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  • 2151.
    Ulfström, Emil
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Medlemsbankernas riskhantering: med samhällsengagemang som ledstjärna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden today there are two member banks, JAK Medlemsbank and Ekobanken. They differ from the Swedish commercial banks by looking at themselves and their role from a social perspective. Banking is associated with risks, mainly credit risk but also other risks. Banks' risk management becomes more and more technologically advanced. The study aims to contribute to greater understanding of how Sweden's member banks manage their risks compared to the commercial banks.

    Two theories of human models are presented; Homo Politicus, social man, and Homo Economicus, the rational profit-maximizing man. The different groups of banks differ in business logic and driving force which finds support in these two theories.

    The study makes a comparative analysis of data from three different collection methods. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used to come to an accurate conclusion.

    The member banks are driven by a genuine social commitment and their CSR work is well integrated into everyday operations, while at the commercial banks are CSR efforts more besides banking. The member banks show an openness and this is a great addition to their liquidity buffers in a liquidity crisis. The commercial banks' risk analysis of credit based more closely on measurable quantitative factors than the member banks where there is a greater focus on qualitative factors. Although the tools of risk analysis differ member banks and the commercial banks. The commercial banks have centrally developed decision support as a base in its risk analysis while the member banks have a more manual handling. Basel III, the new regulations with stricter requirements for capital and liquidity requirements for banks have not had any negative impact on member banks, as their margins even before the introduction was better than the new stricter discipline. However, the increased workload on the new comprehensive regulatory framework affecting the member banks.

    That member banks can conduct banking activities from a social perspective rather than a more traditional profit-maximizing perspective can be explained by that bank customers accept the higher requirements from the banks, either in the form of collateral or savings alongside loans. This is possible because the member banks members, who is also a partner, are closer to the theory of Homo Politicus like member banks than Homo Economicus that the commercial banks are closer to.

  • 2152.
    Vallbo, Christina
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Matematiksvårigheter i vardagen: elevers syn på hur de hanterar sin vardag utifrån sina matematiksvårigheter2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on pupil’s view how they handle mathematics learning disabilities in their daily life. The study is from pupil’s point of view and the ambition was to capture the pupil’s own thoughts and feelings. Observations and interviews were carried out with three pupils, in the age of 13, and their parents. The results show that all three of the pupils have difficulty in their daily life due to the mathematics learning disabilities. They have different problems from to plan their free time to plan when schoolwork should be submitted. The result of this is that the parents have to plan for them, even now when they are teenager’s and should be able to handle things like this by themselves. The pupils are not aware of the strategies they use to cope with the difficulties in mathematics. However, their parents are able to explain the strategies their children have developed. The emotions the pupils feel when they think about math class are that they feel dejected and they are under stress with thoughts as “will I fail again today”. It is very important how the teacher do talk to the pupils and this will affect the pupil’s self-confidence and they develop discomfort to mathematics. This study, unlike some other studies, does not show that pupils feel uncomfortable because they have special support. Instead they feel relief in visiting the support group.

  • 2153.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Dreaming in the multilevel framework2011In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1084-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological realism (Revonsuo, 2001, 2006) states that dreaming is a biological phenomenon and therefore explainable in naturalistic terms, similar to the explanation of other biological phenomena. In the biological sciences, the structure of explanations can be described with the help of a framework called ‘multilevel explanation’. The multilevel model provides a context that assists to clarify what needs to be explained and how, and how to place different theories into the same model. Here, I will argue that the multilevel framework would be useful when we try to construct scientific explanations of dreaming.

  • 2154.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Dreams2016In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology / [ed] Harold L. Miller, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2155.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Aggestam, Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Understanding champion behaviour in a health-care information system development project – how multiple champions and champion behaviours build a coherent whole2016In: European Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0960-085X, E-ISSN 1476-9344, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 47-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Champions are commonly suggested as a means of promoting the adoption of information systems. Since there are many different definitions of the concepts of champion and champion behaviour in the literature, practitioners and researchers may be confused about how to exactly use these concepts. A qualitative analysis of a single case study in a Swedish health-care organisation enabled us to explain how different champion behaviours relate to each other and how multiple champions interact. Combining our rich case observations with an analysis of champion literature reveals how champion behaviours form a coherent and meaningful whole in which networks of different types of champions at different levels in an organisation utilise their network of relations, their knowledge of the organisation and their insight into strategic decision-making politics to time and orchestrate the framing of innovations and the involvement of the right people. In conclusion, championing is a complex performance of contextually dependent collective social interaction, varying over time, rather than a heroic act of one individual promoting an idea. Future studies need to focus more on how the relations between different champions and their behaviours develop across innovations and over time, in order to develop a richer understanding of championing.

  • 2156.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Kallin, Susanne
    Combitech AB, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    A simulation-game to explore collective critical infrastructure resilience2018In: Safety and Reliability – Safe Societies in a Changing World: Proceedings of ESREL 2018, June 17-21, 2018, Trondheim, Norway / [ed] S. Haugen, A. Barros, C. van Gulijk, T. Kongsvik, J. Vinnem, London: CRC Press, 2018, p. 1305-1312, article id 688Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience of interdependent infrastructures increasingly depends on collaborative responses from actors with diverse backgrounds that may not be familiar with cascade effects into areas beyond their own sector. A simulation-game can enable societal actors to obtain a deeper understanding of the interdependencies between their infrastructures and their respective crisis responses. Following a design science approach, a simulation-game has been developed that combines role-playing simulation and computer simulation. The simulation-game challenges participants to address the interaction between payment disruptions, food and fuel supply, security problems (riots, robberies) and communication challenges (preventing hoarding). A number of crucial design choices were handled while developing the simulation-game. The main design challenges were: How to validate an unthinkable escalation scenario?; How to give the simulation a sufficient level of detail on all aspects and keep the complexity graspable so it can be played instantly?; and How much time should each playing round take?

  • 2157.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Davis, Joanna
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Iterative Game Design to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience2019In: Simulation & gaming through times and across disciplines: past and future, heritage and progress: 50th ISAGA Anniversary Conference proceedings 2019 / [ed] Marcin Wardaszko, Warsaw: Kozminski University , 2019, p. 128-138, article id 140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience of interdependent infrastructures increasingly depends on collaborative responses from actors with diverse backgrounds that may not be familiar with cascade effects into areas beyond their own sector. A simulation-game can enable societal actors to obtain a deeper understanding of the interdependencies between their respective infrastructures and their respective crisis responses. Following a design science approach, a simulation-game has been developed that combines role-playing simulation and computer simulation. The simulation-game challenges participants to address the interaction between payment disruptions, food and fuel supply, security problems (riots, robberies) and communication challenges (preventing hoarding). The game has been played on 15 occasions with representatives from different sectors in society and the game design has been changed iteratively after each playing-session. The paper reflects on the impact of initial design choices and the effects on later modifications. Finally, it is discussed how the current version of the game serves multiple purposes: awareness raising, education of participants, model validation, identification of new mitigating actions, and development of collective critical infrastructure resilience in society.

  • 2158.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Combitech AB, Skövde.
    Analyzing the Implications of Design Choices in Existing Simulation-Games for Critical Infrastructure Resilience2018In: Simulation Gaming: Applications for Sustainable Cities and Smart Infrastructures: 48th International Simulation and GamingAssociation Conference, ISAGA 2017Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Heide Karen Lukosch, Geertje Bekebrede, Rens Kortmann, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 10825, p. 15-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature study has identified the major impacts of importantdesign choices in simulation models and simulation-games that model criticalinfrastructure resilience. The four major groups of design choices discussed inthis article are: (1) the chosen learning goal (system understanding or collaborationtraining), (2) realism and time scale of the scenario, (3) design of playerroles and communication rules, (4) number of action alternatives, replay-abilityand richness of performance feedback while playing. Researchers and practitionerswho build simulation-games for studying critical infrastructure resiliencecan use the accumulated insights on these four aspects to improve the quality oftheir game design and the quality of the simulation models the game participantsinteract with.

  • 2159.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Määttä, Peter
    Combitech, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mitigating Escalation of Cascading Effects of a Payment Disruption Across Other Critical Infrastructures: Lessons Learned in 15 Simulation-Games2020In: Critical Information Infrastructures Security: 14th International Conference, CRITIS 2019, Linköping, Sweden, September 23–25, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Simin Nadjm-Tehrani, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 110-121Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A disruption in one critical infrastructure can quickly lead to cascading effects in several other ones. Much research has been done to analyze dependencies between different critical infrastructures, but little is known about how to mitigate escalation and cascading effects across several critical infrastructures, i.e. how to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience. This research presents the results of 15 simulation-games where groups of 6 to 8 field experts from different sectors were challenged to collaboratively manage a disruption in the payment system that quickly affected food distribution, fuel distribution, transport, health care et cetera. Teams discussed possible strategies, which next were implemented in a computer simulation. Teams could influence the sequence of events on 4 decision points during a 10 day scenario, and play the same scenario several times to test alternative solutions. Each simulation-game session lasted a full day. Data analysis involved the recorded team discussions as well as computer simulation logs of the implemented decisions and their impacts. The results show how escalation and the severity of cascading effects largely depends on the quality of the early crisis response and not so much on the initial disruption. Also, it is shown how cross sectorial collaboration is required. Responses where groups focus too much on cascading effects in one area lead too poor overall performance for society at large. Groups tend to overbalance their mitigating strategies initially, until they arrive at a more balanced strategy that covers challenges in several different critical infrastructures from an integral perspective.

  • 2160.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Määttä, Peter
    Combitech AB.
    Mitigating Escalation of Cascading Effects of a Payment Disruption across other Critical Infrastructures: Lessons Learned in 15 Simulation-Games2019In: Proceedings of  the 14th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security (CRITIS) 2019, Linköping: Linköping University , 2019, Vol. 4, article id 9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A disruption in one critical infrastructure can quickly lead to cascading effects in several other ones. Much research has been done to analyze dependencies between different critical infrastructures, but little is known about how to mitigate escalation and cascading effects across several critical infrastructures, i.e. how to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience. This research presents the results of 15 simulation-games where groups of 6 to 8 field experts from different sectors were challenged to collaboratively manage a disruption in the payment system that quickly affected food distribution, fuel distribution, transport, health care et cetera. Teams discussed possible strategies, which next were implemented in a computer simulation. Teams could influence the sequence of events on 4 decision points during a 10 day scenario, and play the same scenario several times to test alternative solutions. Each simulation-game session lasted a full day. Data analysis involved the recorded team discussions as well as computer simulation logs of the implemented decisions and their impacts. The results show how escalation and the severity of cascading effects largely depends on the quality of the early crisis response and not so much on the initial disruption. Also, it is shown how cross sectorial collaboration is required. Responses where groups focus too much on cascading effects in one area lead too poor overall performance for society at large. Groups tend to overbalance their mitigating strategies initially, until they arrive at a more balanced strategy that covers challenges in several different critical infrastructures from an integral perspective.

  • 2161.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Cultivating a longitudinal learning process through recurring crisis management training exercises in twelve Swedish municipalities2019In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 38-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates how crisis management capability is developed in series ofrecurring exercises, rather than in one single exercise. Over one hundred table-topand role-playing exercises were performed and evaluated in a longitudinal cross-caseaction research study in 12 Swedish municipalities. By consciously adapting trainingformats, municipalities were lead through three learning phases: obtaining roleunderstanding (phase 1: knowing what to do), developing information managementskills (phase 2: knowing how to do it), and mastering self-reflection in regular time-outs (phase 3: knowing when and why to do something). This final learning out-come, being able to concurrently execute, evaluate, and reorganize an ongoing crisismanagement performance, may be the most valuable capability of a crisis manage-ment organization when crisis strikes.

  • 2162.
    van Meer, Floor
    et al.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    van der Laan, Laura N.
    Tilburg University, the Netherlands.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Wolters, Maike
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany.
    Rach, Stefan
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany.
    Herrmann, Manfred
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Erhard, Peter
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Molnár, Dénés
    University Medical School of Pécs, Hungary.
    Orsi, Gergely
    University Medical School of Pécs, Hungary / MTA-PTE Clinical Neuroscience MR Research Group, Pécs, Hungary.
    Viergever, Max A.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Adan, Roger A.H.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Smeets, Paul A.M.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands / Division of Human Nutrition & Health, Wageningen University & Research, the Netherlands.
    Development and body mass inversely affect children's brain activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during food choice2019In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 201, p. 1-10, article id 116016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood obesity is a rising problem caused in part by unhealthy food choices. Food choices are based on a neural value signal encoded in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and self-control involves modulation of this signal by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). We determined the effects of development, body mass (BMI Cole score) and body mass history on the neural correlates of healthy food choice in children. 141 children (aged 10-17y) from Germany, Hungary and Sweden were scanned with fMRI while performing a food choice task. Afterwards health and taste ratings of the foods were collected. In the food choice task children were asked to consider the healthiness or tastiness of the food or to choose naturally. Overall, children made healthier choices when asked to consider healthiness. However, children who had a higher weight gain per year chose less healthy foods when considering healthiness but not when choosing naturally. Pubertal development stage correlated positively while current body mass correlated negatively with dlPFC activation when accepting foods. Pubertal development negatively and current body mass positively influenced the effect of considering healthiness on activation of brain areas involved in salience and motivation. In conclusion, children in earlier stages of pubertal development and children with a higher body weight exhibited less activation in the dlPFC, which has been implicated in self-control during food choice. Furthermore, pubertal development and body mass influenced neural responses to a health cue in areas involved in salience and motivation. Thus, these findings suggest that children in earlier stages of pubertal development, children with a higher body mass gain and children with overweight may possibly be less susceptible to healthy eating interventions that rely on self-control or that highlight health aspects of food. 

  • 2163.
    Varas, Isabel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Puumala, Tatiana
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Eko-kläder är ingen övergående fluga: hur marknadsförs utbudet av ekologiska kläder i olika butiker och vilka marknadsföringskanaler som inte används idag skulle kunna användas av dessa butiker?2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Eko-trenden är ett aktuellt ämne i dagens samhälle. De senaste åren har informationen om vår omvärld och de negativa konsekvenserna på miljön blivit ett argument för att alla måste börja ta ansvar. I Sverige köper vi mer kläder än någonsin och de kemikalier som används vid tillverkningen är skadliga för miljön och för dem människor som arbetar med tillverkning av kläder. Det senaste året har många butiker börjat intressera sig för ett miljöarbete och de har därför börjat introducera ekologiska framställda kläder bland sina vanliga kollektioner.

    Undersökningen i den här uppsatsen bygger på hur olika butiker ställer sig till den ekologiska företeelsen med fokusering på hur de marknadsför deras ekologiska produkter. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva vad butikerna gör för att marknadsföra sig så att konsumenterna uppmärksammar deras nya eko-kläder. Vilka kanaler de använder, i vilken utsträckning de används och vilka marknadsföringskanaler de skulle kunna använda sig av är de problemen som ligger till grund för undersökningen. För att skaffa oss kunskap om detta har vi intervjuat butiksrepresentanter samt gjort fallstudier i de berörda butikerna. Vi har även granskad olika marknadsföringskanaler som används och som inte används av butikerna. Metoden har gett oss en tydlig inblick i ämnet för att kunna dra ändamålsenliga slutsatser.

    Vi kan konstatera att butikerna som tar in ekologiska kollektioner blir fler och fler och att det inte är en övergående fluga utan är här för att stanna. Många människor vill värna om miljön och efterfrågar ekologiska produkter mer och mer. Därför är det nödvändigt för butikerna att göra sina nya eko-produkter synliga för den målgrupp som eftersträvar dessa produkter.

    Vår studie visar att många butiker brister i att göra kunden uppmärksam på vad de har att erbjuda, speciellt gällande deras ekologiska produkter. Undersökningens slutsatser landar därför i att butikerna behöver arbeta mer med sin marknadsföring av dessa produkter och inse att kundsegmentet som i nuläget anses som smalt med stor sannolikhet kommer att breddas.

  • 2164.
    Varnicke, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Strand, Regina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Vad erbjuder förskolans leksaksförråd?: En kvalitativ studie om uteleksakernas möjligheter och begränsningar för barns lek i utevistelsen.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the curriculum for preschool, the preschool should offer children a learning environment where they can switch between different activities both inside and outside. The purpose of this study is to investigate the conditions that different toys inventory’s offer children in their play and interaction during their time outdoors. Further is the purpose to investigate how the preschool teachers’ arguments concerning the selection of toy and material to play with in their time outdoors.

     The essay is based on a qualitative method through three observations and six interviews. Through these, we examine three preschools material that three preschool toys inventory’s  and materials that children have access to their time outdoors and six preschool teachers´ arguments surrounding the choice of these materials.

    The results show that preschool teachers have different arguments and purposes about the materials different functions concerning children's development and learning. These functions affect children’s availability and development of material use. These functions are influenced by children's availability and teachers' attitudes. Also highlights the material's capabilities and limitations.

     

  • 2165.
    Vaske, Kristofer
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Megalith Grave Escape: Using escape room game mechanics for cultural heritage sites2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report documents the development of a concept and prototype for a mobile application with the purpose of making the megalith graves surrounding the town of Falköping more engaging and interactive for visitors. Because of the limitations of working with heritage sites that cannot be altered to support a gaming experience, the usage of escape room game mechanics is explored. Because escape room games depend on the user's observation and exploration of their environment, they serve as a usable inspiration for applications with the purpose of making visitors experience a location in a similar way.

    The prototype developed for the project contains puzzles designed for four different megalith grave sites which were then tested with groups of children and parents playing together.

  • 2166. Velten, Johan
    et al.
    Stefan, Tengblad
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Heggen, Runar
    Medarbeiderskap: Hva som får folk til å ta ansvar og vise initiativ2016 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 2167.
    Velten, Johan
    et al.
    Norge.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Heggen, Runar
    Norge.
    Medarbetarskap: Så får du dina medarbetare att ta initiativ och känna ansvar2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 2168.
    Vermunt, Riël
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Universiteit Leiden, Nederländerna.
    Stresshantering med hjälp av bättre kommunikation2005In: Perspektiv på Högskolan i Skövde, ISSN 1653-8242, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 24-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2169.
    Vermunt, Riël
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Leiden, Wassenaarseweg, Netherlands.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The Salience of Outcome and Procedure in Giving and Receiving Universalistic and Particularistic Resources2012In: Handbook of social resource theory: theoretical extensions, empirical insights, and social applications / [ed] Kjell Törnblom, Ali Kazemi, New York: Springer, 2012, p. 397-405Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As Riël Vermunt, Ali Kazemi, and Kjell Törnblom point out in this chapter, resource allocations may be judged on the basis of the resulting final outcome and/or the procedures applied to arrive at the outcome. The focus of this chapter is on how attention to the outcome or procedure is affected by the nature of the allocated resource (universalistic versus particularistic) and the direction of allocation (when P is a provider versus a recipient). Results from a cross-national survey study involving respondents from Austria, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the USA showed that procedure was perceived as more focal in the allocation of universalistic as compared to particularistic resources. No differences were observed with regard to the salience of outcome. Interestingly, this held only true for resource providers; for resource recipients, this pattern was reversed. These and other findings suggest that the meaning of resource classes (in this study money and love) differ for providers and recipients in their judgments of allocation events. The authors conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for SRT and for future research.

  • 2170.
    Vernon, David
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Division of Cognition and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Embodied cognition and circular causality: On the role of constitutive autonomy in the reciprocal coupling of perception and action2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1660Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2171.
    Vesiaid, Kätlin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Inskolning av barn i behov av särskilt stöd i förskolan: En fenomenografisk intervjustudie av förskollärarnas erfarenheter2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyze the different ways for preschool teachers to work with the introduction period for children with special educational needs in preschools. The provided background literature highlights different governing documents that regulate the work with children in need of special support in Swedish preschools. The background literature also gives an overview of research about introduction period in preschools; concept and work with children with special educational needs in Sweden; how teachers’ expertise and educational bakground affects the work during introduction period; and an overview of Bowlby's attachment theory. The study uses a qualitative research methodology in form of phenomenography. The results of the study are based on three individual interviews with preschool teachers as well as one group interview with two preschool teachers.

    The results of the study demonstrate that teachers’ view on children in need of special support is the key factor in organizing the introduction to preschool. Introduction is seen as an individual process, regardless of the induction model used. The results show at the same time that introduction needs to be even more individually adapted for children in need of special support. The child’s confidence and sense of security was seen as fundamental to the child’s development. The biggest difference between working with confidence and sense of secutiry during the introduction of children with special educational needs in comparison with introduction of children without special educational needs was the increased amount of support aimed towards the guardians in their development of trust towards the preschool. The guardians are also considered to be in need of support when it comes to their adjustment with the child’s situation. Theoretical skills were considered to be the foundamental for preschool teachers in their work regarding the introduction of children in need of special support. At the same time as increased need for skills regarding the child’s specific needs became clear through the study’s results.

  • 2172.
    Vessela, Misheva
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Samhället och sociologin i Niklas Luhmanns systemteori2011In: Sociologik: Tio essäer om socialitet och tänkande / [ed] Christian Abrahamsson, Fredrik Palm & Sverre Wide, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2011, p. 177-215Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2173.
    Vesterlund, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Kundresa: Integration mellan företagsägda kontaktpunkter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies tend to deliver meaningful customer experiences by using customer journeys. A customer journey represents a sequence of events that include the customer's entire purchase cycle, from pre-purchase phase to post-purchase phase. In these journeys, company owned touchpoints constitute a key part, as it is through these touchpoints that companies and customers share information with one another throughout the entire customer journey. Accurate information is imperative for the companies to communicate with the right customer, at the right time and with a relevant message, regardless of which touchpoint the customer chooses. Accurate information requires access to relevant and high quality data, as well as adequate measures to enable unambiguous and complete flow of information. In fact, this is easier said than done. There are currently no clear guidelines on how companies should integrate touchpoints to ensure an uninterrupted information sharing. In previous research, there is a lack of studies conducted on factual cases. Therefore, this study has been conducted as a case study, which aim is to study an automobile company’s approach to integrate its touchpoints.

    The result of this study indicates that there are negative factors that hamper the information sharing, and at the same time pose a threat to positive factors that include core business processes to streamline information sharing. To maintain an effective information sharing, and to protect the business against negative factors, positive factors should be synchronized. This solution requires a corporate IT architecture, which includes suitable systems and tools for customer interaction, and which can be linked to the core processes of the business. 

  • 2174.
    Vestin, Jenny-Ann
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bredenfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Relationen mellan "identitetskärnan" och postmoderniteten: En kvalitativ undersökning om relationer, identitet och postmodernism2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har valt att genomföra denna studie då vi anser att det är ett ämne som är relevant då det inte finns så mycket tidigare forskning om sambandet mellan identitet, relationer och det postmoderna samhället. Problemformulering i denna studie är: Hur upplever 19–20-åriga ungdomar, av båda könen, identitetsskapande och relationer i det postmoderna samhället? Studien genomfördes i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer och på så sätt försökte vi förstå hur ungdomarna hanterar den komplexitet som ligger bakom de postmoderna identite-terna och deras skapelseprocess. Intervjuerna sattes i förhållande till teorier av exempelvis Mead (1977), Bauman (2002, 2003) och Giddens (1997). Tidigare forskning visar att postmodernitetens identitet är ett uppmärksammat ämne ex-empelvis genom Hjalmarson Vertovecs (2009) studie kring just postmodernitetens identitet. Dock läggs fokus, i denna studie, på relationernas betydelse för identitetsskapande i det post-moderna samhället. På så sätt kompletteras bilden av postmoderna identiteter. Målgruppen i denna studie är varierad, uppsatsen kan läsas av socialpsykologer då den är skriven ur ett socialpsykologiskt perspektiv. Men den kan också läsas av någon som är in-tresserad av något av våra huvudbegrepp; identitet, postmodernitet och relationer. I och med vald metod, semistrukturerade intervjuer, är det lämpligt att ett bekvämlig-hetsurval används. Respondentantalet var 6 stycken. De innehållsrika intervjuerna bidrog till att en grundlig analys kunde genomföras och därmed fann vi reliabla förklaringar till studiens frågeställningar. De resultat vi funnit visar att identitet, relationer och samhälle är tre ämnen som är mer sammanknutna än vi först trodde från början. Respondenterna hade ibland svårt att skilja de olika teman vi valt åt, då de är så ihopkopplade i dagens samhälle. Resultaten visar att identi-teten idag sammankopplas väldigt lätt med roller och att relationer är en stor påverkansfaktor i identitetsskapandet. Slutsatser vi dragit utifrån denna studie är bland annat att detta ämne är relevant och att det behövs göras fortsatta, djupare studier inom det.

  • 2175.
    Vidlund, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Moral cognition and its neural correlates: Possibilites for enhancement of moral cognition and behavior2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay aims to provide an overview of some key theories and frameworks regarding moral cognition and its neural correlates, in order to examine the possibilities of enhancement of moral cognition. Moral cognition arises from the functional integration of several distinct brain regions and networks. These neural systems correspond to different socioaffective abilities, such as empathy and compassion, as well as sociocognitive abilities, such as theory of mind. Due to this neural distinction, these moral abilities, behaviors, and emotions can be targeted and trained separately. Recent research suggests that training sociocognitive and socioaffective abilities increases cortical thickness in corresponding brain regions and networks, hence providing support for adult neural plasticity in relation to moral cognition. Increased cortical thickness also corresponds to enhanced performance in socioaffective and sociocognitive abilities. Training compassion and empathy induce enhanced abilities to pick up emotional cues, as well as strengthen the motivation to alleviate others’ distress. Practicing theory of mind allows for a better understanding of the perspective of others, which has been indicated to reduce biases between individuals or societal groups. Thus, enhanced moral cognition can contribute to an increase in consideration for those affected by our choices and behavior, which may yield more compassionate, just, and safe societies.

  • 2176.
    Vigstrand Stenberg, Pernilla
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Lagset, Sofie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Personalens säljteknik inom detaljhandeln: Hur kunder uppfattar servicen2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of shoes and clothes has increased with 50 % between the years 2000 and 2010. This makes the shoe industry especially interesting to look closer to in particular because of the bad service in shoe stores in the country according to DNs investigation. The problem of the essay is building on: how do sellers influence consumer’s satisfaction in shoes stores? What do different types of consumers want in sellers?

     

    To build understanding for this problem this essay is presenting relevant theories about selling techniques, adapting selling and different types of consumers. This describes the importance of adapt selling after the consumer special needs and different types of consumer and how to adapt selling to these different types. The selected selection with 90 respondents will make a quantitative method and to make the study’s results with a lot of credibility and reliability.

    The respondents divided in three different shoe stores, 30 in each store. The study was to clarify how the respondents experienced the stores service and which types the costumers belong to and also which type of seller they preferred. The result of the study showed that the roll of the seller in shoe stores have big influence and that most of the costumers requesting a seller that is available. It can be hard to fully discern different types of costumers and what kind of seller they want then each costumer is unique and special, but it is possible to see a pattern and interconnections according to the theory and the study has also given the essay new approaches on certain parts. As certain types of costumer do not prefer the kind of seller that the theory indicates, and the different types of costumers want the products to be presented in different ways.

  • 2177.
    Viklund, Hugo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Könets roll i rollspel: Hur spelare förhåller sig till sina karaktärer beroende på dess kön2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har undersökt om spelare förhåller sig annorlunda till sin karaktär i papper & penna rollspel på grund av karaktärernas kön. Detta gjordes genom att skapa en artefakt, en så kallad ”one-shot”, av ett kortare äventyr med hjälp av den fjärde utgåvan av regelverket för papper & penna rollspelet Dungeons & Dragons. Artefakten utspelade sig i ett stort spökhus med en ond häxa inuti. Spelarna fick välja mellan fyra olika manliga karaktärer att ta kontroll över inför äventyret. Äventyret tillät spelarna att lösa flera enkla pussel, slåss mot häxans magiska korpar samt pussla ihop vem häxan var och vad hennes verkliga mål egentligen var. Halvvägs genom denna spelomgång förvandlar häxan alla karaktärerna till kvinnor och tillär spelarna att välja mellan två speciella drycker vid två tillfällen. Alla dessa delmoment och faktorer användes för att observera om det fanns någon skillnad i spelarnas agerande under spelomgången. Efter äventyret avslutats deltog alla spelare i en individuell, kvalitativ intervju på cirka 20 till 30 minuter. Frågorna från intervjuerna kan ses i Appendix A. Resultaten visar att könet av en karaktär inte förändrar hur en spelare tänker eller agerar utan andra faktorer. Om scenariot spelarna befinner sig i trycker på könsroller kan spelarna välja att utnyttja sin karaktärs kön för att uppnå någonting, men detta sker inte helt baslöst på grund av könet i sig. 

  • 2178.
    Viklund, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Setterberg, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    ARTEFAKTER PÅ FÖRSKOLANS UTEGÅRD: En kvalitativ studie om hur svenska förskolebarn interagerar med och uppfattar artefakterna på sin utegård2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study's purpose is to create a better understanding of how Swedish preschool children aged four to five years interact with and perceive the various artifacts on their patio. With artifacts means the physical tools that are on the preschool’s patio. We have chosen to focus on if the children play alone or with others, if they play by the given function or created function, and how they see the artifacts considering aesthetic judgments. We have used the method of the Mosaic approach that emphasizes the child's perspective. In our study have the children photographed the patio. Ten children were interviewed about the patio where the children's photographs were used to discuss. Four children guided us around the patio. The results showed that when the children talked about the pictures they came up with many different uses and opinions about the artifacts. During guided tours, we saw how four children interacted with the artifacts and we even got a comprehensive image of the patio. It turned out that the children used the sand together with the artifacts, which may be due to the sand is easily accessible and easy to move. It was also found that children think about their safety because the children showed a concern of falling from the artifacts that were highly placed. Our conclusion is that the patio offers privacy and play together with other children, and to use the given and created functions together with the artifacts. The results of the study show that the artifacts create a pleasant patio, which appears when the children gladly talk about and show the different artifacts.

  • 2179.
    Vikström, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Eriksson, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    ATT TRIGGA KONSUMENTERTILL KÖP: Genom olika säljfrämjande åtgärder2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are many trading companies today, which bring fierce competition over the customers. Stores use a lot of different kinds of marketing to reach respective target groups, marketing is a very wide term and involves many different measures that the stores can use. Our study focuses on three different kinds of sales promotion who are relative common today. We have studied whether the coupon offers, SMS offers and offer ‘buy one get one for free’ affects different consumer behavior and if consumers become more inclined to buy when they are exposed to them. The offer ‘buy one get one for free’ can be used in several similar ways, but the authors have only seen the offer as a communication channel in the retail environment, such as signage and packaging. The research question that will illuminate the entire work is how consumer behavior is influenced by the discount offers? The things that are investigated are if coupons, text message offers and ‘buy one get one for free’ have an effect on consumers behavior and if they become more liable to purchase when they are exposed of these promotions. In our study we will express the highlights of the differences and similarities that emerged between different generations and through a gender perspective. We have also checked the possible risks respective opportunities that may be found using these three different kinds of saving offers. The authors have chosen to implement a quantitative approach and the inspiration for our survey is based on previous research. The survey has been conducted on 100 respondents questioned by e-mail and randomly selected in Katrineholm city. The participants surveyed are divided into four categories according to age and gender.The survey gave the authors evidence to demonstrate that consumers react differently depending on the type of promotion they were subjected. The authors can see a clear difference between these types of offers. 'Buy one get one for free' which refers to a communication channel in the retail environment was the offer that all participants preferred. The category with older men was the participants who generally did not prefer different types of discount offers.

  • 2180.
    Vikström, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Manfredsson, Evelina
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Du ska inte bita den hand som föder dig: En studie på effekterna av religion och etiska värderingars inverkan på internationell marknadsföring i Saudiarabien2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Keywords: The impact of culture, ethics and religion, consumer behavior, International marketing and swedishness

    Purpose

    The purpose of this study is to create a deeper understanding about cultural factors, such as religion and ethical value, and the impact on Swedish business international marketing designs with focus on the Saudi Arabian market. With this knowledge the purpose of this study continues to focus on which effects this may have on the Swedish market and if the effects differ between different generations, gender and low-income respective high-income earners.

    Problem

    How do cultural factors, such as religion and ethical values, have an impact on Swedish business international marketing design in Saudi Arabia?

    Which impacts have the adaptations on the Swedish market and are there any differences between different groups of consumers, such as generations, gender and low-income respective high-income earners?

    Method

    This study focus on two big Swedish retail companies that operates on the Saudi Arabian market. The investigations in this study are built on both qualitative and quantitative data, one literature study and one survey that included 171 participants.

    Results and conclusions

    Cultural factors have a large impact on the businesses international marketing designs, but they have chosen different way to handle the situations. The Swedish consumers reactions were different regarding on the adaptations and it’s really important that the business know which adaptations that they are accepting and not. Customers may change from one brand to another because of ethical values and the companies need to have a long-term sustainable marketing.

  • 2181.
    Vilhelmsson Ramshage, Bitte
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Skrivpedagogiska diskurser: En textanalys av styrdokument i grundskolan2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thoughts behind planning and implementation of writing instruction in primary school is influenced by the attitudes the teacher has to his/hers teaching. To view language and writing from different perspectives yields different results. This study aims to identify the type pedagogical approach that is reflected in the governing documents for the primery school. The study carried out through an extensive document analysis in which the discourses of writing were identified, focusing on approach to education, language and writing. The starting point of the analysis was five discourses on writing pedagogical approach, a skill discourse, a creativity discourse, a process discourse, a genre discourse and a social practice discourse. The results show that a few of the approaches were represented more then other´s in the governing documents, but that all the approaches, to some extent, can be found. Above all is a process-oriented approach, representative of the view of writing while a more general attitude to learning and teaching displays a creativity approach, the assessment is made to appear mainly on the basis of a skill approach. The result of the document analysis whas, as a secondary aim, compared with a smaller questionnaire survey and the result show that differences existed between survey responses. There are also differences in how prominent the different approaches are in the documents. In the discussion of the results, the relationship between the outcome and previous research is raised. There is also a comparison of selected points from the forthcoming, course plan draft that at the time of the study is in alteration.

  • 2182.
    Viljamaa, Anmari
    et al.
    Business Transfer Ecosystems in Fostering Enterprise Continuity, Finland.
    Tall, Juha
    Business Transfer Ecosystems in Fostering Enterprise Continuity, Finland.
    Varamäki, Elina
    Business Transfer Ecosystems in Fostering Enterprise Continuity, Finland.
    Singer, Slavica
    J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia.
    Tornikoski, Erno
    Grenoble Ecole de Management, France.
    Durst, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Ripolles, María
    Universitat Jaume I, Spain.
    Blesa, Andreu
    Universitat Jaume I, Spain.
    Alpeza, Mirela
    CEPOR - SMEs and Entrepreneurship Policy Centre, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Buffart, Mickael
    Grenoble Ecole de Management, France.
    Mezulic, Petra
    J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Croatia.
    Business Transfer Ecosystems in Fostering Enterprise Continuity2016In: Creating Solutions with Sustainable Entrepreneurship, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present the key elements and content of a business transfer ecosystem and examine the supportiveness of such a system in five European countries. A business transfer comprises a change of ownership of any firm or business from one person/legal entity to another person/legal entity with the aim of assuring the continued existence and commercial activity of the enterprise - when more than 50 % of the assets or shares are transferred (see e.g. Sten 2006; Van Teeffelen 2012). This definition includes both family successions and transfers to external buyers.

    The study also seeks to demonstrate a research gap regarding the necessity of an evidence-based design for business transfer ecosystems in fostering enterprise continuity.

     

    The study is based on a multiple case study involving five country cases. Data shows that there is a considerable variety regarding forms of business discontinuity, which is in line with former research. According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor survey, e.g., in Croatia only 0,83% of all business exits are based on opportunities to sell compared to 5,3% in Sweden. In Finland 15% of all exits are caused by none-profitable businesses vs. 56% in Spain; and financing difficulties is a reason for 24% of exits in Croatia and only for 2,7% in Sweden (Singer et al., 2014). The analysis further shows that business transfer ecosystems are very country specific. The different ecosystems studied are in different stages of development, ranging from highly developed infrastructure to practically none at all. The level of the business transfer infrastructure (e.g. advisory services, financing) varies, as does the complexity of relevant legislation. There are also similarities; in all countries the potential for business transfers is highest among micro firms, and none of the studied countries has a public database for business transfers.

     

    As the different stages of the life cycle of a firm (birth, growth, maturity, exit) are not evenly covered as regards statistical monitoring, the exit phase is susceptible to assumption-based approaches regarding the development of related ecosystems. The study’s findings contribute to the general awareness that a business transfer represents a phase in the firm’s life cycle that offers different possible strategic decisions. In sum, business transfers can be seen as an essential element of enterprise continuity and development.

  • 2183.
    Vindahl, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Elgh-Andreasson, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    REVISIONENS (O)BETYDELSE VID KREDITGIVNING TILL MINDRE FÖRETAG: En studie ur bankernas perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: On November 1, 2010, the audit requirement for small businesses in Sweden was abolished. The abolition in Denmark and the UK caused problems for smaller businesses to get credit granted by banks. We wonder therefore how abolition has affected credit assessment of small businesses in Sweden.Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the factors that are important in lending to small businesses. The focus is on how reliable small and large banks believe that a non-audited financial report is compared with an audited financial report or if other factors are considered more important. The essay should help smaller businesses who faced with the decision to choose audit or not.Method: The paper is written from a qualitative approach where the empirical data is collected through semi-structured interviews. The collected materials were then compared, and paired with secondary data in the form of scientific articles.Conclusion: The study shows that the audit has no meaning when granting credits to the extent that accounting are prepared by competent persons. Instead, it's the trust that is created through relationships, which has the significant role in the granting of credit. Is there no confidence to the owner of the company, there is a risk that banks choose to reject a credit. The study also shows that no differences exist between small and large banks.

  • 2184.
    Vingéus, Kevin
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    AN INVESTIGATION ON MIMICKING WITH BREATH FOR IMMERSION: A case study on immersion comparing the differences between input-feedback and queued guidance during a breathing exercisein a VR experience using common hardware2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Practicing breathing exercises isn’t very engaging thou it is seen as great for well-being. Applications can utilize breath as a controller mechanism for interactions. With virtual reality (VR) being an effective tool for inducing the sense of immersion and presence, a breathing exercise was paired up with three alternative sessions in an application that was developed to examine the differences between mimicking and controlling input during an experience in VR, with the baseline of interaction being that of no other controllers but head-orientation-tracking of the VR device. Two pilot tests were performed to evaluate functionality and procedure. The main tests investigated the case of research. It was possible to identify mimicking as an immersive experience that promoted the breathing exercise, while input was more immersive but less beneficial towards performing the breathing exercise. The study was also conducted with- and addresses some design limitations of commonly accessible hardware.

  • 2185.
    Vingéus, Kevin
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Pitchrörelsens kommunikativa roll: En studie om hur pitchrörelser i ljud kommunicerar funktionalitet med hjälp av magi i interaktiva media2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här arbetet berör frågeställningen kring hur en specifika pitchrörelser i tre generella frekvensområden påverkar hur man uppfattar källan och affekten av magi genom ett interaktivt media. Med hjälp av tidigare forskning kring ljudperception och interaktivt lyssnande i samband med ytterligare research och löpande mindre undersökningar, framställdes en artefakt.Undersökningen omfattade 17 informanter mellan åldrarna 18-50 fördelade mellan en intervju- och enkätbaserad undersökning. De fick interagera med tre olika ljudeffekter och svara på frågor. Skillnaden mellan intervjuerna och enkätundersökningen var att de som deltog i enkäten endast interagerade med en av de tre ljudeffekterna.I resultatet visade det sig att majoriteten av informanterna kunde koppla ljudeffekterna till den ljudkälla de var konceptuellt baserade på. Det visade sig också att ljudeffektens betydelse var mer benägen att förändras beroende på om ljudet var stokastiskt eller deterministiskt. Det ansågs bland annat att en nedåtgående pitchrörelse tillförde en känsla av tyngd i några av ljudeffekterna, och att en uppåtgående rörelse löste upp eller tillförde energi beroende på vilket frekvensområde det påverkade.I en fördjupad version av studien hade både artefakten behövt omfattas och analyseras ur fler perspektiv och av fler involverade, samt innehålla deltagande ifrån en större mängd erfarna och oerfarna lyssnare över ett mer omfattande ålderspann.

  • 2186.
    Viotto, Nathalie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Haglund, Denice
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Valet mellan K2 och K3: Hur skapar redovisare mening i valet mellan regelverken K2 och K3 med utgångspunkt i företagens intressenter?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2187.
    Virén, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Dahlström, Sandro
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Communication of Environmental Issues: A Comparison Between Sustainability Reports and Social Media in the Automotive Industry2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is a topic that has become increasingly important for companies over the last decades. The increasing pressure from stakeholders has led to communication of sustainability to be very important for companies who wish to be seen as sustainable. The main way corporations communicate their sustainability activities are through the annual report. Whether in a standalone sustainability report or as an integrated part of the whole annual report, most of the larger companies today have some form of sustainability reporting. Over the last years, other ways of communicating sustainability activities have surfaced. The social media boom has created an excellent communication channel for companies to directly communicate with its stakeholders.  In the automotive industry environmental issues have been a focus point for many companies over the last decades. Pressure from society and stakeholders to produce more environmentally friendly vehicles have only increased over the last years. This leads us to the purpose of this study, which is to compare the communication of environmental issues in social media and in sustainability reports in the automotive industry.

    The study has been done by conducting a content analysis of the sustainability reports and posts on social media sites. Beside the content analysis, our thesis contains a quantitative part to emphasize which environmental topics the companies communicate about. The Global Reporting Initiatives environmental indicators have been used to do the quantitative part of this study. This has helped us divide the different information into various environmental topics to see what is being communicated. The timeframe for the study have been 1st of January 2015 to 31st December 2017, which means we have looked at three years of social media activity and three sustainability reports for the companies in the study. The companies involved in the study are BMW, Groupe Renault, Volvo Cars, and Volkswagen.

    The results of our study show that social media and sustainability reports to be very different types of communication channels. Social media revolves around short promotional messages, while sustainability reports aim to give a more fair and broad view of the companies’ environmental engagements. In sustainability reports we have found information to cover most of the environmental indicators, while on social media there is a focus on a smaller amount of topics. Another finding concerns target audience which differ for the studied communication channels. Social media are more directed towards the customer type of stakeholders, while the sustainability reports are more directed towards an investor type of stakeholder.

  • 2188.
    Vithlani, Sharmila
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Modersmålsundervisning: Det gemensamma ansvaret för hela organisationen i grundskolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bristande kunskaper om modersmålsundervisning och dess organisering bland grundskolelärare kan ge fel uppfattningar om ämnets innehåll. Denna studie utgick ifrån olika ledningsaktörers professionella ansvar att utveckla grundskolelärarnas existerande kunskaper om hur (vi) modersmålslärare arbetar och är organiserade. Ett professionellt ansvar, som samtliga pedagogiska aktörer i grundskolan bör ha. Studien tog del av föreställningar om modersmålsundervisning som framträdde hos anställda på ledningsnivå och fördjupades vidare på vilket sätt och varför dessa föreställningar kunde vara betydelsefulla för grundskolans kvalitativa utvecklingsarbete.

    Föreställningar som framträdde hos ledningsaktörerna om grundskolelärarnas existerande kunskaper om modersmålsundervisning och dess organisering sågs i relation till olika kunskapssyn: vetenskaplig kunskap, tyst kunskap och vardagskunskap utifrån erfarenheter. Dessa tre olika kunskapssyner hade tillägnats och var en del av den praxisgemenskapen inom skolans verksamhet som synliggjordes genom aktiv deltagande i samspel med andra. Detta har gjorts från individnivå genom interaktion med andra till ett större kollektiv d.v.s. organisationsnivå. Den tysta kunskapen behöver artikuleras och ledningsaktörerna behöver skapa mötesforum för detta.

    Studien visade en lärande process där den utgick ifrån ledningsaktörernas synpunkter kring grundskolelärarnas bristande kunskaper om ämnet modersmål och dess organisering. Dessa synpunkter sattes i relation till ett utvecklingsarbete där det systematiska kvalitetsarbetet blev en levande process. Denna lärande process kan leda till ett förbättringsarbete inom grundskolans verksamhet som i sin tur kan skapa likvärdiga förutsättningar inom utbildning för elever som har ett annat modersmål än svenska. 

  • 2189.
    von Knorring, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Löfgren, Åsa
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Utsatta barns behov: En kvalitativ studie om förskollärares uppfattningar2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this study was to make research into preschool teachers’ perceptions of the needs of vulnerable children in preschool. The study starts off with the following three issues; what are preschool teachers’ perceptions regarding the needs of vulnerable children in preschool? How do preschool teachers view their opportunities to create more favorable conditions for vulnerable children in preschool? What are preschool teachers’ perceptions of how to discover vulnerable children in the preschool setting? This phenomenografhic study was based on six qualitative interviews with preschool teachers working at four different preschools. The result is shown as different descriptive categories. When it comes to the needs of vulnerable children the categories are; needs in connection to the child; psychosocial and biological and needs in connection to the environment. When it comes to more favorable conditions for vulnerable children in preschool the categories are; external support for more favorable conditions and interpersonal relationships for more favorable conditions in preschool. Regarding how to discover vulnerable children in preschool there are these categories; obvious signs as an indication of vulnerability and implicit signs contributing to a suspicion of vulnerability. The result shows a variety of conceptions and they are looked upon from the standpoint of the ecological systems theory where the preschool setting can be seen in a context where all aspects and different environments influence vulnerable childrens opportunities to develop into healthy human beings.

  • 2190.
    Wallin, Anton
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    SOCIAL REPRESENTETION OCH SPRÅK I DOKUMENTÄR MEDIA2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur påverkar språket som en intervju hålls på uppfattningen hos mottagaren? Med

    avstamp i teorin om social representation är detta huvudfrågan i arbetet. För att

    undersöka hur publiken av ett dokumentärt material påverkas beroende på det språk

    som talas skapades två videoklipp med intervjuer på olika språk. Materialet testades på

    en respondentgrupp som efteråt intervjuats om sin uppfattning av personerna i

    klippen. Analysen visade hur respondenterna tilldelade de båda personerna olika

    attribut, dels med anledning av språket, men även på grund av andra skäl. Resultatet

    visar hur språket kan påverka uppfattningen men fler variabler att undersöka kvarstår

    för framtida arbeten.

  • 2191.
    Wallin, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Inkorporering av extern data i en DW-baserad BI-lösning - utvärdering av ett ramverk2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For a business’ long-term survival, it is of great importance to make accurate analyzes in order to be able to make good decisions. Such analysis requires data of various kinds. This data can come from sources within the organization (internal), but many times, data from sources outside the business (external) can contribute. The data for the analyzes can be advantageously incorporated into a Data Warehouse (DW), which gives the opportunity to use the information in a structured manner in the context of some form of Business Intelligence (BI) solution.

    The process to incorporate data from different sources into a DW can be complex - particularly when external data sources are used. A framework has previously been developed with the aim of providing support for the incorporation process. The framework's main components are a process specification and a set of guidelines. In this Action Case-study, the support of the framework for the incorporation process has been practically evaluated in close collaboration with a company which aimed at incorporating external data into their DW-based BI solution for the first time.

    The study has resulted in a proposal for a revised process model and also a categorization of each guideline based on the support it gave to the current incorporation process. Through these results, the study can provide valuable knowledge to businesses that are considering starting a process to incorporate external data into their DW.

  • 2192.
    Wallén, Jacob
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Från Smet till Klarhet: Bättre ljud i datorspel2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har under våren 2008 arbetat med att ta fram ett skriftligt verk som försöker besvara frågan hur jag kan designa en komplett och balanserad ljudbild för datorspel. Arbetet är baserat på en omfattande litteraturstudie, två större ljudanalyser av två datorspel samt mindre studier av ljud i ett antal datorspel. Utöver det så har arbetet även innefattat ett samarbete med ett anonymt datorspelsföretag där målet var att ta fram ett antal ljudeffekter inom ramen för en större uppdatering av ett datorspel som de utvecklar.

    Syftet med att finna svaret på frågeställningen har varit att öka min egen förståelse för vad som utgör en komplett och balanserad ljudbild i datorspel samt att vidareförmedla detta och på så vis uppmuntra datorspelsutvecklare att tänka mer på ljud. Detta genom att i det skriftliga verket ta upp de relaterade problemen i processen och ge förslag på hur de skulle kunna avhjälpas. Ett av de absolut största problemen är att ljud ofta blir underprioriterat, och det fick jag själv uppleva under arbetet med ljudeffekterna till det anonyma företaget.

  • 2193.
    Wang, Zhiyuan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Study the relationship between real exchange rate and interest rate differential – United States and Sweden2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses co-integration method and error-correction model to re-examine the relationship between real exchange rate and expected interest rate differentials, including cumulated current account balance, over floating exchange rate periods. As indicated by the dynamic model, I find that there is a long run relationship among the variables using Johansen co-integration method. Final conclusion is that the empirical evidence is provided to show that our error-correction model leads to a good real exchange rate forecast.

  • 2194.
    Warell, Annelie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Wising, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Skapandet av narcissistiska karaktärer: En symbolisk interaktionistisk- samt kulturanalytisk tolkning av uppkomsten av narcissism2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att ge förståelse för de förklaringsmodeller som ges av informanter gällande sexualförbrytares tolknings- och beteendemönster analyserat utifrån ett symbolisk interaktionistiskt perspektiv och ett socialpsykologiskt samt kulturanalytiskt perspektiv på narcissism. Det som behandlas i studien är hur personal inom psykiatrin uppfattar att självet hos sexualförbrytare utvecklats samt hur detta beskrivs i de två dokument studien använder sig av och hur dessa utsagor kan tolkas utifrån ett symbolisk interaktionistiskt perspektiv på identitetsskapande. Vidare belyses hur sexualförbrytares tolknings- och beteendemönster kopplas till narcissism utifrån ett socialpsykologiskt och kulturanalytiskt perspektiv. Genomförandet av studien har skett med hjälp av triangulering i form av kvalitativa, semistrukturerade djupintervjuer med personal vid Skogomeanstalten samt analys utifrån två dokument (Hedin, Kuosmanen,Lindholm & Månsson, 2002; Kwarnmark & Tidefors Andersson, 1999) som behandlar sexualbrottsdömda vid Skogomeanstalten. Framkommit i studien har att primär- samt sekundärsocialisation är av stor vikt vid utvecklingen av narcissistiska karaktärsdrag samt att kulturella och sociala förhållanden påverkar formandet av just dessa karaktärsdrag. Studien har påvisat dessa narcissistiska karaktärsdrag hos vissa av de sexualförbrytare som undersökts.

  • 2195.
    Weber, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Relationen mellan ljud och text: Hur diegetiska ljud påverkar uppfattningen av en textbaserad berättelse2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete undersöker hur diegetiska ljud påverkar uppfattningen av en textbaserad berättelse och om ljudet kommer att främja eller störa läsarens inlevelse. Baserat på teorier om audiovisuella medier har en skönlitterär text med ackompanjerande ljud skapats för att undersöka huruvida dessa teorier även kan appliceras på text. Försökspersoner har sedan fått läsa texten en gång med ljud och en gång utan för att avslutningsvis intervjuas och tillbes jämföra deras inlevelse i de olika versionerna.

    Undersökningen visade på att diegetiska ljud påverkade inlevelsen positivt och att texten blev mer levande, atmosfärisk, interaktiv och stämningsfull.

  • 2196.
    Wendel-Örtqvist, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The Female Assassin: Ett Game Writer manuskript om Franska Revolutionen2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att diskutera och jämföra tre olika metoder för karaktärsutveckling och diskutera dessa i förhållande till The Female Assassin; ett spelmanuskript som utspelar sig under Franska Revolutionen. För att få en god bakgrund för examensarbetet valde jag att läsa ett antal böcker om Franska Revolutionen, karaktärsutveckling och Game Writing. Jag har använt mig av personlighetsdiamanter och mallen Character Template för att skapa karaktärer till manuskriptet. I rapporten diskuterar och jämför jag dessa två metoder samt arketyper. Jag kom fram till att de tre metoderna för att utveckla spelkaraktärer fungerar utmärkt och kan kombineras för att få fram mer avancerade karaktärer.

    Spelmanuskriptet är skrivet utifrån mitt High Concept om spelet La Meurtrière (se Bilaga 2) framtaget för kursen Modellkonstruktion för Interagerbara Medier/Spel A11. The Female Assassin handlar om de tre första åren under Franska Revolutionen och om den unga lönnmörderskan Élodie Bauchet. Jag använder mig av ludologi och narratologi för att undersöka och diskutera spelmanuskriptets spelmekanik och berättelse. Slutsatsen som jag drog efter att granskat manuskriptet genom narratologi och ludologi var att story i spel kan berättas genom spelmekanik och att det är att föredra framför så kallade cutscenes och dialog emellan spelkaraktärer.

     

  • 2197.
    Wensberg, Eric
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Budgetlös styrning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under 1970-talet börjar företag förändra sitt arbetande med traditionell budget. Detta p.g.a.att budgeten inte ses som tillräckligt flexibel i världens olika förändringar. Många företag väljer att förbättra den traditionella budgeten med olika förbättringsåtgärder. Som ett exempel på detta är Handelsbanken som väljer ett nytt system Beyond Budgeting/Budgetlösstyrning. Ett ekonomistyrningssystem som är den traditionella budgetens motsats.

    Syfte: Studien syftar till att se hur de olika systemen fungerar i reella verksamheter, och speciellt de som har erfarenheter av Beyond Budgeting. Den vill också undersöka om man får liknande svar vid som litteraturen beskriver Beyond Budgeting.

    Metod: Uppsatsen använder sig av en kvalitativ undersökningsmetod och en fallstudie som undersöker ämnet Beyond Budgeting. Primärdata är insamlad egenom semistrukturerade intervjuer som sedan jämförts med sekundärdata i form av tidigare undersökningar samt litteratur.

    Slutsats: I undersökningen av de berörda företagen kunde ingen av dem ange en negativ effekt, alla de undersöka företagen beskrev BB helt utan brister. Enligt EAF/The Evolutionary Adoption beskrivs organisationers val av förändrade system, är anledningen att organisation upplever BB/Beyond Budgeting som nästintill felfritt. BB är designat att vara flexibelt och vara den traditionella budgetens motpol vilket de valda organisationerna eftersträvar. BB är också ett system som ger en överblick med nyckeltal och teknisk utveckling vilket EAF och empirin bekräftar. Nyckeltalen och den tekniska utvecklingen har gett BB dess framgång som ett lyckat system.

  • 2198.
    Westberg, Elias
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    NÄTVERKSMARKNADSFÖRING: Direkthandel med fokusering på home party2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Marketing is an extremely broad concept and the number of methods available to promotetheir businesses are enormous. In today's society we are exposed to thousands of marketingmessages and most of the sort we automatically deleted. It is therefore important to be able tomarket themselves in the most efficient manner possible. There is no marketing method isbest for all businesses, but every company has to investigate and try the method that suits thethem. A form of marketing that is cost-effective is network marketing, where it is aboutpeople becoming distributors for the company and markets its products and recruiting newdistributors. The company pays compensation to each distributor based on what the dealerachieves in sales in its network, and thus the company pays for its advertising after theproduct has been sold, which means that no unnecessary cost to marketing exist.Since this form of selling is not in store but go directly from the company to end usersthrough any retailer, it is about direct selling. In this survey the aim is to find out if people areinterested to be these retailers and help companies market products through direct sellinghome party method. This study revealed that many have been at home party like customer andalso have bought anything, and that look good for networking companies. But actually beingdistributor do not seem to be interesting, which is a problem for these companies. Why theinterest in itself be a distributor was so low in the future will not be in this study, andtherefore requires more research on the subject. However, the form of compensation besignificant, since the pricing in this industry is on a commission and a majority of theparticipants in this study emphasized their commitment to a fixed normal monthly salary.

  • 2199.
    Westerberg, Gunilla
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Pedagogisk ledare eller curlingrektor?: Arbetslagens förväntade behov av ledning och rektors roll2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2200.
    Westerdahl, Natalie
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Autenticitet: - En studie om betydelsen av autenticitet i vår nutida upplevelse-ekonomi2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's consumers are no longer satisfied with a single product, they want added value, an

    image to relate to, to fit in, but also adapt their products for their specific needs. We are in a

    kind of experience-economy. Demand on where the product that I buy comes from, who made

    it, what country the person lives in, if the package fits into my bathroom-shelf and how the

    product feels, are going to play a more and more important role for consumers. A product

    should feel authentic, thus genuine. What makes a thing true for a person, might not make it

    true for another, therefore companies individualize products more and more. This has led to a

    plethora of different offers, which is something that we as consumers also expect. This essay

    describes the added value that today's consumer’s want and why that is the case. The creation

    of added value in the product and forging emotional relationships with consumers is an

    important part of the theory section in terms of understanding what authenticity is and who

    wants it. The study is conducted with respondents, active in the skincare-industry to find

    answers to the problem statement in the essay. The analysis and conclusion contains the

    nuances of responses from respondents, which answers the questions that are based on the

    theory section of the essay. The analysis and conclusion contains the shades of responses

    from respondents to see how authenticity takes form in companies marketing

    communications.

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