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  • 251.
    Kärrström, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural correlates of mindfulness related to stress: How mindfulness promotes wellbeing2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness practice is used to treat mental and physical symptoms. The problem is that research on the long-term effects and the neural changes involved, correlated with well-being, are inconsistent. The purpose of this review is to create a deeper understanding of mindfulness and its neural correlates related to stress. In mindfulness, one can use focused attention meditation (FA), involving anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal areas, thalamus, visual cortex, intraparietal sulcus, and amygdala. In open monitoring meditation (OM), ACC, PFC, insula, somatosensory cortex, limbic areas and amygdala are involved. In exposure to a high amount of stress, the grey matter volume decreases in the hippocampus, PFC, and amygdala. Research has also shown that 19 000 hours of mindfulness practice increases activation in areas involved in FA and OM. This increased activation might also enhance the subject’s ability to control emotions. After 44 000 hours of meditation, areas involved in FA showed less activation which might imply that more hours of mindfulness practice involve less cognitive activity and a calmer state of mind. Regardless of hours spent on meditating, a decreased activation in the amygdala and ACC occurs, which correlates with less response towards negative stimuli. The neural changes involved in mindfulness practice was related to less experienced stress and enhanced psychological well-being. For future research, an investigation of the interaction between attentional networks and stress would be of relevance.

  • 252.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    et al.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Asplund, A.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Abadie, A.
    Takara Bio Europe SAS, Paris, France.
    Novel human iPSC-derived hepatocytes with advanced functionality and long-term 2D cultures of human primary hepatocytes for metabolic disease studies2018In: Human Gene Therapy, ISSN 1043-0342, E-ISSN 1557-7422, Vol. 29, no 12, p. A146-A146, article id P406Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 253.
    Laaksonen, L.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallioinen, M.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Långsjö, J.
    Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    Laitio, T.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, A.
    University of Turku. Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, J.
    Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Kaisti, K.
    Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
    Maksimow, A.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallionpää, R. E.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Rajala, V.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Johansson, J.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kantonen, O.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
    Nyman, M.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sirén, S.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Solin, O.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vahlberg, T.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Alkire, M.
    University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
    Scheinin, Harry
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Comparative effects of dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane, and S-ketamine on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in humans: a positron emission tomography study2018In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 281-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionThe highly selective α2-agonist dexmedetomidine has become a popular sedative for neurointensive care patients. However, earlier studies have raised concern that dexmedetomidine might reduce cerebral blood flow without a concomitant decrease in metabolism. Here, we compared the effects of dexmedetomidine on the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) with three commonly used anaesthetic drugs at equi-sedative doses.

    MethodsOne hundred and sixty healthy male subjects were randomised to EC50 for verbal command of dexmedetomidine (1.5 ng ml−1n=40), propofol (1.7 μg ml−1n=40), sevoflurane (0.9% end-tidal; n=40) or S-ketamine (0.75 μg ml−1n=20) or placebo (n=20). Anaesthetics were administered using target-controlled infusion or vapouriser with end-tidal monitoring. 18F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose was administered 20 min after commencement of anaesthetic administration, and high-resolution positron emission tomography with arterial blood activity samples was used to quantify absolute CMRglu for whole brain and 15 brain regions.

    ResultsAt the time of [F18]fluorodeoxyglucose injection, 55% of dexmedetomidine, 45% of propofol, 85% of sevoflurane, 45% of S-ketamine, and 0% of placebo subjects were unresponsive. Whole brain CMRglu was 63%, 71%, 71%, and 96% of placebo in the dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane, and S-ketamine groups, respectively (P<0.001 between the groups). The lowest CMRglu was observed in nearly all brain regions with dexmedetomidine (P<0.05 compared with all other groups). With S-ketamine, CMRgludid not differ from placebo.

    ConclusionsAt equi-sedative doses in humans, potency in reducing CMRglu was dexmedetomidine>propofol>ketamine=placebo. These findings alleviate concerns for dexmedetomidine-induced vasoconstriction and cerebral ischaemia.

  • 254.
    Landegren, Nils
    et al.
    Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sharon, Donald
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, CA, USA / Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
    Shum, Anthony K.
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Khan, Imran S.
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Fasano, Kayla J.
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Hallgren, Åsa
    Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kampf, Caroline
    Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Freyhult, Eva
    Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Life Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ardesjö-Lundgren, Brita
    Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alimohammadi, Mohammad
    Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rathsman, Sandra
    Department of Laboratory Medicine/Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundh, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Motrich, Ruben
    Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba 5000, Argentina.
    Rivero, Virginia
    Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba 5000, Argentina.
    Fong, Lawrence
    University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.
    Giwercman, Aleksander
    Molecular Reproduction Research, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Perheentupa, Jaakko
    The Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00029, Finland.
    Husebye, Eystein S.
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, and Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen 5020, Norway.
    Anderson, Mark S.
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Snyder, Michael
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford 94305, CA, USA.
    Kämpe, Olle
    Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Transglutaminase 4 as a prostate autoantigen in male subfertility2015In: Science Translational Medicine, ISSN 1946-6234, E-ISSN 1946-6242, Vol. 7, no 292, article id 292ra101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1), a monogenic disorder caused by AIRE gene mutations, features multiple autoimmune disease components. Infertility is common in both males and females with APS1. Although female infertility can be explained by autoimmune ovarian failure, the mechanisms underlying male infertility have remained poorly understood. We performed a proteome-wide autoantibody screen in APS1 patient sera to assess the autoimmune response against the male reproductive organs. By screening human protein arrays with male and female patient sera and by selecting for gender-imbalanced autoantibody signals, we identified transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) as a male-specific autoantigen. Notably, TGM4 is a prostatic secretory molecule with critical role in male reproduction. TGM4 autoantibodies were detected in most of the adult male APS1 patients but were absent in all the young males. Consecutive serum samples further revealed that TGM4 autoantibodies first presented during pubertal age and subsequent to prostate maturation. We assessed the animal model for APS1, the Aire-deficient mouse, and found spontaneous development of TGM4 autoantibodies specifically in males. Aire-deficient mice failed to present TGM4 in the thymus, consistent with a defect in central tolerance for TGM4. In the mouse, we further link TGM4 immunity with a destructive prostatitis and compromised secretion of TGM4. Collectively, our findings in APS1 patients and Aire-deficient mice reveal prostate autoimmunity as a major manifestation of APS1 with potential role in male subfertility.

  • 255.
    Landron, Teddy
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Electroencephalographic frontal alpha asymmetry and biological markers of the immune system: A correlation study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The immune system has been suggested as crucial in brain and psychological functioning. More precisely, immune markers reflecting immune system activity are important for psychological and mental health, as evident by their role in the physiopathology of depression and in the impairment of executive functions. Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA), an electroencephalographic marker of brain function, has also been linked to such psychopathology and is thought to reflect psychological processes underlying approach- versus withdrawal-related motivation and higher-order inhibitory control. Only a few studies have linked FAA to immune markers but notably found a negative association between IL-6, a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, and FAA. The aim of the present work is thus to study the relationship between various immune markers (including pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-6) and FAA. 35 healthy young male participants underwent a resting EEG recording and blood sampling from which immune markers were measured. The results did not suggest an association between IL-6 and FAA. No other immune markers were either suggested to be associated to FAA. The complexity of the immune system (e.g., effect of cytokines) is underlined and may explain the results. Despite such results, the implication of true negative correlations between FAA and circulating immune markers, as suggested in previous studies, is discussed in the light of the theoretical models of FAA.

  • 256.
    Larsson, Mathias
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Stress and Seizures: Behavioural Stress-Reduction Interventions’ Efficiency in Lowering Seizure Frequency2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Epilepsy is the most common, chronic, serious neurological disease in the world, with an estimated 65 million people affected worldwide. Recent studies on people diagnosed with epilepsy suggest that stress might trigger epileptic seizures. Interventions aimed at lowering stress might be able to reduce the risk for epileptic seizures among epileptics. In an attempt to explore this possibility, I conducted a systematic review addressing the efficacy of behavioral interventions targeted at lowering stress on seizure frequency among an epileptic population. This article also investigated the efficacy of these interventions on lowering self-perceived stress in the same population. Three databases were searched for obtaining 54 references. After a systematic filtering process, a set of 2 studies was retained after the full search procedure. The results suggest stress-reducing behavioral interventions do not have any statistically significant effects on lowering seizure frequency but have a statistically significant effect on lowering self-perceived stress ratings among an epileptic population. The small but promising results from trials and systematic reviews not included in this review warrant further research into the topic. Limitations regarding search procedure included studies and consideration for further research and reading for the presented topics are discussed.

  • 257.
    Lawenius, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Sambandet mellan fetch och förekomst av stormusslor: En studie i Vänern2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater bivalves are important organisms in the ecosystems they live, they also function as an ecosystem service for the human society. Swedish freshwater bivalves are divided into two groups; one with freshwater clams Sphaeriidae, and freshwater mussel with polyphile bivalves that are larger. Freshwater mussel lives in lakes and rivers, in Lake Vänern four species of the Swedish freshwater mussel have been observed. Fetch is the length of the open water from a point on shore to the nearest land or island. The structure of the lake bottom sediment can vary dependent on what value of fetch a shore has. In this report the freshwater mussel’s relation to the shore fetch is presented. More knowledge of the freshwater mussel is needed to develop a more suitable conservation work for them.   

    Inventory of mussel have been done on 20 different places in the southeast area of Lake Vänern. The results in this study shows a trend towards a relation between presence of freshwater mussel and shore fetch. Analysis on the highest density of mussel when the fetch data is divided in different classes shows a statistic significance for reduced density of mussel with increased fetch. Previous research shows similar results. However, more variables seem to be dependent factors for how and if fetch affect mussel.

  • 258.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Boström, Sven
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wayland, Matthew T.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, England.
    Morphological observations on three Baltic species of Corynosoma Lühe, 1905 (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae)2019In: European Journal of Taxonomy, ISSN 2118-9773, Vol. 514, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Necropsies of Baltic grey (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Pusa hispida) presented a rare opportunity to study their acanthocephalan fauna. Both species hosted adults of three species of the genus Corynosoma Lithe, 1904, namely C. magdaleni Montreuil, 1958, C. semerme (Forsell, 1904) Lithe 1911 and C. strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) Lithe 1904. A comparative morphological analysis of these three species of Corynosoma, combining both light and scanning electron microscopy, was performed for the first time. Sexual dimorphism in the size and shape of the trunk was observed in both C. magdaleni and C. semerme, but there was insufficient material to investigate this phenomenon in C. strumosum. Genital spines were not observed in any of the female acanthocephalans. Three possible explanations for the presence of genital spines in some females, but not others are (i) cryptic speciation, (ii) phenotypic variation and (iii) loss by extraction or shearing when the copulatory cap is released. Copulatory caps were observed on female C. semerme. The size and morphology showed considerable variability and all caps were strongly autofluoresecent.

  • 259.
    Leverin, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Skogsbrukets påverkan på artmångfalden hos mossor och lavar: Är artmångfalden större i en skog vid kontinuitetsskogsbruk än vid trakthyggesbruk?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The most common forestry model in Sweden, the clear cutting forestry, has caused problems for the biodiversity in the forests. In 2010, Sweden had 319 different bryophytes and lichens in the Red List that were connected to the forest. Some of which are dependant of forest continuity, old decaying wood, forest fire or other natural phenomenon found only in more or less undisturbed forests. The alternative to this forestry model is the continuous cover forestry as was common in the past, before forestry became an industry. At the time when the farmers themselves plucked out the wood they needed for they own survival, the forests could still function as an ecosystem. This report aims to compare and account for possible differences in species diversity between the tree forest type natural forest, continuous cover managed and clear-cutting managed forest. This study was based on four different continuous cover managed forests in Skåne, Västra Götaland and Östergötland County. Based on these forests prerequisites, natural forests and clear-cutting managed forests have been selected in acceptable closeness. The results of the survey show that the clear-cutting managed forests differ significant in biodiversity from the other forest types. Natural forests and continuous cover managed forests are richer in biodiversity and have more congruent values, however the presence of epiphytes is higher in natural forests. The result also shows that the presence of indicator species is higher in a continuous cover managed forest than in a clear-cutting managed forest.

  • 260.
    Li, Kaitao
    et al.
    Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA.
    Cheng, Xiaoxiao
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Tilevik, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Davis, Simon J.
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Zhu, Cheng
    Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA.
    In situ and in silico kinetic analyses of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor, programmed cell death ligands, and B7-1 protein interaction network2017In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 292, no 16, p. 6799-6809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor with an essential role in maintaining peripheral tolerance and is among the most promising immunotherapeutic targets for treating cancer, autoimmunity, and infectious diseases. A complete understanding of the consequences of PD-1 engagement by its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, and of PD-L1 binding to B7-1 requires quantitative analysis of their interactions at the cell surface. We present here the first complete in situ kinetic analysis of the PD-1/PD-ligands/B7-1 system. Consistent with previous solution measurements, we observed higher in situ affinities for human (h) than murine (m) PD-1 interactions, stronger binding of hPD-1 to hPD-L2 than hPD-L1, and comparable binding of mPD-1 to both ligands. However, in contrast to the relatively weak solution affinities, the in situ affinities of PD-1 are as high as those of the T cell receptor for agonist pMHC and of LFA-1 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1) for ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) but significantly lower than that of the B7-1/CTLA-4 interaction, suggesting a distinct basis for PD-1- versus CTLA-4-mediated inhibition. Notably, the in situ interactions of PD-1 are much stronger than that of B7-1 with PD-L1. Overall, the in situ affinity ranking greatly depends on the on-rate instead of the off-rate. In silico simulations predict that PD-1/PD-L1 interactions dominate at interfaces between activated T cells and mature dendritic cells and that these interactions will be highly sensitive to the dynamics of PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression. Our results provide a kinetic framework for better understanding inhibitory PD-1 activity in health and disease.

  • 261.
    Lidén, Josefin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Intrinsic Motivation and its Neural Correlates2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Why is motivation important? The answer is simple to most of us: it is what makes people push forward and act. Intrinsic motivation is the kind of motivation that arises from within a person, making her or him strive towards a goal for no other reward than the feeling it will bring. Additionally, this kind of motivation has shown correlations with enhanced learning, creativity, performance, optimal development, and well-being. While intrinsic motivation has long been a topic within the field of psychology, the neural correlates underlying it have only recently become of interest for researchers, and studies have shown some interesting but also contradictory findings. Therefore, the aim of this literature review thesis is to investigate the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation further. Firstly, a background review of motivation in general and intrinsic motivation in particular is presented, focusing on concepts such as the self-determination theory, flow, and cognitive evaluation theory. This is followed by a chapter on motivation- and intrinsic motivation from a neuroscientific perspective, concerning concepts such as the reward system, the undermining effect, and studies examining the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation. These studies show that there was activity in several different areas when participants were intrinsically motivated. However, a frequent pattern of activity in dopaminergic pathways involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was detected in most studies, indicating the involvement of these areas in particular when a person is intrinsically motivated.

  • 262.
    Liljebjer, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Mental Visualisering i Ledarskap2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine the link between mental visualization and leadership. As times change so will also the role for a good leader change. I will first examine what distinguishes such a leadership and which qualities characterize a good leader. Futhermore, I will examine the possible problems  that might occur with using modern neuroscience techniques to identify the characteristics that are considered relevant for a good leadership. One such feature that I will examine closer is mental visualization. Where and how is this property active in the brain? Finally, I will try to answer how or if,  visualization is a critical characteristic of good leadership.

  • 263.
    Lindberg, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Relations Between the Capgras and Cotard Delusions2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Delusions are commonly thought of as bizarre and fascinating; a delusion is a false belief that is held despite counterevidence. They have also been hard to study, in part because of the many forms that they can take. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have made it possible to study delusions more empirically, by using methods such as Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to locate neural correlates. The Capgras delusion is a syndrome in which a patient has the belief that someone has been replaced by an impostor. The Cotard delusion is a syndrome in which a patient has the belief that oneself does not exist or is dead. These two delusions have been found to have some curious similarities. This thesis investigates how the Capgras and Cotard delusions relate to each other, with a focus on the neural correlates. The nature of delusions is explained, along with the Capgras and Cotard delusions. Relevant case reports for each delusion are presented. Neural correlates are also reviewed and compared between the delusions. Studies on the similarities in face recognition impairments are included, as well as on attribution styles. The findings demonstrated in this thesis show that the Capgras and Cotard delusions relate to each other in several ways, including in terms of overlapping neural correlates, in face recognition impairments, attribution styles and the fact that both delusions sometimes co-exist and follow each other. It is possible that the Capgras and Cotard delusions share fundamentally similar causes.

  • 264.
    Lindberg, Markus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural correlates of lucid dreaming and comparisons with phenomenological aspects2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the neural correlates of lucid dreaming has recently gained more underlying data. By exploring seven studies that investigated the neural basis of lucid dreaming, this essay sought to examine which neural correlates are associated with lucid dreaming and how proposed neural correlates relate to phenomenological aspects. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was judged as the region most associated with lucid dreaming, in support of a DLPFC hypothesis. Support for reactivation of DLPFC in lucid dreaming consisted of data from electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and transcranial direct current stimulation. Phenomenological aspects associated with this region involved meta-awareness, working-memory, decision-making, and conscious perception. Other regions of interest were parietal areas, frontal areas, and precuneus. Data was not always compatible, implying need for further research. The possibility of further research was judged as promising, based on a recent study inducing lucid dreaming in a significant percent of its test subjects.

  • 265.
    Linde, Helene
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Alkoholens effekt på kognitiva funktioner med fokus på minnet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol är den vanligaste och mest accepterade drogen i världen. I västvärlden uppskattas 90 % ha konsumerat alkohol någon gång i livet varav 30 % utvecklar alkoholrelaterade problem. Alkoholkonsumtionen är störst i länder med högt ekonomiskt välstånd samtidigt som antalet nykterister i dessa länder är lågt. Alkohol har en global inhiberingseffekt på hjärnan vilket ofta leder till negativa konskevenser för samhället, enskilda individer samt dess närstående. Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en omfattande överblick om de negativa konsekvenser alkohol har på kognitiva funktioner med fokus på minnet. Alkoholen påverkar främst hippocampus vilket leder till försämringar av minnet. Studier har visat att tillfällig kraftig alkoholkonsumtion stör inkodningen av ny episodisk information vilket leder till uppkomsten av begränsade perioder där minnen delvis eller helt saknas, vilket kallas för minnesluckor. Andra processer relaterade till minnet som long-term potentiation och long-term depression i hippocampus förhindras till viss del eller blockeras helt av alkohol. Studier har även visat att både tillfällig och långvarig alkoholkonsumtion leder till försämringar av kognitiva funktioner som minnet och exekutiva funktioner vilket ofta involverar förändrad neural aktivitet i frontalloben. Alkoholvolymen och alkoholkoncentrationen i blodet är två faktorer som har en avgörande roll för alkoholens effekt på kognitiva funktioner. Risken för uppkomsten av minnesluckor ökar vid tillfällig kraftig alkoholkonsumtion när alkoholvolymen är hög och alkoholkoncentrationen i blodet stiger fort till höga nivåer. Alkoholberoende utvecklas däremot genom att det sker fysiologiska förändringar av signalsubstanserna i hjärnan. Långvarig alkoholkonsumtion kan leda till utvecklandet av Korsakoff syndrom som innefattar amnesi.

  • 266.
    Lindersson, Carl
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Threatening Measures, at Face Value: Electrophysiology Indicating Confounds of the Facial Width-to-Height Ratio2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies support that the relative width of the upper face (facial width-to-height ratio; fWHR) has evolved to signal threat, but these studies rely greatly on subjective facial ratings and measurements prone to confounds. The present study objectively quantifies threat perception to the magnitude of the observers’ electrophysiological reaction, specifically the event-related potential (ERP) called the late positive potential (LPP), and investigate if brow height and jaw width could have confounded previous fWHR studies. Swedish and international students (N = 30, females = 11, Mage = 24 years, SDage = 2.9) were shown computer-generated neutral faces created with the underlying skeletal morphology varying in brow ridge height, cheekbone width and jaw width. Participants first rated how threatening each face was and then viewed 12 blocks of 64 faces while their electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The results supported that the LPP could be used to index threat perception and showed that only brow height significantly affected both facial ratings (p < .001, ɳp2 = .698) and magnitude of the LPP within the 400 to 800 ms latency (p = .02, d = .542). Hence, brow height, not facial width, could explain previous findings. The results contradict the hypothesis that fWHR is an evolved cue of threat and instead support the overgeneralisation hypothesis in that faces with similar features to anger will be perceived as more threatening.

  • 267.
    Lindhe, Hanna
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Emotional Brain and Sleep: A review of the relationship between sleep and emotional brain functioning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Why do we need to sleep? Not only is getting enough sleep important for our overall health and well-being, it is perhaps of utmost importance for normal brain functioning. Scientific findings derived from studying sleep deprivation suggests that sleep also plays an important role in our emotional functioning, which has led researchers to propose a causal and intimate relationship between sleep and emotional brain functioning. Without sleep it seems as our emotional processing become impaired in various ways. Along with advances in cognitive neuroscience, it is now possible to characterize mechanisms underlying emotional brain processes. In pursuit of the possible functions of sleep, researchers have also proposed that rapid eye movement sleep, might support a process of affective brain homeostasis and recalibration that optimally prepares the organism for next-day social and emotional functioning. This thesis reviews current behavioral and neurophysiological evidence focused on the relationship between sleep and emotional brain functioning, and the role of rapid eye movement sleep in emotional processing.

  • 268.
    Lindlöf, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Chawade, Aakash
    CropTailor AB, Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sikora, Per
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Olof
    CropTailor AB, Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Comparative Transcriptomics of Sijung and Jumli Marshi Rice during Early Chilling Stress Imply Multiple Protective Mechanisms2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0125385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Low temperature is one of the major environmental factors that adversely affect plant growth and yield. Many cereal crops from tropical regions, such as rice, are chilling sensitive and, therefore, are affected already at <10°C. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that chilling susceptibility varies greatly among rice varieties, which indicates differences in the underlying molecular responses. Understanding these differences is vital for continued development of rational breeding and transgenic strategies for more tolerant varieties. Thus, in this study, we conducted a comparative global gene expression profiling analysis of the chilling tolerant varieties Sijung and Jumli Marshi (spp. Japonica) during early chilling stress (<24 h, 10°C).

    Methods and Results

    Global gene expression experiments were conducted with Agilent Rice Gene Expression Microarray 4x44K. The analysed results showed that there was a relatively low (percentage or number) overlap in differentially expressed genes in the two varieties and that substantially more genes were up-regulated in Jumli Marshi than in Sijung but the number of down-regulated genes were higher in Sijung. In broad GO annotation terms, the activated response pathways in Sijung and Jumli Marshi were coherent, as a majority of the genes belonged to the catalytic, transcription regulator or transporter activity categories. However, a more detailed analysis revealed essential differences. For example, in Sijung, activation of calcium and phosphorylation signaling pathways, as well as of lipid transporters and exocytosis-related proteins take place very early in the stress response. Such responses can be coupled to processes aimed at strengthening the cell wall and plasma membrane against disruption. On the contrary, in Jumli Marshi, sugar production, detoxification, ROS scavenging, protection of chloroplast translation, and plausibly the activation of the jasmonic acid pathway were the very first response activities. These can instead be coupled to detoxification processes.

    Conclusions

    Based on the results inferred from this study, we conclude that different, but overlapping, strategies are undertaken by the two varieties to cope with the chilling stress; in Sijung the initial molecular responses seem to be mainly targeted at strengthening the cell wall and plasma membrane, whereas in Jumli Marshi the protection of chloroplast translation and detoxification is prioritized.

  • 269.
    Ling, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Construction of a fusion protein for anchoring the inflammatory receptor NLRP3 to the cell membrane2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The innate immune system are a cooperation of many components – receptors being one of them. Both membrane-bound and cytosolic receptors play a large role in the defence system against pathogens and danger. NLRP3 is a receptor which assembles a protein complex called inflammasome in response to cytosolic stress and is responsible for many autoimmune diseases if it malfunctions. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome leads to secretion of inflammatory cytokines and in many cases to programmed cell death. The structure, function and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is still not fully understood and the urge to understand the mechanisms behind are important for future medical improvements. The aim was to anchor the NLRP3 inflammasome by the cell membrane - By Overlap PCR, the NLRP3 cDNA was fused extracellular and trans-membrane parts of the TLR4 cDNA to anchor the NLRP3 to the membrane and in turn analyse the inflammasome with LPI™ technology. Multiple primers and a TLR4 nucleotide were designed and the NLRP3 was amplified with specific overhangs by PCR. The fusion protein was successfully linked together by Overlap PCR but not confirmed by sequencing. The gene fusion demands high quality primers for amplification and further evaluation must be made to the details of the laboratory. To anchor the protein complex to the cell membrane, continue to be of full importance and can be an asset in many structural studies and biopharmaceuticals trials.

  • 270.
    Lingvall, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Impact of Motor Imagery on Sport Performance and the Brain's Plasticity2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New neuroimaging techniques have made it possible to examine imagery and found evidence for that imagery share similar neural correlates as in perception. Imagery can be used in different areas to enhance performance, and it is a popular technique in sports. Similar to physical practice (PP), motor imagery (MI) can result in brain plasticity. The aim of this thesis is to describe what imagery means and describe different theories of imagery. This is to further look into what impact MI has on performance in different sports, and then to further see if there are any changes in brain plasticity as a result of using MI. There is a lack of studies done on MI, performance and brain plasticity in sport. To answer the latter focus of this thesis, studies of healthy persons and patient studies using MI to improve performance and examining changes in the brain have been used. In order to do that this thesis aims to do a literature review. The results indicate that MI combined with PP can improve sport performance. It has also been showed that MI alone can be as good as PP. Most studies found that MI combined with PP can result in brain plasticity, and only one study did not found evidence for it. It has also showed that MI alone can result in brain plasticity. Future research should include larger samples, matching subjects, and comparing the effects of MI in several kinds of sports.

  • 271.
    Liu, Oscar H.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    RNAseq Analysis of Gastric Bacteria in Helicobacter pylori-Associated Carcinogenesis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than half of the world's population, and is known to be involved in several diseases including gastric cancer. Its close interactions with the stomach and host immune system serves as a good model to study the co-adaptation and co-evolution of the organisms in the stomach micro-environment. In this project, we utilized RNA-seq and data analysis tools to investigate differentially expressed genes by H. pylori in patients at different stages of early gastric cancer development. We also investigated the abundance and diversity of bacterial genera other than H. pylori, and looked for correlations with H. pylori presence and number. For differential gene expression of H. pylori, one gene was differentially expressed between samples of corpus atrophy without metaplasia vs. samples of antrum gastritis, and eight genes were found to be differentially expressed between samples of corpus atrophy with metaplasia vs. samples with pan-gastritis. When samples were clustered into different groups based on the expression data, 52 genes (shared or unique to the specific comparison groups) were found to be differentially expressed, but no apparent patterns were observed that could be explained by medical or sample collection data. For bacterial diversity and abundances, we found several genera colonizing the stomach, of which some have been previously identified. While most of these bacteria colonize regardless of the presence of H. pylori, the abundance of three genera, Wolinella, Campylobacter, and Veillonella, seem to be correlated with the presence of H. pylori.

  • 272.
    Liu, Oscar H.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    RNAseq Analysis of Gastric Bacteria in Helicobacter pylori-Associated Carcinogenesis2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Helicobacter pylori infects more than half of the world's population, and is known to be involved in several diseases including gastric cancer. Its close interactions with the stomach and host immune system serves as a good model to study the co-adaptation and co-evolution of the organisms in the stomach micro-environment. In this project, we utilized RNA-seq and data analysis tools to investigate differentially expressed genes by H. pylori in patients at different stages of early gastric cancer development. We also investigated the abundance and diversity of bacterial genera other than H. pylori, and looked for correlations with H. pylori presence and number. For differential gene expression of H. pylori, one gene was differentially expressed between samples of corpus atrophy without metaplasia vs. samples of antrum gastritis, and eight genes were found to be differentially expressed between samples of corpus atrophy with metaplasia vs. samples with pan-gastritis. When samples were clustered into different groups based on the expression data, 52 genes (shared or unique to the specific comparison groups) were found to be differentially expressed, but no apparent patterns were observed that could be explained by medical or sample collection data. For bacterial diversity and abundances, we found several genera colonizing the stomach, of which some have been previously identified. While most of these bacteria colonize regardless of the presence of H. pylori, the abundance of three genera, Wolinella, Campylobacter, and Veillonella, seem to be correlated with the presence of H. pylori.

  • 273.
    Ljungberg, Eira
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    A review of brain areas associated with long-term mindfulness meditation practice2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in mindfulness meditation has increased immensely in psychology practice and research the past few decades. Yet, considerably little is known about the neurological mechanisms underlying mindfulness meditation and its effects on the human mind and behaviour. That is why this thesis aims to identify the brain regions that has been consistently associated with mindfulness meditation practice. When looking at both long-term and short-term effects of mindfulness meditation this thesis identified twelve brain areas consistently associated with mindfulness meditation: the cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, somatosensory cortices, the insula, hippocampus, inferior temporal and fusiform gyrus, precuneus and corpus callousum. By looking at the functions associated with these brain regions one might gain some insight into why and in what way mindfulness meditation also affects individuals behaviourally, cognitively and emotionally. Although the results are promising they are compromised by low methodological quality, especially due to small sample groups and difficulty deciding the causation in cross-sectional studies.

  • 274.
    Ljungström, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Moral Intuition Versus Moral Reasoning In the Brain2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Humans express complex moral behaviour, from altruism to antisocial acts. The investigationof the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying our moral minds is of profoundimportance for understanding these behaviours. By reviewing recent findings in cognitive andmoral neuroscience, along with other relevant areas of research, the current study aims to: (1)Investigate the neural correlates of moral intuition and moral reasoning, and see how thesetwo systems relate to moral judgement and moral behaviour. (2) Examine how the moralintuitive system and the moral reasoning system relate to one another. Neuroscientificevidence suggests that these two systems are supported by different areas in the brain. Whiletheir relationship is argued to be both sequential, integrative and competitive, evidenceindicates that the moral reasoning system primarily functions as a post hoc rationalization ofour intuitive-driven judgements and behaviours. While our moral intuitive system motivateskin altruism, both moral intuition and moral reasoning serve to uphold reciprocal altruism.

  • 275.
    Ljungström, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Claesson, Berndt E. B.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ovemyr, Ida
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Fröberg, Berit
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Brodin, Anna-Karin
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Andersson, Rune
    Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Clinical evaluation of commercial nucleic acid amplification tests in patients with suspected sepsis2015In: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a serious medical condition requiring timely administered, appropriate antibiotic therapy. Blood culture is regarded as the gold standard for aetiological diagnosis of sepsis, but it suffers from low sensitivity and long turnaround time. Thus, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have emerged to shorten the time to identification of causative microbes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility in everyday practice in the emergency department of two commercial NAATs in patients suspected with sepsis.

    METHODS: During a six-week period, blood samples were collected consecutively from all adult patients admitted to the general emergency department for suspicion of a community-onset sepsis and treated with intravenous antibiotics. Along with conventional blood cultures, multiplex PCR (Magicplex™) was performed on whole blood specimens whereas portions from blood culture bottles were used for analysis by microarray-based assay (Prove-it™). The aetiological significance of identified organisms was determined by two infectious disease physicians based on clinical presentation and expected pathogenicity.

    RESULTS: Among 382 episodes of suspected sepsis, clinically relevant microbes were detected by blood culture in 42 episodes (11%), by multiplex PCR in 37 episodes (9.7%), and by microarray in 32 episodes (8.4%). Although moderate agreement with blood culture (kappa 0.50), the multiplex PCR added diagnostic value by timely detection of 15 clinically relevant findings in blood culture-negative specimens. Results of the microarray corresponded very well to those of blood culture (kappa 0.90), but were available just marginally prior to blood culture results.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of NAATs on whole blood specimens in adjunct to current culture-based methods provides a clinical add-on value by allowing for detection of organisms missed by blood culture. However, the aetiological significance of findings detected by NAATs should be interpreted with caution as the high analytical sensitivity may add findings that do not necessarily corroborate with the clinical diagnosis.

  • 276.
    Ljungström, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital / The swedish strategic program against antibiotic resistance.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Tilevik, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    The diagnostic value of PCT as biomarker in patients suspected with community-onset bacterial sepsis2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 277.
    Ljungström, Lars
    et al.
    Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Diana
    Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Andersson, R.
    Institute of Biosciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden.
    Neutrophil to lymphocyte count ratio performs better than procalcitonin as a biomarker for bacteremia and severe sepsis in the emergency department2015In: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 19, no Suppl 1, article id P66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 278.
    Ljungström, Lars
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / CARe–Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Rune
    CARe–Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University and Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Usener, Barbara
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Unilabs AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Tilevik, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin, neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio, C-reactive protein, and lactate in patients with suspected bacterial sepsis2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 7, article id e018704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Early recognition is a key factor to achieve improved outcomes for septic patients. Combinations of biomarkers, as opposed to single ones, may improve timely diagnosis and survival. We investigated the performance characteristics of sepsis biomarkers, alone and in combination, for diagnosis of verified bacterial sepsis using Sepsis-2 and Sepsis-3 criteria, respectively.

    METHODS:

    Procalcitonin (PCT), neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and lactate were determined in a total of 1,572 episodes of adult patients admitted to the emergency department on suspicion of sepsis. All sampling were performed prior to antibiotic administration. Discriminant analysis was used to construct two composite biomarkers consisting of linear combinations of the investigated biomarkers, one including three selected biomarkers (i.e., NLCR, CRP, and lactate), and another including all four (i.e., PCT, NLCR, CRP, and lactate). The diagnostic performances of the composite biomarkers as well as the individual biomarkers were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

    RESULTS:

    For diagnosis of bacterial sepsis based on Sepsis-3 criteria, the AUC for PCT (0.68; 95% CI 0.65-0.71) was comparable to the AUCs for the both composite biomarkers. Using the Sepsis-2 criteria for bacterial sepsis diagnosis, the AUC for the NLCR (0.68; 95% CI 0.65-0.71) but not for the other single biomarkers, was equal to the AUCs for the both composite biomarkers. For diagnosis of severe bacterial sepsis or septic shock based on the Sepsis-2 criteria, the AUCs for both composite biomarkers were significantly greater than those of the single biomarkers (0.85; 95% CI 0.82-0.88 for the composite three-biomarker, and 0.86; 95% CI 0.83-0.89 for the composite four-biomarker).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Combinations of biomarkers can improve the diagnosis of verified bacterial sepsis in the most critically ill patients, but in less severe septic conditions either the NLCR or PCT alone exhibit equivalent performance.

  • 279.
    Ljungström, Lars R.
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital / CARe (Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research), Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Jacobsson, Gunnar
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde / CARe (Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research), Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Claesson, Berndt E. B.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Unilabs, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Andersson, Rune
    CARe (Center for Antibiotic Resistance Research), Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Molecular Microbiology, Unilabs, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Respiratory viral infections are underdiagnosed in patients with suspected sepsis2017In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 36, no 10, p. 1767-1776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim was to investigate the prevalence and clinical relevance of viral findings by multiplex PCR from the nasopharynx of clinically septic patients during a winter season. During 11 weeks of the influenza epidemic period in January-March 2012, consecutive adult patients suspected to be septic (n = 432) were analyzed with cultures from blood and nasopharynx plus multiplex PCR for respiratory viruses on the nasopharyngeal specimen. The results were compared with those from microbiology analyses ordered as part of standard care. During the winter season, viral respiratory pathogens, mainly influenza A virus, human metapneumovirus, coronavirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were clinically underdiagnosed in 70% of patients positive by the multiplex PCR assay. During the first four weeks of the influenza epidemic, few tests for influenza were ordered by clinicians, indicating low awareness that the epidemic had started. Nasopharyngeal findings of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae by culture correlated to pneumonia diagnosis, and in those patients laboratory signs of viral co-infections were common but rarely suspected by clinicians. The role of respiratory viral infections in patients presenting with a clinical picture of sepsis is underestimated. Specific antiviral treatment might be beneficial in some cases and may reduce spread in a hospital setting. Diagnosing viral infections may promote reduction of unnecessary antibiotic use. It can also be a tool for decisions concerning patient logistics, in order to minimize exposure of susceptible patients and personnel.

  • 280.
    Lubovac-Pilav, Zelmina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Borràs, Daniel M.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ponce, Esmeralda
    Dominican University of California, United States of America.
    Louie, Maggie C.
    Dominican University of California, United States of America / College of Pharmacy, Touro University of California, United States of America .
    Using expression profiling to understand the effects of chronic cadmium exposure on mcf-7 breast cancer cells2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 12, article id e84646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium is a metalloestrogen known to activate the estrogen receptor and promote breast cancer cell growth. Previous studies have implicated cadmium in the development of more malignant tumors; however the molecular mechanisms behind this cadmium-induced malignancy remain elusive. Using clonal cell lines derived from exposing breast cancer cells to cadmium for over 6 months (MCF-7-Cd4, -Cd6, -Cd7, -Cd8 and -Cd12), this study aims to identify gene expression signatures associated with chronic cadmium exposure. Our results demonstrate that prolonged cadmium exposure does not merely result in the deregulation of genes but actually leads to a distinctive expression profile. The genes deregulated in cadmium-exposed cells are involved in multiple biological processes (i.e. cell growth, apoptosis, etc.) and molecular functions (i.e. cadmium/metal ion binding, transcription factor activity, etc.). Hierarchical clustering demonstrates that the five clonal cadmium cell lines share a common gene expression signature of breast cancer associated genes, clearly differentiating control cells from cadmium exposed cells. The results presented in this study offer insights into the cellular and molecular impacts of cadmium on breast cancer and emphasize the importance of studying chronic cadmium exposure as one possible mechanism of promoting breast cancer progression.

  • 281.
    Lund, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Släktskapets påverkan på tillväxt, storlek, mortalitet och defekter hos yngel vid uppfödning hos Grönfläckig padda (Bufo viridis).2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims to respond to the hypothesis that says that there are differences in growth, size, mortality and deformation in the kin of green toad (Bufo viridis) between unrelated egg and later on juveniles when breeding. A previous Australian studie demonstrates that chemical substances that the toads themselves secrete affect growth and survival. It also appears that the siblings chemically recognize and favours each other, and thus competition for food between siblings is not as strong. Eggs and later on juveniles of five different females have been divided into groups and placed in aquariumtanks. Either with related individuals from a single female or mixed. The juveniles reared together with their siblings had on average larger bodies than juveniles reared with unrelated brood. There were no difference in growth over time between the different rearing methods. There where, however, differences in growth during the first measurements, which indicates that the mechanisms that differentiates the growth is strongest in an early stage of development. Mortality from egg to juvenile where larger in the unrelated individuals than within the siblings. Previous Swedish study show similar results and these contradicts result from Australian studies. Overall, it gives an indication that the mechanism that affect size, growth and mortality is more complex than what transpired in the previous work. The result points to differences that may form the basis for the development of new methods for the breeding of European Green Toad, and which can also help in the preservation of the Swedish population.

  • 282.
    Lundh, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Coleman, Scott
    Motion and Sports Lab, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Riad, Jacques
    Orthopaedic Department, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Sweden / Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Movement deviation and asymmetry assessment with three dimensional gait analysis of both upper- and lower extremity results in four different clinical relevant subgroups in unilateral cerebral palsy2014In: Clinical Biomechanics, ISSN 0268-0033, E-ISSN 1879-1271, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In unilateral cerebral palsy, movement pattern can be difficult to define and quantify. The aim was to assess the degree of deviation and asymmetry in upper and lower extremities during walking.

    Methods

    Forty-seven patients, 45 Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) I and 2 patients GMFCS II, mean age 17.1 years (range 13.1 to 24.0) and 15 matched controls were evaluated. Gait profile score (GPS) and arm posture score (APS) were calculated from three-dimensional gait analysis (GA). Asymmetry was the calculated difference in deviation between affected and unaffected sides.

    Findings

    The GPS was significantly increased compared to the control group on the affected side (6.93 (2.08) versus 4.23 (1.11) degrees) and on the unaffected side (6.67 (2.14)). The APS was also significantly increased on the affected side (10.39 (5.01) versus 5.52 (1.71) degrees) and on the unaffected side (7.13 (2.23)). The lower extremity asymmetry increased (significantly) in comparison with the control group (7.89 (3.82) versus 3.90 (1.01)) and correspondingly in the upper extremity (9.75 (4.62) versus 5.72 (1.84)). The GPS was not different between affected and unaffected sides, however the APS was different (statistically significant).

    Interpretation

    We calculated deviation and asymmetry of movement during walking in unilateral CP, identifying four important clinical groups: close to normal, deviations mainly in the leg, deviations mainly in the arm and those with deviation in the arm and leg. This method can be applied to any patient group, and aid in diagnosing, planning treatment, and prognosis.

  • 283.
    Lundin, Anders
    et al.
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Delsing, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Clausen, Maryam
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ricchiuto, Piero
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sanchez, José
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sabirsh, Alan
    Pharmaceutical Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ding, Mei
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Neurochemistry, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden / Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK / UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, UK.
    Brolén, Gabriella
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hicks, Ryan
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Herland, Anna
    Department of Micro and Nanosystems KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falk, Anna
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Human iPS-Derived Astroglia from a Stable Neural Precursor State Show Improved Functionality Compared with Conventional Astrocytic Models2018In: Stem Cell Reports, ISSN 2213-6711, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 1030-1045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vivo studies of human brain cellular function face challenging ethical and practical difficulties. Animal models are typically used but display distinct cellular differences. One specific example is astrocytes, recently recognized for contribution to neurological diseases and a link to the genetic risk factor apolipoprotein E (APOE). Current astrocytic in vitro models are questioned for lack of biological characterization. Here, we report human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived astroglia (NES-Astro) developed under defined conditions through long-term neuroepithelial-like stem (ltNES) cells. We characterized NES-Astro and astrocytic models from primary sources, astrocytoma (CCF-STTG1), and hiPSCs through transcriptomics, proteomics, glutamate uptake, inflammatory competence, calcium signaling response, and APOE secretion. Finally, we assess modulation of astrocyte biology using APOE-annotated compounds, confirming hits of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in adult and hiPSC-derived astrocytes. Our data show large diversity among astrocytic models and emphasize a cellular context when studying astrocyte biology.

  • 284.
    Lundin, Zebastian
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Neural Correlates of Internet Addiction: Contextualized by a Comparison with ADHD2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, people are interacting with the Internet. The emergence of this phenomenon has been positively contributing to the rapid development of our society in the last decades. However, negative reports about excessive usage are coming to the surface and questions about potential negative consequences are being raised. Internet addiction (IA) has been suggestedas a new type of disorder. There is a new field of research emerging with the aim to investigate its nature. This review compiles the most relevant literature on neuroimaging techniques used to identify the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of IA. Based on identified comorbidity between IA and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a comparison between the neural correlates of IA and ADHD is attempted, in order to illustrate the importance of bringing more attention to IA. The findings present structural, functional and neurochemical alterations in brain regions associated with emotional processing, cognitive control and reward processing. Similarities between the two disorders interms of structural and functional alterations in regions associated with emotional processing and cognitive control are highlighted.Limitations regarding lack of consensus of the operational definition, narrow selection criteria of participants and a need for subcategories inside the term IA are pointed out. The thesis concludes that as of now the discovered alterations may be considered as biological markers underlying the disorder and IA is a field of research worthy of more attention.

  • 285.
    Lutimba, Stuart
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. Science for Life Laboratory.
    Determination of specificity and affinity of the Lactose permease (LacY) protein of Escherichia coli through application of molecular dynamics simulation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins are essential in all living organisms. They are involved in various critical activities and are also structural components of cells and tissues. Lactose permease a membrane protein has become a prototype for the major facilitator super family and utilises an existing electrochemical proton gradient to shuttle galactoside sugars to the cell. Therefore it exists in two principle states exposing the internal binding site to either side of the membrane. From previous studies it has been suggested that protonation precedes substrate binding but it is still unclear why this has to occur in the event of substrate binding. Therefore this study aimed to bridge this gap and to determine the chemical characteristics of the transport pathway. Molecular dynamics simulation methods and specialised simulation hardware were employed to elucidate the dependency of substrate binding on the protonation nature of Lactose permease. Protein models that differed in their conformation as well as their protonation states were defined from their respective X-ray structures. Targeted molecular dynamics was implemented to drive the substrate to the binding site and umbrella sampling was used to define the free energy of the transport pathway. It was therefore suggested that protonation for sugar binding is due to the switch-like mechanism of Glu325 in the residue-residue interaction (His322 and Glu269) that leads to sugar binding only in the protonated state of LacY. Furthermore, the free energy profile of sugar transport path way was lower only in the protonated state which indicates stability of sugar binding in the protonated state.

  • 286.
    Lymperopoulou, Ioana Anca
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    A cognitive neuroscience perspective of emotions2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions have a remarkable capacity to mobilize an individual and shape a person’s behavior in order to ultimately lead to a higher wellbeing. The importance of emotions is further emphasized by pathological cases of people who suffer from an inability to normally regulate their emotional life, such as people who suffer from major depression disorder (MDD), eating disorders, or borderline personality disorder. Given the central role emotions play in our lives, it is very easy to understand the great interest cognitive neuroscientists have in this research field. Emotions have been approached in the last decades from different angles and as such, distinct theories arose. The goal of this study is to give a comprehensive overview of the emotion theories that exist, with a focus on three of the fastest developing cognitive theories of emotions: Frijda’s action-readiness, Russell’s core affect and the communicative theory. Additionally, the neural correlates of emotions will be discussed, focusing on the role of amygdala in the negative emotion of fear. Neuroimaging studies that reveal a correlation between the amygdala and emotions, fear in particular, will be described. Given that the ability of self-regulation is crucial for the achievements of our aims and goals, fMRI studies designed to investigate neural the underpinnings of emotion regulation will be presented. The process of cognitive reappraisal will be used to point towards the brain regions that act as down-regulators for the activity of amygdala while processing negatively valenced stimuli.

  • 287.
    Långsjö, Jaakko W.
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University hospital, Finland / Intensive Care Unit, Tampere University Hospital, Central Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, Harry
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University hospital, Finland / Department of Pharmacology, Drug Development and Therapeutics, University of Turku, Finland.
    Harnessing anaesthesia and brain imaging for the study of human consciousness2014In: Current pharmaceutical design, ISSN 1381-6128, E-ISSN 1873-4286, Vol. 20, no 26, p. 4211-4224Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 288.
    Löf, Kasper
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Investigating the Neural Correlates of Perceived Social Isolation: Is Perceived Social Isolation Confined to the Social Brain?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Loneliness, or the perceived discrepancy of ones relationships in terms of quality, is known as Perceived Social Isolation (PSI). Studies have shown that PSI is both increasing and is correlated with health risks. Specifically, PSI is not only related with risks of mortality but is also linked with variations in the brain. Having few social contacts, or being Objectively Socially Isolated (OSI) does not qualify as PSI. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the neural correlates of PSI, as distinguished from OSI. The true role of PSI is still unknown, however, arguments can be made that PSI serves an important role in survival. The social brain, which allows for social cognition is used as a basis for understanding PSI in this thesis. In this thesis, I found that individuals suffering from PSI have increased attention towards social threat, and a preference to engage in positive social stimuli. Further, PSI affects both social cognition and the social brain. However, regional brain activity was not confined to the social brain. The results showed that PSI may be related to both affective and attentional networks of the brain. PSI also affects activity in the ventral striatum. Further, PSI is related to varied regional brain size. I argue that PSI can be reduced by mainly fixing maladaptive cognitive patterns.

  • 289.
    Löfstrand, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Empathy for Pain: And its Neural Correlates2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of empathy has been fascinating laymen and scholars for centuries and has recently been an important subject for cognitive neuroscientific study. Empathy refers to the ability to understand and share others’ emotions and a characteristic of this ability is the capacity to empathize with others in pain. This review intends to examine and read up on the current state of the field of the neural and behavioral mechanisms associated with empathy for pain. The neural underpinnings of the first-hand experience of pain have been shown to be activated in a person observing the suffering individual, and this similarity in brain activity has been referred to as shared networks. This phenomenon plays an important role in the study of empathy. However, different factors have been shown to influence empathy for pain, such as age, gender, affective link between observer and sufferer, as well as phylogenetic similarity. This thesis discusses these differences, as well as atypical aspects affecting the empathic ability such as synaesthesia for pain, psychopathy and Asperger’s disease. Further, empathy for pain can be modulated by the individual observing someone in pain. For example, caregivers often down-regulate their empathic response to patients in pain, possibly in order to focus on their treatment and assistance. Also, paying attention to harmful stimuli heightens the perception of pain; therefore, the painful experience can be less remarkable when focusing on something else. The effect of empathy from others directed to oneself when suffering is discussed, as well as the consistency and limitations of presented research.

  • 290.
    Lönn, Josefina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Well-being and Dispositional Optimism in Uganda and Sweden: An empirical and neurobiological investigation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Uganda´s well-being ranks among the worst in the world, while Sweden´s well-being ranks among the best. This thesis investigates if there is a difference in well-being and dispositional optimism in Uganda and Sweden. The neurobiology underlying well-being and optimism is also examined. The neural correlations of well-being and optimism are connected to areas in the limbic system and cerebral cortex. Prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex are two curial regions involved in both well-being and optimism. Amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus are central areas for hedonic well-being, dispositional optimism, and optimism bias. In this thesis 284 Ugandans and 256 Swedes completed a questionnaire based survey. Greater hedonic well-being was found among Swedes, whereas greater eudiamonic well-being was found among Ugandans. Swedes reported greater global life satisfaction than Ugandans, but Ugandans expressed higher satisfaction with their current lives compared with Swedes. In relation to dispositional optimism, Ugandans were found to be both more optimistic and more pessimistic than Swedes. This unexpected dispositional optimism pattern is discussed and future research directions are proposed.

  • 291.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    et al.
    Department of psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding2019In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 705-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in personality have been shown to be larger in more gender equal countries. We advance this researchby using an extensive personality measure, the IPIP-NEO-120, with large country samples (N > 1000), from 22countries. Furthermore, to capture the multidimensionality of personality we measure sex differences with a multivariateeffect size (Mahalanobis distance D). Results indicate that past research, using univariate measures of effect size, haveunderestimated the size of between-country sex differences in personality. Confirming past research, there was a strongcorrelation (r = .69) between a country’s sex differences in personality and their Gender Equality Index. Additionalanalyses showed that women typically score higher than men on all five trait factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and that these relative differences are larger in more gender equal countries. Wespeculate that as gender equality increases both men and women gravitate towards their traditional gender roles.

  • 292.
    MacGregor, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Trivial Love2015In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 497-500Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 293.
    MacGregor, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    WADA's Whereabouts Requirements and Privacy2015In: Routledge Handbook of Drugs and Sport / [ed] Verner Møller, Ivan Waddington & John M. Hoberman, London: Routledge, 2015, p. 310-321Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 294.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Högskolan i Skövde.
    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing ACR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit reduced accumulation of arsenics and increased tolerance to arsenate2015In: Transgenic tobacco plants expressing ACR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit reduced accumulation of arsenics and increased tolerance to arsenate, Omics International Conference , 2015, Vol. 2, p. 32-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing ACR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibit reduced accumulation of arsenics and increased tolerance to arsenate.

    Toxic metals such as arsenics, lead, cadmium or chromium are the major environmental pollutants that severely contribute to contamination of the global food chain directly through their accumulation in the edible parts of the cultivated crops or indirectly via meat-milk pathway. Fortunately, plant genetic engineering has the potential for developing new crop cultivars for removal of the toxic substances from the polluted sources or for avoiding accumulation of these contaminants in the edible parts. Previously, we have identified and studied four key genes that are involved in accumulation of arsenics in plants (J Biol. Systems 2010, 18/1:1-19; J Mol. Modeling 2012, DOI 10.1007/s00894-012-1419 and J Mol. Modeling 2014, DOI 10.1007/s00894-014-2104). In this study, we have cloned and transformed the ACR2 gene (arsenic reductase 2) of Arabidopsis thaliana into tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum). Our results revealed that the transgenic tobacco plants are more tolerant to arsenic than the wild-type control plants. These plants can grow on medium containing 200 µM arsenate, whereas the non-transgenic plants can hardly survive under this condition. Furthermore, when exposed to 100 µM arsenate for 35 days accumulation of arsenics in shoots of the transgenic plants decreases significantly (28 µg/g d wt.) compared to that observed in the non-transgenic control plants (40 µg/g d wt.). This study shows that A. thaliana ACR2 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of plants to develop new cultivars that can be grown on arsenic contaminated fields and can supply harmless foods containing no or significantly reduced amount of arsenics.

  • 295.
    Mandiramoorthy, Selva Kumar
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    To identify novel oncogenes for the design of novel tools for diagnosis and treatment of cancer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer is a disease caused by an uncontrolled cell growth that destroys the healthy tissue of the body. It is one of the deadliest diseases in the world that alters many cellular mechanisms and features. In this report, a list of 22 upregulated oncogenes is studied to identify the novel oncogene. The need to determine the novel oncogene is to develop the anti-cancer agent. To determine the novel oncogene, gene enrichment analysis (GEA) was performed. It is a method to identify classes of genes that are over-represented in the large set of genes to determine the phenotypes of the organisms. DAVID and PANTHER are the methods used to carry on this study as it has Gene Ontology (GO) embedded in it. The GEA uses fishers exact test to determine the enriched gene by the standard p-value of 0.05. To further study the oncogene Network Enrichment Analysis was performed with EVINET. We found that microtubule was significantly enriched in NEA. The genes significantly enriched for GO microtubule were studied. The significantly enriched microtubule in NEA might then be used as a target for anti-cancer agent and used to develop the drug in the future.

  • 296.
    Marcišauskas, Simonas
    et al.
    Division of Systems and Synthetic Biology, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kristjansdottir, Björg
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Waldemarson, Sofia
    Department of Immunotechnology, Lund University, Medicon Village, Lund, Sweden.
    Sundfeldt, Karin
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Univariate and classification analysis reveals potential diagnostic biomarkers for early stage ovarian cancer Type 1 and Type 22019In: Journal of Proteomics, ISSN 1874-3919, E-ISSN 1876-7737, Vol. 196, p. 57-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomarkers for early detection of ovarian tumors are urgently needed. Tumors of the ovary grow within cysts and most are benign. Surgical sampling is the only way to ensure accurate diagnosis, but often leads to morbidity and loss of female hormones. The present study explored the deep proteome in well-defined sets of ovarian tumors, FIGO stage I, Type 1 (low-grade serous, mucinous, endometrioid; n = 9), Type 2 (high-grade serous; n = 9), and benign serous (n = 9) using TMT–LC–MS/MS. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD010939. We evaluated new bioinformatics tools in the discovery phase. This innovative selection process involved different normalizations, a combination of univariate statistics, and logistic model tree and naive Bayes tree classifiers. We identified 142 proteins by this combined approach. One biomarker panel and nine individual proteins were verified in cyst fluid and serum: transaldolase-1, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A (ALDOA), transketolase, ceruloplasmin, mesothelin, clusterin, tenascin-XB, laminin subunit gamma-1, and mucin-16. Six of the proteins were found significant (p <.05) in cyst fluid while ALDOA was the only protein significant in serum. The biomarker panel achieved ROC AUC 0.96 and 0.57 respectively. We conclude that classification algorithms complement traditional statistical methods by selecting combinations that may be missed by standard univariate tests. Significance: In the discovery phase, we performed deep proteome analyses of well-defined histology subgroups of ovarian tumor cyst fluids, highly specified for stage and type (histology and grade). We present an original approach to selecting candidate biomarkers combining several normalization strategies, univariate statistics, and machine learning algorithms. The results from validation of selected proteins strengthen our prior proteomic and genomic data suggesting that cyst fluids are better than sera in early stage ovarian cancer diagnostics. 

  • 297.
    Martinez Maestre, Andreu
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    PVC: Proximity Value Clustering: A new clustering method without human interaction2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 298.
    Martínez Enguita, David
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Identification of personalized multi-omic disease modules in asthma2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is a respiratory syndrome associated with airflow limitation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation of the airways in the lungs. Despite the ongoing research efforts, the outstanding heterogeneity displayed by the multiple forms in which this condition presents often hampers the attempts to determine and classify the phenotypic and endotypic biological structures at play, even when considering a limited assembly of asthmatic subjects. To increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and functional pathways that govern asthma from a systems medicine perspective, a computational workflow focused on the identification of personalized transcriptomic modules from the U-BIOPRED study cohorts, by the use of the novel MODifieR integrated R package, was designed and applied. A feature selection of candidate asthma biomarkers was implemented, accompanied by the detection of differentially expressed genes across sample categories, the production of patient-specific gene modules and the subsequent construction of a set of core disease modules of asthma, which were validated with genomic data and analyzed for pathway and disease enrichment. The results indicate that the approach utilized is able to reveal the presence of components and signaling routes known to be crucially involved in asthma pathogenesis, while simultaneously uncovering candidate genes closely linked to the latter. The present project establishes a valuable pipeline for the module-driven study of asthma and other related conditions, which can provide new potential targets for therapeutic intervention and contribute to the development of individualized treatment strategies.

  • 299.
    Mathews, Bobby
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, genetics and pathology.
    A zebrafish model system for drug screening in diabetes2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GWAS (Genome wide association studies) have aided in the discovery of various novel variants associated with diabetes. However, a detailed study is required to uncover the role of these genes and to determine how their dysfunction affects pathophysiology. Previous work in the lab has been successful in establishing zebrafish as an efficient model to characterise the effects of these candidate genes. Consequently, efforts have been also made to establish zebrafish as an efficient model system for drug screening as well. The current POP (Proof of principle) study aims to find whether treatment with tolbutamide drug in zebrafish carrying MODY (Maturity onset diabetes of the young) mutations has the similar effects in humans. The study employed zebrafish carrying five (gck, hnf1a, hnf1ba, hnf1bb, pdx1) CRISPR induced MODY orthologues. The zebrafish larvae were supplemented with tolbutamide drug from 5dpf till 10dpf (day post fertilisation). At 10dpf, larvae were screened for various glycaemic traits, whole body glucose and lipids as well body size. CRISPR-CAS9- induced mutations were quantified using paired end sequencing. The results showed that treatment with tolbutamide had a significant effect on the hyperglycaemic outcome induced by hnf1bb, hnf1a, and pdx1 mutations which was in line with the known effects of the drug in humans. In conclusion, the POP study proved to be successful in leveraging zebrafish as an efficient model system for, in vivo characterisation of drugs and can likely help to identify novel targets for therapeutic interventions.

  • 300.
    Mattisson, Amanda
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Conscious by Default: The Role of the Default Mode Network in Internal Awareness2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In the 1990s researchers discovered task-deactivated regions in the human brain. Together, these areas make up the default mode network (DMN). It was originally proposed to act as a balancing mechanism between different brain systems, explaining the deactivations, but is now mostly studied with regards to internal awareness, such as daydreaming and mental imagery. The purpose of this thesis is to present a summary of DMN research, focusing on the network’s suggested role in internal awareness. This will be done by reviewing a wide variety of research that either explicitly or indirectly correlate default mode network features with aspects of consciousness and internal awareness. The subjective experience of being conscious have been a source of argument primarily among philosophers, but the qualities we feel are intimately linked to cognitive functions that are supported by the regions found in the DMN. Cognitive neuroscience may therefore be able to contribute to the concept of internal awareness and consciousness.

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