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  • 251.
    Alfredsson, Svante
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Stigh, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Continuum damage mechanics revised2004In: International Journal of Solids and Structures, ISSN 0020-7683, Vol. 41, no 15, p. 4025-4045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework is derived for developing constitutive laws for engineering materials. The framework is based on physically motivated assumptions on the mechanical and thermal behaviour of plastically deformed and damaged materials. These assumptions are the starting point in a derivation of the relevant thermodynamic quantities. The procedure reveals important cross-dependencies that have to be considered while developing constitutive equations. A major result of this study is that both deterioration (increase of damage) and healing (decrease of damage) can be modelled in an integrated manner using the same constitutive law. For greater clarity the description is limited to small strain and isotropic behaviour

  • 252.
    Algar, Natalie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skolsköterskors erfarenhet av möten med flickor som har ett självskadebeteende2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows that mental disorders in children and adolescent is increasing, especially when it comes to teenage girls. This may increase anxiety in some girls, which they might handle by developing self-harm behavior. School nurses are able to pay attention to these girls through daily health promotion nursing work.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the school nurse’s experience of meeting girls with self-harm behavior.

    Method: A qualitative method was used in the study and the result was analyzed according to meaning analysis. Six school nurse were interviewed by email interviews.

    Result: The study resulted in three meaning subjects; the girls are noted differently, experience of cooperation and create good relationships.

    Conclusion: The study showed that the school nurses meet girl with self-harm behavior, either through health interviews or by the environment warning that the girls feel bad. The study also shows that school nurses are experiencing frustration when cooperation with external actors such as children and adolescent psychiatry does not work and much of the responsibility is left with the school nurses. The study also showed that cooperation with parents is important when working with these girls. 

  • 253.
    Algerin, Karin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lundahl, Sofie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av informationen de får efter insjuknandet i hjärtinfarkt, samt vilken information de efterfrågar -En litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Myocardial infarction is a big health problem in Sweden. Between the years 1987-2004 about 56 000 people have suffered from an acute myocardial infarction. In many studies men have been the main focus. That means that the findings don’t represent women. Women may have different symptoms than men, because of this the women are often diagnosed wrong, and get treatment long after men. The aim of this study is to describe how women experience the information they are given after a Myocardial infarction, and what sort of information they request. A literature review is chosen for this study. Ten articles are analysed, they answered the question formulations and the aim of the study. The result of this study is that women’s needs of information are great and women need individual information. If this is neglected the women’s recovery is prolonged. Information can also be a form of support. Women want to know why this happened and what the illness is going to mean for their lives. When women are informed they feel supported. They can also get support and information from cardiac rehabilitation programmes. Nurses should build a relationship with the patient based on respect and trust.

  • 254.
    Algervik, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Onlinemöte- en kvalitativ studie av finansiell personlig rådgivning med delad skärm.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I enlighet med den trend som råder inom den tekniska utvecklingen i samhället i stort, introduceras nu ett sätt för bankers kunder att ha personliga rådgivningsmöten via Internet. Tidigare har sådana möten skett ansikte mot ansikte på det bankkontor som kunden tillhör. Det finns en rad fördelar med att tjänster sker online som exempelvis tideffektivitet, geografiskt oberoende och mer flexibelt i allmänhet. Den här kvalitativa studien handlar om en underökning kring hur personliga (finansiella) rådgivare upplever att arbeta med den här typen utav möten, närmare bestämt vilka faktorer som de anser viktiga när möten som skett ansikte mot ansikte kan komma att ske online. Studien innefattar ett induktivt tillvägagångssätt i syfte att ta reda på dessa faktorer samt att granska dem utifrån ramverket datorstött samarbete och synsättet kroppsbaserad kognition. Datainsamlingstekniker som användes var semistrukturerade intervjuer och litteraturstudier inom kognitionsvetenskaplig litteratur innefattande forskning inom människa-datorinteraktion, MDI (Patton, 2002). I rapporten redovisas även tillvägagångssättet i analysen samt det färdiga resultaten med slutsatser och diskussion. Analysarbetet genom kodning av insamlad data mynnade ut i fem kategorier som handlar om tidseffektivitet, åldersaspekten gällande användning av ny teknik, onlinemöte som komplement i det vanliga arbetet, vikten av fungerande teknik, samt kroppsspråket och ögonkontakten som en avgörande del i förståelsen av signaler i den sociala interaktionen mellan kund och rådgivare.

  • 255.
    AL-Haddad, Sadaf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Visualisering: Vad anser användare vara en användarvänlig dashboard?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Developers have a tendency to deliver meaningless dashboards to users from different organizations. A dashboard is a visual display that presents the important information on one single screen, for users to make decisions. As it is with the help of dashboards that decisions are to be made, the design is as important as the data is right. Most of the time the developer only throws something up on a dashboard and visualize according to his own experience and feelings, which may cause users not to attempt to work with the dashboard. With a user-friendly dashboard, it becomes easier for the user to make decisions and also becomes more grateful.  2  The results of this study is that there are important areas that developers should focus on in order to be able to achieve a user-friendly dashboard. The study has only focused on user-friendly based on the design principles. Based on the focus areas that have been developed, points have also been established based on what all users themselves have said and share in common. The developed focus areas are the placement of information, colours and choice of graphs. The study´s results make a clear difference from what previous literature has said and what users have in common with the literature.  

  • 256.
    Ali, Abukar
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Time window of TNF-a in innate immunity against staphylococcal infection2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is responsible for many human diseases including septic arthritis and sepsis shock. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in inflammation and produced mainly by macrophages and monocytes. It is believed to be involved in pathogenesis of septic arthritis. Time window of TNF-a in innate immunity against staphylococcal infection was studied in this project.

    Two experiments were carried out: In the first experiment mice were infected with a low dose (8x106cfu/mouse) of S. aureus to induce septic arthritis whereas in the second experiment the mice were infected with a higher dose (8x107cfu/mouse) of S. aureus to induce sepsis shock. All mice were divided into three groups. The first group was treated with anti-TNF-α 20 minutes after infection. The second group was treated with the anti-TNF-α three days after infection. The third group served as control and was injected with PBS instead of anti-TNF-α. The mice were regularly weighed and signs of arthritis and mortality were recorded. Two weeks after inoculation bacteria viable counts in different organs was done, as well as histopathological assessment of joints and measurement of cytokines in blood.

    We have observed that mice treated with anti-TNF-α had less severe arthritis and also less mortality. However, they had more bacteria accumulated in the kidneys and lost more weight compared to the control group. The results were mostly seen in the group early treated with TNF-α, compared to the late treated group.

    We conclude that anti-TNF-α might be potentially used as a therapy against septic arthritis and sepsis shock. This should be combined with antibiotics to eliminate the bacteria while the anti-TNF-α reduces the severity of the inflammation and thus reduce the risk of permanent joint destruction and mortality. We can conclude that blocking TNF-α early on is essential in order to get the best results.

  • 257.
    Ali, Awaz
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Förskollärarens roll och matematiken: Med avseende på språk, material och miljö2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more children experience school mathematics as a difficult subject which arouses thoughts and reflections. I think it is important to pre-school to prepare an approach so that children's understanding of mathematics can extend.  The purpose of my study is to highlight the pre-school teacher's role in the process of mathematics in pre-school. I have every reason to be based on the concepts of language, materials and environment to have the knowledge of pre-school teacher's role. I believe that these concepts are so connected with each other and together form the basis for all learning. The study is qualitative and consists mainly of observations as method. The results of the study show that pre-school teachers usually in everyday life put words on mathematical concepts. Through materials such as computer games, manual games, books, building blocks, pearl-plates and also various Montessori materials pre-school teachers prepare a stimulating educational environment for children's mathematical learning. By using the observations of the children pre-school teachers, thus based on the children's interest and curiosity, help children to make progress in mathematical understanding.

    Läs fonetiskt

     

    Ordbok

  • 258.
    Ali, Awaz
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    I språkverktyget ingår också digitala verktyg: En kvalitativ studie om digitala verktyg som stöd i läs- och skrivutveckling i förskolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, based on a socio-cultural perspective on learning, children’s use of different digital tools in the work with their development with reading and writing will be studied. The purpose of this research is to increase the capability to improve the reading and writing education in kindergarten with the help of different digital tools. The ambition is to, with the help of literature studies and practical work, be able to indicate that the children’s progress in the ability to read and write can be improved by introducing digital tools in the practical work in kindergarten. The overall aim of the study is to contribute to changing the children’s as well as the teachers’ approaches towards digital tools in the work with reading and writing development in kindergarten. A qualitative approach has been used with the help of inspiration from hermeneutics and phenomenography. In this research, nine children are interviewed, and thirty-three participatory observations are conducted during the period of one month. The result shows that every child who takes part in the research uses different kinds of digital tools in the work with reading and writing development. The result also shows that the use of digital tools is useful. Some of the opportunities that can be distinguished with the use of these tools are; language development, reading and writing development, development of motor skills, social skills and analytical skills as well as the development of digital skills. The discussion emphasizes the importance of conscious planning based on curricula, where digital tools are being used to complement the traditional education in kindergarten.

  • 259.
    Ali, Bayan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Fällgren, Åsa
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Wennberg, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Nationella prov - stöd eller hot?: Några gymnasielärares uppfattning om de nationella provens betydelse2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the significance of the national assessment in highschool education, including what the teachers express about the new instructions currently coming from the Swedish National Agency of Education, concerning a more central control of grading the national assessments. This study also covers the teachers individual responsibility when it comes to grading the national assessments. The purpose of the national assessment is to secure that grading and the education level in the country is equal. This is a qualitative study useing the method of a group discussion intervju (focusgroup intervju). Five highschool teachers took part in the discussion with questions that had been decided beforehand. The aim with this method is to give space for open discussions and reflections within the group. The result of the study shows that the respondants had been influenced by the tention between the new instructions from the Swedish National Agency of Education and the teachers autonomy. The study also elucidates the tendencies that exists in the country of grading too positive. The respondants expressed that they are affected  by the new instructions and that their final grading is controlled by the results from the assessments.

  • 260.
    Ali, Muhammad
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GENE EXPRESSION NETWORKS USINGBIOLAYOUT, GENENET AND DAVID2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deriving clusters of genes by different clustering techniques or finding the statistically significant variations among genes are conventional approaches to study microarray expression data. Nowadays in vitro experiments are being considered to make applications of genetical genomics more widespread in non-model species. Different bioinformatics tools are being used to investigate genetic pathways in the form of correlation based networks. In this study, a comparison was made between in vivo and in vitro gene expression data by using two software: BioLayout and GeneNet. From ten mice, five mice with the wild-type allele and five mice with the gene knock out (KO) for the gene SOCS2, a total of twenty samples were taken: five fresh samples from wildtype mice, five fresh samples from KO mice, five cultured samples from wildtype mice and five cultured samples from KO mice. After obtaining differentially expressed genes from microarray cDNA experiments, network analysis was done using the software BioLayout and GeneNet to make correlation and partial-correlation based networks. The resulting networks, or clusters derived from the networks, were subsequently analyzed for gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) using the tool DAVID. The results from the GSEA were used to compare all the clusters and networks between the fresh and cultured samples to test for functional overlap. The GSEA results were also used to compare the clusters from BioLayout with the networks from GeneNet to compare overlap between these tools using the same data. When functional enrichment analysis and comparisons were made between the fresh and cultured data set after getting the networks and clusters from BioLayout and GeneNet, only a few functional categories were found in common. This suggested that in vitro samples are unable to give the same biological information as in vivo samples for this particular gene KO. Also the two different network tools showed only limited overlap, suggesting that the correlation based networks from BioLayout show a different type of relationship among the genes than the partial correlations from GeneNet.

    Therefore, the use of different network tools can be recommended to visualize and explore the regulatory pathways among genes.

  • 261.
    Ali, Nurshad
    et al.
    Rajshahi University.
    Hoque, Ashraful
    Rajshahi University.
    Haque, Abedul
    Rajshahi University.
    Abdus Salam, Kazi
    Rajshahi University.
    Karim, Rezaul
    Rajshahi University.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Rajshahi University.
    Islam, Khairul
    Rajshahi University.
    Alam Saud, Zahangir
    Rajshahi University.
    Khalek, Abdul
    Rajshahi University.
    Azim Akhand, Anwarul
    Dhaka University.
    Hossain, Mostaque
    Rajshahi Medical College Hospital.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Karim, Rezaul
    Islamic University, Kushtia.
    Miyataka, Hideki
    Tokushima Bunri University.
    Himeno, Seiichiro
    Tokushima Bunri University.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Rajshahi University.
    Association between arsenic exposure and plasma cholinesterase activity: a population based study in Bangladesh2010In: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 9, p. 36-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Arsenic is a potent pollutant that has caused an environmental catastrophe in certain parts of the world including Bangladesh where millions of people are presently at risk due to drinking water contaminated by arsenic. Chronic arsenic exposure has been scientifically shown as a cause for liver damage, cancers, neurological disorders and several other ailments. The relationship between plasma cholinesterase (PChE) activity and arsenic exposure has not yet been clearly documented. However, decreased PChE activity has been found in patients suffering liver dysfunction, heart attack, cancer metastasis and neurotoxicity. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the PChE activity in individuals exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Bangladesh.

    Methods: A total of 141 Bangladeshi residents living in arsenic endemic areas with the mean arsenic exposure of 14.10 ± 3.27 years were selected as study subjects and split into tertile groups based on three water arsenic concentrations: low (< 129 μg/L), medium (130-264 μg/L) and high (> 265 μg/L). Study subjects were further sub-divided into two groups (≤50 μg/L and > 50 μg/L) based on the recommended upper limit of water arsenic concentration (50 μg/L) in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected from the study subjects by venipuncture and arsenic concentrations in drinking water, hair and nail samples were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). PChE activity was assayed by spectrophotometer.

    Results: Arsenic concentrations in hair and nails were positively correlated with the arsenic levels in drinking water. Significant decreases in PChE activity were observed with increasing concentrations of arsenic in water, hair and nails. The average levels of PChE activity in low, medium and high arsenic exposure groups were also significantly different between each group. Lower levels of PChE activity were also observed in the > 50 μg/L group compared to the ≤50 μg/L group. Moreover, PChE activity was significantly decreased in the skin (+) symptoms group compared to those without (-).

    Conclusions: We found a significant inverse relationship between arsenic exposure and PChE activity in a human population in Bangladesh. This research demonstrates a novel exposure-response relationship between arsenic and PChE activity which may explain one of the biological mechanisms through which arsenic exerts its neuro-and hepatotoxicity in humans.

  • 262.
    Aliahmadipour, Laya
    et al.
    Faculty of Mathematics and Computer, Department of Mathematics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Eslami, Esfandiar
    Faculty of Mathematics and Computer, Department of Mathematics, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    On Hesitant Fuzzy Clustering and Clustering of Hesitant Fuzzy Data2017In: Fuzzy sets, rough sets, multisets and clustering: Part I / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Anders Dahlbom & Yasuo Narukawa, Springer, 2017, p. 157-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the notion of hesitant fuzzy set was introduced, some clustering algorithms have been proposed to cluster hesitant fuzzy data. Beside of hesitation in data, there is some hesitation in the clustering (classification) of a crisp data set. This hesitation may be arise in the selection process of a suitable clustering (classification) algorithm and initial parametrization of a clustering (classification) algorithm. Hesitant fuzzy set theory is a suitable tool to deal with this kind of problems. In this study, we introduce two different points of view to apply hesitant fuzzy sets in the data mining tasks, specially in the clustering algorithms.

  • 263.
    Aliahmadipour, Laya
    et al.
    Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Eslami, Esfandiar
    Department of Pure Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    Eftekhari, Mahdi
    Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    A definition for hesitant fuzzy partitions2016In: International Journal of Computational Intelligence Systems, ISSN 1875-6891, E-ISSN 1875-6883, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 497-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we define hesitant fuzzy partitions (H-fuzzy partitions) to consider the results of standard fuzzy clustering family (e.g. fuzzy c-means and intuitionistic fuzzy c-means). We define a method to construct H-fuzzy partitions from a set of fuzzy clusters obtained from several executions of fuzzy clustering algorithms with various initialization of their parameters. Our purpose is to consider some local optimal solutions to find a global optimal solution also letting the user to consider various reliable membership values and cluster centers to evaluate her/his problem using different cluster validity indices.

  • 264.
    Ali, Sajeda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kindbom Höydhal, Emilia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Psykisk ohälsa bland studenter: En kvalitativ litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every other student experience mental health problems in relation to the studies they are in involved in and this requires adjustment in lifestyle. Students avoid seeking help due to the stigmatization regarding mental illness. There is a lack of resources in student healthcare to identify mental health issues in early stages, which results infliction of suffering and deterioration of health, leaving conditions untreated and resulting in increased risk of suicide. There is a lack of knowledge on the topic and failure to correctly educate nurses which creates uncertainty in how they could and should respond. Aim: The purpose of this study illuminate students' experiences of mental illness. Method: There were thirteen scientific articles chosen and also examined. A literature review was used to analyse the data. Result: Three areas are identified, Difficulties living up to expectations and demands, not having control of their everyday lives. The experience of social stigma. Conclusion: The study highlights the importance of paying attention to mental illness as there is a need to reduce stigma and to reach out to students with mental illness. Students and nurses are in need of support and guidance.

  • 265.
    Alistair, Chalk
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    PREDICTION OF PROTEIN SECONDARY STRUCTURE by Incorporating Biophysical Information into Artificial Neural Networks1998Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project applied artificial neural networks to the field of secondary structure prediction of proteins. A NETtalk architecture with a window size 13 was used. Over-fitting was avoided by the use of 3 real numbers to represent amino acids, reducing the number of adjustable weights to 840. Two alternative representations of amino acids that incorporated biophysical data were created and tested. They were tested both separately and in combination on a standard 7-fold cross-validation set of 126 proteins. The best performance was achieved using an average result from two predictions. This was then filtered and gave the following results. Accuracy levels for core structures were: Q3total accuracy of 61.3% consisting of Q3 accuracy’s of 54.0%, 38.1% & 77.0% for Helix, Strand and Coil respectively with Matthew’s correlation’s Ca = 0.34, Cb = 0.26 , Cc = 0.31. The average lengths of structures predicted were 9.8, 4.9 and 11.0, for helix, sheet and coil respectively. These results are lower than those of other methods using single sequences and localist representations. The most likely reason for this is over generalisation caused by using a small number of units.

  • 266.
    Alke Nilsson, Karin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Darius, Hanna-Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kvinnors levda erfarenheter efter viktminskningskirurgi: Ett nytt kapitel i livet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity is a growing problem worldwide, more and more surgical procedures are conducted every year to reduce obesity among the population. Complications resulting from obesity can adversely affect women's fertility, giving them a greater reason to undergo bariatric surgery. When the benefits of a surgical procedure outweigh health risks, an alternative solution to the problem may be bariatric surgery. Being responsible for nursing care the nurse has an important function in the process following bariatric surgery. Therefore, it is important to consider the experiences that these patients have in order to increase knowledge and understanding. Aim: Describe women's lived experiences after bariatric surgery. Method: Analysis of seven narratives in the form of blogs to study women's lived experiences. Result / Discussion: The result is presented in two main themes and three subthemes. The main themes are presented in a body of change and a change in everyday life. Subthemes are presented in other prerequisites in a lighter and healthier body, difficulties afterwards and adapting to a new everyday life. Conclusion: It is important that patients undergoing bariatric surgery to receive the right information and support to achieve lasting results and increased quality of life. Further research on how the nurse can develop the care of these patients is necessary as more and more people undergo bariatric surgery.

  • 267.
    Alklind, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Antropomorfism och kognitiv etologi: Hur människor tolkar djurs beteende1997Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt vissa kontroversiella forskare, som kallar sig kognitiva etologer, så kan antropomorfism användas i forskningssyfte inom djurkognition. Syftet med den här rapporten är att analysera antropomorfism och dess grundläggande beståndsdelar, samt utföra en undersökning för att ta reda på vilka faktorer som påverkar människors tolkningar av djurs beteende. Tre personer fick kommentera några videosekvenser, innehållande djur. De skulle låtas att de var ett av djuren och efter varje videosekvens blev de utfrågade om hur de hade resonerat under "agerandet". Den kvalitativa analysen av materialet visade att flera faktorer tillsammans inverkade på deltagarnas tolkningar och att överdriven antropomorfism kan undvikas till viss del, beroende på individuella faktorer.

  • 268.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Coaching by Gaming: An Instructor Perspective of Game-based Vocational Training2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Military organisations have a long history of using games for training. Over the years, they have developed training practices involving role-play, simulations, puckstering and gaming. Most researchers in serious games, i.e. games used for non-entertainment purposes, focus their studies on the learners. This licentiate thesis, instead, takes a closer look on the roles of instructors in game-based training situations, specifically at the Swedish Land Warfare Centre. Through a mix of theoretical and empirical studies, training practices were scrutinised, resulting in a framework for game-based vocational training. A key element of this framework is the coaching by gaming perspective in which instructors give un-intrusive, formative feedback through role-play and gameplay. Another important aspect of the framework involves dynamic debriefing. These insights points to specific needs for system support for instructors involved in game-based training. They also emphasise the fact that serious gaming is a highly contextualised activity made up of more than the game and the players.

  • 269.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Facilitating coaching during game-based vocational training2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 270.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Facilitation matters: A framework for instructor-led serious gaming2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the use of serious games from an instructor perspective. More specifically, it aims to study the roles of instructors and how they can be facilitated within an instructor-led game-based training environment. Research within the field of serious games has mostly focused on the learners' perspective, but little attention has been paid to what the instructors do and what challenges that entails. In this thesis, I argue that serious games, as artefacts used for learning and training, cannot fully replace the instructors' tasks, but must rather be designed to facilitate the various activities of the instructors. Thus, instructors form an important target audience in serious game development – not just as subject matter experts, but also as users and players of the game – with a different set of needs than the learners. Moreover, serious gaming (the actualisation of a serious game) involves more than in-game activities, it also involves actions and events that occur off-game. These activities must also be considered when designing and utilising games for learning and training.

    Using a qualitative approach, instructor-led serious gaming has been explored from a range of contexts, from rehabilitation to incident commander training and military training. Several different instructor roles have been identified and characterised, including in-game facilitator, puckster, debriefer, technical support and subject matter expert. Based on empirical and theoretical material, a framework for instructor-led serious gaming has been developed. It involves best practices in different phases of game-based training, such as scenario authoring, coaching-by-gaming, assessing in-game and off-game performance, giving feedback, and conducting a debriefing or after-action review. Furthermore, specific needs and challenges for instructors have been identified and reformulated into guidelines for instructor-led serious gaming. The guidelines highlight the importance of usability and visualisation, as well as the need for carefully designed support tools for instructors' situation awareness, assessment and debriefing. Lastly, a number of success factors pertaining to both the development and actualisation of serious games are presented. Since serious games aim to be both productive and engaging, it is advantageous to work with interdisciplinary teams when developing serious games. This includes subject matter experts well versed in serious gaming practices. Furthermore, a successful serious game should adhere to sound pedagogical theories, be easy to use and maintain, and include system support for instructors' tasks. Successful serious gaming practices also involve having an organisational culture that fosters knowledge sharing among practitioners.

  • 271.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The active instructor: Benefits and barriers to instructor-led serious gaming2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 8-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is a wealth of studies on the subject of serious games, the same cannot be said on the issue of teaching with games, especially in game-based learning settings with adult learners. Over the years, most research in this area has been focused on the ‘active substance(s)’ of games for learning, focusing mainly on characteristics of games, but often failing to take the whole context of game-based learning into consideration, such as the role(s) of the teacher. However, the past two or three years has seen a shift in focus from merely the game as an isolated artefact, to also include more discussions on how games can successfully be integrated into an educational setting, as well as challenges as pitfalls of which instructors need to be aware. This paper aims to outline the contemporary research on instructor-led serious gaming and its implications for the design of serious gaming environments.

  • 272.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Letting the students create and the teacher play: Expanding the roles in serious gaming2011In: MindTrek '11: Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, ACM Press, 2011, p. 63-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe four player roles in game-based learning and training, namely student player, student author, teacher player and teacher author. By this, we want to emphasise the creative and collaborative nature of gameplay, such as in-game feedback, scenario creation and “puckstering“, that put students and teachers, not on opposite sides of a spectrum, but as members of a community of practice with varying degrees of expertise. Using these four player roles as a basis for analysis, we have observed training sessions for vocational education within military and rescue contexts. The result is multifaceted insights into both the strengths and draw-backs of incorporating these roles into a serious game.

  • 273.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Making the implicit explicit: Game-based training practices from an instructor perspective2012In: Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL'12), Reading: Academic Publishing International, 2012, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 274.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Bergman, Maria Elena
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Carlén, Urban
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Spelbaserad simulering för insatsutbildning: Slutrapport2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en avrapportering av projektet Spelbaserad simulering för insatsutbildning. Projektet syftar till att:

    • Studera hur serious games kan förstärka lärandemiljön i träning och utbildning
    • Praktiskt testa och analysera användningen av spelteknologi för att ta fram rekommendationer för konstruktion av träningssimulatorer
    • Skapa underlag för utveckling av Räddningsverkets utbildningsmetoder genom samarbete mellan forskare och praktiker

    Serious games och spelbaserad simulatorträning ses som en möjlighet att vidareutveckla undervisnings- och träningsmiljön inom räddningstjänst. Begreppet serious games definieras som att använda spel och spelteknik för att uppnå syften utöver ren underhållning. För att utnyttja områdets potential i största möjliga mån krävs en kombination av att utveckla och anpassa teknik så att den passar för ändamålet, detta kan till exempel innebära att utnyttja de möjligheter som modern spelteknik ger för att logga användarbeteende och resultat. Dessutom innefattar serious games en komponent av speldesign, det vill säga att utnyttja möjligheter som spel ger för att skapa en motiverande och engagerande lärandemiljö. Detta kan till exempel innebära att skapa tävlingsmoment och poängsystem som sporrar till upprepad användning. I projektet har vi utnyttjat såväl teknik- som speldesignskomponenten.

    Projektets syften har uppnåtts genom att producera och utvärdera ett prototypspel för insatsträning samt en modell för hur serious games kan användas i träning och utbildning. De huvudsakliga resultaten består av en spelprototyp av ett webbaserat spel för att träna beslutsfattande på taktisk nivå samt en pedagogisk modell för spelbaserad träning. Prototypen och modellen har testats på en distanskurs för Räddningsledarutbildning i regi av Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB). Utvärderingen visar på goda resultat vad gäller systemets användbarhet. Den pedagogiska potentialen har inte kunnat utvärderas fullt ut då prototypen inte blev en tillräckligt integrerad del i kursen där den utvärderades.

    Projektet visar att spelbaserad träning kan vara en möjlighet för pedagogisk utveckling med avseende på både teknik och pedagogisk kontext. I detta sammanhang är det viktigt att poängtera vikten av att genomföra och utvärdera pedagogiska anpassningar i samband med spelbaserad träning. Vidare har projektet har samarbetat med olika konstellationer av lärare och kursdeltagare vid MSB. En viktig lärdom är att tydliga resurser och organisatoriskt engagemang finns på plats i den här typen av samproducerande forskningsprojekt.

  • 275.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Krasniqi, Hanife
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Acceptance of Entertainment Systems in Stroke Rehabilitation2009In: Proceedings of IADIS Game and Entertainment Technologies 2009 (GET 2009), IADIS Press , 2009, p. 75-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game-based tools for rehabilitation of different types of physical and cognitive impairments are becoming more and more popular. By introducing an element of fun, these systems aim at increasing patients' motivation to train and, from a further perspective, improve recovery rates. There is, however, a question whether such tools will be fully accepted by the intended target group. Earlier work on user acceptance has mainly focused on utility systems, i.e. systems used mainly in the work place. However, people use systems for different reasons and that makes it difficult to apply the same principles on systems with the main purpose to entertain. Serious games have characteristics from both utility and entertainment systems, which makes it interesting to study the acceptance of these kinds of systems. In this study, we have developed a home-based entertainment system for stroke rehabilitation, with focus on rehabilitation of motor impairments. By analysing the gaming behaviour and interview responses of five stroke patients, we investigate factors influencing user acceptance of this specific type of system. The results show that current models of acceptance are not sufficient to fully explain acceptance of serious games in general and serious games for rehabilitation in particular. Besides well-known factors, such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease-of-use and perceived enjoyment, other, more specific, factors also play a vital role in the acceptance of the system.

  • 276.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Gamers against All Odds2009In: Learning by playing : game-based education system design and development : 4th International Conference on E-Learning and Games, Edutainment 2009, Banff, Canada, August 9-11, 2009 : proceedings / [ed] Maiga Chang, Rita Kuo, Kinshuk, Gwo-Dong Chen, Michitaka Hirose, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the project presented in this paper is to enable motor rehabilitation to stroke patients in their home environment and to utilise game enjoyment to achieve frequent training. Stroke patients have an average age above 70 years, which implies that they typically do not belong to a gaming generation. In addition, these patients suffer from motor, and many times cognitive impairments, which make traditional games extremely difficult to use. Nearly all work in this area has been conducted in a clinic environment where it is possible to overcome some of these difficulties by letting professionals assist and guide patients.

    In this paper, we present the challenges faced, the system itself and the result from a study where five patients were equipped with a game console in their homes for five weeks. The focus of this paper is on analysing the gaming behaviour of patients, which includes the amount of time they spent, the type of games they selected and their comments on the gaming experience. The conclusion from this analysis is that their behaviour resembles that of gamers. They spent significant voluntary time, and it has been possible for patients, with no prior experience of computer games, to enjoy gaming in their homes where they had no professional assistance.

  • 277.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    The Birth of Elinor: A Collaborative Development of a Game Based System for Stroke Rehabilitation2009In: 2009 Second International Conference in Visualisation / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Muhammad Sarfraz, Farzad Khosrowshahi, John Counsell, Richard Laing, Chris Moore, Andrew J. Cowell, Ming Hou, Gui Yun Tian, Mohammad Dastbaz, Mark Bannatyne, Jian J. Zhang, Vittorio Scarano, Rosario De Chiara, Ugo Erra, Anna Ursyn and Haim Levkowitz, IEEE, 2009, p. 52-60, article id 5230709Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elinor is a game based tool for rehabilitation of stroke patients to be used in their home environment. The application is the result of a creative and exploratory development project in which researchers in the serious games area and experts in stroke rehabilitation collaborated in order to develop a motivating, easy to use and relatively inexpensive tool for relearning functions lost due to a stroke. Elinor can be viewed as an integrated system for stroke rehabilitation in that it is both a system, controlled by movements, for training of its primary user group and a system for monitoring the training by medical expertise. In this paper, we will describe the Elinor application itself, the development process and the initial evaluation of it in order to identify implications for serious games.

     

  • 278.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Coaching Cycle: A Coaching-by-Gaming Approach in Serious Games2012In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 648-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military organizations have a long history of using simulations, role-play, and games for training. This also encompasses good practices concerning how instructors utilize games and gaming behavior. Unfortunately, the work of instructors is rarely described explicitly in research relating to serious gaming. Decision makers also tend to have overconfidence in the pedagogical power of games and simulations, particularly where the instructor is taken out of the gaming loop. The authors propose a framework, the coaching cycle, that focuses on the roles of instructors. The roles include instructors acting as game players. The fact that the instructors take a more active part in all training activities will further improve learning. The coaching cycle integrates theories of experiential learning (where action precedes theory) and deliberate practice (where the trainee's skill is constantly challenged by a coach). Incorporating a coaching-by-gaming perspective complicates, but also strengthens, the player-centered design approach to game development in that we need to take into account two different types of players: trainees and instructor. Furthermore, the authors argue that the coaching cycle allows for a shift of focus to a more thorough debriefing, because it implies that learning of theoretical material before simulation/game playing is kept to a minimum. This shift will increase the transfer of knowledge.

  • 279.
    Allansson, Sofie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Vad händer när man framhäver skillnaderna mellan 2D- och 3D-grafik istället för att dölja dem?: Reflekterande uppsats till examensarbete i medier2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen är en reflekterande uppsats som behandlar ett verk som skaptas inom ramen för examensarbete i medier vid Högskolan i Skövde. Verket består av en datoranimerad speltrailer för det fiktiva spelet ”Ashes”, med ljudeffekter och musik. Trailern är 80 sekunder lång, renderad i 3D med tydliga inslag av 2D-grafik, med ljudeffekter och musik. Uppsatsen inleds med idén till verket och de mål som satts upp för arbetet. Därefter beskrivs verkets kontext i form av film, äventyrsgenren och existerande spel. Spelen beskrivs i förhållande till frågeställningen. Efter det förklaras hur det fiktiva spelet ”Ashes” förhåller sig till kontrasten 2D/3D, samt en genomgång av scenerna i trailern. Genomgången av de arbetsmoment som har ingått i framställandet av trailern belyser den tekniska och kreativa processen bakom verket. Den centrala slutsatsen som presenteras i uppsatsen är att skillnaderna mellan 2D- och 3D-grafik går att använda och utnyttja som ett verktyg för speldesign och historieberättande.

  • 280.
    Allard, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ögnelod, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Triage på en akutmottagningen ur sjuksköterskors perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 281.
    Allen, M. R.
    et al.
    Department of Pure Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
    Cruttwell, G. S. H.
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S., Canada.
    Hare, Kathryn E.
    Department of Pure Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
    Rönning, Jan-Olav
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Dimensions of fractals in the large2007In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 5-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 282.
    Allert, Anna-Lena
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    ProduktionsKompetensCentrum - En studie av effekter av projektstöd till tillverkande företag i Skaraborg2013Report (Other academic)
  • 283.
    Allert, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Business Support Agencies introducing Lean Production in SMEs - Does it make any difference?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many SMEs are implementing lean production in collaboration with a business support agency in order to improve their competitiveness. This research investigated whether improvement initiatives had the intended effect in some companies. A questionnaire was answered by employees in 26 SMEs. The result indicated experienced effect concerning leadership, communication and employee commitment, areas considered important for success in improvement initiatives,   and also progress in areas that characterise development towards lean. The result also indicated differences in experienced effect between managerial and non-managerial functions and between companies. 

  • 284.
    Allert, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Berg, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Tillgodoses bankernas informationsbehov genom redovisningsinformation upprättad enligt K2 i kreditbedömningen?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problems: It has been an issue for small- and medium sized companies, as accounting standards that they set up their accounts after having been unnecessarily complicated in compared to the needs of the users of its financial statements. Sweden’s efforts to simplify these accounting standards has among other things, been characterized by easing the work for small- and medium size companies. These efforts were called K-projektet, whose purpose partly has been to meet the needs of users of financial statements. K2 is the simplified rule package aimed at smaller companies. Banks are one of the primary users of small companies’ financial statements. K2 is characterized by simplifications, standardization and less reporting obligation. Since banks are demanding a lot of information at a credit decision of a company to make an informed decision, the questions where as follow To what extant do banks use companies accounting information in credit decision? How do financial statements prepared in K2 framework meet the needs of regarded information in credit decisions?Purpose: We examine how the information needs of banks´ are met at credit decisions based on financial statements prepared in the K2 framework. The study aims to increase the understanding and perception of what banks´ demand in the financial information provided by the entities.Method: In the purpose of this study, we wanted to increase the understanding and perception of the chosen topic. A qualitative method aims to do just that, to obtain a deeper understanding of banks´ information demand for credit. A case study includes a complexity of the investigated object, which our study is characterized by because there are relatively few companies that currently apply the K2 in the preparation of accounting information, hence a case study was chosen. The choice to interview the banks was based on that they are the primary users of financial statements in accordance to the K2-regulation.Conclusion: In credit evaluation, accounting is the primary source of information for banks´. Accounting is never a sufficient basis for credit decision for the bank. They have to obtain further information to make an justified decision. The banks´ own assessment of the company as a whole, are based on both hard and soft information which means that regardless of the regulations a company is incorporated by, the banks own internal assessment if a company will be able to repay the credit they will be granted. The most important quality for the bank is that the financial statements are reflecting the fair value, but since K2 is characterized by simplifications, standard solutions and limited choices it creates fewer opportunities for it.Suggestions for further research: An interesting framework to conduct a similar study on, is the K3-framework, since smaller entities may be able to also establish its own financial statements for these regulations. Today is it voluntary to apply K2 this means that few today have chosen to apply the rules. Establishing a new survey when regulations become mandatory for small companies would be a way to highlight the banks´ direct perception of the rules.

  • 285.
    Alm, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Förmågan att spegla känslor, avslöja lögner och gradera säkerhet: finns det ett samband dem emellan?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Underlättar kongruens mellan sinnestillstånd och påstående (vad gäller dess värdeladdning) vid bedömning av ett påståendes sanningshalt? Denna fråga uppkom via studier av embodiment och lögner, forskning från de båda områdena påvisar nämligen att olika ”kroppsliga signaler” kan hjälpa oss att avslöja om andra människor ljuger. Frågan har undersökts via en faktoriell design med repeterade mätningar där deltagarna försattes i olika sinnestillstånd varpå de utsattes för olika stimuli och fick göra olika bedömningar. Resultatet visade att kongruenta betingelser varken underlättar eller påskyndar vid bedömning av ett påståendes sanningshalt, däremot erhölls ett signifikant resultat som indikerade att kongruenta betingelser ökar människans konfidensnivå (högre grad av säkerhet vad gäller att en korrekt bedömning gjorts) vid bedömning av falska påståenden.

  • 286.
    Alm, Elenore
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Motivationens påverkan på inlärningen1997Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete är en studie av hur motivation påverkar individens inlärning. Lär vi oss bättre om vi är motiverade? Kan man motiveras under en utbildning och nå lika goda resultat som om man hade varit motiverad vid utbildningens början? Detta är några av de frågor som jag ställt mig inför min undersökning om motivationens påverkan på inlärningen.

    Undersökningen av problemet har skett med en kvalitativ intervju med bestämda frågor. I denna undersökning har jag utgått från de faktorer som påverkar motivation - vilja, delaktighet, tilltro, självförtroende, information och kunskap samt trygghet. Med dessa faktorer som utgångspunkt har jag ställt frågor för att reda ut hur stor betydelse individens motivation har för det han/hon lär sig.

    Resultatet av min undersökning visar att motivationen har betydelse för vår inlärning. Framförallt är viljan att lära sig mycket viktig. Mitt undersökningsresultat visar också att man kan motiveras under pågående utbildning. En individ som är motiverad i det initiala skedet av utbildningen lär sig bättre, men en individ som motiveras under utbildningen kan uppnå nästan lika goda slutresultat.

  • 287.
    Alm, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Wireless Protected Setup (WPS): Prestandajämförelse mellan Reaver och Bully2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Protected Setup (WPS) is a security protocol for wireless networks. Its design contains a serious security flaw that could allow an attacker access to a password-protected wireless network. An attack can be executed using various tools available.

    In this report, the software-tools Reaver and Bully are compared in performance against WiFi’s WPS-protocol, where Bully previously has been shown to be more effective and predicted faster to execute a bruteforce-attack. A practical laboration has been executed in order to determine differences in speed that can be seen between the tools Reaver and Bully in a bruteforce-attack. The experiment was done by measuring the time it took both tools to test 100 PIN-numbers against a router without protection for WPS.

    The result shows that Bully performs a bruteforce-attack in higher speed compared to Reaver. However, with the higher attack-speed that Bully uses, some stability issues may follow, opening the topic of future discussion regarding priorities of speed vs. stability for successful attacks.

  • 288.
    Almarsoomi, Farah
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Svensk kod för bolagsstyrning: En studie av bolagen avvikelser från koden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Accounting and corporate scandals that took place in the 2000s in the United States and several European countries took off in the corporate governance debate. Many countries began to adopt rules designed to develop corporate governance and increase confidence in the business world. Sweden suffered like other countries of accounting scandals, and as a result of this came the Swedish Code of Corporate Governance to rebuild market confidence to the Swedish companies. The first of July 2005 the code was applied in the Stockholm Stock Exchange for all companies on the A-list and the O-list with market capitalization exceeding 3 billion i.e. companies included in the Large Cap. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze how companies on the OMX Stockholm Stock Exchange, Large Cap, deviates from the Swedish code and if they deviate from the same points in the code and how thoroughly these companies explains their deviations. I want to get an understanding of why the code exists and why the companies deviate from it and whether the code works as expected. Methodology: To examine the extent to which companies deviate from the code and which points that the companies differ from, I have studied and observed the companies' annual reports and corporate governance reports. Theoretical Framework: In this chapter, I have raised earlier research that deals with other codes and the principle comply or explain, and the reasons why companies choose to follow or deviate from the code. These studies took place in Germany and the UK.7Empirical foundation: The empirical data consists of annual reports and corporate governance reports of the surveyed 28 companies in the Large Cap from both 2010 and 2011. Conclusions: The conclusion of this study is that the ownership structure is a contributing factor to why companies choose to deviate from the code. Companies with a concentrated ownership tend to deviate from the code. I have also noticed that these companies are owned by Industrivärden and Investor. The companies are also characterized by having strong family owners who own more than 30% of the shares, the owners usually want to have control over the company and that are why they differ from the Swedish Code.

  • 289.
    Almer, Johan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Att bli själsligt alfabetiserad: Ingmar Bergmans Scener ur ett äktenskap som en väg till självkännedom (Bergmans berättelser)2018In: TijdSchrift voor Skandinavistiek, ISSN 0168-2148, E-ISSN 1875-9505, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 92-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scenes from a Marriage (1973) marked a breakthrough for Ingmar Bergman (1918-2007), reaching awide audience both nationally and internationally. Scenes from a Marriage is also Bergman's first television series and today his most performed play in theatre around the world. Productions of Scenes from a Marriage in different media, such as television series, feature films, a book and in the theatre,has made it Bergman's most widespread work. Scenes from a Marriage was also of great importance to many individuals, influencing them to make crucial changes in their lives and relationships. Bergman's story of the marriage of two people, a marriage in crisis, divorce and reconciliation has obviously something to say to many of us who have watched, listened to, or read the story. What then does it tell us, and in what way is the story told? This question is addressed in an analysis of the work's composition,with particular emphasis on narrative techniques, motifs and the underlying theme, based on the Swedish book version. The six scenes in the book all take a dramatic form and present the same basic literary motif in different ways: a relationship based on love between two people in a very difficult situation.This motif, in turn, unfolds within the overall theme of the work: the human search for truth. This transforms the scenes into something more than just a story about a marriage crisis, becoming a story about two people's search for meaning in life. This aspect of the story is perhaps the main reason why Bergman's Scenes from a Marriage has reached out and touched so many people and still does. There is also a critical dimension to the search for truth, questioning the conventions and traditions of marriage and society. This analysis is the first in a series of analyses of Ingmar Bergman's written works.

  • 290.
    Almer, Johan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Att sätta döden ur spel: En analys av Tomas Tranströmers dikt "Medeltida motiv"2018In: Samlaren: tidskrift för svensk litteraturvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-6133, E-ISSN 2002-3871, Vol. 139, no -, p. 162-177, article id -Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To knock Death out of the Game. An analysis of Tomas Tranströmer’s poem “Medieval motif ”

    The Swedish poet Tomas Tranströmer’s (1931–2015) poem “Medieval Motif ”, from For Living and Dead (1989), takes its visual point of departure in the motif “Man who plays chess with Death about his life”. A motif also found in medieval visual arts (Albertus Pictor, 1440–1509) and in modern film art (Ingmar Bergman, 1918–2007). In both Pictors painting, ”The Game of Chess with Death” (around 1480), and Bergman’s film The Seventh Seal (1957), Death knocks man out of the game by checkmate. In Tranströmer’s poem, however, things turn out somewhat differently. In “Medieval Motif ” there is unique word in Swedish poetry, “frisörsaxklippande” (“barber-scissor-like clipping”), as a determination for a sound. The analysis of the poem tries to answer a number of questions: What is this sound exactly? Why does the sound occur in a poem about a motif from the Middle Ages? What function does the sound have for the poem as an artistic whole? The “Medieval motif ”, which besides the title consists of two Sapphic stanzas, is the subject of an in-depth motif analysis and of a composition analysis. In summary, the analysis shows that the “Medieval motif ” forms an epiphany where the motif of Vanitas contributes to the understanding of the moment of togetherness as time and space cease to exist, and a previously hidden truth is revealed. As a part of that truth, Death is knocked out of the game.

  • 291.
    Almersved, Karin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Bergmanson, Helena
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsåtgärder för att lindra smärta hos äldre i hemsjukvården: Litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Our life expectancy is increasing, we are getting older. In home healthcare nurses meet older people living with pain. Pain that emanates from the muscles, skeletal and joints and prevents the elderly from living a good life. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe what nursing care measures can be used by nurses in home health care to relieve the pain. Method: Literature review was chosen as method. Five qualitative and three quantitative scientific articles were included. Findings: Three main categories emerged: Physical activity, Pharmacological treatment and Cognitive method. From these were discerned nine sub-categories: movement/rest, utilities, heating/cooling, massage, medication, knowledge, communication, continuity, diversion. Conclusion: In nursing pain includes several different parts. A combination of measures are required to alleviate pain. The nurse has an important role in the choice of measures.

  • 292.
    Almgren, Ingrid
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. studingrid@gmail.com.
    Challenging the dual coding theory: Does Affective Information Play a Greater Role in Abstract Compared to Concrete Word Processing?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been held that concrete material has a processing advantage over abstract material, as predicted by Dual Coding Theory (Paivio,1991), although this has been challenged. For example, based on evidence for behavioural and neuroscientific studies, Kousta,, Vigliocco, Vinson, & Del Campo, (2011) proposed that emotional valance had a greater influence in the processing of abstract words, and that under some circumstances there may be no concreteness effect and might even be an abstractness effect. This would not be predicted by DCT. In addition, Isen and Daubman (1984) have claimed that emotional valence, and particularly positive emotion can influence cognitive processing. Specifically, they demonstrated that positive emotion was associated with more inclusive categorization of ambiguous category members. This current study was a 2 x 2 between group design to investigate the effect of positive and negative valence on recognition memory for concrete and abstract words and on categorization. Contrary to what was predicted by Dual Coding Theory, abstract words were generally better recognized than concrete, with there being an additional interaction with valence. A significant interaction between word type and valence on categorization was also found. Results partially support Kousta et al. (2011).

  • 293.
    Almquist, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Svensson, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Långvarig ogiltig frånvaro i gymnasieskolan: Hur upplever gymnasieelever med långvarig ogiltig frånvaro sin skolsituation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The occurrence of school absenteeism in Sweden is high among high school students. School absenteeism is a complex phenomenon with several causes and can lead to non-approved grades, unemployment, alienation and mental health issues.

    Purpose: The purpose is to describe how high school students with long-term invalid absence experience their school situation.

    Method: A qualitative method was used and the result was analyzed according to meaning analysis. Five informants participated in the study.

    Result: The study resulted in four meaning subjects which described the informants’ experiences: To experience victimization and injustice, to experience familiar and everyday relationship problems, to experience inadequate school adaption and to experience the needs of school improvements/changes.

    Conclusion: The study showed how important it is to adapt school to every unique student, both in an educational way and when it comes to efforts which make the student more involved and respected. School needs to address issues which involve the idea that no student should be exposed to bullying, victimization or harassments. The cause of the school absenteeism is in most cases related to the school activities. Students in this study experience that school has many areas which could be subject to improvements to avoid situations leading to chronic, invalid absenteeism. They don’t associate school with something positive and motivational, but something with a negative impact on their health.

  • 294.
    Almqvist, Gustaf
    et al.
    University of Stockholm, Stockholm Sweden.
    Andersen, Michael
    Danish Fishermen’s Association, Fredericia, Denmark.
    Willestofte Berg, Casper
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Broadgate, Wendy
    The Fisheries Secretariat (FISH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bryan, Meaghan
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Southeast Fisheries Science Center, Miami, United States.
    Campana, Steven
    Fisheries and Oceans Canada Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Canada.
    Cardinale, Max
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Dierking, Jan
    Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften, Kiel, Germany.
    von Dorrien, Christian
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Eero, Margit
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Efimov, Yuri
    Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries & Oceanography (VNIRO), Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Gasyukov, Pavel
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Department of Inland Fisheries, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Horbowy, Jan
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Hüssy, Karin
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Johansson, Reine
    Baltic Sea Advisory Council, Dyrön, Sweden.
    Jonusas, Stanislovas
    DGMare, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kornelius, George
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment (BIOR) 8 Daugavgrivas Str. Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Köster, Fritz
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Kraak, Sarah
    Thünen Institute, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Krumme, Uwe
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Large, Scott
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Swedish Cod Fishermen’s Producer Organisation, Lycke, Sweden.
    Luzenczyk, Anna
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lövgren, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Maguire, Jean-Jacques
    Godefroy, Quebec, Canada.
    Mosegaard, Henrik
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Anders
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Oeberst, Rainer
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Stepputtis, Daniel
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Stern, Edward
    The Fisheries Secretariat (FISH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Strehlow, Harry Vincent
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Trenkel, Verena
    Ifremer Nantes Centre, Nantes, France.
    Wæver Pedersen, Martin
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Zimmermann, Christopher
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Baltic Cod Stocks (WKBALTCOD)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES Benchmark Workshop on Baltic Cod Stocks (WKBALTCOD), chaired by External Chair Jean-Jacques Maguire, Canada and ICES Chair Marie Storr-Paulsen, Denmark, and attended by two invited external experts Verena Trenkel, France and Meaghan Bryan, USA met in Rostock, Germany, 2–6 March 2015 with 39 participants and six countries represented. The objective of WKBALTCOD was to evaluate the appropriateness of data and methods to determine stock status and investigate meth-ods appropriate to use in the single-stock assessment for the cod stock in SD 22–24 and cod in SD 25–32 in the Baltic. Participants in the workshop were a large group with diverse backgrounds representing the industry, fisheries, NGOs, managers and scientists.The single-stock analytic assessment of the eastern Baltic stock was not accepted by the assessment working group (WGBFAS) in 2014 due to severe problems with the input data. The advice for the eastern Baltic cod was, therefore, based on the ICES approach for data-limited stocks. As an outcome ICES decided to establish a bench-mark for both cod stocks and to scope an integrated assessment for the Baltic cod stocks. The first meeting (WKSIBCA) was therefore meant to introduce the interces-sional work conducted since the assessment working group in April 2014, and to reach some conclusions on how to proceed both in the short term (Benchmark in March 2015) and longer term (2–3 years) and was seen as a data compilation work-shop, there is produced a separate report from this workshop. The WKBALTCOD was the 2nd meeting in the benchmark process and was intended to come up with a final stock assessment method, stock annex and input data for both stocks. As it was not possible to reach conclusive decision on the final model to be used for the east Baltic cod stock during the benchmark meeting and as more work on the preferable models was needed, it was decided by the ACOM leadership to prolong the bench-mark process until the assessment working group meeting in April 2015. This deci-sion has led to a relatively long process partly mixed with the assessment working group WGBFAS.It became clear during the benchmark process that although large effort has been put into explaining the underlying processes leading to the changes in the Baltic ecosys-tem, there is still some lack of understanding of the present situation in the eastern Baltic cod stock. Therefore, it was not possible to reach firm conclusions on the final model to be used and therefore not possible to set reference points. It was decided to continue to explore the most promising models and to continue to improve the input data until the assessment working group started in April.The main challenges still to be solved for the Eastern Baltic cod stock is the quantifi-cation of increased natural mortality and decrease in growth. Through several presentations during the workshop (both WKSIBCA and WKBALTCOD) it became clear that natural mortality very likely has increased in later years, due to decreased condition and increased parasite infection. A decrease in growth also seems plausible duo to a decrease in condition and/or selectivity-induced mortality of the largest in-dividuals. However, as none of these parameters are easily estimated, especially with the severe ageing problems, different model assumptions made the output very shaky.For the western Baltic cod, stock identification issues were examined in area SD 24, the intermediate area: based on otolith characteristics and genetics. Due to the results showing a large proportion of east cod in this area, it was decided to split the catch2 | ICES WKBALTCOD REPORT 2015and survey from SD 24 into either the western or eastern Baltic cod stock. It was pos-sible to derive proportions of eastern and western cod in SD 24 back to the mid-1990s.For the western Baltic cod stock a modelled survey indices was included in the as-sessment covering the western part of SD 24 and Area 22+23 and based on a smoothed ALK.Both cod stocks have in the past used commercial tuning fleet to have a better cov-ered of older age groups. It was decided to abound this time-series duo quality issues such as a limited coverage and problems with technical creeping.WKBALTCOD was not able to explore and define reference points for the Western Baltic cod stock during the meeting due to time constraints, but these were calculated and decided by correspondence after the meeting. The recent protocols on estimation procedures developed by WKMSYREF3 for stocks with a full analytical assessment and for data-limited stocks served as objective guidelines to obtain reference point estimates.

  • 295.
    Almqvist, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Sundelius, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Modular Locking System to RBS Cabinet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radio base stations contain equipment which enables the use of cell phones all around the world. ERICSSON is developing these stations and everything connected to the area, such as electronics, software and hardware. In a new project ERICSSON plans to make their hardware modular, to satisfy all their customers around the world even if their preferences differ. The task that was given to us was to develop a modular locking system to the radio base station cabinets.The concept was developed in an integrated working process that focused on a user centered final product. The process included the definition of the problem, preliminary studies of areas which are connected to the problem and a summary of the demands that the customers mediated in a list of requirements. The idea generation generated lots of ideas that later on were developed into different concepts. The concepts were evaluated before the final decision was made together with ERICSSON.The final product is a lifting handle connected to a rod and latch system, which already existed. A new mechanical function was created to make the new handle function with the old system. The locking system is modular and it is possible to choose which way to lock the handle, with a cylinder lock or a padlock. Only one module, the cylinder in the middle, needs to be switched to get the other solution. The other parts are the same; this makes the product modular. The lift handle is an entire new design, developed in the project.

  • 296.
    Almqvist, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Castillo, Joselyne
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans sätt att bedöma postoperativ smärta: En litteraturöversikt2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Postoperative pain is still a major problem that is difficult to identify. The extent of uncontrolled pain in patients has not improved noticeably over the last decades. Nurses tend to underestimate the patients pain. The aim of this study was to examine factors influencing nurses’ assessment of postoperative pain. To obtain the aim a literature review was chosen. Search of literature was carried out in the databases: Academic Search Elite, CINAHL, SweMed +. Six articles were analysed according to a five-step- method. The result of the selected articles showed seven factors influencing how nurses assess postoperative pain: communication, experiences and attitudes, nurses knowledge, information and preparation, to interpreting pain, obstacles in pain assessment and following-up the pain assessment. Despite extensive research in this subject, there is a need for the research to continue. It would be favourable to increase the pain education for nurses.

  • 297.
    Almqvist, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Danielsson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Förebyggande arbete mot mobbning: Lärares erfarenhet av styrkor och svagheter i arbetet med metoderna Friends och Mombus2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how six teachers, who work in two different schools, assess the methods Friends and Mombus in terms of bullying prevention. The Curriculum for elementary school (Lpo 94) emphasizes that it is the employees of schools who carry the main responsibility for preventing bullying among pupils. One of the main results of this study is that teachers, in addition to their work with Friends or Mombus, also need to use alternative methods to prevent bullying. Examples of these alternative methods include “Emotional Intelligence” as well as “friendship massage”. The result section also stresses the importance of anti-bullying teams when it comes to preventing harassments. At present there are no studies which have evaluated the results the Friends and Mombus methods have achieved. Since the methods are used in many schools in Sweden, the lack of evaluations is noteworthy. This study ends with a discussion on the complexity of bullying prevention. Further research is needed to clarify the results of different anti- bullying methods.

  • 298.
    Almsand, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Duell, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ”Hinner jag få ett nytt hjärta i tid?”: - Unga kvinnors bloggar kring upplevelser av att vänta på en hjärttransplantation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of performed heart transplants in Sweden is increasing and is now about fifty transplants per year. The primary reason for a heart transplant is severe heart failure. To suffer from heart failure as young is rare and trying. If heart transplantation becomes necessary the patient is placed on a waiting list where the median waiting time is three months. Previous research shows that nurses have an important role in the patient's experience during this time. Aim: The study aims to analyze and describe the experiences of young women facing a heart transplant.  Method: Qualitative content analysis is used as analytical method. Data consists of five blogs published on the Internet. Results: Young women waiting for a heart transplant experience physical limitations in daily life. Relatives, professionals and the environment are important to provide support and act as motivation in the situation. The uncertain waiting is incused by anxiety and fear of their own death. The waiting means that young women will have a new outlook on life. Conclusion: The lifeworld of young women drastically changed awaiting heart transplantation and it´s important for the nurse to recognize this change and frame the care thereafter.

  • 299.
    Almstedt, Ando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Pettersson, Karolin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    HIV/AIDS-Patienters upplevelser av stigmatisering och diskriminering från vårdpersonal: - En litteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) is an epidemic disease, with the highest prevalence in the less developed countries. Earlier studies show that healthcare providers have a negative attitude towards this patient group. The cause of this is believed to be due to ignorance and fear. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe patients with HIV/AIDS and their experiences of stigmatization and discrimination by healthcare providers. METHOD: A literature review, based on an analysis of ten scientific articles is used to answer the aim of the study. RESULT: Two main themes emerge; preconception and contempt and support and the healthcare provider/patient relationship. The result of this studie shows that patients experience contempt from the healthcare providers both verbally and nonverbally. Patients value highly the development of trust in the healthcare provider and feel that this is essential for a good relationship. A good relationship should include respect, understanding, cooperation and honesty. CONCLUSION: The authors draw the conclusion that healthcare providers are fearful of the patients with HIV and also have poor knowledge about the disease. This problem can be solved by a better knowledge and information. If nothing is done to prevent the stigmatization and discrimination against HIV/AIDS-patients the risk of significant health problems will increase.

  • 300.
    Almåsen, Patrik
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Elektronisk handel: med fokusering på värdekedjan1999Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På bara ett par år har elektronisk handel potential att radikalt förändra de ekonomiska och sociala förhållanden i samhället. Internets snabba tillväxt kopplar samman individer och organisationer till ett stort globalt nätverk som representerar enorma möjligheter. Det talas om ett nätverkssamhälle och en nätverksekonomi.

    Elektronisk handel driver företag mot att bedriva affärer på ett fundamentalt nytt sätt. Behovet av att dela information i realtid ökar tillsammans med förändringarna i värdekedjan.

    Syftet med studien är att kartlägga elektronisk handel i allmänhet. Studien fokuseras på hur elektronisk handel används för att länka samman företag, stora som små, från råmaterial till konsumenten. Arbetet belyser hinder och krav i samband med elektronisk handel och det sätt de hanteras på.

    Företagen i undersökningen visar ingen tydlig strävan mot att uppnå en totalt integrerad värdekedja. Grundliga affärsprocesser flyttas mot Internet för att utnyttja nätverkets fördelar. Främst används EDI och online-tjänster som Internetbutiker för elektronisk handel.

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