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  • 21.
    Borgmästars, Emmy
    et al.
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    de Weerd, Hendrik Arnold
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lubovac-Pilav, Zelmina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Sund, Malin
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    miRFA: an automated pipeline for microRNA functional analysis with correlation support from TCGA and TCPA expression data in pancreatic cancer2019Ingår i: BMC Bioinformatics, ISSN 1471-2105, E-ISSN 1471-2105, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 1-17, artikel-id 393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level and are emerging as potentially important biomarkers for various disease states, including pancreatic cancer. In silico-based functional analysis of miRNAs usually consists of miRNA target prediction and functional enrichment analysis of miRNA targets. Since miRNA target prediction methods generate a large number of false positive target genes, further validation to narrow down interesting candidate miRNA targets is needed. One commonly used method correlates miRNA and mRNA expression to assess the regulatory effect of a particular miRNA. The aim of this study was to build a bioinformatics pipeline in R for miRNA functional analysis including correlation analyses between miRNA expression levels and its targets on mRNA and protein expression levels available from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and the cancer proteome atlas (TCPA). TCGA-derived expression data of specific mature miRNA isoforms from pancreatic cancer tissue was used.

    RESULTS: Fifteen circulating miRNAs with significantly altered expression levels detected in pancreatic cancer patients were queried separately in the pipeline. The pipeline generated predicted miRNA target genes, enriched gene ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. Predicted miRNA targets were evaluated by correlation analyses between each miRNA and its predicted targets. MiRNA functional analysis in combination with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggest that hsa-miR-885-5p could act as a tumor suppressor and should be validated as a potential prognostic biomarker in pancreatic cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our miRNA functional analysis (miRFA) pipeline can serve as a valuable tool in biomarker discovery involving mature miRNAs associated with pancreatic cancer and could be developed to cover additional cancer types. Results for all mature miRNAs in TCGA pancreatic adenocarcinoma dataset can be studied and downloaded through a shiny web application at https://emmbor.shinyapps.io/mirfa/ .

  • 22.
    Yewale, Priti Prabhakar
    et al.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Lokhande, Kiran Bharat
    Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Sridhar, Aishwarya
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Vaishnav, Monika
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Khan, Faisal Ahmad
    The Life Science Centre-Biology, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Swamy, Kakumani Venkateswara
    Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Jass, Jana
    The Life Science Centre-Biology, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Molecular profiling of multidrug-resistant river water isolates: insights into resistance mechanism and potential inhibitors2019Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polluted waters are an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes and multidrug-resistant bacteria. This report describes the microbial community, antibiotic resistance genes, and the genetic profile of extended spectrum β-lactamase strains isolated from rivers at, Pune, India. ESBL-producing bacteria isolated from diverse river water catchments running through Pune City were characterized for their antibiotic resistance. The microbial community and types of genes which confer antibiotic resistance were identified followed by the isolation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on selective media and their genome analysis. Four representative isolates were sequenced using next generation sequencing for genomic analysis. They were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and two isolates were Enterobacter cloacae. The genes associated with the multidrug efflux pumps, such as tolC, macA, macB, adeL, and rosB, were detected in the isolates. As MacAB-TolC is an ABC type efflux pump responsible for conferring resistance in bacteria to several antibiotics, potential efflux pump inhibitors were identified by molecular docking. The homology model of their MacB protein with that from Escherichia coli K12 demonstrated structural changes in different motifs of MacB. Molecular docking of reported efflux pump inhibitors revealed the highest binding affinity of compound MC207-110 against MacB. It also details the potential efflux pump inhibitors that can serve as possible drug targets in drug development and discovery. 

  • 23.
    Prabhakar Yewale, Priti
    et al.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Bharat Lokhande, Kiran
    Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Sridhar, Aishwarya
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Vaishnav, Monika
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Ahmad Khan, Faisal
    The Life Science Centre-Biology, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Venkateswara Swamy, Kakuman
    Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Jass, Jana
    The Life Science Centre-Biology, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Molecular profiling of multidrug-resistant river water isolates: insights into resistance mechanism and potential inhibitors2019Ingår i: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Polluted waters are an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes and multidrug-resistant bacteria. This report describes the microbial community, antibiotic resistance genes, and the genetic profile of extended spectrum β-lactamase strains isolated from rivers at, Pune, India. ESBL-producing bacteria isolated from diverse river water catchments running through Pune City were characterized for their antibiotic resistance. The microbial community and types of genes which confer antibiotic resistance were identified followed by the isolation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria on selective media and their genome analysis. Four representative isolates were sequenced using next generation sequencing for genomic analysis. They were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and two isolates were Enterobacter cloacae. The genes associated with the multidrug efflux pumps, such as tolC, macA, macB, adeL, and rosB, were detected in the isolates. As MacAB-TolC is an ABC type efflux pump responsible for conferring resistance in bacteria to several antibiotics, potential efflux pump inhibitors were identified by molecular docking. The homology model of their MacB protein with that from Escherichia coli K12 demonstrated structural changes in different motifs of MacB. Molecular docking of reported efflux pump inhibitors revealed the highest binding affinity of compound MC207-110 against MacB. It also details the potential efflux pump inhibitors that can serve as possible drug targets in drug development and discovery.

  • 24.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Boström, Sven
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wayland, Matthew T.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, England.
    Morphological observations on three Baltic species of Corynosoma Lühe, 1905 (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae)2019Ingår i: European Journal of Taxonomy, ISSN 2118-9773, Vol. 514, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Necropsies of Baltic grey (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Pusa hispida) presented a rare opportunity to study their acanthocephalan fauna. Both species hosted adults of three species of the genus Corynosoma Lithe, 1904, namely C. magdaleni Montreuil, 1958, C. semerme (Forsell, 1904) Lithe 1911 and C. strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) Lithe 1904. A comparative morphological analysis of these three species of Corynosoma, combining both light and scanning electron microscopy, was performed for the first time. Sexual dimorphism in the size and shape of the trunk was observed in both C. magdaleni and C. semerme, but there was insufficient material to investigate this phenomenon in C. strumosum. Genital spines were not observed in any of the female acanthocephalans. Three possible explanations for the presence of genital spines in some females, but not others are (i) cryptic speciation, (ii) phenotypic variation and (iii) loss by extraction or shearing when the copulatory cap is released. Copulatory caps were observed on female C. semerme. The size and morphology showed considerable variability and all caps were strongly autofluoresecent.

  • 25.
    Grassini, Simone
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland /Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Souchet, Jérémie
    Station D'Ecologie Théorique et Expérimentale Du CNRS, France.
    Aubret, Fabien
    Station D'Ecologie Théorique et Expérimentale Du CNRS, France.
    Segurini, Giulia V.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Pattern matters: Snakes exhibiting triangular and diamond-shaped skin patterns modulate electrophysiological activity in human visual cortex2019Ingår i: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 131, s. 62-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The neural and perceptual mechanisms that support the efficient visual detection of snakes in humans are still not fully understood. According to the Snake Detection Theory, selection pressures posed by snakes on early primates have shaped the development of the visual system. Previous studies in humans have investigated early visual electrophysiological activity in response to snake images vs. various alternative dangerous or non-dangerous stimuli. These studies have shown that the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) component is selectively elicited by snake or snake-like images. Recent findings yielded the complementary/alternative hypothesis that early humans (and possibly other primates) evolved an aversion especially for potentially harmful triangular shapes, such as teeth, claws or spikes. In the present study we investigated the effect of triangular and diamond-shaped patterns in snake skins on the ERP correlates of visual processing in humans. In the first experiment, we employed pictures of snakes displaying either triangular/diamond-shaped patterns or no particular pattern on their skins, and pictures of frogs as control. Participants observed a random visual presentation of these pictures. Consistent with previous studies, snakes elicited an enhanced negativity between 225 and 300 ms (EPN) compared to frogs. However, snakes featuring triangular/diamond-shaped patterns on their skin produced an enhanced EPN compared to the snakes that did not display such patterns. In a second experiment we used pictures displaying only skin patterns of snakes and frogs. Results from the second experiment confirmed the results of the first experiment, suggesting that triangular snake-skin patterns modulate the activity in human visual cortex. Taken together, our results constitute an important contribution to the snake detection theory. 

  • 26.
    Junnarkar, Manisha
    et al.
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr D Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Maharashtra, India.
    Pawar, Sarika
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr D Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Maharashtra, India.
    Gaikwad, Swapnil
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr D Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Maharashtra, India.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jass, Jana
    The Life Science Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Nawani, Neelu
    Microbial Diversity Research Centre, Dr D Y Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Tathawade, Maharashtra, India.
    Probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria from fresh vegetables: Application in food preservation2019Ingår i: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0019-5189, E-ISSN 0975-1009, Vol. 57, s. 825-838Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fresh vegetables are potential source of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In the present study, LAB were isolated from the fresh vegetables from Pune region. Total 266 LAB were isolated from the edible parts of fresh vegetables viz. cauliflower, gherkins, cluster beans, fenugreek, cow pea, bitter gourd, french beans, tomato, ridged gourd, cucumber and bottle gourd. On phenotypic and molecular characterization predominant genera obtained were Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Weissella. Twenty one isolates exhibited tolerance to bile salt, acidic pH and pancreatin. Cellular extracts of several isolates with ability to survive in artificial intestinal condition additionally showed antioxidant potential and cell free supernatants xhibited antibacterial potential against selected plant and human pathogens. Bacteriocin and bacteriocin like substances (BLS) substances secreted by these isolates can be used for food preservation.

  • 27.
    Grassini, Simone
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Castellotti, Serena
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Italy.
    Petrizzo, Irene
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Italy.
    Benedetti, Viola
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Italy.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Processing of natural scenery is associated with lower attentional and cognitive load compared with urban ones2019Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 62, s. 1-11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental psychology has provided evidence for psychologically favorable effects of exposure to natural settings, by means of controlled laboratory experiments as well as outdoor field studies. Most of these studies have employed subjective rating scales to assess processes and outcomes of exposure to nature, while only few of them have used physiological measures to assess the neural correlates of these benefits. The present study used electroencephalography (EEG) to explore how the brain engages in processing of images of natural vs. urban scenery. During EEG recording, the participants (n = 32) were presented with a series of photos depicting urban or natural scenery. Participants rated the sceneries for their subjective relaxing value. Images of natural scenery were rated as more relaxing compared to the images of urban scenery. Event related potentials suggested a lower attentional demand for images of natural scenery compared to urban ones. Signal spectral analyses revealed differences in brain activity level and cognitive demand between natural and urban scenery. Our data suggest that the visual perception of natural environments calls for less attentional and cognitive processing, compared with urban ones. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 28.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Philosophy, History and Art Studies, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum Theory and the Place of Mind in the Causal Order of Things2019Ingår i: Quanta and Mind: Essays on the Connection between Quantum Mechanics and the Consciousness / [ed] J. Acacio de Barros, Carlos Montemayor, Springer, 2019, s. 163-171Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The received view in physicalist philosophy of mind assumes that causation can only take place at the physical domain and that the physical domain is causally closed. It is often thought that this leaves no room for mental states qua mental to have a causal influence upon the physical domain, leading to epiphenomenalism and the problem of mental causation. However, in recent philosophy of causation there has been growing interest in a line of thought that can be called causal antifundamentalism: causal notions cannot play a role in physics, because the fundamental laws of physics are radically different from causal laws. Causal anti-fundamentalism seems to challenge the received view in physicalist philosophy of mind and thus raises the possibility of there being genuine mental causation after all. This paper argues that while causal anti-fundamentalism provides a possible route to mental causation, we have reasons to think that it is incorrect. Does this mean that we have to accept the received view and give up the hope of genuine mental causation? I will suggest that the ontological interpretation of quantum theory provides us both with a view about the nature of causality in fundamental physics, as well as a view how genuine mental causation can be compatible with our fundamental (quantum) physical ontology.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2021-09-20 00:01
  • 29.
    Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Sjöström, C. David
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Inzucchi, Silvio E.
    Section of Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.
    Hallow, Melissa K.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Georgia School of Public Health, Athens, GA, United States.
    Cain, Valerie A.
    Bogier Clinical and IT Solutions, Inc., Raleigh, NC, United States.
    Rossing, Peter
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark / Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stefansson, Bergur V.
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reduction in albuminuria with dapagliflozin cannot be predicted by baseline clinical characteristics or changes in most other risk markers2019Ingår i: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326, Vol. 21, nr 3, s. 720-725Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin has been shown to decrease urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). This effect, however, varies among individual patients. In this study, we assessed the baseline characteristics and concurrent changes in other cardiovascular risk markers that might be associated with UACR response to dapagliflozin. A pooled analysis of 11 phase 3 randomized, controlled clinical trials was performed. UACR change from baseline after 24 weeks treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg/d in 531 patients with type 2 diabetes and UACR ≥30 mg/g at baseline was determined. UACR response was defined as >30% reduction from baseline at 24 weeks, whereas UACR non-response was defined as ≤30% reduction at 24 weeks. A total of 288 (54%) patients were classified as responders and 243 (46%) as non-responders. At 24 weeks, the UACR-adjusted mean change from baseline was −71.2% and 25.9% in responders and non-responders, respectively. Baseline characteristics were similar between both groups. Changes in HbA1c and body weight were comparable across groups. Responders showed a numerically larger reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate and systolic blood pressure versus non-responders. UACR reduction to dapagliflozin is an individual characteristic that cannot be predicted by baseline clinical features or changes in metabolic variables. Whether UACR response would improve long-term renal and cardiovascular outcomes remains to be determined. 

  • 30.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / University West, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Revisiting the Structure of the Short Dark Triad2019Ingår i: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 3-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decade, extensive interest has been directed toward the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), popularly assessed by the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Nevertheless, relatively little research has been conducted on the SD3's factor structure. We investigated the SD3's psychometric properties in three studies with three independent samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses ( N1 = 1,487; N2 = 17,740; N3 = 496). In all three studies, Machiavellianism and psychopathy items displayed large general factor loadings, and narcissism larger specific factor loadings. In subsequent studies, two- and three-factor models fitted the data similarly, with the best fitting model being a bifactor model with items from Machiavellianism and psychopathy modelled as one specific factor, and narcissism as a second specific factor. On this basis, we suggest that the SD3 does not seem to capture the different mental processes theorized to underlie the similar behaviors generated by Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Additionally, we recommend the use of a single SD3 composite score, and not subscale scores, as subscales contain small amounts of reliable variance beyond the general factor.

  • 31.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Finland.
    Searching for Machiavelli but Finding Psychopathy and Narcissism2019Ingår i: Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, ISSN 1949-2715, E-ISSN 1949-2723, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 235-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Machiavellianism is a psychological construct reflecting individual differences in manipulative and strategic thinking, pragmatic morality, and a cynical outlook on life. A recent stream of research has shown that Machiavellianism and psychopathy seem to be redundant constructs and that measures of Machiavellianism do not correspond well with theoretical expectations. In the present study, I juxtapose multiple measures of Machiavellianism against normal (i.e., the five-factor model and HEXACO) and abnormal (e.g., narcissism, psychopathy, impulsivity, and personality dysfunction) personality traits in an online sample (N = 591). Using Goldberg’s (2006) Bass–Ackwards approach, I investigate whether typical Machiavellian traits can be found anywhere in the construct hierarchy by comparing the levels of the hierarchy with expert-rated five-factor model prototypes of Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and external correlates. Our results indicate that measures of Machiavellianism mostly reflect psychopathy and narcissism. The implications of these results are discussed, including what the future may hold for Machiavellianism.

     

  • 32.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    et al.
    Department of psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding2019Ingår i: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 705-711Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in personality have been shown to be larger in more gender equal countries. We advance this researchby using an extensive personality measure, the IPIP-NEO-120, with large country samples (N > 1000), from 22countries. Furthermore, to capture the multidimensionality of personality we measure sex differences with a multivariateeffect size (Mahalanobis distance D). Results indicate that past research, using univariate measures of effect size, haveunderestimated the size of between-country sex differences in personality. Confirming past research, there was a strongcorrelation (r = .69) between a country’s sex differences in personality and their Gender Equality Index. Additionalanalyses showed that women typically score higher than men on all five trait factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and that these relative differences are larger in more gender equal countries. Wespeculate that as gender equality increases both men and women gravitate towards their traditional gender roles.

  • 33.
    Kallionpää, Roosa E.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Pesonen, Henri
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Computer Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Scheinin, Annalotta
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Sandman, Nils
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku,Finland.
    Laitio, Ruut
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Scheinin, Harry
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland / Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Single-subject analysis of N400 event-related potential component with five different methods2019Ingår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 144, s. 14-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several different approaches to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs) at single-subject level, and the aim of the current study is to provide information for choosing a method based on its ability to detect ERP effects and factors influencing the results. We used data from 79 healthy participants with EEG referenced to mastoid average and investigated the detection rate of auditory N400 effect in single-subject analysis using five methods: visual inspection of participant-wise averaged ERPs, analysis of variance (ANOVA) for amplitude averages in a time window, cluster-based non-parametric testing, a novel Bayesian approach and Studentized continuous wavelet transform (t-CWT). Visual inspection by three independent raters yielded N400 effect detection in 85% of the participants in at least one paradigm (active responding or passive listening), whereas ANOVA identified the effect in 68%, the cluster-method in 59%, the Bayesian method in 89%, and different versions of t-CWT in 22–59% of the participants. Thus, the Bayesian method was the most liberal and also showed the greatest concordance between the experimental paradigms (active/passive). ANOVA detected significant effect only in cases with converging evidence from other methods. The t-CWT and cluster-based method were the most conservative methods. As we show in the current study, different analysis methods provide results that do not completely overlap. The method of choice for determining the presence of an ERP component at single-subject level thus remains unresolved. Relying on a single statistical method may not be sufficient for drawing conclusions on single-subject ERPs. 

  • 34.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Peltola, Karoliina
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Saaresranta, Tarja
    Division of Medicine, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Sleep Research Centre, Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Clinical Allergology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland /Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sleep Parameter Assessment Accuracy of a Consumer Home Sleep Monitoring Ballistocardiograph Beddit Sleep Tracker: A Validation Study2019Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (JCSM), ISSN 1550-9389, E-ISSN 1550-9397, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 483-487, artikel-id PII jc-18-00561Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Growing interest in monitoring sleep and well-being has created a market for consumer home sleep monitoring devices. Additionally, sleep disorder diagnostics, and sleep and dream research would benefit from reliable and valid home sleep monitoring devices. Yet, majority of currently available home sleep monitoring devices lack validation. In this study, the sleep parameter assessment accuracy of Beddit Sleep Tracker (BST), an unobtrusive and non-wearable sleep monitoring device based on ballistocardiography, was evaluated by comparing it with polysomnography (PSG) measures. We measured total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE). Additionally, we examined whether BST can differentiate sleep stages. Methods: We performed sleep studies simultaneously with PSG and BST in ten healthy young adults (5 female/5 male) during two non-consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Results: BST was able to distinguish SOL with some accuracy. However, it underestimated WASO and thus overestimated TST and SE. Also, it failed to discriminate between non-rapid eye movement sleep stages and did not detect the rapid eye movement sleep stage. Conclusions: These findings indicate that BST is not a valid device to monitor sleep. Consumers should be careful in interpreting the conclusions on sleep quality and efficiency provided by the device.

  • 35.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Stenberg, Tuula
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Social contents in dreams: An empirical test of the Social Simulation Theory2019Ingår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 69, s. 133-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Simulation Theory (SST) considers the function of dreaming to be the simulation of social events. The Sociality Bias and the Strengthening hypotheses of SST were tested. Social Content Scale (SCS) was developed to quantify social events. Additionally, we attempted to replicate a previous finding (McNamara et al., 2005, Psychological Science) of REM dreams as predisposed to aggressive, and NREM dreams to prosocial interactions. Further, we investigated the frequency and quality of interactions in late vs early REM and NREM dreams. Data consisted of wake, REM and NREM home dream reports (N = 232, 116, 116, respectively) from 15 students. Dreams overrepresented social events compared to wake reports, supporting the Sociality Bias hypothesis. However, the Strengthening Hypothesis was not supported. We weren't able to replicate the McNamara et al. finding, and no time of night effect was found. While SST gained partial support, further research on social contents in dreams is required. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 36.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Lilienfeld, Scott O.
    Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States of America / School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Social status as one key indicator of successful psychopathy: An initial empirical investigation2019Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 141, s. 209-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder that researchers have subdivided into two types: successful and unsuccessful. Nevertheless, little headway has been made regarding how to conceptualize and operationalize success. We consider various accounts of success from the existing literature and make the case for a two-dimensional view of successful psychopathy. Specifically, we contend that successful psychopathy can be conceptualized with two conditions in mind: (a) high social status and (b) lack of serious antisocial behavior. We emphasize that high social status, best described using socioeconomic status (SES), has been largely overlooked in the literature. We tested this idea using a sample of 591 participants who received measures of the triarchic model of psychopathy (i.e., boldness, meanness, and disinhibition), SES, and personality dysfunction. The results demonstrated that, as predicted, the putatively adaptive features of psychopathy (i.e., boldness) were positively related to SES and personality functioning. In contrast, the putatively maladaptive psychopathy features disinhibition and meanness were negatively related to personality functioning, and disinhibition was negatively related to SES. The relevance of boldness to psychopathy and the benefits of conceptualizing success as a continuous variable are discussed.

  • 37.
    Nolskog, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Region of Västra Götaland, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Backhaus, Erik
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nasic, Salmir
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Clinical molecular microbiology, Laboratory Medicine, Unilabs, Skövde, Sweden.
    STI with Mycoplasma genitalium: More common than Chlamydia trachomatis in patients attending youth clinics in Sweden2019Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 81-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Sweden is well known, whereas the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium is less well documented. Youth clinics offer free contraception advice, sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and/or contact tracing for the age group 15–25 years. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of STIs, the presence of symptoms and the role of contact tracing. From July 2013 to March 2014, 1001 persons, 509 women and 492 men, were included in this study of six youth clinics in the Region of Västra Götaland. Symptoms were registered and whether the patient was tested because of contract tracing. Collection of urine samples, testing, treatment and disease registration were performed according to clinical routines. Urine samples were analysed for C. trachomatis/N. gonorrhoeae on the Cobas 4800 system (Roche). M. genitalium was analysed by lab-developed PCR. Genital infection was present in 16.8%. The prevalence of M. genitalium was higher than for C. trachomatis (9.6% and 7.1%). Men with symptoms have a significantly higher relative risk for infection with M. genitalium or C. trachomatis compared to asymptomatic men, while there is no increase for women. Contact tracing is important since positive outcome has a high relative risk for both infections. The prevalence of M. genitalium was higher than C. trachomatis in this study population. Initial testing for both C. trachomatis and M. genitalium should at least be considered for young men presenting with symptoms of genital infection. In finding positive cases, contact tracing is of great importance. © 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

  • 38.
    Blagrove, Mark
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Hale, Sioned
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Lockheart, Julia
    Swansea College of Art, University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Swansea, United Kingdom / Goldsmiths, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Carr, Michelle
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Jones, Alex
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 1351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, dreams are a novel but realistic simulation of waking social life, with a mixture of characters, motivations, scenarios, and positive and negative emotions. We propose that the sharing of dreams has an empathic effect on the dreamer and on significant others who hear and engage with the telling of the dream. Study 1 tests three correlations that are predicted by the theory of dream sharing and empathy: that trait empathy will be correlated with frequency of telling dreams to others, with frequency of listening to others’ dreams, and with trait attitude toward dreams (ATD) (for which higher scores indicate positive attitude). 160 participants completed online the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire. Pearson partial correlations were conducted, with age and sex partialled out. Trait empathy was found to be significantly associated with the frequency of listening to the dreams of others, frequency of telling one’s own dreams to others, and attitude toward dreams. Study 2 tests the effects of discussing dreams on state empathy, using an adapted version of the Shen (2010) state empathy scale, for 27 pairs of dream sharers and discussers. Dream discussion followed the stages of the Ullman (1996) dream appreciation technique. State empathy of the dream discusser toward the dream sharer was found to increase significantly as a result of the dream discussion, with a medium effect size, whereas the dream sharer had a small decrease in empathy toward the discusser. A proposed mechanism for these associations and effects is taken from the robust findings in the literature that engagement with literary fiction can induce empathy toward others. We suggest that the dream acts as a piece of fiction that can be explored by the dreamer together with other people, and can thus induce empathy about the life circumstances of the dreamer. We discuss the speculation that the story-like characteristics of adult human dreams may have been selected for in human evolution, including in sexual selection, as part of the selection for emotional intelligence, empathy, and social bonding.

  • 39.
    Hiltunen, Seppo
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Virta, Maarit
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Finland.
    Paavilainen, Petri
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    The effects of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions on the mismatch negativity in highly hypnotizable subjects2019Ingår i: International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 0020-7144, E-ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 192-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The neural mechanisms associated with hypnosis were investigated in a group of 9 high hypnotizable subjects by measuring the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory eventrelated potential (ERP). ERPs were recorded using a passive oddball paradigm to sinusoidal standard and deviant tone stimuli of 500 and 520 Hz, respectively, in four conditions: prehypnosis, neutral hypnosis, hypnotic suggestion for altering the tone perception, and posthypnotic conditions. Earlier studies have indicated that hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions might have an effect on MMN, but the results of our study contradict these results: No statistically significant differences were found between the conditions in the MMN amplitudes.

  • 40.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    The Future of Personalized Care: Scientific, Measurement, and Practical Advancements in Personality and Brain Disorders2019Ingår i: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa, Springer, 2019, 1, s. 269-281Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Person-centered care sciences are experiencing rapid progress. Personalization in care services is becoming the norm, and implementation from scientific knowledge is increasingly acknowledged and mandated. Advances in personality and brain disorder research are crucial in assisting the future development of personalized care.  

    Aim: We will attempt to present glimpses into the future of personalized care with support from frontline science, measurement, and practice, updating with input from personality genetics and measurement theory.

    Outline: We present three broad developments: 1) Scientific advancements in understanding how personality and genetics are central in predicting mental health and disorders, with the potential to increase predictive diagnosis and treatment validity 2) Measurement advancements with help of trait dimensions and latent structures, with the potential to increase reliability in assessing personalized care needs and functioning 3) Practical advancements in implementing a personalized approach in care services, with the potential to increase effectiveness and satisfaction with patients. We review this glimpse into the future by referencing key findings in personality and assessment meta-analyses, Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), and trait measurements in psychiatric disorders.

    Conclusion: Personalizing care services will benefit practitioners and patients. We suggest and recommend that personalized care diagnosis and treatment is the way forward, and that the future will be potentially revolutionized by incorporating the presented advancements in personality research and brain sciences.

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