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  • 251.
    Bergkvist, Krister
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lundberg, Pär
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Icke-farmakologiska Smärtlindrande Omvårdnadsåtgärder Inom Prehospital Akutsjukvård: En Kvalitativ Beskrivning av olika tillvägagångssätt2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most common complaints of patient’s in need of prehospital emergency care is pain of some sort. Since November 1 2005 a big portion of the ambulance personnel is no longer allowed to administer drugs of any kind. Hence it is reasonable to assume that pain treatment nowadays is carried out with both pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. Therefore the authors saw an interest in investigating how the ambulance personnel look at the concept of, and treatment of pain.

    The aim of this study was to, with focus on non-pharmacological measures, describe how Swedish ambulance personnel treat the patient in pain.

    The study was conducted with 5 interviews with ambulance personnel. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed. The analysis revealed four main themes with a number of sub themes. The theme opinions of pain disclose the informant’s view of pain as an individual phenomenon and what changes the patients perception of pain. Refuting and behavior in tending patients describes the informant’s opinions that a calm refuting and a good relationship with the patient could divert the patient’s thoughts about the pain. Assessment and treatment describes the need for individual adaptation when treating patients in pain. Combination therapy is successful revealed the informants thoughts that a combination of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological gives the best result.

  • 252.
    Berglund Kristiansson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Källman, Ulrika
    Research Department, Region Västra Götaland, South Älvsborg Hospital, Borås, Sweden.
    Healthcare staff's views on the patients' prerequisites to be co-creator in preventing healthcare-associated infections2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Every year, patients are affected by suffering and death caused by adverse events in connection with health care and the most common adverse events are healthcare-associated infections (HAI). The Swedish Patient Act from 2015 strengthens the patient's position in health care; however, there is lack of knowledge of how healthcare staff experience the possibilities to make the patient involved in the preventive work of HAI. Aim To describe healthcare professionals' views on the patient's prerequisites to be co-creator in preventing HAI in connection with hospital care. Method This study had a qualitative descriptive design with semi-structured individual interviews. Qualitative inductive content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed interview data. The study setting was a hospital in Sweden in 2015. Interviews were carried out among six healthcare professionals. Results In the analysis, 5 themes and 14 categories were identified in three different domains: Organisation, Healthcare staff and Patient. The result indicates an obstacle in each domain for the patient to become co-creator in preventing HAI. In Organisation domain, a lack of organizational structure such as elaborated working methods to involve the patient was pointed out. In the domain Healthcare staff, it showed that the professionals allocate the responsibility of preventing HAI to the patient but only if they had to or if they trusted the patient. In the Patient domain, the result states that the patient was perceived as passive; they did not take own initiatives to get involved. Conclusion The patient has an important role in successful HAI prevention work and should be considered as an obvious co-creator. Nevertheless, this study shows that neither organisation nor healthcare staff are sufficiently prepared for this. The organisation must make an anchored, structured and systematic work centred on the patient's needs and give more support both to healthcare professionals and patients.

  • 253.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Att lära sig stödja patienters lärande2015In: Reflektion i lärande och vård: En utmaning för sjuksköterskan / [ed] Mia Berglund & Margaretha Ekebergh, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 187-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 254.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att ta rodret i livet med långvarig sjukdom2011In: CF-bladet - Medlemsblad för Riksförbundet Cystisk Fibros i Sverige, no 3, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 255.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att ta rodret i livet med långvarig sjukdom: Lärande utmaningar vid långvarig sjukdom2011In: Dialäsen, ISSN 1104-4616, no 5, p. 37-40Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 256.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att ta rodret i sitt liv: Lärande utmaningar vid långvarig sjukdom2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A starting point for this thesis is that patients’ learning has not received sufficient attention and thus has not featured in the study programmes in the field of caring. Focus has instead been placed on patients being given information and advice about their illness and treatment, advice that they are then expected to comply with. Too little attention has been paid to the individual who lives with his/her illness and who should be considered to have significant experiences. The overall aim has been to analyze and describe the phenomenon of learning to live with long-term illness as well as to develop a didactic model that can help carers to support patients’ learning processes.

    The theoretical perspective in the thesis is lifeworld theory, which permeates ontological, epistemological and methodological standpoints and also the view on learning. The design and carrying out of the research is based on a reflective lifeworld approach. The empirical study consists of interviews with people who live with different types of long-term illnesses.

    The learning that follows life with a long-term illness is generated in such a way as to respond to the will to live the well-known everyday life. A greater understanding of the empirical results has been achieved by a lifeworld philosophical elucidation, with a particular focus on learning turning points and the importance of reflection. Based on the empirical results, the lifeworld philosophical elucidation and the caring science lifeworld didactics a didactic model has been formulated. This model is entitled: The challenge – to take charge of one’s life with long-term illness. The model contains four theses: 1) Confronting one’s life situation and challenging to make a change, 2) Positioning oneself at a distance when creating a new whole, 3) Developing self-consciousness and taking responsibility, 4) Making learning visible with the aim of providing development and balance in life.

    The results in the thesis show that a genuine learning is something that differs from the learning of information and that the learning must be supported at an existential level based on the sufferer’s situation and for a long period of time.

  • 257.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lärande vid långvarig sjukdom: Utmaningar för patient och vårdare2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 258.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Senaste nytt från Skövde2011In: Medlemsbladet, Handledning i omvårdnad, no 2, p. 7-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 259.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Utmaningen - att ta rodret i livet med långvarig sjukdom2012In: Njurfunk, ISSN 0347-1365, Vol. 1, no 39, p. 36-38Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 260.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Andersson, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kjellsdotter, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Att drabbas av långvarig sjukdom2017In: Vägen till patientens värld och personcentrerad vård: Att bli lyssnad på och förstådd / [ed] Karin Dahlberg, Inger Ekman, Stockholm: Liber, 2017, 1, p. 93-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ek, Kristina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Att förstå de didaktiska redskapen i utbildningen2015In: Reflektion i lärande och vård: En utmaning för sjuksköterskan / [ed] Mia Berglund & Margaretha Ekebergh, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 47-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 262.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ekebergh, MargarethaHögskolan i Borås.
    Reflektion i lärande och vård: En utmaning för sjuksköterskan2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 263.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Reflekterande KRAFT-givande samtal2017In: Vägen till patientens värld och personcentrerad vård: Att bli lyssnad på och förstådd / [ed] Karin Dahlberg, Inger Ekman, Stockholm: Liber, 2017, 1, p. 317-334Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Reflekterande KRAFT-givande samtal i vården av äldre som lever med långvarig smärta i hemmet2015In: Ä. Riksföreningen för Sjuksköterskan inom äldrevård, ISSN 2001-1164, no 1, p. 14-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Reflekterande KRAFT-givande samtal är en metod utvecklad för att användas som ett verktyg i vården. Syftet är att stärka människors hälsa och välbefinnande samt den egna förmågan att bemästra sin situation på ett sätt som ger glädje och mening i livet. För den äldre kan det innebära en möjlighet att kunna bo kvar längre i det egna hemmet. Metoden har utvecklats utifrån resultaten av två avhandlingar, en om hemmets betydelse och att leva med långvarig smärta samt en om lärande vid långvarig sjukdom.

  • 265.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, USA.
    Svanström, Rune
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Keys to person-centred care to persons living with dementia: Experiences from an educational program in Sweden2019In: Dementia, ISSN 1471-3012, E-ISSN 1741-2684, Vol. 18, no 7-8, p. 2695-2709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing old entails an increased risk of disabilities and illnesses such as dementia. The orientation in Sweden on national level is that individuals remain in their own homes if desired and receive person-centred home care. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of an educational program and its influence on daily provision of care to persons with dementia. A lifeworld approach was used. Data were collected through group interviews with care providers in the context of home. The findings are presented in five themes: Increased knowledge about dementia and treatment, Relationship-building in order to provide good care, Open and flexible approach conveys calm, Continuity and flexibility are cornerstones in the care and Perceived improvements. This person-centred educational intervention resulted in a care that was based on each individual’s personality, preferences and priorities in life. Education given with continuity over time is key to improving provision of care to person with dementia.

  • 266.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Källerwald, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    The Movement to a New Understanding: A Life-World-Based Study about How People Learn to Live with Long-Term Illness2012In: Journal of Nursing & Care, ISSN 2167-1168, Vol. 1, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to analyze and describe the phenomenon of learning to live with long-term illness.

    Method: The design and implementation of the research was based on a reflective lifeworld approach. The study consisted of interviews with people who live with different types of long-term illness.

    Results: Learning to live with a long-term illness happens in such a way as to respond to the will to live everyday life. The essential meaning of learning to live with long-term illness is constituted by the following elements: learning to know and live with a stranger, the driving forces of learning, learning methods are a balancing act, making the illness visible, as well as seeking knowledge and understanding. The result of the learning process can be understood as movement to a new understanding that is shown in the way the person with the illness acts and gives herself with the illness more space in life.

    Conclusion: The results show that genuine learning is something that differs from learning information and that the learning must be supported by the sufferer’s situation for a long period of time at an existential level.

  • 267.
    Berglund, Mia M. U.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Learning turning points - in life with long-term illness - visualized with the help of the life-world philosophy2014In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, article id 22842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long-term illness is an occurrence that changes one’s life and generates a need to learn how to live with it. This article is based on an empirical study of interviews on people living with different long-term illnesses. The results have shown that the learning process is a complex phenomenon interwoven with life as a whole. The essential meaning of learning to live with long-term illness concerns a movement toward a change of understanding of access to the world. In this movement, in which everyday lives as well as relationships with oneself and others are affected, a continual renegotiation is needed. Texts from existential/lifeworld philosopher, Heidegger and Gadamer, have been used to get a greater understanding of the empirical results. These texts have been analysed with particular focus on learning turning points and the importance of reflection. The results are highlighted under the following themes: Pursuit of balance*the aim of learning, The tense grip*the resistance to learning, To live more really*the possibilities of the learning, Distancing*the how of the learning, and The tense of the learning*the whole of the learning. In those learning turning points are present. Knowledge from this study has been used to make a didactic model designed to give caregivers a tool to support patients’ learning. The didactic model is called: The challenge to take charge of life with a long-term illness.

  • 268.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Nässén, Kristina
    Academy of Care, Working Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, USA.
    Fluctuation between Powerlessness and Sense of Meaning: A Qualitative Study of Health Care Professionals’ Experiences of Providing Health Care to Older Adults with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain2015In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 15, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is an increasing number of older adults living with long-term musculoskeletal pain and related disabilities. These problems are frequently unrecognized, underreported, and inadequately treated. Since many older adults desire to remain at home for as long as possible, it is important that individualized and holistically tailored care is provided in these settings. However, there is a complexity in providing care in this context.

    The aim of this study was to describe health care professionals’ experiences of providing health care to older adults living with long-term musculoskeletal pain at home.

    Methods: The phenomenon, “To provide health care to older adults living with long-term musculoskeletal pain at home”, was studied using reflective lifeworld research (RLR) which is based on phenomenological epistemology. Ten health care providers (nurse, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists) were interviewed and data was analysed.

    Results: The health care professional’s emotions fluctuated between powerlessness and meaningfulness. Needs, opportunities, understanding and respect had to be balanced in the striving to do good in the provision of health care in differing situations. Caring for older adults with long-term pain required courage to remain in the encounter despite feelings of insecurity and uncertainty about the direction of the dialogue. The essence of caring for older adults with long-term pain consisted of the following constituents: Sense of powerlessness; striving to provide good health care; and understanding and respect.

    Conclusions: The findings indicated that the health care professionals strived to do good and to provide health care that was holistic and sensitive to the older adults’ needs. A significant sense of powerlessness in the situation was experienced by the health care professionals. These findings address and support the need to develop methods that can be used to guide health care providers who support older adults in the context of their homes.

  • 269.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Nässén, Kristina
    Academy of Care, Working Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Hedén, Lena
    Academy of Care, Working Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Older Adults' Experiences of Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogues: An Interview Study2016In: Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research, ISSN 2167-7182, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 1000304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A major health problem that frequently accompanies old age is long-term pain, but pain must be acknowledged by older adults and health care providers. Interventions are needed to alleviate pain and suffering’ while holistically providing health care that promotes wellbeing. The intervention project, Reflective STRENGTHGiving Dialogues© (STRENGTH) was implemented to increase health and wellbeing among community dwelling older adults living with long-term musculoskeletal pain at home.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the older adults’ experiences of the intervention Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogue.

    Method: A life world hermeneutic approach was used in collection and analysis of data. Twenty community dwelling older adults participated were interviewed in their homes after the intervention.

    Findings: The findings consisted of five themes and showed that the older adults experienced the Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogues as a continuous and trusting relationship that alleviates the pain and breaks the loneliness. They expressed it as a new way to talk about life with pain. The dialogues supported reflection and memory and resulted in a transition in orientation in life.

    Conclusion: The Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogues helped the older adults to increase their intellectual, emotional, and physical engagement in daily living. The dialogues facilitated a transition in orientation from past to present, to the future, and from obstacles to opportunities. The dialogues were oriented towards enjoyments, meaning, courage and strength in life as a whole which promoted the older adults’ sense of well-being and vitality. The dialogues also facilitated carrying out small and large life projects. The Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogues created a deepened caring relationship that contributed to an increased sense of security, strength and courage, all of which enhanced the potential for better health and wellbeing.

  • 270.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjögren, Reet
    School of Health Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås/Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Reflect and learn together - when two supervisors interact in the learning support process of nurse education2012In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 152-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim  To describe the importance of supervisors working together in supporting the learning process of nurse students through reflective caring science supervision.

    Background  A supervision model has been developed in order to meet the need for interweaving theory and practice. The model is characterized by learning reflection in caring science. A unique aspect of the present project was that the student groups were led by a teacher and a nurse.

    Method  Data were collected through interviews with the supervisors. The analysis was performed with a phenomenological approach.

    Results  The results showed that theory and practice can be made more tangible and interwoven by using two supervisors in a dual supervision. The essential structure is built on the constituents ‘Reflection as Learning Support’, ‘Interweaving Caring Science with the Patient’s Narrative’, ‘The Student as a Learning Subject’ and ‘The Learning Environment of Supervision’.

    Conclusion  The study concludes that supervision in pairs provides unique possibilities for interweaving and developing theory and practice.

    Implications for nursing management  The supervision model offers unique opportunities for cooperation, for the development of theory and practice and for the development of the professional roll of nurses and teachers.

  • 271.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Westin, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Svanström, Rune
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Suffering caused by care - Patients' experiences from hospital settings2012In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 7, article id 18688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suffering and well-being are significant aspects of human existence; in particular, suffering and well-being are important aspects of patients’ experiences following diseases. Increased knowledge about existential dimensions of illness and healthcare experiences may be needed in order to improve care and reduce unnecessary suffering. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to illuminate the phenomenon of suffering experienced in relation to healthcare needs among patients in hospital settings in Sweden. In this study, we used a reflective lifeworld approach. The data were analysed with a focus on meanings. The results describe the essential meaning of the phenomenon of suffering in relation to healthcare needs. The patients were suffering during care-giving when they felt distrusted or mistreated and when their perspective on illness and health was overlooked. Suffering was found to arise due to healthcare actions that neglected a holistic and patient-centred approach to care. Unfortunately, healthcare experiences that cause patients to suffer seem to be something one needs to endure without being critical. The phenomenon can be described as having four constituents: to be mistreated; to struggle for one’s healthcare needs and autonomy; to feel powerless; and to feel fragmented and objectified. The study concludes that there are problems associated with patients experiencing suffering at the hands of healthcare providers, even if this suffering may not have been caused deliberately to the patient. Consequently, conscious improvements are needed to lessen the suffering caused by care-giving, as are strategies that promote more patient-centred care and patient participation.

  • 272.
    Bergman, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Simonsen, Lene-Therese
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med urininkontinens: en litteraturöversikt2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women where prevalence increases with age. There are three types of urinary incontinence: urge, stress and mixed urinary incontinence. Existing treatment methods focus on decreasing suffering. Urinary incontinence in women affects their well-being, increases suffering and decreases autonomy.

    Aim: To describe women’s experiences living with urinary incontinence

    Method: General literature review, where ten articles were basis for the result.

    Results: Women generally experience that their daily lives are affected and changed by living with urinary incontinence. They describe how they create their own strategies to recapture control over their daily lives. Living with urinary incontinence causes impaired well-being because of the experience of shame and embarrassment which affect their relationships and social life with others.

    Conclusion: To cope with everyday life, the women create their own strategies, which include always being aware of where the nearest toilet is or to bring extra clothes when leaving home. The strategies mean that women experience reduced stress and worry about urinary leakage. Involuntary urinary retention affects women physically and mentally, which means that it is important that healthcare professionals have good knowledge and insight into the life of patients with urinary incontinence living daily.

  • 273.
    Bergman, Karin
    et al.
    Skaraborg Primary Health Care, Skövde, Sweden.
    Perhed, Ulla
    Skaraborg Primary Health Care, Skövde, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Irene
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, Norway.
    Patients' satisfaction with the care offered by advanced practice nurses: A new role in Swedish primary care2013In: International Journal of Nursing Practice, ISSN 1322-7114, E-ISSN 1440-172X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 326-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe patients' satisfaction with the new role of advanced practice nurses (APNs) in Swedish primary care. A questionnaire pertaining to patient satisfaction with the care offered by APNs was sent to respondents. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test and manifest qualitative content analysis were used during analysis. Although the results show an overall high level of patient satisfaction as regards APN-led care, those patients informed of the APN role prior to a consultation were significantly more satisfied. Respondents' comments indicate that professional treatment and competence are characteristic of the care offered by APNs and also relate the concepts of increased availability of and continuity in health care to the APN role. In order to guarantee the positive development of the APN role in Sweden, continued research is needed from patient, organizational and interprofessional perspectives, including intervention studies of cost effectiveness and the quality of care.

  • 274.
    Bergquist, Marie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Larsson, Sanna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skolsköterskans arbete med sex- och samlevnadsundervisning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research has shown that it is varies in the methods and the contents in the sexual- and interpersonal relation education. Students consider the sexual education need to improve. School nurses work to promote sexual health. It’s important to understand how school nurses work with education on sexuality- and interpersonal relations. Purpose: Describe how school nurses work with sex and social education. Method: Nine e-mail interviews were conducted. School nurses working with adolescents ages 12-18. Data analyzed with a qualitative meaning. Results: Demonstrated five themes; Knowledge and competence contribute to security with the sexual- and interpersonal relation education; Supportive environment and time for the school nurse´s work on the sexual- and interpersonal relation education; The school nurse´s diversity in teaching structure is adapted to the students’ knowledge; Teaching immigrants and refugees new students requires more preparation; The school nurse´s treatment and approach is important for questions about HBTQ. Conclusion: Difficulty for school nurses in their work is the lack of time, which implies limited teaching. The cooperation of teaching is perceived as positive and desirable. The sexual- and interpersonal relation education is of importance to the students. Challenge of teaching students from other cultures, school nurses lacking in deeper knowledge. 

  • 275.
    Bergqvist, Johan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Stenman Josefsson, Märta
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda personer med demens på akutvårdsavdelningar: En litteraturbaserad studie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The diagnoses of dementia increases in line with the aging population of the earth. Symptoms vary between different dementia diagnoses and for some, a diagnosis might be a relief and confirmation of what’s really going on for both the patient and their relatives. Person centered care aims to empower a person's self-esteem and involvement in their own care. It urges healthcare professionals to look beyond the diagnosis of the patient, which makes this the form of care advocated for patients with dementia. Despite the fact that long waiting times is an acknowledged problem, nurses are still obliged to pursue nursing on equal standardse. Aim: The aim was to acknowledge nurses' experiences of caring for patients with dementia in acute care settings Method: A literature-based study with nine qualitative articles were chosen. Results: The analysis identified three main categories; lack of knowledge, structural deficiencies and relatives as a co-actor of the caring process, and eight subcategories. Conclusion: Dedication and education are central aspects regarding the care of patients with dementia. It becomes apparent that regardless of context, caring for patients with dementia is often mired in complexity. Nurses claim that lack of time and education combined with structural deficiencies constitutes an obstacle for nurses providing what they would consider sufficient care. These deficiencies may also negatively affect attitudes and perceptions and consequently the care of patients with dementia can be stigmatized.

  • 276.
    Bergqvist, Lisen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Johansson, Sofie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ATT BLI FÅNGE I SIN EGEN KROPP: En litteraturstudie om patienters upplevelser av välbefinnande vid ALS2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 277.
    Bergsten, Niklas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    1,25(OH)2D3 and Prostate Cancer: The Effects on cAMP/PKA-dependent Gene Expression in LnCaP cells2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer is the leading male cancer form i Sweden and maybe worldwide as well. Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin following the exposure to sunlight. Researcers have long been aware of the positive effect that vitamin D3 has on prostate tumour growth. 1,25(OH)2D3 have for a long time been the target of these studies and have shown good results. The steroid hormone induces cAMP accumulation and activiates the cAMP dependent protein kinaseA (PKA). PKA is then able to activate a transcription regulating protein. 1,25(OH)2D3 is known to cause LNCaP cells to accumulate in the G1 phase ofthe cell cycle. It has also been shown that 1,25(OH)2D3 is under negativefeedback control via 24-hydroxylase. In this study, PKA activity was observed by transfecting LNCaP cells with a viral vector carrying firefly and Renillaluciferase genes. The successfully transfected LNCaP cells would then express luciferase as a response to PKA gene expression. The LNCaP cells were then treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and GDP-β-S (100μM), a G-protein coupled receptorinhibitor, in order to examine if 1,25(OH)2D3 regulate PKA dependent gene expression through a G-protein coupled receptor. The study could show that 1,25(OH)2D3 regulate gene expression in LNCaP cells through a PKAdependent pathway. Furthermore, the PKA dependent gene expression was demonstrated to be independent of G-protein coupled recpetor activation.

  • 278.
    Bergsten, Niklas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    PDIA3 and Prostate Cancer: Do changes in nucleotidesequence correspond tomalignancy?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    PDIA3 interacts with the lectin chaperons; calnexin and calreticulin to surveythe folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins by the addition of N-linkedglycans. PDIA3 is also involved in transcaltachia signaling cascades andimmunogenicity. The purpose was to determine if there were any changespresent in the nucleotide sequence of the Pdia3 gene. To study this, fourprostate cell lines were examined by Sanger sequencing, two malignant(LNCaP, PC3) and two normal (PNT1A, PNT2). These were to be compared tothe nucleotide sequence from nine formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE)samples of different Gleason score and the sequence from three FFPE samplesof normal prostate tissue chosen from the Örebro Radical Cohort. The obtainedsequences were then analysed with several bioinformatics tools to determine ifthere were any changes present. The nucleotide sequence obtained from thesequencing indicated that none of the cell lines expressed the most redundantisofrom; CRA_c, but instead CRA_a and CRA_b. Surprisingly, the two normalcell lines (PNT1A and PNT2) produced similar scores in BLAST search forboth the CRA_a and the CRA_b isoforms. Software analysis of the translatedsequences predicted that LNCaP expressed a membrane bound form PDIA3while PC3 expressed a cytoplasmic variant of the protein. To confirm this,another sequencing reaction was performed. The second results indicated thatall cell lines expressed the same isoform, but that the isoforms were localizedto different intracellular compartments.

  • 279.
    Bergström, Evelyn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Bega, Arijana
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Upplevelser av att leva med lungcancer: En litteraturbaserad studie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lung cancer is a disease with poor prognosis, with many people that falls ill each year. It is a disease which leads to numerous and severe symptoms that create much suffering. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe patients' experiences of living with lung cancer in daily life. Methods: A literature study was conducted with a qualitative approach. Twelve scientific articles were reviewed and analyzed according to a model for a literature study. Results: Six categories were identified: live with uncertainty, stigma and guilt, experience of disease-related symptoms, a changed self-esteem, to get support and be confirmed and thrown between hope and despair. Discussion: There was a need for patients to live as independent as possible, social support and the support from health professionals was crucial for them to cope with it. Support overall was important for patients to be able to handle most situations. By acquiring knowledge about patients' with lung cancers experiences the nurse can be a better support for the patient in order to alleviate patients suffering.

  • 280.
    Bergström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hammar, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ANHÖRIGAS UPPLEVDA SITUATION NÄR EN NÄRSTÅENDE VÅRDAS PÅ EN INTENSIVVÅRDSAVDELNING: -En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The intensive care unit is a department where critically and acute sick patients are being treated. The department has specialized routines, equipment to treat and screening. Nurses on a intensive care unit are responsible for the treatment of patients as well as the leadership of the workforce. The nurses are also responsible to acknowledge the patient’s relatives. Therefore, it is of great importance for the nurses to understand relatives’ experiences in this situation, to be able to give treatment of good quality to relatives too. Aim: To describe the experience of relatives to patients who are being treated at the intensive care unit. Method: A literature review of scientific articles with a qualitative standpoint, aimed towards the experiences of relatives to intensive care unit patients. Results: Relatives experienced that a lot of factors affected them negatively. Routines, equipment and treatment were experienced as unfamiliar and confusing. The situation made it hard for the relatives to experience being close to the patient. Relatives experienced that good communication and information made the situation positive. Relatives experienced that being a part and having a say in the patients’ treatment were important. Conclusion: To be a relative at the intensive care unit can feel unfamiliar and differ from other kinds of departments. There are rules, equipment and situations that makes it difficult for the relatives to see the context of the situation. It is of great importance that the healthcare is attentive and give the relatives the possibility to understand the context.

  • 281.
    Bergström, Marina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Wiklander, Shaghayegh
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Unga kvinnors användande av sexualitet som självskadebeteende: En kvalitativ studie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Young girls that self-harm themselves have recent years been in focus. Thosewho earlier in life have been sexually abused are overrepresented among these women thatself-harm themselves through their sexuality.Aim: The aim of this study was to illustrate young women’s experiences of sexuality as aself-harm behavior.Method: A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach of own written stories.Result: Young women that harm themselves with their sexuality seek acknowledgement forinstance by publishing pictures on the internet to receive positive feedback on theirappearance. Further they use their sexuality to achieve a rush and a sense of suffice and bythat mitigate their anxiety. These women need a lot of support from their surroundings inorder to understand and process their self-harm behavior.Conclusion: School nurses need to pay attention that sexuality as a self-harm behavior existsin all social classes. The school nurse can through continuity and a trustworthy attitude createa good relation that is based on a genuine interest of wanting to understand these youngwomen from a life-world perspective. To be able to offer these young women the supportthey are in need of it is important that the school nurse dare to be present, listen and ask the question.

  • 282.
    Bergström, Natalie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal stress resilience2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience refers to the fact that some individuals cope well with stressful experiences. Many factors contribute to this sort of resilience, such as the early environment, the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTPLR), the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axis, and emotion regulation techniques. The aim of this thesis is to investigate which factors contribute to resilience, with a particular focus on the emotion regulation technique of cognitive reappraisal. The results show that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala each play a crucial role when it comes to stress regulation. Studies have found that the PFC inhibits the amygdala response, but that the PFC is vulnerable to exposure to chronic stress. As a result, the PFC might fail to inhibit the amygdala response. Individuals who use cognitive reappraisal techniques – which has been associated particularly with frontal and parietal brain activity – seem to be less prone to this sort of problem, and, as a result, more resilient to stress.

  • 283.
    Bernanker Lundaahl, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Klint Carlander, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ungdomars syn på sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen i skolan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sex och samlevnad är en av många faktorer som har betydelse för hälsa och välbefinnande hos såväl vuxna som ungdomar. Alla elever har rätt att få sex- och samlevnadsundervisning i skolan. I arbetet med att stärka ungdomars förmåga att göra medvetna och ansvarstagande val som rör sexualitet och relationer är sex- och samlevnadsundervisningen en viktig del.

    Syfte: Att beskriva hur förstaårselever på gymnasiet upplever den sex- och samlevnadsundervisning som de hade i högstadiet.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes med kvalitativ metod med induktiv ansats och data analyserades med innehållsanalys. Fyra fokusgrupper genomfördes med totalt 20 deltagare. 

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i tre kategorier; Eleverna beskriver att sex- och samlevnadsundervisning är av stor betydelse, Att ha erfarenhet av en undervisning som upplevs bristfällig samt elevernas önskemål om förändring i undervisningen.

    Slutsats: Ungdomarna upplever att sex- och samlevnadsundervisning är viktig men att undervisningen i detta ämne också har brister. Det finns behov av att lyssna på och respektera unga människors åsikter gällande undervisningen i sex- och samlevnad. Detta för att anpassa undervisningen utifrån ungdomars livsvärld och deras behov och därmed bidra med betydelsefull kunskap i ämnet. Skolsköterskors omvårdnadsperspektiv kan tänkas bidra till den öppenhet och följsamhet för individens unika behov vilket efterfrågas av deltagarna. 

  • 284.
    Bernvik, Erika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Jakobsson van Stam, Ebba
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Blivande förstagångspappors förväntningar inför förlossningen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Childbirth is part of the transition to parenthood. The transition is eased by support from midwives. It’s within the midwives area of responsibility to offer support to parents. Childbirth experiences are affected by received support and expectations of labour. Fathers’ childbirth experiences affect their well-being and parenting.

    Aim: Describe expecting first-time fathers’ expectations of the labour.

    Method: Qualitative individual semi-structured interviews with six expecting first-time fathers, whose women were in gestational week 29 to 35. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Expecting fathers’ find it hard to imagine what will happen during childbirth. They expect that after the delivery they will be able to have a quiet moment alone with their families to adjust to their new life-situation. Besides this, fathers expect that they will have an important supportive role during childbirth. Midwives are expected to support both the labouring mother and the father during childbirth.

    Conclusion: Midwives should support parental couples based on their individual needs of support. Support to expecting fathers enables them to be supportive during childbirth. First-time fathers expects support to be important during childbirth to create a feeling of security for themselves.

  • 285.
    Bernvik, Erika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Jakobsson van Stam, Ebba
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av lidande relaterat till cytostatikabehandlingen vid bröstcancer: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and a common treatment is chemotherapy, which comes with side effects. Suffering can be categorized in three different forms. Ethical principles are used to motivate choice of treatment. Aim: To describe women's experience of suffering related to chemotherapy during breast cancer. Method: The study is a literature review based on qualitative research. Eleven articles were reviewed and summarized by using Friberg (2012). Results: Women with breast cancer experience suffering when undergoing chemotherapy. They feel loss of their identity when their looks changes. People around them treat them differently and they are not able to do the same things as before in the role of mother, wife, friend and colleague. Suffering also consists of physical symptoms related to the treatment and the illness period, but some of the symptoms do not go away after treatment. Discussion: Physical side effects lead to psychological side effects as women experiences loss of identity, guilt and shame. Health care professionals have an important role in informing and to counter women in a good way to reduce suffering. Chemotherapy leads to suffering due to the illness and treatment, but it is also related to their existence. 

  • 286.
    Berthenet, Elvire
    et al.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Yahara, Koji
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Japan.
    Thorell, Kaisa
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pascoe, Ben
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Meric, Guillaume
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Mikhail, Jane M.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom / Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    Engstrand, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Burette, Alain
    Centre Hospitalier Interrégional Edith Cavell/Site de la Basilique, Brussels, Belgium.
    Megraud, Francis
    Centre National de Référence des Campylobacters et des Hélicobacters, Bordeaux, France / University Bordeaux, France.
    Varon, Christine
    University Bordeaux, France.
    Atherton, John C.
    Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Smith, Sinead
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Wilkinson, Thomas S.
    Swansea University Medical School, Swansea University, Microbiology and Infectious Disease Group, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Hitchings, Matthew D.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Falush, Daniel
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Sheppard, Samuel K.
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    A GWAS on Helicobacter pylori strains points to genetic variants associated with gastric cancer risk2018In: BMC Biology, ISSN 1741-7007, E-ISSN 1741-7007, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Helicobacter pylori are stomach-dwelling bacteria that are present in about 50% of the global population. Infection is asymptomatic in most cases, but it has been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Epidemiological evidence shows that progression to cancer depends upon the host and pathogen factors, but questions remain about why cancer phenotypes develop in a minority of infected people. Here, we use comparative genomics approaches to understand how genetic variation amongst bacterial strains influences disease progression.

    RESULTS:

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 173 H. pylori isolates from the European population (hpEurope) with known disease aetiology, including 49 from individuals with gastric cancer. We identified SNPs and genes that differed in frequency between isolates from patients with gastric cancer and those with gastritis. The gastric cancer phenotype was associated with the presence of babA and genes in the cag pathogenicity island, one of the major virulence determinants of H. pylori, as well as non-synonymous variations in several less well-studied genes. We devised a simple risk score based on the risk level of associated elements present, which has the potential to identify strains that are likely to cause cancer but will require refinement and validation.

    CONCLUSION:

    There are a number of challenges to applying GWAS to bacterial infections, including the difficulty of obtaining matched controls, multiple strain colonization and the possibility that causative strains may not be present when disease is detected. Our results demonstrate that bacterial factors have a sufficiently strong influence on disease progression that even a small-scale GWAS can identify them. Therefore, H. pylori GWAS can elucidate mechanistic pathways to disease and guide clinical treatment options, including for asymptomatic carriers.

  • 287.
    Bharadwaj, Mausumi
    et al.
    Division of Molecular Genetics & Biochemistry, Institute of Cytology & Preventive Oncology (ICMR), NOIDA, India.
    Hussain, Showket
    Division of Molecular Genetics & Biochemistry, Institute of Cytology & Preventive Oncology (ICMR), NOIDA, India.
    Tripathi, Richa
    Division of Molecular Genetics & Biochemistry, Institute of Cytology & Preventive Oncology (ICMR), NOIDA, India.
    Singh, Neha
    Department of Biotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.
    Mehrotra, Ravi
    Division of Cytopathology, Institute of Cytology & Preventive Oncology (ICMR), NOIDA, India.
    Human Papillomavirus (HPV): Diagnosis and Treatment2014In: Animal Biotechnology: Models in Discovery and Translation / [ed] Ashish Verma & Anchal Singh, Elsevier, 2014, p. 95-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 288.
    Binder, Pauline
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Women’s and Children’s Health (IMCH), Akademiska Hospital/Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Annica
    Department of Woman and Child Health/Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Swedish University of Agriculture, Skara, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    Department of Woman and Child Health/Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hi-TENS combined with PCA-morphine as post caesarean pain relief2011In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 547-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:  to examine effectiveness and overall opiate consumption between high-sensory transcutaneous  electrical  nerve  stimulation  (Hi-TENS)  combined  with  patient-controlled  analgesia  with morphine and patient-controlled analgesia with morphine alone following elective (e.g. scheduled) caesarean birth. Design:  randomised, controlled study. Setting:  a county hospital in south-west Sweden. Participants:  42 multiparous women. Measurements and findings:  participants were randomly assigned and connected to patient-controlled analgesia  with  morphine  alone  or  in  combination  with  Hi-TENS  apparatus.  Levels  of  morphine consumed were calculated every third hour during the first 24 hours post partum. Pain and sedation were assessed by visual analogue scale at one, three, six, nine, 12 and 24 hours post partum. Total consumption  of  morphine  differed  significantly  between  the  groups:  morphine  with  TENS  was 16.2+/-12.6 mg and morphine alone was 33.1+/-20.9 mg (p = 0.007). Assessment of pain relief showed no  significant  difference.  Sedation  differed  significantly  between  the  groups  (p = 0.045),  especially between three and 12 hours post partum (p = 0.011). Key conclusions and implications for practice:  pain relief from a combination of Hi-TENS and patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was as effective as patient-controlled analgesia with morphine alone, produced less sedation and reduced morphine use by approximately 50%. Women undergoing a caesarean section should be given the opportunity to make an informed choice about post operative pain relief before surgery. A presumed benefit of this treatment combination is that the mother is more alert and better able to interact with her newborn during the first hours after birth without drowsiness due to large doses of opiates.

  • 289.
    Birgersson, Elsa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Unga svenska kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med Anorexia Nervosa: En självbiografistudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) means a will-controlled weight loss and there is often a low disease insight. AN has the highest mortality rate among mental illnesses, and the number of people who are cared for because of the disease have tripled since the 1990s. Knowledge of young womens expirence of AN are needed to be able to in a deeper level understand and help young women living with the disease. Purpose: To describe young Swedish women's experiences of living with Anorexia nervosa. Method: The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The data material consists of five autobiographies. Results: The analysis revealed three categories; the influence on self- esteem, difficulties in the relationship with family and friends and the disease regulates everyday life with six subcategories. Conclusion: Young women with AN have a need of control that causes a social inhibition and anxiety. These women need confirmation from both their environment and health care that they have a disease.

  • 290.
    Birgersson, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ljunggren, Madelen
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    ETT SÅRAT HJÄRTA: Upplevelser av hälsa och välbefinnande i vardagen efter en hjärtinfarkt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 100 people suffer from heart attacks in Sweden every day, showing that myocardial infarction is a major problem in society. In implementing good health care it is important for health professionals to create an overall picture of these patients' experiences of health and wellbeing in their daily life. The purpose of this study is therefore to emphasize patients' experiences of health and wellbeing in daily life after a heart attack, with Katie Eriksson's health positions as theoretical base. A qualitative study based on seven autobiographies was conducted. Analysis of the data revealed seven major categories, showing the patients' experiences  the daily life after a heart attack: Feeling of insecurity, A stressful life situation, A lifelong disease, Striving for a normal daily life, The need for support and information, Lifestyle changes and A second chance. To get a picture of the experiences of health and wellbeing in these different situations, each category was added to Katie Eriksson's health positions. The findings show that all four health positions are represented in the daily life of patients' suffering from a heart attack. Patients are more likely to experience health and wellbeing as time passes after the heart attack.

     

  • 291.
    Birtic, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskan och patienten med schizofreni: En vårdande relation2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Patienter som har diagnosen schizofreni är inte unikt samlade inom den psykiatriska vården utan finns inom alla vårdspecialiteter. En viktig del av omvårdnadsarbetet hos de sjuksköterskor vilka möter dessa patienter är etablerandet av en vårdande relation med dem. Det är i denna relation som omvårdnaden tillämpas. Syftet med studien var att sammanställa och belysa forskning som beskriver sjuksköterskans vårdrelation med en patient som har diagnosen schizofreni. I en systematisk litteraturstudie granskades och analyserades åtta vetenskapliga artiklar vilket resulterade i tre huvudteman relaterade till vårdrelationen: ´etablera en vårdande relation´, ´främjar utvecklingen av vårdrelationen´ samt ´hämmar utvecklingen av vårdrelationen´. Innehållet i dessa teman framhäver att vårdrelationen är ett komplex fenomen bestående av många aspekter. Genom en förståelse utav dessa aspekters proportioner samt påverkan kan de utav sjuksköterskor ägnas medvetna åtgärder i syfte att stärka relationen till patienten och öka kvaliteten på omvårdnaden.

  • 292.
    Bisholt, Birgitta
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Ulla
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kullén Engström, Agneta
    School of Health, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Gustafsson, Margareta
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nursing students' assessment of the learning environment in different clinical settings2014In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 304-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Nursing students perform their clinical practice in different types of clinical settings. The clinical learning environment is important for students to be able to achieve desired learning outcomes. Knowledge is lacking about the learning environment in different clinical settings. Aim: The aim was to compare the learning environment in different clinical settings from the perspective of the nursing students. Design: A cross-sectional study with comparative design was conducted. Method: Data was collected from 185 nursing students at three universities by means of a questionnaire involving the Clinical Learning Environment, Supervision and Nurse Teacher (CLES + T) evaluation scale. An open-ended question was added in order to ascertain reasons for dissatisfaction with the clinical placement. Results: The nursing students' satisfaction with the placement did not differ between clinical settings. However, those with clinical placement in hospital departments agreed more strongly that sufficient meaningful learning situations occurred and that learning situations were multi-dimensional. Some students reported that the character of the clinical setting made it difficult to achieve the learning objectives. Conclusion: In the planning of the clinical placement, attention must be paid to whether the setting offers the student a meaningful learning situation where the appropriate learning outcome may be achieved. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 293.
    Bixby, Honor
    et al.
    Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ezzati, Majid
    Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
    Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults2019In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 569, no 7755, p. 260-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities1,2. This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity3-6. Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.

  • 294.
    Biörck-Markusson, Linda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Mokhayer, Zohreh
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att vårdas i slutenvård för anorexia nervosa: Patienters upplevelser2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are different types of eating disorders. Among these are anorexia nervosa the most serious. It is mostly young women who develop the disease, but also young men can become ill. Anorexia nervosa affects patient´s body image negatively, which results in the patient starving him- or herself and/or exercising frenetically. Aim: The aim was to describe patients with anorexia nervosa experiences of care during hospitalization. Method: A literature review with qualitative approach was chosen as the method to answer the aim of the study. Results: It emerged five themes from the analysis. These are; “The importance of a good relationship”, “An objectified care”, “The importance of support”, “The feeling of being monitored” and “The importance of experiencing participation”. These themes describe patients' experiences of care in hospitalization. Conclusion: The patients experienced the care to be both positive and negative. It was of great importance to the patients if they experienced a good relationship with the nurses. In order to overcome the disease, it was important that patients felt involved in their own care. For the patients to recover from anorexia nervosa, the patients needed to be treated like individuals and not like the stereotype of the disease.

  • 295.
    Bjaaland, Helen
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ambivalens inför rutinmässigt navelsträngs-pH: Hur barnmorskor inom förlossningsvård resonerar kring det nyfödda barnets nytta av navelsträngs-pH2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Umbilical-cord-pH is routinely tested at almost all births in Sweden, however views differ regarding the benefits. Studies show that umbilical-cord-pH gives clinical benefits in high-risk deliveries that are not found in low-risk deliveries. Umbilical-cord-pH is not viewed as a risk for the child. It is important to visualize midwives’ reasoning regarding the pH-sampling since it is their responsibility.

    Aim: To visualize how midwives in delivery care reason regarding the new-born child's benefit from umbilical-cord-pH.

    Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six certified midwives who worked in a delivery ward. Qualitative content analysis was used.

    Results: The result is presented in three categories: Umbilical-cord-pH is useful for children born poorly; Umbilical-cord-pH does not benefit the healthy child and Umbilical-cord-pH is taken (anyway) on all children. An overall theme links these categories: Ambivalence to routinely take Umbilical-cord-pH, which shows the ambivalence the midwives feel regarding umbilical-cord-pH on healthy children.

    Conclusion: The midwives follow the established routine and test the umbilical-cord-pH of all children. They emphasize that the umbilical-cord-pH is of great benefit to the child who is born poorly, a well-established routine provides safety. Nevertheless, midwives wish to make individual assessments of the healthy children. New guidelines are needed if this is to be done in a medically secure manner.

  • 296.
    Bjerkeli, Pernilla J.
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden / Unit for Social Epidemiology, Clinical Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Anna K.
    Department of Forensic Genetics and Forensic Toxicology, National Board Forensic Medicine, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lesén, Eva
    Nordic Health Economics AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte
    Research and Development, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden / Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine at Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundell, Karolina Andersson
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine at Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Refill Adherence in Relation to Substitution and the Use of Multiple Medications: A Nationwide Population Based Study on New ACE-Inhibitor Users2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0155465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Generic substitution has contributed to economic savings but switching products may affect patient adherence, particularly among those using multiple medications. The aim was to analyse if use of multiple medications influenced the association between switching products and refill adherence to angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Sweden.

    STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: New users of ACE-inhibitors, starting between 1 July 2006 and 30 June 2007, were identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Refill adherence was assessed using the continuous measure of medication acquisition (CMA) and analysed with linear regression and analysis of covariance.

    RESULTS: The study population included 42735 individuals whereof 51.2% were exposed to switching ACE-inhibitor and 39.6% used multiple medications. Refill adherence was higher among those exposed to switching products than those not, but did not vary depending on the use of multiple medications or among those not. Refill adherence varied with age, educational level, household income, country of birth, previous hospitalisation and previous cardiovascular diagnosis.

    CONCLUSION: The results indicate a positive association between refill adherence and switching products, mainly due to generic substitution, among new users of ACE-inhibitors in Sweden. This association was independent of use of multiple medications.

  • 297.
    Bjerkeli, Pernilla J.
    et al.
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Mulinari, Shai
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Merlo, Juan
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Testosterone prescribing in the population — a short social epidemiological analysis in Sweden2016In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 11-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: In recent years, there has been an increased interest for use of pharmaceutical testosterone among elderly men. However, it is still scarcely studied if this use is conditioned by socioeconomic factors in the general population of elderly men.

    METHODS: Using individual-level data from a population-based cohort of men aged 65-84 years in the County Scania, Sweden, we analysed testosterone use in 2006 in relation to demographic and socioeconomic factors by means of multiple logistic regression. We also analysed national data at the ecological level to investigate trends in prescribing between 2006 and 2014.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of testosterone use in Sweden among 65- to 84-year-old men increased by 83%, from 3.3 per 1000 men in 2006 to 6.0 in 2014. Testosterone use was more than twice as common in men in the highest income quintile compared with those in the lowest (0.68% versus 0.25%, odds ratio 2.69 and 95% confidence interval 1.80-4.02). Besides in the high-income group, testosterone use was highest in 65- to 69-year-old men, divorced men and, specially, in men with a previous hospital diagnose of hypogonadism.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show socioeconomic inequities in prescription of testosterone. This is a short analysis based on limited data, but because information on this topic is scarce, our analysis adds a relevant piece of evidence and highlights the need for further research.

  • 298.
    Bjerkeli, Pernilla J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, CRC, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Mulinari, Shai
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, CRC, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden / Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Zettermark, Sofia
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, CRC, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Merlo, Juan
    Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, CRC, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sociodemographic patterns in pharmacy dispensing of medications for erectile dysfunction in Sweden2018In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 209-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sociodemographic factors and pharmacy dispensing of medications for erectile dysfunction (ED) in the general population of middle-aged and elderly men. By considering a number of medical conditions that could promote or contraindicate use of ED medication, the analysis could help capture prescription patterns that might not be explained by medical needs.

    METHODS: Individual-level pharmacy dispensing data from 2006 for a population-based cohort of 216,148 men aged 45-79 years in the county Scania, Sweden, were analysed. Multiple logistic regression was applied, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to quantify the discriminatory accuracy (DA) of the associations. National trends in pharmacy dispensing of ED medication between 2006 and 2016 were also analysed.

    RESULTS: Pharmacy dispensing of ED medication increased between 2006 and 2016, particularly among men aged 65-79 years (from 6.8 to 9.2%). Dispensing of ED medication was positively associated with higher socioeconomic position, and divorced and widowed men were more likely to fill a prescription with ED medication than married men. These associations remained after adjusting for medical conditions. The DA of the associations was, however, rather low (AUC = 0.69 among 45-64 year olds and AUC = 0.65 among 65-79 year olds).

    CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacy dispensing of ED medication seem linked to the individuals socioeconomic position, age and marital status suggesting sociodemographic disparities in the pharmacy dispensing targeting sexual function. However, the low DA of the associations shows the limited capacity of these factors to predict ED medication use at the individual level.

  • 299.
    Bjerkeli, Pernilla J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Vicente, Raquel Perez
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Mulinari, Shai
    Department of Sociology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Merlo, Juan
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden / Center for Primary Health Care Research, Region Skåne, Malmö, Sweden.
    Overuse of methylphenidate: an analysis of Swedish pharmacy dispensing data2018In: Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 1179-1349, E-ISSN 1179-1349, Vol. 10, p. 1657-1665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify overuse of methylphenidate and to investigate patterns of overuse in relation to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Patients and methods: Swedish national, pharmacy dispensing data were analyzed for all 56,922 individuals aged 6-79 years, who filled a methylphenidate prescription between 2010 and 2011. Overuse was defined as having above 150% days covered by the dispensed amount during 365 days from the first prescription fill, assuming use at the maximum recommended daily dose. Results: In total, 4,304 individuals (7.6% of the methylphenidate users) were categorized as overusers. The risk of overuse increased with age (OR for 46-65 years vs 6-12 years 17.5, 95% CI 14.3-21.3), and was higher in men (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.5) and individuals with low income (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2), as well as in individuals with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), health care visits (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4), previous ADHD medication use (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.4-2.8), and previous diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (OR 2.1 95% CI 2.0-2.3). Conclusion: Among individuals using methylphenidate in Sweden, 7.6% receive amounts that are larger than what they should have a medical need for, assuming that they were using the maximum recommended daily dose 365 days per year. Notably, the prevalence of overuse was associated with previous diagnosis of alcohol and drug misuse. The prevalence was also positively associated with higher age and previous use of ADHD medication. These findings may point toward a link between exposure time and overuse. However, future studies with long-term data are needed to investigate this.

  • 300.
    Bjurberg, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Academic achievement and personality traits: an empirical and neurobiological investigation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis explores how personality traits are connected to academic achievement. First, a theoretical discussion on the neurobiological basis of different personality traits is presented, where variance in brain- activity, volume and chemistry describes possible differences in personality. Traits previously linked to academic achievement is also described in terms of neurobiology. This is followed by an empirical investigation of the connection between personality traits and academic achievement. Previous research suggest the Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992a) personality traits of conscientiousness, order and self-discipline to be positively associated with academic achievement. Also, similar suggestions have been put forward concerning the Values in Action (VIA-IS; Peterson & Seligman, 2004) character strengths of love of learning, self-regulation and persistence and academic achievement. 90 students in a medium sized Swedish senior high school completed the two personality inventories and their grades were collected. Positive correlations were found for the personality traits conscientiousness, order, and self-discipline and for the character strengths persistence, love of learning, perspective and open-mindedness. The results partly supported the hypotheses as well as extended the knowledge about what factors contribute to academic achievement. Discussion of the results and suggestions for further research concludes the thesis.

    Keywords: personality trait, character strength, neurobiology, academic achievement, BFI, VIA-IS

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