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  • 201.
    Rambusch, Jana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    It's Not Just Hands: Embodiment Aspects in Gameplay2016Ingår i: Video Games and the Mind: Essays on Cognition, Affect and Emotion / [ed] Bernard Perron and Felix Schröter, McFarland, 2016, s. 71-86Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 202.
    Ramos Knudsen, Sofia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Correlates of Bilingual Language Control: Lifelong Bilingualism and its Mitigating Effects on Cognitive Decline2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Speaking a second language requires the ability to keep the two languages apart so that language interference can be avoided, allowing the target language to be used fluently. As such, cognitive control systems are used more extensively in bilinguals compared to monolinguals, a process referred to as bilingual language control (BLC). In the past few decades, the cognitive and structural effects of this lifelong language control experience have been of great interest among researchers within the field of cognitive neuroscience. The present thesis reviews current knowledge on the neural correlates of bilingual language control in high proficient bilingual speakers who actively use both languages in their everyday lives. Language proficiency and frequency of use are important aspects to consider since they both modulate brain activity and structure. Indeed, some studies fail to provide this information. Neuroimaging studies reveal consistent brain activity in a network of cortical and subcortical areas in bilingual speakers during non-verbal and verbal executive control tasks. These brain areas include the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), inferior parietal lobes (IPLs), basal ganglia (BG) and the cerebellum. Research also indicates that bilingualism serves as a protective variable against age-related cognitive decline. Studying the effects of lifelong bilingualism on the brain has therefore proven to be important since it can influence an individual’s ability to cope with age decline at a cognitive level. 

  • 203.
    Rasan, Imad
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Irakiska invandrares identitetsskapande i det svenska samhället2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Migranternas självidentitet förändras och omkonstrueras när de flyttar till ett nytt land. I denna kvalitativa studie ligger fokus på identitetskapande och förändringar hos irakiska invandrare i Sverige. Uppsatsen belyser de följande frågeställningarna utifrån socialpsykologiska teorier om självidentitet och förändringar: Vilken roll spelar sökande av arbete för migranternas identitetsskapande? Vilken roll spelar inlärning av ett nytt språk för identitetsförändringar och vilken inverkan har sociala nätverk med egna landsmän på irakiernas identitetsskapande och integrationsupplevelse? Uppsatsen bygger på semistrukturella intervjuer med 6 irakiska flyktingar bosatta i Sverige sedan 5-8 år tillbaka. Slutsatser dras om att irakierna har skapat en ny identitet som är bikulturell, dvs. de känner sig fortfarande som irakier, och samtidigt inkorporerar en del av den svenska kulturen och sociala normer i självet.

  • 204.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    et al.
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Kallen, Rachel W.
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Nalepka, Patrick
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Harrison, Steven J.
    School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, University of Nebraska Omaha, NE, USA.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Chemero, Anthony
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Saltzman, Elliot
    Department of Physical Therapy and Athletic Training, Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Boston University, MA, USA.
    Schmidt, Richard C.
    Department of Psychology, College of the Holy Cross, MA, USA.
    Modeling embedded interpersonal and multiagent coordination2016Ingår i: COMPLEXIS 2016 - Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Complex Information Systems / [ed] Víctor Méndez Muñoz, Oleg Gusikhin, Victor Chang, Setubal: SciTePress, 2016, s. 155-164Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interpersonal or multiagent coordination is a common part of everyday human activity. Identifying the dynamic processes that shape and constrain the complex, time-evolving patterns of multiagent behavioral coordination often requires the development of dynamical models to test hypotheses and motivate future research questions. Here we review a task dynamic framework for modeling multiagent behavior and illustrate the application of this framework using two examples. With an emphasis on synergistic self-organization, we demonstrate how the behavioral coordination that characterizes many social activities emerges naturally from the physical, informational, and biomechanical constraints and couplings that exist between two or more environmentally embedded and mutually responsive individuals.

  • 205.
    Roos, John M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. University of Gothenburg, Sweden / University West, Sweden.
    The Personality Map of Sweden2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The majority of research in this field has focused on cross-national comparisons, while less attention has been given to variations in personality traits within countries (Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015).

    More recently, regional personality differences have been mapped in both United States and Great Britain (Rentfrow, Gosling, Jokela, Stillwell, Kosinki & Potter, 2013; Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015). The aim of the present study is to map regional personality differences in Sweden.

    Using a representative sample of Swedish residents (N = 6154), we mapped the geographical distribution of the Big Five Personality traits across eight national areas (e.g. Stockholm, East Middle Sweden, South Småland and the Islands, South Sweden, West Sweden, North Middle Sweden, Middle Norrland and Upper Norrland).

    The result revealed statistically significant associations on national areas and the degree of agreeableness [F (7, 6154) = 4.63, p < .01, partial ƞ² =.005]. Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test, significant differences (p < .01) were found between South Sweden (M = 2.74) and the Upper Norrland (M = 2.93), and between South Sweden and North Middle Sweden (M = 2.88). Descriptive statistics illustrate a stepwise change toward higher degree of agreeableness, from the South of Sweden to the North of Sweden (Figure 1).

    The result revealed statistically significant associations on national areas and the degree of conscientiousness (F (7, 6164) = 2,51, p < .05, partial ƞ² =.003). Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test, significant (p < .05) differences were found only between Stockholm (M = 2.94) and the Upper Norrland (M = 3.06). 

    Insights about regional personality differences within a nation are useful, because such differences are associated with political, economic, social and health outcomes and thereby linked to a regions history, culture and ability to change.

  • 206.
    Roos, John Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering. Division of Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg / Centre for Consumer Research, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Business Administration and Textile Management, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Personality and E-shopping: Insights from a Nationally Representative Study2019Ingår i: Digital Transformation and Global Society: 4th International Conference, DTGS 2019, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 19–21, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Daniel A. Alexandrov, Alexander V. Boukhanovsky, Andrei V. Chugunov, Yury Kabanov, Olessia Koltsova, Ilya Musabirov, Cham: Springer, 2019, s. 257-267Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to previous research, a high degree of Openness and Neuroticism, and a low degree of Agreeableness are personality determinants of e-shopping. This study aims to explore the relationship between the Five-factor model of personality (i.e. Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism) and e-shopping in a Swedish context. In a nationally representative sample, a questionnaire was distributed to 3400 citizens. The response rate was 53 percentage (N = 1812). The questionnaire included measures of the Five-factor model of personality (BFI-ten) and e-shopping. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to test if the Five-factor model of personality predicted e-shopping. The dependent variable was self-reported frequencies of e-shopping during the last 12 months. The first analysis showed that Openness is predicting e-shopping. However, this effect disappeared, when age, educational attainment and income were controlled for. Our conclusion is that the Five-factor model of personality is a poor predictor of e-shopping and that e-shopping frequencies are unrelated to the personality of internet users. Methodological limitations are discussed, for instance the use of a single-item for measuring e-shopping and a short-scale for measuring personality. There are difficulties comparing our findings with previous findings, since the concepts personality and e-shopping have not been defined uniformly. The analyses revealed significant variation in definitions, measurements and methodologies. Caution should also be taken in generalizing the present results to other countries and other time periods. © 2019, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

  • 207.
    Roos, John Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Veryday, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. University College West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Non-verbal personality assessment with 10 cartoon-like portrayals2015Ingår i: ECPA 13th European Conference on Psychological Assessment, Zurich, July 22-25, 2015: Book of abstracts / [ed] Willibald Ruch, 2015, s. 78-79Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a non-verbal personality assessment that consists of 10 cartoon-like portrayals, one for each factor in the five-factor model of personality and their counterparts (i.e. open-minded, conscientious, extravert, agreeable, and neurotic; versus close-minded, impulsive, introvert, antagonistic, and emotionally stable). The assessment has been constructed in collaboration with graphic designers at an international top-ranking design and innovation agency, Veryday. Unlike existing personality assessments, this assessment is developed for interviews and combines the respondent´s perceived self and ideal self rather than only focusing on the ECPA13 Zurich 79 Paper Sessions respondent´s self-reported perceived self. The aim of the assessment is to provide insight into gaps that reside in incongruity between the respondent´s perceived self and ideal self and thereafter focusing the interview on how to bridge the gap(s). The portrayals have been validated through 156 undergraduate students at Stockholm University. The content validity was verified via tag clouds of top-of-mind words and the criterion validity was verified via the verbal assessment criterion, HP5i. The preliminary analyses are promising in terms of reshaping and adjusting established personality assessments into non-verbal tools for interview settings in therapy and user-studies. However, the assessment need to be further validated and discussed with experts in the field of psychological assessments.

  • 208.
    Roos, John Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Centre for Consumer Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Personality traits and Internet usage across generation cohorts: Insights from a nationally representative study2018Ingår i: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies examining the relationship between personality and Internet usage have usually used small and non-representative samples. In the present study, we examine the relationship between the Five Factor Model of Personality and Internet usage in a large nationally representative Swedish sample (N = 1694). Neuroticism was negatively associated with overall Internet usage, whereas extraversion and openness to experience were shown to be positively associated with overall Internet usage. However, exploring these associations across categories of Internet usage and generation cohorts revealed some other interesting patterns. Specifically, neuroticism was negatively associated with using the Internet for activities relating to information and duties but not for leisure and social activities. Extraversion was positively associated with using the Internet for leisure and social activities among DotNets (born 1977–1999), whereas among Dutifuls (born 1910–1945) and Baby Boomers (born 1946–1964) extraversion was positively associated with using the Internet for information and duty activities. Openness to experience was positively associated with Internet usage but only among Baby Boomers. Conscientiousness was a significant predictor of Internet usage only for DotNets and GenXers (born 1965–1976). In these cohorts, conscientiousness was positively associated with using the Internet for information and duty activities but negatively associated with using the Internet for leisure and social activities. Apparently, understanding the relationship between personality and Internet usage is not possible without considering the modifying role of categories of Internet usage and generation cohorts. The implications of the results for theory and practice are discussed in detail.

  • 209.
    Roos, Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The winner takes IT all: Swedish digital divides in global internet usage2018Ingår i: Digital Transformation and Global Society / [ed] Daniel A. Alexandrov, Alexander V. Boukhanovsky, Andrei V. Chugunov, Yury Kabanov, Olessia Koltsova, Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 859, s. 3-18Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we examined the influence of personality factors and demographic factors on Internet usage. Personality was defined from the Five Factor Model of personality in terms of Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism, while demographic factors were defined as gender, age and socioeconomic status (e.g. income and educational attainment). The results from a large, representative Swedish sample (N = 1,694) show that global Internet usage can be explained by a high degree of Extraversion, young age and high socioeconomic status. Our findings are consistent with some previous studies, but in contrast with others. We discuss contrasting results in terms of different study designs, cultures and time periods of Internet development. The results are discussed in terms of the “rich get richer model” and digital divides, and what broader implication our findings might have for society. The study may help facilitate our understanding regarding future challenges in the Internet design. 

  • 210.
    Roos, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Centre for Consumer Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Business Administration and Textile Management, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Sweden.
    Expert validity on non-verbal personality characters2017Ingår i: 14th Conference on Psychological Assessment, July 5-8, 2017, Lisbon, Portugal: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Paula Ferreira, Aristides Ferreira, Inês Afonso, & Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, Lisbon: Faculty of Psychology of the University of Lisbon , 2017, s. 81-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 211.
    Roos, Magnus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Mapping the Relationship between Personality and Electronic Commerce in a Representative Swedish sample2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: According to previous research, a high degree of Openness and Neuroticism, and a low degree of Agreeableness are personality determinants of online shopping. This study aims to explore the relationship between the five factor model of personality and online shopping in a Swedish context.

    Methods: 5238 individuals in a representative sample of the Swedish population responded to a survey including measures of the five personality factors (HP5i, 15 items) and online shopping. (3686 individuals were included in the analysis).

    Results: A logistic regression analysis was conducted to test if personality factors (ranging from 1 = completely disagree to 4 = completely agree) predicted online shopping. The dependent variable was buying online at least one time per month. Gender, age and monthly income were control variables. Our findings indicated that online shopping was significantly (p < .05) associated with a high degree of Openness (e.g. open to feelings/emotions) and high degree of Extraversion (e.g. positive emotional experiences).

    Discussion and Conclusion: People high on Openness might like to shop online because online shopping offers them an adventure, variety and new ideas. People high on extraversion might be motivated to purchase online for their need of excitability. The findings propose that online shopping primarily is triggered by emotions and affect rather than reasoning and cognition.

  • 212.
    Rosén, Julia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Towards Understanding Social Robots2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging research field of human-robot interaction (HRI) has grown increasingly popular as social robots are being introduced to the general public with applications such as elderly care, companionship, or therapy. With researchers with multidisciplinary backgrounds from e.g. psychology, cognitive science, computer science, how HRI is chosen to be framed is still discussed. My research aims to gain a deeper knowledge of how humans interpret and understand social robots. When interacting with social robots, humans tend to prescribe more intelligence than what the robot is actually capable of. Due to this expectation from the humans, one may fill in a gap between what humans prescribe in social robots and what they actually can do. People’s expectations of robots and other agents has been previously addressed in different ways, e.g. in research on anthropomorphism, intentional stance, and autonomy. My aim is to address this in social robots and look at the different levels when this occurs. My first approach involves how humans respond to robots on a low level cognitive function, namely anticipatory gaze. Previous research has shown that humans have anticipatory gaze when observing another human move objects with their hands. This ties into the direct-matching hypothesis: human’s understand another human’s action by mapping it to their own motor representation of that action. Preliminary research has shown that this is also possible if the hand performing the action is a social robot. Although the social robot has no agency, humans tend to fill in this intelligence in the robot and thus eliciting anticipatory gaze. Another more explicit way of deepening the knowledge of this topic, is how human’s describe and react to an interaction with social robots. Because social robots are such a new artefact, most humans are not used to interacting with them and yet they tend to have preconceived notions of what they are capable of. I ask, how are humans actually interacting with robots and how are they influenced by these preconceived notions? Furthermore, what responsibility to we have a researchers towards participants when exposing them to social robots? Are we deceiving participants when we are not transparent with what the robot is actually capable of? There is a need to understand this further in HRI in order to continue with the important research that is being done in this field.

  • 213.
    Rydh, Mathias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Using the Brain to Help Rehabilitate the Body: Factors which can Affect Injury Rehabilitation Outcome2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity can be beneficial to both physical and mental health, but can also lead to injuries. While injury rehabilitation through physical therapy is mostly focused on physical exercise, there are also other factors, which may influence rehabilitation outcome. The factorsreviewed are: rehabilitation adherence, mindfulness meditation, mental imagery, action observation, self-talk, goal-setting and social support. This essay investigates the neural correlates of these factors, as well as how they can affect rehabilitation outcome and wellbeing, to a lesser degree, during rehabilitation. Among the effects found are performance enhancement, increased self-efficacy, increased pain tolerance, increased motivation and reduced strength loss. Suggestions for future research is also provided.

  • 214.
    Saari, Pauli
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Intrinsic Motivation: Psychological and Neuroscientific Perspectives2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to give an overview of the topic of intrinsic motivation based on psychological an neuroimaging research. More specifically, the objective is to give an overview of the various benefits of intrinsic motivation, discuss its relationship to extrinsic rewards, and review the existing neuroimaging research that has explicitly explored intrinsic motivatoin. A positive relationship betweeen intrinsic motivation and persistence, conceptual learning, creativity, and both hedonic and eudaimonic well-being has been demonstrated. A wealth of studies has shown that extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation, while the validity of these findings has been debated. Initial neuroimaging studies concerning the neural basis of intrinsic motivation have been conducted, showing unique activations in the intrinsic motivation conditions in e.g. the anterior precuneus and the right insular cortex. Conceptual and methodological problems have been discussed, and it is suggested that the neuroscientific findings mentioned above can be interpreted in terms of the neural distinction between wanting and liking, rather than in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and that psychological research can draw on neuroscientific findings in order to make its research more precise.

  • 215.
    Sadeghi-Tari, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Socio-Affective Moral Enhancement: A Cognitive Neuroscientific Perspective2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 216.
    Sakko, Christopher
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Hur spelare tar sig an olika typer av moraliska val2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur bemöter spelare moraliska val i spel? Beror det på psykologiska fördomar? Att alltid vilja göra det ”rätta” valet? Skiljer de på moral i spel och moral i verkligheten? Det kan vara flera olika faktorer som påverkar. Studien tittade på tidigare undersökningar och teorier relaterade till ämnet som visade på att spelare oftast vill göra det ”rätta” valet och att faktorer som skuld och skada är de viktigaste faktorerna som påverkar hur spelare tar ett moraliskt beslut. Syftet med denna undersökning var att ta reda på hur spelvana personer resonerar när de ställs inför olika moraliska problem. För att testa denna problemformulering skapade jag en artefakt som innehöll fem olika moraliska problem. Artefakten skapades i Twine; ett verktyg för att skriva icke-linjära berättelser. De sju spelvana respondenterna fyllde sedan i en enkät och svarade på vilka val de gjorde och varför. Resultaten bekräftade mycket av det den tidigare forskningen kommit fram till och visade att respondenterna oftast följer sin egna moraliska kompass i spel som erbjuder moraliska val. Skuld och skada var de faktorer som mest påverkade hur respondenterna gjorde sina val vilket bekräftar det tidigare forskning sagt. De är också fullt medvetna om att valen de gör sker inom en fiktiv värld och hade inga problem med att skilja moral i spel från moral i verkligheten. Resultaten visar även att de följer någon form av konsekvensetik. Framtida arbeten kan genomföra studien med intervjuer istället för enkäter då det blir enklare att kunna följa upp på en respondents svar och ställa relevanta följdfrågor. Undersökningens olika faktorer såsom deltagare, yrke och intressen kan enkelt bytas ut för att kunna forska kring andra grupper av personer relaterade till moral i spel.

  • 217.
    Saldner, Madeleine
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Rummet utanför staden: om individens upplevelse av Självet och interaktionen i en ickeverbal miljö på en retreatgård ur ett symboliskt interaktionistiskt perspektiv.2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att beskriva och förstå hur interaktion uppkommer och formas, hur individerna upplever interaktionen samt sitt Jag i en ickeverbal miljö. För att uppnå uppsatsens syfte är den övergripande frågeställningen: hur kan vi ur ett symboliskt interaktionistiskt perspektiv förstå hur interaktionen uppkommer och formas i en ickeverbal retreatmiljö samt hur deltagarna upplever sitt Själv och interaktionen, interaktionens uppkomst och formande i en ickeverbalmiljö på en retreatgård? För att empiriskt besvara dessa frågor gjordes kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer och därtill har två mindre deskriptiva och i viss mån tolkande observationer genomförts. Den empiri som framkom har analyserats med hjälp av Mead (1979), Goffman (1959) och Berg (1992). Studienvisar på att individen i den ickeverbala situationen upplever sig gå in i sitt Själv och erfara en reflektionsprocess som bidrar till utveckling och nyorientering. I den ickeverbala interaktionen pågår ett flöde av gester och en symboliseringsprocess varigenom en del interaktion upplevs som signifikant och andra delar som mycket ovissa då feedback inte förekommer som i den verbala interaktionen. I retreaten upplevs en stark och speciell gemenskap bland deltagarna.

  • 218.
    Samrani, George
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute / Stockholm University.
    Marklund, Petter
    Stockholm University.
    Engström, Lisa
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Broman, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Dalarna University.
    Persson, Jonas
    Karolinska Institute / Stockholm University.
    Behavioral facilitation and increased brain responses from a high interference working memory context2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 15308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many real-life situations require flexible behavior in changing environments. Evidence suggests that anticipation of conflict or task difficulty results in behavioral and neural allocation of task-relevant resources. Here we used a high- and low-interference version of an item-recognition task to examine the neurobehavioral underpinnings of context-sensitive adjustment in working memory (WM). We hypothesized that task environments that included high-interference trials would require participants to allocate neurocognitive resources to adjust to the more demanding task context. The results of two independent behavioral experiments showed enhanced WM performance in the high-interference context, which indicated that a high-interference context improves performance on non-interference trials. A third behavioral experiment showed that when WM load was increased, this effect was no longer significant. Neuroimaging results further showed greater engagement of inferior frontal gyrus, striatum, parietal cortex, hippocampus, and midbrain in participants performing the task in the high- than in the low-interference context. This effect could arise from an active or dormant mode of anticipation that seems to engage fronto-striatal and midbrain regions to flexibly adjust resources to task demands. Our results extend the model of conflict adaptation beyond trial-to-trial adjustments by showing that a high interference context affects both behavioral and biological aspects of cognition.

  • 219.
    Sandman, Nils
    et al.
    Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Psychology and Speech Language Pathology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Merikanto, Ilona
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Määttänen, Hanna
    Department of Psychology and Speech Language Pathology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech Language Pathology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kronholm, Erkki
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland / Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland / Hospital District of North Karelia, Joensuu, Finland .
    Partonen, Timo
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Paunio, Tiina
    Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Winter is coming: nightmares and sleep problems during seasonal affective disorder2016Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 612-619Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep problems, especially nightmares and insomnia, often accompany depression. This study investigated how nightmares, symptoms of insomnia, chronotype and sleep duration associate with seasonal affective disorder, a special form of depression. Additionally, it was noted how latitude, a proxy for photoperiod, and characteristics of the place of residence affect the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder and sleep problems. To study these questions, data from FINRISK 2012 study were used. FINRISK 2012 consists of a random population sample of Finnish adults aged 25–74 years (n = 4905) collected during winter from Finnish urban and rural areas spanning the latitudes of 60°N to 66°N. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire was used to assess symptoms of seasonal affective disorder. Participants with symptoms of seasonal affective disorder had significantly increased odds of experiencing frequent nightmares and symptoms of insomnia, and they were more often evening chronotypes. Associations between latitude, population size and urbanicity with seasonal affective disorder symptoms and sleep disturbances were generally not significant, although participants living in areas bordering urban centres had less sleep problems than participants from other regions. These data show that the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder was not affected by latitude. 

  • 220.
    Sandman, Nils
    et al.
    Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland / Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Kronholm, Erkki
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Turku, Finland.
    Vartiainen, Erkki
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland / Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland / Hospital District of North Karelia, Finland.
    Paunio, Tiina
    Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland / Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland.
    Nightmares as predictors of suicide: an extension study including war veterans2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 44756Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nightmares are intensive dreams with negative emotional tone. Frequent nightmares can pose a serious clinical problem and in 2001, Tanskanen et al. found that nightmares increase the risk of suicide. However, the dataset used by these authors included war veterans in whom nightmare frequency -and possibly also suicide risk -is elevated. Therefore, re-examination of the association between nightmares and suicide in these data is warranted. We investigated the relationship between nightmares and suicide both in the general population and war veterans in Finnish National FINRISK Study from the years 1972 to 2012, a dataset overlapping with the one used in the study by Tanskanen et al. Our data comprise 71,068 participants of whom 3139 are war veterans. Participants were followed from their survey participation until the end of 2014 or death. Suicides (N = 398) were identified from the National Causes of Death Register. Frequent nightmares increase the risk of suicide: The result of Tanskanen et al. holds even when war experiences are controlled for. Actually nightmares are not significantly associated with suicides among war veterans. These results support the role of nightmares as an independent risk factor for suicide instead of just being proxy for history of traumatic experiences.

  • 221.
    Sellberg, Charlott
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    A comparative theoretical and empirical analysis of three methods for workplace studies2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace studies in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is a research field that has expanded in an explosive way during the recent years. Today there is a wide range of theoretical approaches and methods to choose from, which makes it problematic to make methodological choices both in research and system design. While there have been several studies that assess the different approaches to workplace studies, there seems to be a lack of studies that explore the theoretical and methodological differences between more structured methods within the research field. In this thesis, a comparative theoretical and empirical analysis of three methods for workplace studies is being conducted to deal with the following research problem: What level of theoretical depth and methodological structure is appropriate when conducting methods for workplace studies to inform design of complex socio-technical systems? When using the two criterions descriptive power and application power, to assess Contextual Design (CD), Determining Information Flow Breakdown (DIB), and Capturing Semi-Automated Decision-Making (CASADEMA), important lessons are learned about which methods are acceptable and useful when the purpose is to inform system design.

  • 222.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Dream affect: Conceptual and Methodological Issues in the Study of Emotions and Moods Experienced in Dreams2020Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We experience affect—emotions and mood—not only when we are awake but alsoduring dreaming. Despite considerable research, existing theories and empiricalfindings disagree about the frequency, nature, and correlates of dream affect. In thisthesis, I discuss the conceptual and methodological issues that underlie thesediscrepancies. I present five empirical studies, the overall aim of which was toinvestigate the phenomenology and correlates of dream affect and how resultsregarding these are influenced by study methodology. Studies I–III focusedspecifically on methodological issues, by comparing self- and external ratings ofdream affect (Studies I–II) or the affective content of home and laboratory dreamreports (Study III). Studies IV and V investigated the waking well-being and neuralcorrelates of dream affect, respectively. These studies show that results andconclusions regarding dream affect are very different, even contradictory, dependingon whether dream reports have been collected using sleep laboratory awakenings orhome dream diaries (Study III) or whether dream affect has been measured usingself- or external ratings (Studies I–II). Self- and external ratings of dream affect arealso differently correlated with waking well-being (Study IV). Together, theseresults caution against making broad generalizations about affective dreamexperiences from findings obtained with one type of methodology only. The studiesalso demonstrate that dream affect is related to aspects of waking well-being and illbeing(Study IV) and that certain affective states experienced in dreams, specificallyanger, rely on similar neural processes as in wakefulness (Study V). These findingssuggest that the phenomenology and neural correlates of affective experiences are,at least to some extent, continuous across sleep and wakefulness. Overall, this thesisshows how the conceptual and methodological issues in the study of dream affectmay limit the validity, generalizability, and replicability of findings and,consequently, pose challenges to theory building and theory testing. It contributes todream research by highlighting the need, and suggesting ways, to enhance theconceptual clarity and methodological rigour of research on dream affect. Due to theinterdisciplinary nature of the thesis, the theoretical discussion and novel empiricalfindings also have implications for emotion research, sleep research, well-beingresearch, consciousness research, and affective neuroscience.

  • 223.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    How to Study Dream Experiences2019Ingår i: Dreams: Understanding Biology, Psychology, and Culture Volume 1 / [ed] Robert J. Hoss, Katja Valli, Robert P. Gongloff, Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, an Imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC , 2019, 1, s. 153-166Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the scientific study of dreams, as in the scientific study of any other topic, it is important to first clearly define the phenomenon one is investigating. The definition determines what exactly is being studied. Then, the methods for collecting and analyzing data regarding this phenomenon need to be chosen. These methods determine what kind of results are obtained, to what extent the results reflect the phenomenon of interest, and whether the results can be trusted. This chapter gives an overview of how dream experiences are scientifically studied: how dreams and dreaming are defined, what kinds of methods are used to collect and analyze dream data, and what aspects need to be considered when conducting and reading studies that investigate dream experiences (see also Kahan & Horton, 2012, and Zadra & Domhoff, 2017).

  • 224.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Feilhauer, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    How You Measure Is What You Get: Differences in Self- and External Ratings of Emotional Experiences in Home Dreams2017Ingår i: American Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0002-9556, E-ISSN 1939-8298, Vol. 130, nr 3, s. 367-384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates that different methods for measuring emotional experiences in dreams — self-ratings of dreams using emotion rating scales versus external ratings in the form of content analysis of narrative dream reports — can lead to strikingly different results and contradicting conclusions about the emotional content of home dreams. During 3 consecutive weeks, every morning upon awakening, 44 participants (16 men, 28 women, average age 26.9± 5.1 years) reported their dreams and rated their emotional experiences in those dreams using the modified Differential Emotions Scale. Two external judges rated emotional experiences inthe same 552 (M = 12.55 ± 5.72) home dream reports using the same scale. Comparison of the 2 methods showed that with self-ratings dreams were rated as more emotional and more positive than with external ratings. Moreover, whereas with self-ratings the majority of dreams was rated as positively valenced, with external ratings the majority of dream reports was rated as negatively valenced. Although self- and external ratings converge, at least partially, in the measurement of negative emotional experiences, they diverge greatly in the measurement of positive emotional experiences. On one hand, this discrepancy may result from different biases inherent in the 2 measurement methods highlighting the need to develop better methods for measuring emotional experiences. On the other hand, self- and external ratings may capture different phenomena and should thus be considered complementary and used concurrently. Nevertheless, results suggest that negative emotional experiences can be measured in a more valid and reliable manner than positive emotional experiences.

  • 225.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Noreika, Valdas
    Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, UK.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    EEG Frontal Alpha Asymmetry and Dream Affect: Alpha Oscillations Over the Right Frontal Cortex During REM Sleep and Pre-Sleep Wakefulness Predict Anger in REM Sleep Dreams2019Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 39, nr 24, s. 4775-4784, artikel-id 2884-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective experiences are central not only to our waking life but also to rapid eye movement(REM) sleep dreams. Despite our increasing understanding of the neural correlates of dreaming, we know little about the neural correlates of dream affect. Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) is considered a marker of affective states and traits as well as affect regulation in the waking state. Here, we explored whether FAA during REM sleep and during evening resting wakefulness is related to affective experiences in REM sleep dreams. EEG recordings were obtained from 17humanparticipants (7men)whospent 2 nights in the sleep laboratory. Participants were awakened 5minafter the onset of everyREMstage after which they provided a dream report and rated their dream affect. Two-minute preawakening EEG segments were analyzed. Additionally, 8 min of evening presleep and morning postsleep EEG were recorded during resting wakefulness. Mean spectral power in the alpha band (8 –13 Hz and correspondingFAAwere calculated over the frontal (F4-F3) sites. Results showed that FAA during REM sleep, and during evening resting wakefulness, predicted ratings of dream anger. This suggests that individuals with greater alpha power in the right frontal hemisphere may be less able to regulate (i.e., inhibit) strong affective states, such as anger, in dreams. Additionally, FAA was positively correlated across wakefulness and REM sleep. Together, these findings imply that FAA may serve as a neural correlate of affect regulation not only in the waking but also in the dreaming state.

  • 226.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Sandman, Nils
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / The Genomics and Biomarkers Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Dream emotions: a comparison of home dream reports with laboratory early and late REM dream reports2018Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 206-214Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the emotional content of dream reports collected at home upon morning awakenings with those collectedin the laboratory upon early and late rapid eye movement (REM) sleep awakenings. Eighteen adults (11 women, seven men; mean age = 25.89 ± 4.85) wrote down their home dreams every morning immediately upon awakening during a 7-day period. Participants also spent two non-consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory where they were awoken 5 min into each continuous REM sleep stage, upon which they gave a verbal dream report. The content of a total of 151 home and 120 laboratory dream reports was analysed by two blind judges using the modified Differential Emotions Scale. It was found that: (1) home dream reports were more emotional than laboratory early REM dream reports, but not more emotional than laboratory late REM dream reports; (2) home dream reports contained a higher density of emotions than laboratory (early or late REM) dream reports; and (3) home dream reports were more negative than laboratory dream reports, but differences between home and early REM reports were larger than those between home and late REM reports. The results suggest that differences between home and laboratory dream reports in overall emotionality may be due to the time of night effect. Whether differences in the density of emotions and negative emotionality are due to sleep environment or due to different reporting procedures and time spent in a sleep stage, respectively, remains to be determined in future studies.

  • 227.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Methodological Issues in Measuring Dream Emotions2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions are central in dreams, specifically in rapid eye movement sleep dreams. Despite a wealth of research on the emotional content of dreams, there is little consensus about the overall emotionality and predominant valence of dreams or about the prevailing specific emotions in dreams. Previous contradictory findings are arguably due to unresolved methodological issues. However, studies that have directly investigated these methodological issues are scarce. In this presentation three studies that investigated the effect of study methodology on the frequency, valence and phenomenological content of dream emotions are discussed. The studies demonstrate that the use of different methods for rating dream emotions (participants who experience the dream vs external judges who analysed the respective dream report) and for collecting dream reports (home vs laboratory setting) leads to very different results and conclusions about the emotional content of dreams. As such, these studies highlight the importance of carefully considering study methodology when conducting and interpreting dream (emotional) content studies.

  • 228.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Virta, Tiina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    I know how you felt last night, or do I?: Self- and external ratings of emotions in REM dreams2014Ingår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 25, s. 51-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether inconsistencies in previous studies regarding emotional experiencesin dreams derive from whether dream emotions are self-rated or externally evaluated.Seventeen subjects were monitored with polysomnography in the sleep laboratoryand awakened from every rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage 5 min after the onsetof the stage. Upon awakening, participants gave an oral dream report and rated their dreamemotions using the modified Differential Emotions Scale, whereas external judges rated theparticipants’ emotions expressed in the dream reports, using the same scale. The twoapproaches produced diverging results. Self-ratings, as compared to external ratings,resulted in greater estimates of (a) emotional dreams; (b) positively valenced dreams;(c) positive and negative emotions per dream; and (d) various discrete emotions representedin dreams. The results suggest that this is mostly due to the underrepresentationof positive emotions in dream reports. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  • 229.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Virta, Tiina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Subjective and objective measures of affective states in REM sleep dreams2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 230. Silfwerflycht Leth, Maria
    Situation hemlös: En studie hur hemlöshet påverkar identitetsskapandet2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med studien var att få ökad förståelse för hur människor som definieras hemlösa i det svenska samhället, försöker skapa sig en positiv självkänsla och identitet. Jag har utifrån mina forskningsfrågor försökt besvarat mitt syfte. Genom kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer och observationer har jag intervjuat två personer i situationen hemlös samt tre personer som arbetar med hemlösa och har kunskaper om hemlösa personer i situationen hemlös. Situation hemlös, tolkar jag med hjälp av symbolisk interaktionism som utgör en teoretisk referensram. Identitet, thomasteoremet, generaliserade andra, och stämplingsteorierna har avgörande betydelse för analysen av empiriska data. Från studien framkommer det en viss skillnad mellan hur personerna i situationen hemlöshet upplever sin självkänsla och identitet. Boendeformerna som myndigheterna erbjuder passar inte kvinnor utan är ”formade” utifrån männens behov. Slutsatserna jag drar är att alla jag intervjuat bekräftar att det inte finns något boende alternativ för de hemlösa som inte vill anpassa sig efter myndigheternas regler och krav. De hemlösa har tappat tillitet och tilltron till myndigheterna. De hemlösa betraktas som avvikande men de använder sig av olika strategier för att bibehålla sin positiva självkänsla och identitet.

  • 231.
    Sobis, Iwona
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    de Vries, M S
    The politics behind aiding administrative reform: Swedish politicians’ views on the technical assistance to CEE countries during their transition process2008Ingår i: Leadership and management in the public sector: Values, Standards and Competencies in Central and Eastern Europe, NISPASee , 2008, s. 133-162Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 232.
    Stendahl, Isabella
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    THE POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC VALUE OF PSILOCYBIN: In Relation to Depression2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is one of the most disabling and prevalent mental disorders, which causes excessive feelings of sadness and despair. Unfortunately, there are a substantial number of patients that do not respond well to conventional interventions and new approaches are therefore needed. Recent studies have revealed that psilocybin can effectively reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety, particularly when combined with psychological support. It has been further suggested that psilocybin can reduce symptoms of alcohol abuse, cluster headaches and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results have shown that psilocybin can give long-lasting beneficial changes in mood, behavior, values, and attitudes. Psilocybin enables creative thinking and increases emotional access, which seems suitable for therapeutic implications. Neuroimaging studies have shown that psilocybin alters similar neural networks to those in depressed patients, in particular: the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and the amygdala. The mechanisms behind the clinical improvements are still poorly understood. Using psilocybin for clinical purposes is controversial since it is categorized as a Schedule I substance, although the drug is not physically addictive nor harmful and has low abuse potential. Recent studies have demonstrated that psilocybin has clinical potential and is safe to use in supervised settings.

  • 233.
    Stigen, Lotta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Batista, Ana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Mobbning: en del av sjuksköterskors vardag?2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Vuxenmobbning är ett allvarligt problem på många arbetsplatser. Mot bakgrund av att fenomenet är ett av de största psykosociala arbetsmiljöproblem som vi står inför idag, bör det uppmärksammas. Syftet med studien är att titta på relationen mellan mobbning, makt och organisationsstatus inom vården. Fokus ligger på mobbningens förekomst, toleransen gentemot fenomenet och dess konsekvenser. Frågeställningarna besvarades via en enkätstudie som genomfördes av 133 verksamma sjuksköterskor i Västra Götalands län. Resultatet visade att en majoritet av respondenterna hade liten eller ingen erfarenhet av mobbning på sin arbetsplats. Mobbning tolereras inte oavsett förövare och flertalet sjuksköterskor var överrens om att mobbning leder till mycket allvarliga konsekvenser.

  • 234.
    Susi, Tarja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Embodied interaction, coordination and reasoning in computer gameplay2014Ingår i: The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition / [ed] Lawrence Shapiro, New York: Routledge, 2014, s. 184-193Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodied cognition has received increasing interest, as seen in research on the many subjects ranging from sensorimotor processes to cultural aspects (e.g., Clark 2011; Gibbs 2005; Robbins & Aydede 2009/Eds.; Shapiro 2011). There is no one unified conception of the mind, but a general claim is that cognition is grounded in bodily experiences and is distributed across brain, body and environment (e.g., Clark 1997; 2011). Cognition is a complex phenomenon, and as stated by Gibbs (2005: 9), it is “what occurs when the body engages the physical, cultural world and [it] must be studied in terms of the dynamical interactions between people and the environment”. This chapter will discuss embodied interaction, coordination and reasoning in computer gameplay, and the construction of a cooperative two player computer game to accord with the embodied nature of cognition and action. The computer game discussed here, “The search for the gold reserve”, was developed specifically to be installed as an integral part of an adventure tour in a military fortress. The game was constructed so that players’ whole bodies would be engaged in the gameplay, thereby enhancing the gameplay experience. Playing the game is an “embodied practical activity” (O’Connor & Glenberg 2003) comprising a mesh of interrelations between the player’s own body, co-players, the players’ cognitions, game devices and the physical context of game play, virtual environment and socio-cultural aspects. […] The discussion will bring out sensori-motoric, contextual and socio-cultural aspects of embodiment, as embodiment concurrently cuts across the different aspects. Sensori-motoric aspects are mainly discussed in relation to the game’s input/output devices, and the intercoupling between players and the game. Contextual aspects are brought forth by the game environment and the game’s relation to the whole adventure tour, and socio-cultural aspects come to the fore through players cooperative problem solving.

  • 235.
    Svedberg, Emma
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Systerskap, ledarskap, gemenskap.: En studie om unga kvinnor och upplevelsen av att vara ledare.2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Studien bygger på semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer med 14 tjejer som går på Porthälla gymnasium i Partille kommun och som läsåret 2008-2009 var med i organisationen Systerskap. Systerskap är ett samverkansprojekt mellan Ungdomsmottagningen i Partille kommun, högstadieskolorna i Partille kommun och Porthälla gymnasium med syfte att stärka unga tjejer genom att de får komma samma i grupp och utvecklas och samarbeta. Gymnasietjejerna leder i par en tjejgrupp med högstadietjejer på ca 10 deltagare och har träffar där relevanta ämnen för de yngre tjejerna tas upp. Huvudsyftet med studien är att fånga tjejgruppsledarnas upplevelse av att vara unga kvinnliga ledare men även hur de upplevde sitt delade ledarskap. Jag har i detta arbete använt mig av det socialkonstruktionistiska perspektivet och även begrepp som in-grupp/ut-grupp, Thomasteoremet, den generaliserade andre, självuppfyllande profetia och tre olika ledarskapsteorier som situationsanpassat ledarskap, transformativt ledarskap och egenskapssynsättet. Det huvudsakliga resultatet i studien är att projekt som Systerskap är till gagn, både för de yngre tjejerna som är gruppdeltagare och för de gymnasietjejer som är ledare för grupperna, då både de yngre och äldre tjejerna fick bättre självförtroende efter tiden i Systerskap. Ytterligare en slutsats är att Systerskapstjejerna inte såg någon större skillnad på manligt och kvinnligt ledarskap. För dem var det personliga faktorer och ålder som spelade in mest i hur man är som ledare, inte kön.

  • 236.
    Svenning, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Impetuous Voice of Reason: Emotion versus reason in moral decision-making2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a review of what the currently dominant theories of moral decision-making are and where they derive from. While the introduction serves as a common ground to explain what moral decision-making is, the earlier parts of the thesis describe older traditionalist theories within the field,  theories of emotional decision-making, in the form of the somatic marker hypothesis, as well as critique of the older traditionalist theories through the social intuitionist model. Both of these two theories are explained as the foundation of the current theories of moral decision-making and after establishing a clear basis on what the currently dominant theories of moral decision-making are built on, said theories are introduced in the form of the dual-processing theory and the event-feature-emotion complexes which are thoroughly reviewed, explained in detail and serves as the core of the text. This is afterward followed by criticism as well as arguments in favor of both theories as well as criticisms from other researchers who disagree with the methodology which the theories of moral decision-making are conducted on. The essay reviews the current state of the field of moral decision-making which has been split up into two different approaches, the locationist approach and the constructionist approach. The essay concludes that there are terms which needs to be clarified in order for the field to move forward and studies to be made regarding the social implications of gut reactions in moral decision-making.

  • 237.
    Tagliabue, Semira
    et al.
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Psychology Department, Brescia, Italy.
    Olivari, Maria Giulia
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Psychology Department, CRIdee, Milano, Italy.
    Antonopoulou, K.
    Harokopio University of Athens, Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Athens, Greece .
    Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Confalonieri, Emanuela
    Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Psychology Department, CRIdee, Milano, Italy.
    Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy, and Greece: Adolescents' Perspective2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 238.
    Tagliabue, Semira
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Brescia, Italy.
    Olivari, Maria Giulia
    CRIdee, Department of Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano, Italy.
    Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina
    Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
    Antonopoulou, Katerina
    Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
    Confalonieri, Emanuela
    CRIdee, Department of Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano, Italy.
    Retrospective Paternal and Maternal Parenting Styles in Greece, Italy, and Sweden2018Ingår i: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 399-408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. Discrepancies in perceived parenting and parental roles across European countries could be due to the use of different assessment techniques or due to mean level differences in the authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive parenting styles. The present study aimed to examine the psychometric characteristics of the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ; Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart, 1995, 2001) in a sample of 225 Greek, 301 Italian, and 279 Swedish adolescents aged 16?19 years, who evaluated their father?s and mother?s parenting styles during their childhood. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), multigroup CFA, and modified version of the correlated uniqueness model were used to evaluate the structure and invariance of the scale across countries. Measurement and structural invariance was found in the 8-item authoritative scale and 6-item authoritarian scale. A mixed ANOVA (Country ? Style ? Role) showed that Swedish mothers scored lower than Italian or Greek mothers, and that, in the three countries, mothers were perceived as more authoritative than were fathers.

  • 239.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Duran, BorisHögskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.Hemeren, PaulHögskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Social signals in action recognition and intention understanding2013Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 240.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lebram, Mikael
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Hemeren, Paul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Habibovic, Azra
    Research Institutes of Sweden, RISE Viktoria, Lindholmen Science Park, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    Research Institutes of Sweden, RISE Viktoria, Lindholmen Science Park, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Driver adherence to recommendations from support systems improves if the systems explain why they are given: A simulator study2018Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 56, s. 420-435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a large-scale simulator study on driver adherence to recommendationsgiven by driver support systems, specifically eco-driving support and navigation support.123 participants took part in this study, and drove a vehicle simulator through a pre-defined environment for a duration of approximately 10 min. Depending on the experi-mental condition, participants were either given no eco-driving recommendations, or asystem whose provided support was either basic (recommendations were given in theform of an icon displayed in a manner that simulates a heads-up display) or informative(the system additionally displayed a line of text justifying its recommendations). A naviga-tion system that likewise provided either basic or informative support, depending on thecondition, was also provided.

    Effects are measured in terms of estimated simulated fuel savings as well as engine brak-ing/coasting behaviour and gear change efficiency. Results indicate improvements in allvariables. In particular, participants who had the support of an eco-driving system spenta significantly higher proportion of the time coasting. Participants also changed gears atlower engine RPM when using an eco-driving support system, and significantly more sowhen the system provided justifications. Overall, the results support the notion that pro-viding reasons why a support system puts forward a certain recommendation improvesadherence to it over mere presentation of the recommendation.

    Finally, results indicate that participants’ driving style was less eco-friendly if the navi-gation system provided justifications but the eco-system did not. This may be due to par-ticipants considering the two systems as one whole rather than separate entities withindividual merits. This has implications for how to design and evaluate a given driver sup-port system since its effectiveness may depend on the performance of other systems in thevehicle.

  • 241.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Twomey, Katherine E.
    Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, United Kingdom.
    What's on the inside counts: A grounded account of concept acquisition and development2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, s. 1-11, artikel-id 402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 242.
    Thorner, Annika
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Mot en ökad förståelse för datorstödets inverkan på den psykosociala arbetsmiljön: UDIPA - ett nytt utvärderingsverktyg2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användningen av datorer i arbetet har blivit en allt vanligare företeelse på arbetsplatsen, och för anställda på till exempel callcenter är datorer ett oumbärligt inslag i arbetssituationen. Med tekniken följer dock inte enbart fördelar; användningen av datorstöd kan även leda till kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem och stress och ha en märkbart negativ inverkan på den psykosociala arbetsmiljön. Genom teoretisk genomgång och kvalitativa intervjuer med arbetsmiljökunniga konstateras dock att det saknas bra utvärderingsverktyg för att uppmärksamma denna typ avproblem. En arbetsplatsstudie på ett callcenter används för att visa på hur användningen av datorstöd kan inverka negativt på den psykosociala arbetsmiljön, och dess resultat ligger till grund för ett helt nytt utvärderingsverktyg. Detta syftar till att hjälpa organisationer och företagshälsovård att uppmärksamma kognitiva och psykosociala arbetsmiljöproblem relaterade till användningen av datorstöd, med hjälp av termer som kognitiva krav, kontroll och socialt stöd. Förhoppningen är att verktyget ska bidra till att öka medvetenheten om kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem och teknikstress, och att i längden medverka till att förbättra datoranvändarens psykosociala arbetsmiljö.

  • 243.
    Thyberg, Joel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Dehumanization in the brain2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Dehumanization is a process whereby people fail to view others as human beings. Instead, the others are perceived as nonhuman animals or objects, unworthy of the same moral treatment. Dehumanization has previously been studied in a variety of different scholarly domains without adhering to a uniform theoretical framework. This literature review contrasts research on fully humanized perception, with research on dehumanized perception, and proposes neural areas which are likely to be involved. Not every aspect of dehumanization can be understood at the neurological level. To understand what factors lead up to, and modulates dehumanization, other perspectives might also be necessary. Dehumanized perception is coupled with reduced activity in the social cognitive brain network, a wide network which encompasses several cortical and subcortical areas. This disengages prosocial abilities and allows for other people to be treated like objects and means to an end. One area of special interest is the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). It functions as an integration center in the person perception network and is also active when we make moral judgments, empathize, or take the perspective of someone else. For this reason, the MPFC is sometimes used as an index of dehumanized perception.

  • 244.
    Torstensson, Niklas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Judging the Immigrant: Accents and Attitudes2010Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Spoken language as a means of communication contains huge amounts of information apart from the linguistic message that is conveyed. It is often the first channel of interaction between people and based on the speaker’s manner of talk, we create a mental image of the speaker as a person, of the speaker’s background, origin and personal qualities. Through five case studies, this dissertation investigates how immigrants to Sweden are judged based on their foreign accents (Cases 1—3) and how the use of an interpreter in court can affect the legal process and the judging of the immigrant (Cases 4—5). Case 1 investigated Swedish students’ attitudes towards immigration and immigrants through a survey-based study and revealed that Swedish students hold predominantly positive attitudes towards immigrations and immigrants. Case 2, using accent imitation, asked if Swedish speakers have a cognitive prototype for British English accented Swedish and found that this was the case. This demonstrated that Swedes have models of accented Swedish accents. Case 3 asked Swedish students to rate their impressions of speakers of nine foreign accented Swedish voices on 18 six-point semantic differential scales. They also rated their impressions of each voice for five social factors. The results suggest that the listeners evaluated the voices based on perceived social desirability, or perceived cultural distance between the listener and the voice’s country of origin. Juxtaposing these findings with those of Case 1 suggests that even among a group who are positive to immigrants and immigration some groups of immigrants are more welcome than others. Case 4 examined discourse disfluencies in a bilingual court hearing and a Swedish-Polish bilingual court hearing in detail. The case showed that most of the dialogue-related difficulties have other sources than the interpreter, even if the interpreter at first glance often appeared to be part of the problem rather than part of the solution. Case 5 examined the interpreter’s role in courtroom dialogue situations through interviews with a court interpreter and a lay judge. The study found that the picture of the interpreter’s role differs between the various actors in the court setting. This, in combination with a lack of knowledge about cultural differences in dialogue strategies, creates complications, can have an impact on the perception of the witness and, ultimately, affect the legal rights of the accused. Furthermore, as the interpreter most frequently speaks foreign accented Swedish, the perception and evaluation of their foreign accented Swedish can further place some immigrant groups at a double legal disadvantage when being judged.

  • 245.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Peltola, Karoliina
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Saaresranta, Tarja
    Division of Medicine, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Sleep Research Centre, Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Clinical Allergology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland /Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sleep Parameter Assessment Accuracy of a Consumer Home Sleep Monitoring Ballistocardiograph Beddit Sleep Tracker: A Validation Study2019Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (JCSM), ISSN 1550-9389, E-ISSN 1550-9397, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 483-487, artikel-id PII jc-18-00561Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Growing interest in monitoring sleep and well-being has created a market for consumer home sleep monitoring devices. Additionally, sleep disorder diagnostics, and sleep and dream research would benefit from reliable and valid home sleep monitoring devices. Yet, majority of currently available home sleep monitoring devices lack validation. In this study, the sleep parameter assessment accuracy of Beddit Sleep Tracker (BST), an unobtrusive and non-wearable sleep monitoring device based on ballistocardiography, was evaluated by comparing it with polysomnography (PSG) measures. We measured total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE). Additionally, we examined whether BST can differentiate sleep stages. Methods: We performed sleep studies simultaneously with PSG and BST in ten healthy young adults (5 female/5 male) during two non-consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Results: BST was able to distinguish SOL with some accuracy. However, it underestimated WASO and thus overestimated TST and SE. Also, it failed to discriminate between non-rapid eye movement sleep stages and did not detect the rapid eye movement sleep stage. Conclusions: These findings indicate that BST is not a valid device to monitor sleep. Consumers should be careful in interpreting the conclusions on sleep quality and efficiency provided by the device.

  • 246.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Stenberg, Tuula
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Social contents in dreams: An empirical test of the Social Simulation Theory2019Ingår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 69, s. 133-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Simulation Theory (SST) considers the function of dreaming to be the simulation of social events. The Sociality Bias and the Strengthening hypotheses of SST were tested. Social Content Scale (SCS) was developed to quantify social events. Additionally, we attempted to replicate a previous finding (McNamara et al., 2005, Psychological Science) of REM dreams as predisposed to aggressive, and NREM dreams to prosocial interactions. Further, we investigated the frequency and quality of interactions in late vs early REM and NREM dreams. Data consisted of wake, REM and NREM home dream reports (N = 232, 116, 116, respectively) from 15 students. Dreams overrepresented social events compared to wake reports, supporting the Sociality Bias hypothesis. However, the Strengthening Hypothesis was not supported. We weren't able to replicate the McNamara et al. finding, and no time of night effect was found. While SST gained partial support, further research on social contents in dreams is required. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 247.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Department of Environmental Systems Science, USYS TdLab, Switzerland.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Distributive Justice: Revisiting Past Statements and Reflecting on Future Prospects2015Ingår i: The Oxford Handbook of Justice in the Workplace / [ed] Russell S. Cropanzano & Maureen L. Ambrose, New York: Oxford University Press, 2015, s. 15-50Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter starts with brief discussions of the whens and whys of justice reasoning and acting, after which descriptions of several distributive justice theories are provided. These are analyzed on the basis of four dimensions: type of justice motivation, orientation of justice behavior, the source of justice behavior initiation, and the source of justice behavior direction. We suggest that the overemphasis in the distributive justice literature on the three principles of equity, equality, and need, ought to be tempered by finer distinctions among the varieties of each and increased attention to additional principles and combinations of principles. The chapter ends by outlining suggestions for future research. Four issues are featured: the nature of the object (social resource) that is distributed and the focus of justice judgments, how the way the resource was produced may affect its allocation and justice judgment, how justice relates to various types of conflict, and why people sometimes do not react to perceived injustices.

  • 248.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Dreaming in the multilevel framework2011Ingår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 1084-1090Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological realism (Revonsuo, 2001, 2006) states that dreaming is a biological phenomenon and therefore explainable in naturalistic terms, similar to the explanation of other biological phenomena. In the biological sciences, the structure of explanations can be described with the help of a framework called ‘multilevel explanation’. The multilevel model provides a context that assists to clarify what needs to be explained and how, and how to place different theories into the same model. Here, I will argue that the multilevel framework would be useful when we try to construct scientific explanations of dreaming.

  • 249.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Dreams2016Ingår i: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology / [ed] Harold L. Miller, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2016Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 250.
    van Meer, Floor
    et al.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    van der Laan, Laura N.
    Tilburg University, the Netherlands.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Wolters, Maike
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany.
    Rach, Stefan
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany.
    Herrmann, Manfred
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Erhard, Peter
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Molnár, Dénés
    University Medical School of Pécs, Hungary.
    Orsi, Gergely
    University Medical School of Pécs, Hungary / MTA-PTE Clinical Neuroscience MR Research Group, Pécs, Hungary.
    Viergever, Max A.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Adan, Roger A.H.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Smeets, Paul A.M.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands / Division of Human Nutrition & Health, Wageningen University & Research, the Netherlands.
    Development and body mass inversely affect children's brain activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during food choice2019Ingår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 201, s. 1-10, artikel-id 116016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood obesity is a rising problem caused in part by unhealthy food choices. Food choices are based on a neural value signal encoded in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and self-control involves modulation of this signal by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). We determined the effects of development, body mass (BMI Cole score) and body mass history on the neural correlates of healthy food choice in children. 141 children (aged 10-17y) from Germany, Hungary and Sweden were scanned with fMRI while performing a food choice task. Afterwards health and taste ratings of the foods were collected. In the food choice task children were asked to consider the healthiness or tastiness of the food or to choose naturally. Overall, children made healthier choices when asked to consider healthiness. However, children who had a higher weight gain per year chose less healthy foods when considering healthiness but not when choosing naturally. Pubertal development stage correlated positively while current body mass correlated negatively with dlPFC activation when accepting foods. Pubertal development negatively and current body mass positively influenced the effect of considering healthiness on activation of brain areas involved in salience and motivation. In conclusion, children in earlier stages of pubertal development and children with a higher body weight exhibited less activation in the dlPFC, which has been implicated in self-control during food choice. Furthermore, pubertal development and body mass influenced neural responses to a health cue in areas involved in salience and motivation. Thus, these findings suggest that children in earlier stages of pubertal development, children with a higher body mass gain and children with overweight may possibly be less susceptible to healthy eating interventions that rely on self-control or that highlight health aspects of food. 

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