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  • 251.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ericsson, Dag
    University of Borås.
    Lumsden, Kenth
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Coordinating new product development and supply chain management2010In: International Journal of Value Chain Management, ISSN 1741-5357, Vol. 4, no 1/2, p. 170-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective implementation of the new product development (NPD) process not only enables management to coordinate the efficient flow of new products, but will also assist to support ramp-up of various supply chain activities and other related activities supporting the commercialisation of the product. Thus, companies need to address all these issues in parallel to be successful and this requires some kind of integrative product development approach. The purpose of this research is to increase the understanding of how NPD is connected to supply chain management (SCM) by investigating how the NPD process is structured and executed in two international manufacturing companies seeking to realise an innovative, predictable and efficient product development. Several essential linkages between NPD and SCM have been derived from case study findings concerning important issues for successful product development.

  • 252.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Eriksson, David
    School of Engineering, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Coordinating new product development with supply chain management2011In: Industrial management + data systems, ISSN 0263-5577, E-ISSN 1758-5783, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 264-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to form an understanding of how new product development (NPD) relates to supply chain management (SCM), why the two fields should be coordinated, and how this may be done.

    Design/methodology/approach – This research uses a literature review and case study research. The case study considers a Swedish company that operates on a global basis in the furniture industry. Empirical data have been collected mainly from in-depth interviews with key persons representing senior and middle management in the case company.

    Findings – This paper stresses the need to produce innovative, value-adding products, as well as the necessity to quickly deliver them to the market. Companies that face mature business environments may encounter problems due to a high emphasis on either the value-creation processes, or on the value delivery processes. Therefore, NPD activities need to be coordinated with SCM activities on a strategic level, lest competitiveness will be lost.

    Research limitations/implications – The research is limited to one case company; replication studies would enhance understanding of the studied phenomenon. There is a wide need for research exploring how various parts of demand and supply chains should be managed in order to fully utilize the advantages of the consumer-oriented enterprise.

    Practical implications – This paper provides insights for researchers and practitioners on how to coordinate and balance NPD (demand side) with SCM (supply side) activities. It highlights that companies should organize themselves around understanding how consumer value is created and how these processes may be coordinated to provide that value. The two processes must be given equal attention and importance to avoid sub-optimization.

    Originality/value – The need for coordinating NPD and SCM activities has been emphasized in the literature but still remains relatively unexplored. This paper contributes by investigating this issue further.

  • 253.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    ERP Training through Traditional and Intensive Course Formats2009In: Networked Logistics and Production at South-East Finland, St Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast / [ed] Olli-Pekka Hilmola & Eugene Korovyakovsky, Lappeenranta University of Technology , 2009, p. 145-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems have a important role in the performance improvement and control of a company and its entire supply chain. Therefore, this system is a vital part of a company’s competitiveness and new approaches for learning are needed to be developed in order to provide knowledge and skills in faster and more efficient manner for employees. Our aim in this manuscript is it to show, how ERP systems could be incorporated in the logistics courses of a university. This environment provides good platform to test new course formats, since most of the university students do not have any previous experience with these systems.

    In this research the structure and contents regarding ERP system usage in certain courses in the logistics curriculum at a Swedish University are being presented. Essentially, a traditional approach, where computer sessions are incorporated in ordinary courses are compared to a new intensive and flexible course format entirely dedicated to ERP systems. Additionally, the two utilized approaches are analyzed through student evaluations based on courses arranged during year 2008.

    Research shows that both of the approaches offer good opportunities; the students appreciated the traditional approach, since it allowed them to receive both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills, while they felt the intensive to be beneficial in developing practical side further. Consequently, the best alternative could be to utilize both of these formats. Still, this research shows that skilled responsible lecturer, among intensive course setting, is quite possibly one route for faster learning and higher productivity oflecturing.

  • 254.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Research  Unit, Kouvola, Finland.
    Role of Emerging Markets in Demand-Supply Chain Management2010In: Proceedings of the 15th annual Cambridge International Manufacturing Symposium: Innovation in global manufacturing - New models for sustainable value capture / [ed] Mike Gregory, Jagjit Singh Srai, Yongjiang Shi, Cambridge: University of Cambridge, Institute for Manufacturing , 2010, p. 1-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to enhance the current understanding and knowledge of the demand-supply chain management (DSCM) concept by determining its elements, benefits, and requirements, and by illustrating its occurrence in practice. In addition, it aims to shed light on the role of emerging markets in this management approach. We examine DSCM through thorough literature review, analyze second hand financial data from world-class actors, and provide single case study analysis from Swedish manufacturing company operating on an international basis in the appliance industry. This research has established that the main elements of DSCM include market orientation, coordination of the demand and supply processes, viewing the demand and supply processes as equally important, value creation in the demand and supply processes, differentiation in the demand and supply processes, innovativeness in the demand and supply processes, responsiveness in the demand and supply processes, and cost-efficiency in the demand and supply processes. Furthermore, it has been revealed that the main benefits of DSCM include enhanced competiveness, enhanced demand chain performance, and enhanced supply chain performance. Moreover, it has been shown that the main requirements of DSCM include organizational competences, company established principles, demand-supply chain collaboration, and information technology support. Research also shows that emerging markets are used significantly to lower costs in the sourcing and manufacturing parts of the supply chain. Based on case study DSCM approach with long implementation time and increased costs (of marketing and product development) will lead into situation, where emerging low cost producers in markets have even higher responsibility from brand supplies, so instead of component production larger entities are in their responsibility. However, this offshoring will occur only in limited extent – significant manufacturing activity of DSCM companies still remains near of most important markets, like Europe.

  • 255.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Research Unit (Finland), Kouvola, Finland.
    Role of logistics outsourcing on supply chain strategy and management: Survey findings from Northern Europe2010In: Strategic Outsourcing, ISSN 1753-8297, E-ISSN 1753-8300, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 46-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of logistics outsourcing in Northern Europe through survey research. Research work intends to shed more light on logistics outsourcing with other than case-based company examples.

    Design/methodology/approach – Survey was completed during late 2007 and early 2008 in Finland and Sweden for the largest companies in industrial and service sectors. Altogether 34 answers were received, and they were gained mostly from industrial and trading companies.

    Findings – The research results show that warehousing, IT, and customs brokerage outsourcing could have impact on some managerial and strategic aspects of supply chains (SC). Thus, none of the identified difference areas was found to be statistically significant. Potential impact areas of SC strategy and management are integrated IT systems of manufacturing and logistics, reverse logistics procedures, and re-engineering of logistics processes. However, research shows that in-house produced IT function, and potentially outsourced warehousing, have important roles in more international purchasing.

    Research limitations/implications – Altogether, the amount of responses in the survey was relatively low, but treating Finnish and Swedish companies as one group gives us some opportunity for statistical analysis. This grouping might be one limiting factors of our study, and especially in its generalization power; however, our earlier analysis with the data shows that these countries operate in a rather similar interest area. Another limiting factor of our research findings is the difference in respondent profiles – operating principles of logistics and trade companies are different as compared to manufacturing.

    Practical implications – Research shows that IT is potentially having an important role in both, international purchasing emphasis as well as on warehousing outsourcing activities. Contrary to the common view, this research gives some indication that in-house IT is valuable, and more integrated applications are needed for example, when warehousing is being outsourced.

    Originality/value – This is one of the seminal research works regarding North European outsourcing practices, and their affects on SC strategies and management. Both of the countries have an advanced industrial sector, which gives perspective for the readers world wide.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

  • 256.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    Claesson, Frida
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    In-transit distribution strategy: solution for European factory competitiveness?2011In: Industrial management + data systems, ISSN 0263-5577, E-ISSN 1758-5783, Vol. 111, no 1-2, p. 20-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Research work describes in-transit distribution strategy by determining and analyzing key principles of it as well as by illustrating its application in practice. Emphasis on in-transit distribution strategy is to turn transportation pipeline as a mobile inventory holding place, and actively dispatching goods to a destination, where there is a predicted demand before any customer orders are actually received. The use of this strategy is supported by current trade flows: emerging market trade has increased considerably, but simultaneously Swedish export prices, for example, have significantly decreased. The paper aims to address this issue.

    Design/methodology/approach – In-transit strategy is examined through a multiple case study from industrial companies having main factory operations in Sweden as well as using a system dynamics simulation model, and Monte Carlo analysis. These are supported by the second hand data of trade flows between Sweden, and India and China.

    Findings – In order to be successful with in-transit strategy, the case studies show that excellent planning, working closely with customers, first-class market knowledge, and an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system that is able to support the process sufficiently are required. Other highlighted requirements of this strategy are low variation in demand, and predictable distribution lead-time. Simulation study of one hypothetical product group verified case study findings, but the authors find it interesting that manufacturing output variance especially is very sensitive regarding to the overall results. If variation increases, then in-transit strategy is not able to deliver for customers with the necessary accuracy. Also increasing average customer demand, and longer transportation delays lead to undesired outcomes (e.g. too much inventory or out of stock situations).

    Research limitations/implications – The case study and second hand analysis is limited to one country, and further evidence is needed from other European, and possibly North American companies, to verify these findings.

    Originality/value – There has been a rather limited amount of research works completed from the use of in-transit strategy, even if increased trade activity and lower price of exported items is that of the old west in their exports to emerging markets, and continues to be so in the future (was even strong to China during credit crunch year 2009). Our research is seminal in terms of a developed system dynamics simulation model.

  • 257.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola, Finland.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Teaching ERP in logistics curriculum: a case experience from Sweden2010In: International Journal of Business Information Systems, ISSN 1746-0972, E-ISSN 1746-0980, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 295-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ERP systems in business is commonplace and often a requirement for rapid and efficient operations. The presence of ERP in higher education can be seen as a prerequisite for students to achieve necessary skills and knowledge, but how can the education be achieved in a better way? In this research, the use of ERP systems as a part of two courses of the logistics curriculum in higher education at a Swedish University are presented and analysed. The traditional approach of teaching logistics, where computer sessions are incorporated in ordinary courses, is being compared to a new intensive and flexible course format dedicated entirely to ERP education with a stronger focus on problem-oriented learning. The results show that both approaches offer opportunities, the traditional approach allows students to receive both theoretical and practical knowledge and skills, while the intensive approach provides them with significant practical knowledge and skills. This research results leaves us arguing that the best combination is to utilise both approaches to establish the needed basis for curriculum.

  • 258.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Jäger, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The role of logistics service providers in the implementation of a differentiated supply chain2011In: International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics, ISSN 1756-6517, E-ISSN 1756-6525, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 151-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates the role of logistics service providers in the implementation of a differentiated supply chain. The issue is examined through a multiple case study combined with a literature review. The research shows that logistics service providers can support companies with the implementation of a differentiated supply chain in sourcing and distribution parts by providing services that the company is incapable to provide, by providing certain services more efficiently or by providing complementing services. In some situations, the logistics service provider is even responsible for the entire implementation and should continuously develop the logistics process and customised service according to the company’s market situation. Eurasian transportation flows are nowadays an important part of most supply chains and needs to be considered in this differentiation work. Logistics service providers operating in these flows can support the differentiation by providing more customised and differentiated transportation services and there is a demand for more transportation alternatives in these flows.

  • 259.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Lättilä, Lauri
    Kouvola Research Unit, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatintie 9, FIN-45100, Kouvola, Finland.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    Kouvola Research Unit, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatintie 9, FIN-45100, Kouvola, Finland.
    Agent Based Decision Support in Manufacturing Supply Chain2009In: Agent and Multi-Agent Systems: Technologies and Applications: Third KES International Symposium, KES-AMSTA 2009, Uppsala, Sweden, June 3-5, 2009. Proceedings / [ed] Anne Håkansson, Ngoc Thanh Nguyen, Ronald L. Hartung, Robert J. Howlett, Lakhmi C. Jain, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 677-686Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply Chain Management (SCM) is becoming increasingly complex and an intensified competition in the end-markets has started to create a situation where co-operation requirements between companies in a Supply Chain (SC) are increasing. The old mechanistic operations management solutions are becoming obsolete and advanced decision support is increasingly needed to realize efficient and effective management of complex SCs. The objective of this research is to contribute to the understanding of how Agent Based Modeling (ABM) can advance decision making and to discuss why ABM should be regarded as method to realize Information Fusion (IF). In this research work an agent based model of SCM has been implemented in a simulation platform to provide an approach for evaluation of decision and management alternatives. Research shows that this kind of decision support system is based on IF, since it collects and fuses information from different sources into a situation image that provides effective support for human decision making

  • 260.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Agent-Based Simulation Fusion for Improved Decision Making for Service Operations2009In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Information Fusion, IEEE , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use agent-based modeling and simulation to fuse data from multiple sources to estimate the state of some system properties. This implies that the real system of interest is modeled and simulated using agent principles. Using Monte-Carlo simulation, we estimate the values of some decision-relevant numerical properties, such as utilization of resources and service levels, as a decision support for a Maintenance Service Provider. Our initial results indicate that this kind of fusion of information sources can improve the understanding of the problem domain (e.g. to what degree some critical properties influence service operations) and also generate a basis for decision-making.

  • 261.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Lättilä, Lauri
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola, Finland.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola, Finland.
    Agent-based decision support for maintenance service provider2010In: International Journal of Services Sciences, ISSN 1753-1446, Vol. 3, no 2/3, p. 194-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operations performed by a maintenance service provider (MSP) can include the entire maintenance function or select activities; these need to be well-balanced in terms of utilisation rate of own resources, maintenance cost incurred and the uptime of the customers’ production systems. MSPs face challenges due to the task of planning several non-associated plants and with a frequent lack of reliable information. In this research work, an agent-based decision support system of service-related maintenance has been developed. Research shows that this approach can improve the understanding of the problem domain and also generate a basis for decision-making and structural changes.

  • 262.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology.
    Ujvari, SandorUniversity of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    International Journal of Services Sciences: Special Issue: Innovative Information Technology in the Service Sector2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Hiort af Ornäs, Viktor
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Significant Things & Significant Use: A self report study on objects of experiences with things2010In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Design and Emotion / [ed] K. Sato, P.M.A. Desmet, P. Hekkert, G. Ludden, & A. Mathew, Design & Emotion Society , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Things thrill and delight, but also elicit frustration. To take experiences into consideration in product development there is a need to identify what they are directed at and what elicits them, i.e. their objects and antecedents. Self-reports collected from 51 participants covering 298 examples of emotions with things were analysed in order to identify what people find significant in experiences with every day products. The object of reactions and judgements was frequently something beyond the product and participants also described use, ideas and events as significant. In many cases the reported experiences focused on situations and events rather than the product as such. While use, ideas and events all constitute antecedents of experiences, they can also become objects of experiences at certain points of time and it may be possible to scaffold for them in design.

  • 264.
    Hiort af Ornäs, Viktor
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The Significance of Things: Affective User-Artefact Relations2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Products help people act, but also thrill, excite, and elicit fear, joy and anger. Artefacts are a natural part of people’s everyday lives, sometimes associated with values, dreams and aspirations. While traditional user-centred approaches have focused on efficiency and effectiveness of use, injury prevention etc. new approaches focusing on product experience have emerged. However, while increased attention is being paid to the experiential side of goods and services there remains a need for knowledge and methodology with which to address experiences with things, especially with regard to elicitation, specification and evaluation of requirements. This project has therefore taken an exploratory qualitative approach, aiming to elucidate what it is that people find significant in experiences with products. 159 participants in six different studies have shared descriptions of experiences with things. The studies have come from different perspectives, triangulating data collected in individual and group interviews with self-reports. The analysis indicates that things often matter not in terms of their mere presence or physical properties, but by standing out from expectations, requiring attention or referring to some idea. Often the significance of products lay in the role(s) they play in events, and the perceived impact the thing has on the person’s ability to realise motives. While only a fraction of all experiences with things could be prescribed in product development it is possible to scaffold conditions that increase or decrease their likelihood. Three perspectives that could potentially be addressable in development work are: significant things and associated meanings, significance in use and significance of consequences beyond use. These imply somewhat different objectives for design and different needs for knowledge. User experience is not a property or quality of an artefact, but a perspective that can to some extent be addressed by enabling developers to identify requirements and align their understanding with what users find significant.

  • 265.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adaptive Decision Support for Shop-floor Operators using Function Blocks2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In manual and semi-automation production systems, flexibility and adaptability are affected by the shop-floor operators’ skills, abilities and knowledge. Such dependencies highlight the vital importance of developing and utilising the knowledge, achievements and abilities of the operators working with production on the shop-floor. Teamwork, including both novice and highly experienced shop-floor operators, in a production environment with a high level of automation, is essential already today and is predicted to increase, when the complexity and demands of future production systems intensify. This trend is confirmed in both the research literature and by specialists within industry.

    The key to future competitiveness and effectiveness of the manufacturing industry is the shop-floor operators who handle the production systems. In addition, the future information intensive working environment, with its increasing complexity and less time available for decision-making, demands adaptive decision support and adaptive control systems that facilitate collaborative work on the shop-floor. It is therefore important to emphasise how decisions are supported in the time-limited working environment of the shop-floor, because this has a large impact on production output and quality and is vital to the success of the company. Consequently, this dissertation presents a framework for an adaptive decision support system that concentrates on shop-floor operators, in order to enhance their development and future contribution to leading edge production systems.

    The overall aim of the research presented is to define a framework for an Adaptive Decision Support System, to address the scope and demands of the future shop-floor, as indicated in the research literature, and confirm its relevance, as well as further elaborate it on the basis of interviews with production managers and HR specialists

    The research presented uses the design science research process. In parallel, decision support systems and the industrial shop-floor have been studied in the research literature and the current state of industrial practice has been assessed. These areas together form the basis for the research on adaptive decision support for shop-floor operators. A framework enabling adaptive decision support and adaptive system control, based on event-driven function block technology and Augmented Reality technology, is formulated.

    The gap of research on decision support for shop-floor operators, indicated in the research literature is addressed by the research preformed.  Adaptive and dynamic decision support and system control able to process vast amounts of information in real time demonstrates utility for shop-floor operators. The research presenting the Adaptive Decision Support System has demonstrated its utility for shop-floor systems and production operatives in two extensive studies using demonstrators based on real-life production environments.

    A methodology, the ‘User group’, has been formulated for research collaboration and bi-directional knowledge transfer between academia and the industrial partners. It provides tools that enable cooperation between the experienced research partner and the novices, despite their different levels of engagement in the same project, without dividing them into separate groups. The ‘user group’ case study presented describes how both the inexperienced and the research mature companies gain new knowledge and engage in ongoing research. By doing so, the industrial project partners have extensively supported the research presented and will subsequently be the expected beneficiaries.

  • 266.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    The future shop-floor operators, demands, requirements and interpretations2018In: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 47, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of the manufacturing industry reveals continuous progress and development throughout the years. This evolution not only includes production methodologies and the production equipment, it also includes the working environment of the shop-floor operators. The demands faced by the shop-floor operators have developed from strictly controlled, simple and monotonic tasks to self-controlled team work requiring a holistic approach that aims at continuous improvements and achieving a high degree of flexibility, adaptability and initiative.

    This paper describes the evolution of the shop-floor operator, according to the research literature and interviews with manufacturing managers and human resources specialists. In addition, the paper presents the response of future Swedish shop-floor operators, today’s high-school students, to a description of their possible future work as shop-floor operators. The Swedish manufacturing industry competes, to a large extent, on and responds to the international market. The findings made in this paper are thus also interesting for other industries and countries acting on the international market.

  • 267.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy of Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, Cornwall, United kingdom.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Why I want to be a future Swedish shop-floor operator2016In: Research and Innovation in Manufacturing: Key Enabling Technologies for the Factories of the Future - Proceedings of the 48th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Roberto Teti, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 41, p. 1101-1106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When looking in rear view mirrors the Swedish as well as the international production industries can overview several years of progress covering all aspects of production. Production methodologies and machines etc. have changed and evolved, and so has the environment of the shop-floor operator. The demands on the shop-floor operators have grown from simple monotonic tasks with low complexity to pro-active team work requiring flexibility, continuous improvements and a holistic approach. With a base in a study where production and HR-managers at six Swedish manufacturing industries have been interviewed this paper identifies the role of today’s and the future Swedish shop-floor operator. The response to the described role of the future operator is compiled from the ones who will become the future Swedish shop-floor operators – today’s teenagers attending technical high-school. Their views of the environment of the future shop-floor operator are described by accuracy, development, a good working environment and team work. The paper also reveals what the offer should include to make these teenagers say: I want to be a future Swedish shop-floor operator.

  • 268.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Enhancing Adaptive Production Using IEC 61499 Event-Driven Function Blocks2013In: Proceedings of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution of SME, vol. 41, 10-14 June, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, North American Manufacturing Research Institute of SME , 2013, p. 420-429Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduction of production costs and the ability to continuously improve is a must for every manufacturer. High availability in a dynamic and complex production environment demands adaptability to recurring changes. Each device within the production systems holds more and more intelligence and computing power which supports an approach implementing the standard of IEC 61499 to enhance adaptive production by enabling a distributed automation system with improved productivity. Research approaching IEC 61499 is investigated and reported in this paper, covering both control of manufacturing equipment and adaptive process planning. The objective is to develop methodologies for process planning as well as machine control and monitoring for machining and assembly operations in a dynamic, adaptive and distributed environment using event-driven function blocks.

  • 269.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    IEC 61499 - Enabling Control of Distributed Systems Beyond IEC 61131-32012In: Proceedings of the SPS12 conference 2012, Swedish Production Academy , 2012, p. 37-44Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Moore, Philip
    University College Falmouth, United Kingdom.
    An IEC 61499 Function Block based Approach for CNC Machining Operations2012In: The 13th Mechatronics Forum International Conference Proceedings: Vol. 1/3 / [ed] Rudolf Scheidl & Bernhard Jakoby, Linz: TRAUNER Verlag, 2012, p. 115-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to create an adaptive and interoperable CNC control system to explore the full functionality of CNC machine tools and to surpass the shortcomings and restrictions of the current CNC control standard using G-codes, an IEC 61499 function block based control system model has been developed. Basic machining operations are identified and classified as machining features, which are wrapped into Machining Feature Function Blocks (MF-FBs) with algorithms. For the machining of a part, the required MF-FBs are selected and combined into a Composite Function Block, comprising the correct control instructions for machining the part.

    The event-driven nature of these function blocks enables the run-time selection of appropriate algorithms and control of their correct behavior and dynamic execution, supporting the system’s ability to act in response to actual conditions and manufacturing requirements. Being truly adaptive makes it possible that different available machine tools be selected to machine a part with the appropriate control code generated at runtime. This eliminates the tedious CNC programming effort, and therefore no predefined, machine-specific control code has to be generated in advance. The use of generic function blocks for encapsulation of machining know-how in algorithms makes machines and CNC systems independent and therefore portable, reusable and interoperable.

  • 271.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy of Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, United Kingdom.
    Framework for an adaptive decision support system for industrial shop-floor operators2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s shop-floor operators’ working tasks often stretches over a broad spectra of jobs; from ordinary production assignments to handling errors and performing maintenance. Demands for enhanced skills and knowledge are constantly raised to limit the consequences of tool breakage, machine down time and other stochastic events negatively affecting the production.

    To be able to meet these increasing demands a framework for a distributed and adaptive decision support system is proposed. It will help the shop-floor operator to distinguish between decision options and minimize time to consider appropriate actions to maximize productivity both during normal production and when facing unexpected or unscheduled events.

    In what ways is it possible to support operators in making decisions for optimal productivity?” was the opening question from the industry partner when beginning this research. Targeting this question a novel framework for an adaptive decision support system (DSS) enabled by event-driven function blocks, based on decision logics is proposed. Its ability to adapt to the actual conditions on the shop-floor is compared to a currently used voice message system in a test case.

  • 272.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy of Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, United Kingdom.
    The Future Swedish Shop-Floor Operator – Interviews with Production Managers2014In: Proceedings of the sixth Swedish Production Symposium, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a study in which production and HR managers at six Swedish manufacturing industries have been interviewed about the role of the shop-floor operator, taking off in today’s situation in trying to identify the future one. As well as the production methods and the machines etc. in the production system continuously evolve, so does the environment of the shop-floor operator. Increasing complexity in the production systems raises demands on the operators’ ability to handle ICT-tools to gain decision support and knowledge needed in the future shop-floor environment. 

  • 273.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Cordero Garcia, Aimar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adaptive decision support for shop-floor operators in automotive industry2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 17, p. 440-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's operators on factory shop-floors are often not stationed, dealing with a single or few tasks but have increasing responsibilities demanding enhanced skills and knowledge in a production environment where any disturbance must be settled with adequate actions without delay to keep optimum output. To be able to respond to these demands, the operators need dynamic, distributed and adaptive decision support in real-Time, helping them to distinguish decision options and maximizing productivity despite incoming stochastic events. The minimum of time and option for operators to consider appropriate action both during normal production and when facing unexpected or unscheduled events point out the need of adaptive decision support for operators. When initiating this research project the question from the industry partner was the following: In what ways is it possible to support operators in making decisions for optimal productivity? By targeting this problem this paper introduces a novel framework for an adaptive decision-support system enabled by event-driven function blocks and based on decision logics. The proposed decision support systems' ability to adapt to the actual conditions on the shop-floor is validated through a case study, and its capability is compared to the voice message system installed on-site.

  • 274.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    Sustainable Manufacturing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Adaptive instructions to novice shop-floor operators using Augmented Reality2017In: Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, ISSN 2168-1015, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 362-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel system using Augmented Reality and Expert Systems to enhance the quality and efficiency of shop-floor operators. The novel system proposed provides an adaptive tool that facilitates and enhances support on the shop-floor, due to its ability to dynamically customize the instructions displayed, dependent upon the competence of the user. A comparative study has been made between an existing method of quality control instructions at a machining line in an automotive engine plant and this novel system. It has been shown that the new approach outcompetes the existing system, not only in terms of perceived usability but also with respect to two other important shop-floor variables: quality and productivity. Along with previous research, the outcomes of these test cases indicate the value of using Augmented Reality technology to enhance shop-floor operators’ ability to learn and master new tasks.

  • 275.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Doverborn, Josefine
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    De Vin, Leo
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Optimisation of Operation Sequences in Flexible Manufacturing Cells using Virtual Manufacturing Tools2009In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing / [ed] Farhad Nabhani, Teesside University , 2009, p. 1348-1355Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing organisations are continuously forced to improve the way of working to maintain their competitiveness on the global market. To optimize a production facility requires not only an optimal design of the whole line but also its internal operations sequencing and scheduling during the operational phase. The use of Virtual Manufacturing tools such as Discrete Event Simulation and Computer Aided Robotics has been proven to be highly effective both for production system design and for operational analysis and improvement. This paper proposes a new optimisation method, named SIMBOSeer, which synergistically combines the areas of optimisation, flexibility and virtual manufacturing that integrates robot simulation with simulation-based optimisation. Evaluation of SIMBOSeer, as applied to an existing manufacturing cell at a powertrain manufacturing company in Sweden, has shown that it can be used as an iterative process of analysis and optimisation. The results, when using realistic what-if scenarios, clearly point out that SIMBOSeer can facilitate the optimisation of operation sequences and decrease the total cycle time of the manufacturing cell. This is due to the fact that many non-value adding functions, such as unnecessary tool changes, which have a great negative impact on the effectiveness of the flexible manufacturing cell, can be avoided. Whilst the use of SIMBOSeer has obvious advantages under normal operating conditions of the cell, its use become even more beneficial when disturbance like tool failures occur or when product variants are introduced to the cell.

  • 276.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Frantzén, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Falmouth University, Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A methodology facilitating knowledge transfer to both research experienced companies and to novice SMEs2017In: International Journal of Enterprise Network Management, ISSN 1748-1252, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 123-140, article id IJENM0080202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, knowledge transfer is defined as a process of disseminating both technological and theoretical understanding as well as enhancing both industrial and academic knowledge through conducted research to project partners collaborating within a research project. To achieve this, a new methodology called 'user groups' is introduced. It facilitates knowledge transfer between project participants in collaborative research programs engaging both experienced and unexperienced partners regardless of level of input. The introduced methodology 'user groups' provides tools for collaborating with several research partners even though their levels of engagement in the project and prior research experience may vary without dividing them into separate groups. It enables all project partners to gain new knowledge and by so doing extending the knowledge society. The case study shows that the eight engaged companies are able to cooperate, achieve their own objectives and, both jointly and individually, contribute to the overall project goals.

  • 277.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    University of Skövde.
    Mohammed, Abdullah
    University of Skövde.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Web based monitoring and control of distant Robotic Operations2012In: Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference MSEC2012 June 4-8, 2012, Notre Dame, Indiana, USA, ASME Press, 2012, p. 605-612Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the production efficiency while facing today’s manufacturing uncertainty, responsive and adaptive capabilities for rapid production changes are essential. This paper presents how dynamic control and real-time monitoring (embedded in a web-based Wise-ShopFloor framework) can integrate virtual models with real shop floors. Wise-ShopFloor (Web-based integrated sensor-driven e-ShopFloor)uses Java technologies (e.g., Java Servlet and Java3D) for implementing the system. It allows the operators, both remote and on-site, to monitor and control machines, devices and operations on a shop floor, based on run-time information from the connected machines, devices and their sensors. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the approach towards web-based adaptive manufacturing. The first demonstrating how OPC-technology is used to improve the monitoring and control capabilities of the production and the second one focusing  on remote control of a robot eliminating the need of motion planning and tedious robot programming.

  • 278.
    Hossain, Mosharraf
    et al.
    The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Production Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Harari, Natalia
    The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Production Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Semere, Daniel
    The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Department of Production Engineering, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Pär
    Scania SPS & Industrial Development.
    Ng, Amos. H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Andersson, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Integrated Modeling and Application of Standardized Data Schema2012In: Proceedings of the 5th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS 12), 2012, p. 473-478Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 279.
    Huang, Rui
    et al.
    School of Computer Science, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications Nanjing City, China.
    Ericson, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    An Efficient Way to Estimate the Focus of Expansion2018In: 2018 3rd IEEE International Conference on Image, Vision and Computing (ICIVC 2018), IEEE, 2018, p. 691-695Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting independent motion from a single camera is a difficult task in computer vision. It is because the captured image sequences are the combinations of the objects' movements and the camera's ego-motion. One major branch is to find the focus of expansion (FOE) instead as the goal. This is ideal for the situation commonly seen in UAV's camera system. In this case, the translation is dominant in camera's motion while the rotation is relatively small. To separate the ego motion and scene structure, many researchers used the directional flow as the theoretic basis and extracted its properties related to FOE. In this paper, we formulate finding FOE as an optimizing problem. The position of FOE has the minimal standard deviation for the directional flow in all directions, which is also subjected to the introduced constraint. The experiments show the proposed methods out-perform the previous method.

  • 280.
    Huertas, Ana
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Volvo Cars Corporation.
    Decision support system for feeding policy selection in production settings: Research proposal2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Competitiveness is highly important in automotive industry. Customers’ satisfaction is decisive and that has turned out in high vehicle customization. Customization implies for example that a vehicle model can include several types of engines; inferring in high engine model variety on the assembly systems. Production lines balancing and ergonomic factors within assembly operations usually trigger unbalances on the logistics resources utilization. A proper feeding policy selection can palliate the impact of the unbalances generated by the assembly operations, improve the performance of the system and reduce cost. Selection among different policies is often done by following qualitative criteria which are influenced by product structure, operational constraints, company-specific practices and tradition. This project consists of the development of a decision support system for feeding policy selection in production settings. This system will automatically select the feeding policy at a single component level and evaluate the impact brought by this decision when interacting with the production setting. 

  • 281.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Digital human modelling for user-centred vehicle design and anthropometric analysis2009In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, E-ISSN 1741-5314, Vol. 51, no 3/4, p. 306-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital human modelling (DHM) is discussed as a design tool in the context of user-centred design, with a focus on DHM usage for anthropometric analysis in occupant packaging tasks in the vehicle interior design process. References are made to concepts of inclusive design, user-centred design, design cognition and design methodology. Examples are presented to illustrate how DHM can be of great use to the vehicle designer, but also to show some of the difficulties involved. This includes the complexity in considering anthropometric variation of the targeted product users in multivariate design problems, such as the design of vehicle interiors and suggestions on how to deal with this difficulty in an industrial design setting. Overall, the paper takes a designer's view of DHM tools and illustrates how the tool can be of value in the design process, but also considers what implications this has on the functionality and usability of the tools.

  • 282.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, L.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    A basic step towards increased accommodation level accuracy when using DHM tools2011In: Proceedings of DHM, First International Symposium on Digital Human Modeling, Université Claude Bernard Lyon , 2011, p. 6 sidor-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the need to consider anthropometric diversity in design and suggests a basic approach for the simultaneous consideration of variance in two key dimensions. This as a basic step from the common, but in many cases poor, approach to use univariate percentile data in design. The bivariate method described can be applied when utilising DHM tools for design in that key dimension values for extreme but likely anthropometric measurement combinations are calculated and entered as input data when representative manikins are defined. The mathematical procedure is described and the outcome of the method is compared to a typical percentile based approach, indicating more accurate accommodation levels being reached by the proposed method. The method is to be seen as a simple method to be used for basic design problems where variance in few anthropometric dimensions are to be considered simultaneously, and not as an alternative for more advanced multivariate methods. The paper takes a pragmatic standpoint, directing its message towards practitioners using DHM tools for design purposes.

  • 283.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, L.
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    A pragmatic approach to define anthropometric boundary manikins for multiple populations2012In: NES2012 Proceedings, Saltsjöbaden, Sweden, August 19-22, 2012: Ergonomics for sustainability and growth / [ed] Ann-Beth Antonsson & Göran M. Hägg, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the call for methods that can assist designers to consider anthropometric diversity when designing products or workstations, and hence formulate more sustainable design solutions. A basic method for the definition of boundary manikins for bivariate design problems and combined populations is described, exemplified and evaluated. The method can be used for defining virtual test groups when using digital human modelling tools for evaluating anthropometry related aspects of human-product interfaces at early design phases. It can also be used to indentify persons with certain anthropometry to build up test groups for performing physical tests.

  • 284.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Accommodation levels for ellipsoid versus cuboid defined boundary cases2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 3702-3708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The boundary case method is established for the representation and consideration of anthropometric diversity in design tasks with certain characteristics. Sometime boundary cases are defined separately for two distributions, e.g. for females and males, which may lead to a situation where some boundary cases will be redundant in that they are located within the joint distribution rather than on the joint boundary. This paper describes and illustrates a method for automatic identification of redundant boundary cases that are located within two three-dimensional overlapping distributions.

    Practitioner Summary: The paper describes a pragmatic way to focus the design work on users with specific limiting body measurement combinations that can be used to obtain design data or be used to describe appropriate test persons or digital human models for design problems where the boundary case method is suitable.

  • 285.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Accommodation levels for ellipsoid versus cuboid defined boundary cases2015In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015), AHFE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The definition and use of boundary cases is a common approach when aiming to anthropometrically accommodate a desired percentage of the targeted population by a design. The cases are defined based on anthropometric data that represents the targeted population. Approaches that define cases based on the variation within just one body measurement are poor for most design problems in representing anthropometric diversity. Hence, the consideration of variation within several body measurements is preferred. However, an approach that is based on performing several separate studies of the variation within a number of measurements leads to undesired reduction of accommodation due to the lack of consideration of the effects of correlations between measurements. This paper compares theoretical accommodation levels when using an ellipsoid versus a cuboid based approach for defining boundary cases to represent anthropometric variation within three body measurements. The ellipsoid approach considers correlations between body measurements whereas the cuboid approach does not consider correlations between body measurements. The paper suggests the application of the ellipsoid method for defining boundary cases for better reaching desired accommodation levels in boundary case based design problems. These cases can be used to define computer manikins when using digital human modelling tools. The method is also applicable when wishing to select extreme but representative real people to be involved in physical fitting trials.

  • 286.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Basic Method for Handling Trivariate Normal Distributions in Case Definition for Design and Human Simulation2014In: Advances in Applied Digital Human Modeling, AHFE Conference , 2014, p. 27-40Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 287.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Industrial Development, Scania CV.
    Concept of Formalized Test Procedure for Proactive Assessment of Ergonomic Value by Digital Human Modelling Tools in Lean Product Development2018In: Advances in Human Factors in Simulation and Modeling: Proceedings of the AHFE 2017 International Conference on Human Factors in Simulation and Modeling / [ed] Cassenti, Daniel N., Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, Vol. 591, p. 425-436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A concept of a formalized test procedure for proactive assessment of ergonomic value by digital human modelling (DHM) tools in lean product development (LPD) is proposed and described. The objective of the formalized procedure is to integrate the utilization of DHM tools in LPD and to support the delivery of ergonomic value and reduce waste in product and production development processes. A design process model is illustrated and described, and examples are given of how to specify and work with ergonomic value in the process.

  • 288.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Chalmers University of Technology / Scania CV.
    Identification of redundant boundary cases2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association / [ed] Lindgaard, G. and Moore, D. (Eds.), Zürich, Switzerland: The International Ergonomics Association , 2015, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The boundary case method is established for the representation and consideration of anthropometric diversity in design tasks with certain characteristics. Sometime boundary cases are defined separately for two distributions, e.g. for females and males, which may lead to a situation where some boundary cases will be redundant in that they are located within the joint distribution rather than on the joint boundary. This paper describes and illustrates a method for automatic identification of redundant boundary cases that are located within two three-dimensional overlapping distributions.

    Practitioner Summary: The paper describes a pragmatic way to focus the design work on users with specific limiting body measurement combinations that can be used to obtain design data or be used to describe appropriate test persons or digital human models for design problems where the boundary case method is suitable.

  • 289.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre.
    Carlson, Johan S.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre.
    Creating and shaping the DHM tool IMMA for ergonomic product and production design2016In: International Journal of the Digital Human, ISSN 2046-3375, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 132-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The history, status and outlook of the research and development actions associated with the creation of the digital human modelling tool intelligently moving manikins (IMMA) are described. The underlying fundamental concepts are described and research and development results so far are illustrated or referred to. Two case studies illustrating use of IMMA on industry-based problems are described. The paper also covers reflections on conceptions for prospective DHM tool developments from a general perspective, relating to areas of ergonomics and design methodology, as well as describing some of the plans for further developments and applications of the IMMA tool. These may be of assistance when identifying challenges for future research and development of DHM tools that are used in product and production design processes in industry.

  • 290.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, LarsDepartment of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology.Case, KeithMechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University.
    International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, Special issue on Application of Digital Human Modelling Tools in User Centred Design Processes2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Case, Keith
    Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University.
    Preface2010In: International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, ISSN 1742-5549, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 353-355Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 292.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Lundström, Daniel
    University of Skövde.
    Hanson, Lars
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wårell, Maria
    ArjoHuntleigh R&D Center, Lund, Sweden.
    Increasing Functionality of DHM Software by Industry Specific Program Features2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates how Digital Human Modeling (DHM) tool functionality can be increased through the development of industry specific features. The features are based on a design tool, the Mobility Gallery, established by the cooperating health care company. Each resident in the Mobility Gallery has different levels of functional mobility and is described with different personal characteristics as well as background details. The integration of the resident descriptions in a commercial DHM tool is presented and discussed. The rationale for this approach is that the synthesis of DHM tool functionality and the Mobility Gallery descriptions will render a DHM tool with features offering augmented applicability for product design in a health care setting.

  • 293.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Castro, Pamela
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre, Gothenburg.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre, Gothenburg.
    Nurbo, Pernilla
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg.
    Fragoso, Paulo
    Scania CV, Södertälje.
    Andersson, Lina
    Volvo Trucks, Gothenburg.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    DHM Based Test Procedure Concept for Proactive Ergonomics Assessments in the Vehicle Interior Design Process2018In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume V: Human Simulation and Virtual Environments / [ed] Sebastiano BagnaraRiccardo TartagliaSara AlbolinoThomas AlexanderYushi Fujita, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, p. 314-323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a digital human modelling (DHM) based test procedure concept for the assessment of physical ergonomics conditions in virtual phases of the vehicle interior design process is illustrated and discussed. The objective of the test procedure is to be a valuable tool for ergonomic evaluations and decision support along the design process, so that ergonomic issues can be dealt with in an efficient, objective and proactive manner. The test procedure is devised to support companies in having stable and objective processes, in accordance with lean product development (LPD) philosophies. The overall structure and fundamental functionality of the test procedure concept is explained by a simplified use case, utilizing the DHM tool IPS IMMA to: define manikin families and manikin tasks; predict manikin motions; and visualize simulations and ergonomics evaluation outcomes.

  • 294. Into, C.
    et al.
    Zetterberg, S.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Transitlager som en strategi i ett globalt distributionssystem2010In: Bättre Produktivitet, ISSN 1402-1145, no 5, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Distributionen har kommit att bli en nyckelfaktor i dagens logistiksystem i och med att företag önskar uppnå skalfördelar i sin produktion genom fokuserade fabriker samtidigt som dagens kunder kräver alltmer kundanpassade produkter och leveranser till kortare ledtider. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om transitlagerstrategin, som ett komplement till den centraliserade och den decentraliserade distributionsstrategin, kan erbjuda företag konkurrensfördelar. Transitlagerstrategin kan ge stora konkurrensfördelar genom att den erbjuder relativt korta leveranstider utan att produkterna behöver lagerhållas lokalt, vilket ger lägre lagerhållningskostnader och en lägre kapitalbindning. För att lyckas med strategin krävs en god planering, kundsamarbete, marknadskännedom och ett informationssystem som klarar av att stödja strategin.

  • 295.
    Iriondo, Aitor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Simulation Data Management in a Product Lifecycle Management Context2017In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXI: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, Incorporating the 32nd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 5–7, 2017, University of Greenwich, UK / [ed] James Gao, Mohammed El Souri, Simeon Keates, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2017, p. 476-481Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reuse of virtual engineering models and simulations improves engineering efficiency. Reuse requires preserving the information provenance. This paper suggests a framework based on the 7W data provenance model to be part of simulation data management implemented in product lifecycle management systems. The resulting provenance framework is based on a case study in which a product was re-engineered using finite element analysis.

  • 296.
    Iriondo Pascual, Aitor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Castro, Pamela
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Mahdavian, Nafise
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Scania CV, Södertalje, Sweden.
    Proposal of an Intuitive Interface Structure for Ergonomics Evaluation Software2018In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VIII: Ergonomics and Human Factors in Manufacturing, Agriculture, Building and Construction, Sustainable Development and Mining / [ed] Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander, Yushi Fujita, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 825, p. 289-300Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, different technologies and software for ergonomics evaluations are gaining greater relevance in the field of ergonomics and production development. The tools allow users such as ergonomists and engineers to perform assessments of ergonomic conditions of work, both related to work simulated in digital human modelling (DHM) tools or based on recordings of work performed by real operators. Regardless of approach, there are many dimensions of data that needs to be processed and presented to the users.

    The users may have a range of different expectations and purposes from reading the data. Examples of situations are to: judge and compare different design solutions; analyse data in relation to anthropometric differences among subjects; investigate different body regions; assess data based on different time perspectives; and to perform assessments according to different types of ergonomics evaluation methods. The range of different expectations and purposes from reading the data increases the complexity of creating an interface that considers all the necessary tools and functions that the users require, while at the same time offer high usability.

    This paper focuses on the structural design of a flexible and intuitive interface for an ergonomics evaluation software that possesses the required tools and functions to analyse work situations from different perspectives, where the data input can be either from DHM tools or from real operators while performing work. 

  • 297.
    Izquierdo, Milagros
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Stokes, Klara
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Isometric point-circle configurations on surfaces from uniform maps2016In: Symmetries in Graphs, Maps, and Polytopes: 5th SIGMAP Workshop, West Malvern, UK, July 2014 / [ed] Jozef Širáň, Robert Jajcay, Springer, 2016, p. 201-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We embed neighborhood geometries of graphs on surfaces as point-circle configurations. We give examples coming from regular maps on surfaces with a maximum number of automorphisms for their genus, and survey geometric realization of pentagonal geometries coming from Moore graphs. An infinite family of point-circle v4 configurations on p-gonal surfaces with two p-gonal morphisms is given. The image of these configurations on the sphere under the two p-gonal morphisms is also described.

  • 298.
    Jensen, Åsa
    et al.
    Volvo Powertrain.
    Palm, Lena
    Volvo Powertrain.
    Claesson, Frida
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Supply Chain Planning in Automotive Sector: Swedish Case Study2010In: Proceedings of the PLAN Research Conference / [ed] Ujvari, Sandor, Logistikföreningen PLAN , 2010, p. 53-72Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to enhance current knowledge of supply chain planning (SCP) by analyzing the importance of collaboration, information exchange and a supporting information system in its successful execution. The issues are examined through a case study from international manufacturing company, Volvo Powertrain, which operates in automotive industry through its worldwide manufacturing network. This research reveals that collaboration is a complex and important issue of SCP, and occurs simultaneously in vertical and horizontal dimensions. It is important to select strategic partners and to develop structured work processes and routines. The main objective of collaboration is to determine common goals and objectives and to facilitate the exchange of information and these together drives the performance of a supply chain. A sufficient information system supporting the SCP is vital to facilitate collaboration, and information exchange between the different supply chain participants. However, currently in Volvo Powertrain quite many phases of SCP are completed without appropriate and integrated information systems and the process itself contains several manual phases. This study is explorative in nature and more empirical data, from similar and other research settings, is needed to further validate the findings. However, its empirical findings strengthen research discipline knowhow of SCP in global manufacturing companies. This research provides insight to managers and practitioners on how to coordinate operations planning and control (OPC) across organizations within the supply chain to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. The SCP procedures described in this research work also are valuable for Volvo Powertrain and other industrial actors to further develop processes to respond on competitive pressure. This research work empirically demonstrates, as very few before have done so, how OPC can be coordinated across the supply chain.

  • 299.
    Jin, G. Q.
    et al.
    Coventry Univ, Fac Engn & Comp, Coventry, W Midlands, England.
    Li, W. D.
    Coventry Univ, Fac Engn & Comp, Coventry, W Midlands, England.
    Tsai, C. F.
    Aletheia Univ, Dept Ind Management & Enterprise Informat, New Taipei City, Taiwan .
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adaptive tool-path generation of rapid prototyping for complex product models2011In: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 154-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid prototyping (RP) provides an effective method for model verification and product development collaboration. A challenging research issue in RP is how to shorten the build time and improve the surface accuracy especially for complex product models. In this paper, systematic adaptive algorithms and strategies have been developed to address the challenge. A slicing algorithm has been first developed for directly slicing a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model as a number of RP layers. Closed Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) curves have been introduced to represent the contours of the layers to maintain the surface accuracy of the CAD model. Based on it, a mixed and adaptive tool-path generation algorithm, which is aimed to optimize both the surface quality and fabrication efficiency in RP, has been then developed. The algorithm can generate contour tool-paths for the boundary of each RP sliced layer to reduce the surface errors of the model, and zigzag tool-paths for the internal area of the layer to speed up fabrication. In addition, based on developed build time analysis mathematical models, adaptive strategies have been devised to generate variable speeds for contour tool-paths to address the geometric characteristics in each layer to reduce build time, and to identify the best slope degree of zigzag tool-paths to further minimize the build time. In the end, case studies of complex product models have been used to validate and showcase the performance of the developed algorithms in terms of processing effectiveness and surface accuracy. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Society of Manufacturing Engineers. All rights reserved.

  • 300.
    Jiong, Sun
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Swedish School of Textiles, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden / Inst. for Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Dept. Biomedical Engineering, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhou, Bo
    German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Categories of touch: Classifying human touch using a soft tactile sensor2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social touch plays an important role not only in human communication but also in human-robot interaction. We here report results from an ongoing study on affective human-robot interaction. In our previous research, touch type is shown to be informative for communicated emotion. Here, a soft matrix array sensor is used to capture the tactile interaction between human and robot and a method based on PCA and kNN is applied in the experiment to classify different touch types, constituting a pre-stage to recognizing emotional tactile interaction. Results show an average recognition rate for classified touch type of 71%, with a large variability between different types of touch. Results are discussed in relation to affective HRI and social robotics.

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