruption. On the contrary, in Jumli Marshi, sugar production, detoxification, ROS scavenging, protection of chloroplast translation, and plausibly the activation of the jasmonic acid pathway were the very first response activities. These can instead be coupled to detoxification processes.

    Conclusions

    Based on the results inferred from this study, we conclude that different, but overlapping, strategies are undertaken by the two varieties to cope with the chilling stress; in Sijung the initial molecular responses seem to be mainly targeted at strengthening the cell wall and plasma membrane, whereas in Jumli Marshi the protection of chloroplast translation and detoxification is prioritized.

  • 285.
    Ling, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Construction of a fusion protein for anchoring the inflammatory receptor NLRP3 to the cell membrane2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The innate immune system are a cooperation of many components – receptors being one of them. Both membrane-bound and cytosolic receptors play a large role in the defence system against pathogens and danger. NLRP3 is a receptor which assembles a protein complex called inflammasome in response to cytosolic stress and is responsible for many autoimmune diseases if it malfunctions. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome leads to secretion of inflammatory cytokines and in many cases to programmed cell death. The structure, function and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is still not fully understood and the urge to understand the mechanisms behind are important for future medical improvements. The aim was to anchor the NLRP3 inflammasome by the cell membrane - By Overlap PCR, the NLRP3 cDNA was fused extracellular and trans-membrane parts of the TLR4 cDNA to anchor the NLRP3 to the membrane and in turn analyse the inflammasome with LPI™ technology. Multiple primers and a TLR4 nucleotide were designed and the NLRP3 was amplified with specific overhangs by PCR. The fusion protein was successfully linked together by Overlap PCR but not confirmed by sequencing. The gene fusion demands high quality primers for amplification and further evaluation must be made to the details of the laboratory. To anchor the protein complex to the cell membrane, continue to be of full importance and can be an asset in many structural studies and biopharmaceuticals trials.

  • 286.
    Lingvall, Johanna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Impact of Motor Imagery on Sport Performance and the Brain's Plasticity2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    New neuroimaging techniques have made it possible to examine imagery and found evidence for that imagery share similar neural correlates as in perception. Imagery can be used in different areas to enhance performance, and it is a popular technique in sports. Similar to physical practice (PP), motor imagery (MI) can result in brain plasticity. The aim of this thesis is to describe what imagery means and describe different theories of imagery. This is to further look into what impact MI has on performance in different sports, and then to further see if there are any changes in brain plasticity as a result of using MI. There is a lack of studies done on MI, performance and brain plasticity in sport. To answer the latter focus of this thesis, studies of healthy persons and patient studies using MI to improve performance and examining changes in the brain have been used. In order to do that this thesis aims to do a literature review. The results indicate that MI combined with PP can improve sport performance. It has also been showed that MI alone can be as good as PP. Most studies found that MI combined with PP can result in brain plasticity, and only one study did not found evidence for it. It has also showed that MI alone can result in brain plasticity. Future research should include larger samples, matching subjects, and comparing the effects of MI in several kinds of sports.

  • 287.
    Liu, Oscar H.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    RNAseq Analysis of Gastric Bacteria in Helicobacter pylori-Associated Carcinogenesis2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than half of the world's population, and is known to be involved in several diseases including gastric cancer. Its close interactions with the stomach and host immune system serves as a good model to study the co-adaptation and co-evolution of the organisms in the stomach micro-environment. In this project, we utilized RNA-seq and data analysis tools to investigate differentially expressed genes by H. pylori in patients at different stages of early gastric cancer development. We also investigated the abundance and diversity of bacterial genera other than H. pylori, and looked for correlations with H. pylori presence and number. For differential gene expression of H. pylori, one gene was differentially expressed between samples of corpus atrophy without metaplasia vs. samples of antrum gastritis, and eight genes were found to be differentially expressed between samples of corpus atrophy with metaplasia vs. samples with pan-gastritis. When samples were clustered into different groups based on the expression data, 52 genes (shared or unique to the specific comparison groups) were found to be differentially expressed, but no apparent patterns were observed that could be explained by medical or sample collection data. For bacterial diversity and abundances, we found several genera colonizing the stomach, of which some have been previously identified. While most of these bacteria colonize regardless of the presence of H. pylori, the abundance of three genera, Wolinella, Campylobacter, and Veillonella, seem to be correlated with the presence of H. pylori.

  • 288.
    Liu, Oscar H.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    RNAseq Analysis of Gastric Bacteria in Helicobacter pylori-Associated Carcinogenesis2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than half of the world's population, and is known to be involved in several diseases including gastric cancer. Its close interactions with the stomach and host immune system serves as a good model to study the co-adaptation and co-evolution of the organisms in the stomach micro-environment. In this project, we utilized RNA-seq and data analysis tools to investigate differentially expressed genes by H. pylori in patients at different stages of early gastric cancer development. We also investigated the abundance and diversity of bacterial genera other than H. pylori, and looked for correlations with H. pylori presence and number. For differential gene expression of H. pylori, one gene was differentially expressed between samples of corpus atrophy without metaplasia vs. samples of antrum gastritis, and eight genes were found to be differentially expressed between samples of corpus atrophy with metaplasia vs. samples with pan-gastritis. When samples were clustered into different groups based on the expression data, 52 genes (shared or unique to the specific comparison groups) were found to be differentially expressed, but no apparent patterns were observed that could be explained by medical or sample collection data. For bacterial diversity and abundances, we found several genera colonizing the stomach, of which some have been previously identified. While most of these bacteria colonize regardless of the presence of H. pylori, the abundance of three genera, Wolinella, Campylobacter, and Veillonella, seem to be correlated with the presence of H. pylori.

  • 289.
    Ljungberg, Eira
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    A review of brain areas associated with long-term mindfulness meditation practice2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in mindfulness meditation has increased immensely in psychology practice and research the past few decades. Yet, considerably little is known about the neurological mechanisms underlying mindfulness meditation and its effects on the human mind and behaviour. That is why this thesis aims to identify the brain regions that has been consistently associated with mindfulness meditation practice. When looking at both long-term and short-term effects of mindfulness meditation this thesis identified twelve brain areas consistently associated with mindfulness meditation: the cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, somatosensory cortices, the insula, hippocampus, inferior temporal and fusiform gyrus, precuneus and corpus callousum. By looking at the functions associated with these brain regions one might gain some insight into why and in what way mindfulness meditation also affects individuals behaviourally, cognitively and emotionally. Although the results are promising they are compromised by low methodological quality, especially due to small sample groups and difficulty deciding the causation in cross-sectional studies.

  • 290.
    Ljungström, Andreas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Moral Intuition Versus Moral Reasoning In the Brain2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans express complex moral behaviour, from altruism to antisocial acts. The investigationof the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying our moral minds is of profoundimportance for understanding these behaviours. By reviewing recent findings in cognitive andmoral neuroscience, along with other relevant areas of research, the current study aims to: (1)Investigate the neural correlates of moral intuition and moral reasoning, and see how thesetwo systems relate to moral judgement and moral behaviour. (2) Examine how the moralintuitive system and the moral reasoning system relate to one another. Neuroscientificevidence suggests that these two systems are supported by different areas in the brain. Whiletheir relationship is argued to be both sequential, integrative and competitive, evidenceindicates that the moral reasoning system primarily functions as a post hoc rationalization ofour intuitive-driven judgements and behaviours. While our moral intuitive system motivateskin altruism, both moral intuition and moral reasoning serve to uphold reciprocal altruism.

  • 291.
    Ljungström, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Claesson, Berndt E. B.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ovemyr, Ida
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Berit
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Brodin, Anna-Karin
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Andersson, Rune
    Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Clinical evaluation of commercial nucleic acid amplification tests in patients with suspected sepsis2015Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikel-id 199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a serious medical condition requiring timely administered, appropriate antibiotic therapy. Blood culture is regarded as the gold standard for aetiological diagnosis of sepsis, but it suffers from low sensitivity and long turnaround time. Thus, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have emerged to shorten the time to identification of causative microbes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility in everyday practice in the emergency department of two commercial NAATs in patients suspected with sepsis.

    METHODS: During a six-week period, blood samples were collected consecutively from all adult patients admitted to the general emergency department for suspicion of a community-onset sepsis and treated with intravenous antibiotics. Along with conventional blood cultures, multiplex PCR (Magicplex™) was performed on whole blood specimens whereas portions from blood culture bottles were used for analysis by microarray-based assay (Prove-it™). The aetiological significance of identified organisms was determined by two infectious disease physicians based on clinical presentation and expected pathogenicity.

    RESULTS: Among 382 episodes of suspected sepsis, clinically relevant microbes were detected by blood culture in 42 episodes (11%), by multiplex PCR in 37 episodes (9.7%), and by microarray in 32 episodes (8.4%). Although moderate agreement with blood culture (kappa 0.50), the multiplex PCR added diagnostic value by timely detection of 15 clinically relevant findings in blood culture-negative specimens. Results of the microarray corresponded very well to those of blood culture (kappa 0.90), but were available just marginally prior to blood culture results.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of NAATs on whole blood specimens in adjunct to current culture-based methods provides a clinical add-on value by allowing for detection of organisms missed by blood culture. However, the aetiological significance of findings detected by NAATs should be interpreted with caution as the high analytical sensitivity may add findings that do not necessarily corroborate with the clinical diagnosis.

  • 292.
    Ljungström, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital / The swedish strategic program against antibiotic resistance.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Tilevik, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    The diagnostic value of PCT as biomarker in patients suspected with community-onset bacterial sepsis2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 293.
    Ljungström, Lars
    et al.
    Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Diana
    Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Andersson, R.
    Institute of Biosciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden.
    Neutrophil to lymphocyte count ratio performs better than procalcitonin as a biomarker for bacteremia and severe sepsis in the emergency department2015Ingår i: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 19, nr Suppl 1, artikel-id P66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 294.
    Ljungström, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / CARe–Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Rune
    CARe–Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Usener, Barbara
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Tilevik, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin, neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio, C-reactive protein, and lactate in patients with suspected bacterial sepsis2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 7, artikel-id e018704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Early recognition is a key factor to achieve improved outcomes for septic patients. Combinations of biomarkers, as opposed to single ones, may improve timely diagnosis and survival. We investigated the performance characteristics of sepsis biomarkers, alone and in combination, for diagnosis of verified bacterial sepsis using Sepsis-2 and Sepsis-3 criteria, respectively.

    METHODS:

    Procalcitonin (PCT), neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate were determined in a total of 1,572 episodes of adult patients admitted to the emergency department on suspicion of sepsis. All sampling were performed prior to antibiotic administration. Discriminant analysis was used to construct two composite biomarkers consisting of linear combinations of the investigated biomarkers, one including three selected biomarkers (i.e., NLCR, CRP, and lactate), and another including all four (i.e., PCT, NLCR, CRP, and lactate). The diagnostic performances of the composite biomarkers as well as the individual biomarkers were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

    RESULTS:

    For diagnosis of bacterial sepsis based on Sepsis-3 criteria, the AUC for PCT (0.68; 95% CI 0.65-0.71) was comparable to the AUCs for the both composite biomarkers. Using the Sepsis-2 criteria for bacterial sepsis diagnosis, the AUC for the NLCR (0.68; 95% CI 0.65-0.71) but not for the other single biomarkers, was equal to the AUCs for the both composite biomarkers. For diagnosis of severe bacterial sepsis or septic shock based on the Sepsis-2 criteria, the AUCs for both composite biomarkers were significantly greater than those of the single biomarkers (0.85; 95% CI 0.82-0.88 for the composite three-biomarker, and 0.86; 95% CI 0.83-0.89 for the composite four-biomarker).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Combinations of biomarkers can improve the diagnosis of verified bacterial sepsis in the most critically ill patients, but in less severe septic conditions either the NLCR or PCT alone exhibit equivalent performance.

  • 295.
    Ljungström, Lars R.
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital / CARe (Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research), Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde / CARe (Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research), Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Claesson, Berndt E. B.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Andersson, Rune
    CARe (Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research), Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Clinical Molecular Microbiology, Unilabs, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Respiratory viral infections are underdiagnosed in patients with suspected sepsis2017Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 36, nr 10, s. 1767-1776Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim was to investigate the prevalence and clinical relevance of viral findings by multiplex PCR from the nasopharynx of clinically septic patients during a winter season. During 11 weeks of the influenza epidemic period in January-March 2012, consecutive adult patients suspected to be septic (n = 432) were analyzed with cultures from blood and nasopharynx plus multiplex PCR for respiratory viruses on the nasopharyngeal specimen. The results were compared with those from microbiology analyses ordered as part of standard care. During the winter season, viral respiratory pathogens, mainly influenza A virus, human metapneumovirus, coronavirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were clinically underdiagnosed in 70% of patients positive by the multiplex PCR assay. During the first four weeks of the influenza epidemic, few tests for influenza were ordered by clinicians, indicating low awareness that the epidemic had started. Nasopharyngeal findings of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae by culture correlated to pneumonia diagnosis, and in those patients laboratory signs of viral co-infections were common but rarely suspected by clinicians. The role of respiratory viral infections in patients presenting with a clinical picture of sepsis is underestimated. Specific antiviral treatment might be beneficial in some cases and may reduce spread in a hospital setting. Diagnosing viral infections may promote reduction of unnecessary antibiotic use. It can also be a tool for decisions concerning patient logistics, in order to minimize exposure of susceptible patients and personnel.

  • 296.
    Lubovac-Pilav, Zelmina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Borràs, Daniel M.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Ponce, Esmeralda
    Dominican University of California, United States of America.
    Louie, Maggie C.
    Dominican University of California, United States of America / College of Pharmacy, Touro University of California, United States of America .
    Using expression profiling to understand the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on mcf-7 breast cancer cells2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 12, artikel-id e84646Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium is a metalloestrogen known to activate the estrogen receptor and promote breast cancer cell growth. Previous studies have implicated cadmium in the development of more malignant tumors; however the molecular mechanisms behind this cadmium-induced malignancy remain elusive. Using clonal cell lines derived from exposing breast cancer cells to cadmium for over 6 months (MCF-7-Cd4, -Cd6, -Cd7, -Cd8 and -Cd12), this study aims to identify gene expression signatures associated with chronic cadmium exposure. Our results demonstrate that prolonged cadmium exposure does not merely result in the deregulation of genes but actually leads to a distinctive expression profile. The genes deregulated in cadmium-exposed cells are involved in multiple biological processes (i.e. cell growth, apoptosis, etc.) and molecular functions (i.e. cadmium/metal ion binding, transcription factor activity, etc.). Hierarchical clustering demonstrates that the five clonal cadmium cell lines share a common gene expression signature of breast cancer associated genes, clearly differentiating control cells from cadmium exposed cells. The results presented in this study offer insights into the cellular and molecular impacts of cadmium on breast cancer and emphasize the importance of studying chronic cadmium exposure as one possible mechanism of promoting breast cancer progression.

  • 297.
    Lund, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Släktskapets påverkan på tillväxt, storlek, mortalitet och defekter hos yngel vid uppfödning hos Grönfläckig padda (Bufo viridis).2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete syftar till att svara på hypotesen som säger att det är skillnader i tillväxt, storlek, dödlighet och deformationer hos besläktade yngel av grönfläckig padda (Bufo viridis) gentemot obesläktade yngel vid uppfödning. Tidigare australiensisk studie visar att kemiska ämnen som paddorna själva utsöndrar påverkar tillväxt och överlevnad. Det förekommer även att syskon favoriserar och känner igen varandra och således blir konkurrensen syskon emellan inte lika stark. Yngel från fem olika honor delades in i grupper och placerats i akvarietankar med antingen besläktade individer från en och samma hona eller blandade. Där har de vuxit upp från ägg till yngel. De yngel som föddes upp tillsammans med sina syskon var större än yngel som fötts upp med obesläktade yngel. Det var ingen skillnad i procentuell tillväxt över tid mellan besläktade och obesläktade individer. Vid de första mättillfällena var det skillnad i storlek, viket indikerar att mekanismen som styr tillväxt är som starkast i ett tidigt utvecklingsskede för att sedan avta. Tidigare studie på grönfläckig padda i Sverige visar på liknande resultat och dessa motsäger resultat från en australiensisk studie där tillväxten varit mindre i början och större i slutet. Dödligheten från ägg till yngel var större hos de obesläktade individerna. Sammantaget ger det en indikation om att mekanismen bakom exempelvis storlek, tillväxt och dödlighet är mer komplexa än vad som framkommit i tidigare arbeten. Resultatet visar på skillnader som kan ligga till grund för utvecklandet av nya metoder vid uppfödning av grönfläckig padda och som även kan hjälpa till vid bevarandet av den svenska populationen. 

  • 298.
    Lundh, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Coleman, Scott
    Motion and Sports Lab, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Riad, Jacques
    Orthopaedic Department, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden / Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Movement deviation and asymmetry assessment with three dimensional gait analysis of both upper- and lower extremity results in four different clinical relevant subgroups in unilateral cerebral palsy2014Ingår i: Clinical Biomechanics, ISSN 0268-0033, E-ISSN 1879-1271, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 381-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In unilateral cerebral palsy, movement pattern can be difficult to define and quantify. The aim was to assess the degree of deviation and asymmetry in upper and lower extremities during walking.

    Methods

    Forty-seven patients, 45 Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) I and 2 patients GMFCS II, mean age 17.1 years (range 13.1 to 24.0) and 15 matched controls were evaluated. Gait profile score (GPS) and arm posture score (APS) were calculated from three-dimensional gait analysis (GA). Asymmetry was the calculated difference in deviation between affected and unaffected sides.

    Findings

    The GPS was significantly increased compared to the control group on the affected side (6.93 (2.08) versus 4.23 (1.11) degrees) and on the unaffected side (6.67 (2.14)). The APS was also significantly increased on the affected side (10.39 (5.01) versus 5.52 (1.71) degrees) and on the unaffected side (7.13 (2.23)). The lower extremity asymmetry increased (significantly) in comparison with the control group (7.89 (3.82) versus 3.90 (1.01)) and correspondingly in the upper extremity (9.75 (4.62) versus 5.72 (1.84)). The GPS was not different between affected and unaffected sides, however the APS was different (statistically significant).

    Interpretation

    We calculated deviation and asymmetry of movement during walking in unilateral CP, identifying four important clinical groups: close to normal, deviations mainly in the leg, deviations mainly in the arm and those with deviation in the arm and leg. This method can be applied to any patient group, and aid in diagnosing, planning treatment, and prognosis.

  • 299.
    Lundin, Anders
    et al.
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Delsing, Louise
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Clausen, Maryam
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ricchiuto, Piero
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sanchez, José
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sabirsh, Alan
    Pharmaceutical Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ding, Mei
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden / Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK / UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, UK.
    Brolén, Gabriella
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hicks, Ryan
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Herland, Anna
    Department of Micro and Nanosystems KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falk, Anna
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Human iPS-Derived Astroglia from a Stable Neural Precursor State Show Improved Functionality Compared with Conventional Astrocytic Models2018Ingår i: Stem Cell Reports, ISSN 2213-6711, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 1030-1045Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In vivo studies of human brain cellular function face challenging ethical and practical difficulties. Animal models are typically used but display distinct cellular differences. One specific example is astrocytes, recently recognized for contribution to neurological diseases and a link to the genetic risk factor apolipoprotein E (APOE). Current astrocytic in vitro models are questioned for lack of biological characterization. Here, we report human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived astroglia (NES-Astro) developed under defined conditions through long-term neuroepithelial-like stem (ltNES) cells. We characterized NES-Astro and astrocytic models from primary sources, astrocytoma (CCF-STTG1), and hiPSCs through transcriptomics, proteomics, glutamate uptake, inflammatory competence, calcium signaling response, and APOE secretion. Finally, we assess modulation of astrocyte biology using APOE-annotated compounds, confirming hits of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in adult and hiPSC-derived astrocytes. Our data show large diversity among astrocytic models and emphasize a cellular context when studying astrocyte biology.

  • 300.
    Lundin, Zebastian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Correlates of Internet Addiction: Contextualized by a Comparison with ADHD2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, people are interacting with the Internet. The emergence of this phenomenon has been positively contributing to the rapid development of our society in the last decades. However, negative reports about excessive usage are coming to the surface and questions about potential negative consequences are being raised. Internet addiction (IA) has been suggestedas a new type of disorder. There is a new field of research emerging with the aim to investigate its nature. This review compiles the most relevant literature on neuroimaging techniques used to identify the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of IA. Based on identified comorbidity between IA and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a comparison between the neural correlates of IA and ADHD is attempted, in order to illustrate the importance of bringing more attention to IA. The findings present structural, functional and neurochemical alterations in brain regions associated with emotional processing, cognitive control and reward processing. Similarities between the two disorders interms of structural and functional alterations in regions associated with emotional processing and cognitive control are highlighted.Limitations regarding lack of consensus of the operational definition, narrow selection criteria of participants and a need for subcategories inside the term IA are pointed out. The thesis concludes that as of now the discovered alterations may be considered as biological markers underlying the disorder and IA is a field of research worthy of more attention.

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