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  • 201.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Safeness and Treatment Mitigate the Effect of Loneliness on Satisfaction with Elderly Care2016Ingår i: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 928-936Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximizing satisfaction among the older persons is the goal of modern individualized elderly care and how to best achieve this is of relevance for anyone planning and providing for elderly care services. Purpose of the study: What predicts satisfaction with care among older persons can be conceived as a function of process (how care is performed), and the older person. Inspired by the long-standing person versus situation debate, the present research investigated the interplay between person- and process aspects in predicting satisfaction with elderly care. Design and method: A representative nationwide sample was analyzed, based on a questionnaire sent out to 95,000 individuals using elderly care services. Results: The results showed that person-related factors (i.e., anxiety, health, and loneliness) were significant predictors of satisfaction with care, although less strongly than process-related factors (i.e., treatment, safeness, and perceived staff- and time availability). Among the person-related factors, loneliness was the strongest predictor of satisfaction among older persons in nursing homes. Interestingly, a path analysis revealed that safeness and treatment function as mediators in linking loneliness to satisfaction. Implications: The results based on a large national sample demonstrate that the individual aging condition to a significant degree can be countered by a well-functioning care process, resulting in higher satisfaction with care among older persons. 

  • 202.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Structure and Process Quality as Predictors of Satisfaction with Elderly Care2016Ingår i: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 699-707Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure versus process approach to quality of care presented by Donabedian is one of the most cited ever. However, there has been a paucity of research into the empirical validity of this framework, specifically concerning the relative effects of structure and process on satisfaction with elderly care as perceived by the older persons themselves. The current research presents findings from a national survey, including a wide range of quality indicators for elderly care services, conducted in 2012 at the request of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in which responses from 95,000 elderly people living in 324 municipalities and districts were obtained. The results revealed that the only structural variable which significantly predicted quality of care was staffing, measured in terms of the number of caregivers per older resident. More interestingly, process variables (e.g. respect and access to information) explained 40% and 48% of the variance in satisfaction with care, over and above the structural variables, in home care and nursing homes respectively. The findings from this large nationwide sample examining Donabedian's model suggest that quality in elderly care is primarily determined by factors pertaining to process, that is, how caregivers behave towards the older persons. This encourages a continued quality improvement in elderly care with a particular focus on process variables.

  • 203.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. University West, Sweden.
    Roos, Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    The American Dream in a Swedish Representative Sample: Personality Traits Predict Life Outcomes Better than Childhood Background2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The American Dream is that any individual, not regarding family background, can achieve what they desire, in terms of life, economic liberty, and happiness. An indication of the American dream would be if individual adult personality traits predicted life outcomes better than childhood background.

    A sample of the Swedish population, representative in age, sex, and occupation (N = 5,280) was 2012 measured on adult personality traits, childhood socioeconomic status (SES), and 3 life outcomes – education, income, and life outcome satisfaction.

    Childhood SES accounted for almost twice the disattenuated variance (22%) compared to personality (12%) in educational attainment, while personality accounted for almost twice the variance (12%) compared to childhood SES (7%) in annual income. Life outcome satisfaction was only predicted by personality (37%) and not by childhood SES (0%). Moreover, particularly the traits extraversion and neuroticism showed a full compensating catch-up effect on high childhood SES in annual income.

    Expressions of personality may be growing in predictive importance and constitute a societal trademark of the American dream being present. Sweden is a renowned progressive, individualistic, and egalitarian country, which could make the results of wide-reaching interest. 

  • 204.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Organizing Principles and Management Climate in High-Performing Municipal Elderly Care2016Ingår i: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 82-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Previous research has shown that user-oriented care predicts older persons’ satisfaction with care. What is yet to be researched is how senior management facilitates the implementation of user-oriented care. The present study set out to investigate the organizing principles and management climate characterizing successful elderly care organizations.

    Design – The care organization in one highly ranked municipality was selected and compared with a more average municipality. On-site semi-structured in-depth interviews with managers as well as participatory observations at managers’ meetings were conducted in both municipalities.

    Findings – The results revealed three key principles for successful elderly care: 1) organizing care from the viewpoint of the older service user, 2) recruiting and training competent and autonomous employees, 3) instilling a vision for the mission which guides operations at all levels in the organization. Furthermore, using climate theory to interpret the material, in the highly successful municipality the management climate was characterized by affective support and cognitive autonomy, in contrast to a more instrumental work climate primarily focusing on organizational structure and doing things right characterizing the more average municipality.

    Value – We suggest that guiding organizing principles are intertwined with management climate and that there are multiple perspectives that must be considered by the upper management, i.e., the views of the older persons, the co-workers, and the mission. The results can guide future care quality developments and increase the understanding of the importance of organizational climate at the senior management level.

  • 205.
    Kariminejad, Ariana
    et al.
    Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology and Genetics Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Dahl-Halvarsson, Martin
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Ravenscroft, Gianina
    Centre for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia and the Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.
    Afroozan, Fariba
    Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology and Genetics Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Keshavarz, Elham
    Department of Radiology, Mahdieh Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran.
    Goullée, Hayley
    Centre for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia and the Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.
    Davis, Mark R.
    Department of Diagnostic Genomics, Pathwest, QEII Medical Centre, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.
    Faraji Zonooz, Mehrshid
    Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology and Genetics Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Najmabadi, Hossein
    Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology and Genetics Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Laing, Nigel G.
    Centre for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia and the Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Centre for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia and the Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia.
    TOR1A variants cause a severe arthrogryposis with developmental delay, strabismus and tremor2017Ingår i: Brain, ISSN 0006-8950, E-ISSN 1460-2156, Vol. 140, nr 11, s. 2851-2859Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Autosomal dominant torsion dystonia-1 is a disease with incomplete penetrance most often caused by an in-frame GAG deletion (p.Glu303del) in the endoplasmic reticulum luminal protein torsinA encoded by TOR1A.

    We report an association of the homozygous dominant disease-causing TOR1A p.Glu303del mutation, and a novel homozygous missense variant (p.Gly318Ser) with a severe arthrogryposis phenotype with developmental delay, strabismus and tremor in three unrelated Iranian families. All parents who were carriers of the TOR1A variant showed no evidence of neurological symptoms or signs, indicating decreased penetrance similar to families with autosomal dominant torsion dystonia-1. The results from cell assays demonstrate that the p.Gly318Ser substitution causes a redistribution of torsinA from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nuclear envelope, similar to the hallmark of the p.Glu303del mutation.

    Our study highlights that TOR1A mutations should be considered in patients with severe arthrogryposis and further expands the phenotypic spectrum associated with TOR1A mutations. 

  • 206.
    Kariminejad, Ariana
    et al.
    Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology and Genetics Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Szenker-Ravi, Emmanuelle
    Institute of Medical Biology, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.
    Lekszas, Caroline
    Institute of Human Genetics, Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg, Germany.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Moslemi, Ali-Reza
    Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Naert, Thomas
    Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Tran, Hong Thi
    Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Ahangari, Fatemeh
    Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology and Genetics Center, Tehra, Iran.
    Rajaei, Minoo
    Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Nasseri, Mojila
    Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory, Mashhad, Iran.
    Haaf, Thomas
    Institute of Human Genetics, Julius-Maximilians-Universität, Würzburg, Germany.
    Azad, Afrooz
    Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Superti-Furga, Andrea
    Division of Genetic Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Maroofian, Reza
    Molecular and Clinical Sciences Institute, St. George’s University of London, UK.
    Ghaderi-Sohi, Siavash
    Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology and Genetics Center, Tehran Iran.
    Najmabadi, Hossein
    Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology and Genetics Center, Tehran Iran / Genetics Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza
    Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory, Mashhad, Iran / Division of Human Genetics, Immunology Research Center, Avicenna Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
    Vleminckx, Kris
    Department of Biomedical Molecular Biology, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Nikuei, Pooneh
    Fertility and Infertility Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Reversade, Bruno
    Institute of Medical Biology, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Singapore, Republic of Singapore / Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology, and Research, Singapore, Republic of Singapore / Department of Medical Genetics, Koç University, School of Medicine, Topkapı, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Homozygous Null TBX4 Mutations Lead to Posterior Amelia with Pelvic and Pulmonary Hypoplasia2019Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 0002-9297, E-ISSN 1537-6605, Vol. 105, nr 6, s. 1294-1301Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of hindlimbs in tetrapod species relies specifically on the transcription factor TBX4. In humans, heterozygous loss-of-function TBX4 mutations cause dominant small patella syndrome (SPS) due to haploinsufficiency. Here, we characterize a striking clinical entity in four fetuses with complete posterior amelia with pelvis and pulmonary hypoplasia (PAPPA). Through exome sequencing, we find that PAPPA syndrome is caused by homozygous TBX4 inactivating mutations during embryogenesis in humans. In two consanguineous couples, we uncover distinct germline TBX4 coding mutations, p.Tyr113 and p.Tyr127Asn, that segregated with SPS in heterozygous parents and with posterior amelia with pelvis and pulmonary hypoplasia syndrome (PAPPAS) in one available homozygous fetus. A complete absence of TBX4 transcripts in this proband with biallelic p.Tyr113 stop-gain mutations revealed nonsense-mediated decay of the endogenous mRNA. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated TBX4 deletion in Xenopus embryos confirmed its restricted role during leg development. We conclude that SPS and PAPPAS are allelic diseases of TBX4 deficiency and that TBX4 is an essential transcription factor for organogenesis of the lungs, pelvis, and hindlimbs in humans.

  • 207.
    Karlsson, Christina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan.
    Detection and assessment of pain in dementia care practice: Registered nurses’ and certified nursing assistants’ experiences2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis was to explore and describe registered nurses’ (RNs) and certified nursing assistants’ (CNAs) experiences of detection and assessment of pain in older people with cognitive impairment and dementia. A further aim was to evaluate the Abbey Pain Scale-SWE (APS-SWE) in dementia care practice.

    Methods: An exploratory and descriptive design was used in Study I. An exploratory and interpreting design was used in Study II and Study III. A prospective, descriptive, observational and instrumental design was used in Study IV. Focus group interviews (I) and individual interviews (II, III) were applied to explore and describe RNs’ and CNAs’ experiences of pain assessment in people living with dementia. Qualitative content analysis (I) and philosophical hermeneutics (II) were used to analyse qualitative data. Observation, instrument, and questionnaire were applied to evaluate reliability and face validity of the APS-SWE for pain assessment. Descriptive statistics and reliability analyses were used to analyse quantitative data (IV).

    Results: RNs in special housing accommodation settings experiences that pain assessment in people with dementia is challenging primarily due to their changed RN consultant role, which to a great extent is directed into administrative and consultative tasks rather than bedside care. This has led to decreased time in daily nursing care, preventing recognising symptoms of pain. This have also led to that RNs are dependent on information from CNAs who are the front-line staff providing daily care (I). CNAs’ perception of signs of pain in people with dementia emerges from being present in the care situation and alertness on physical and behavioural changes that could be due to pain, and from providing the care in a preventive, protective and supportive way to prevent painful situations occurring (II). RNs and CNAs working in home healthcare team use a variety of strategies to detect and assess pain. A trustful work relationship based on staff continuity and a good relation to the person in need of care facilitates pain assessment situations (III). Systematic observation of older people living in special housing accommodation during rest and mobility using the APS-SWE demonstrates that the scale has adequate internal consistency, reliability, and face validity for pain assessment (IV).

    Conclusions: This thesis found that the RNs’ and CNAs’ detections and assessments of pain rely on solid cooperation, staff continuity, and good knowledge of the person cared for. It was also revealed that there is a lack of using appropriate and assisting pain tools. The APS-SWE show adequate reliability and face validity and can serve as a useful pain tool to assist in detection and assessment of pain in older people who are limited in verbalising pain recognisable. Further evaluation of how the person-centred perspective is applied in pain assessment situations is needed in order to evaluate positive outcomes in people with dementia. Further psychometric evaluation of the APS-SWE in clinical dementia care practice is needed to strengthen validity and reliability.

  • 208.
    Karlsson, Christina Elisabeth
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Ernsth Bravell, Marie
    Institute of Gerontology, University of Jönköping, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ek, Kristina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Home healthcare teams' assessments of pain in care recipients living with dementia: a Swedish exploratory study2015Ingår i: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 190-200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 209.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    ICU Professionals’ Experiences of Caring for Conscious Patients Receiving MVT2015Ingår i: Western Journal of Nursing Research, ISSN 0193-9459, E-ISSN 1552-8456, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 360-375Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, caring for patients who are conscious while receiving mechanical ventilator treatment has become common in Scandinavian intensive care units. Therefore, this study aimed to describe anesthetists’, nurses’, and nursing assistants’ experiences of caring for such patients. Nine persons were interviewed. A hermeneutic method inspired by Gadamer’s philosophy was used to interpret and analyze the interview text. Staff members found it distressing to witness and be unable to alleviate suffering, leading to ethical conflicts, feelings of powerlessness, and betrayal of the promises made to the patient. They were frustrated about their inability to understand what the patients were trying to say and often turned to colleagues for help. When caring for conscious patients, it takes time to get to know them and establish communication and a trusting relationship.

  • 210.
    Karlsson, Veronika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergbom, Ingegerd
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ringdal, Mona
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Annikki
    School of Health Science, Borås University College, Borås, Sweden.
    After discharge home: a qualitative analysis of older ICU patients' experiences and care needs2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 749-756Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 211.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Avslutande reflektioner kring socialpsykologiska aspekter på välbefinnande2009Ingår i: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 195-200Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 212.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Conceptualizing and measuring occupational social well-being: a validation study2017Ingår i: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 45-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The current conceptualizations and measurements of well-being are inadequate in the context of work. Specifically, well-being research has neglected the social aspects of well-being. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the validity of a multi-dimensional view of occupational social well-being. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in an educational setting, i.e. six different schools in a Swedish municipality. A total of 314 teachers and other categories of school staff (239 females and 75 males) participated in a survey study. Findings: Results provided empirical support for a multi-dimensional view of occupational social well-being. The dimensions were integration, acceptance, contribution, actualization and coherence, and they were differentially correlated with previous measures of well-being. Furthermore, occupational social well-being accounted for additional variance in work tension, overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment over and above the variance accounted for by positive and negative affect and satisfaction with life, indicating the value of taking domain-specific social indicators of well-being into account in explaining various employee outcomes. Practical implications: Occupational social well-being is an umbrella term for describing the well-lived social life in the context of work. As such, this is a crucial part of a holistic view of well-being at work. Thus, effective employee well-being enhancement programs should not only focus on physical and mental health promotion or competence development but must also include measures of relational experience and functioning as discussed in the present study. Originality/value: This is the first study to measure and validate occupational social well-being as an attempt to complement existing measures of subjective and psychological well-being. Measures of social aspects of well-being are crucial to assess as it has been argued in previous research that context-free measures of well-being might render misleading results.

  • 213.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Examining the Interplay of Justice Perceptions, Motivation, and School Achievement among Secondary School Students2016Ingår i: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 103-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a paucity of empirical research on the social psychology of justice in educational settings. A few previous studies have predominantly focused on distributive and procedural justice concerns, and knowledge about the role of what have been called informational and interpersonal justice for school outcomes is very scarce. In the present study, data from 227 eighth- and ninth-grade students who participated in a survey study were analyzed to examine the interplay between relational justice concerns (decomposed into procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice), motivation to study, and school achievement. A comprehensive theoretically grounded multi-item measure of informational justice was developed and validated. The results showed that informational justice significantly predicts school grades, and that motivation to study fully mediates this effect. Neither procedural nor interpersonal justice was associated with school grades. The implications of these results for research and practice are discussed in detail.

  • 214.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Overtime2015Ingår i: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Economics and Society / [ed] Frederick F. Wherry & Juliet B. Schor, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2015, s. 1235-1236Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 215.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Promotion2015Ingår i: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Economics and Society / [ed] Frederick F. Wherry & Juliet B. Schor, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2015, s. 1336-1337Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 216.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Välbefinnande2009Ingår i: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 23-33Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 217.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv2009Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 218.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Eek, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Allocation of Public Goods: The Interplay of Self-Interest, Fairness, and Group Goal2016Ingår i: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 214-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seventy-two undergraduates participating in a step-level asymmetric public good dilemma were requested to distribute the provided public good among the group members to achieve different group goals. In Line with the hypotheses, economic productivity resulted in equitable allocations, harmony in equal allocations, and social concern in need-based allocations. The results also supported the hypotheses that salience of group goal minimizes influences of self-interest on allocations and that perceived fairness accounts for why people pursuing different group goals differ in their preferences for allocation of public goods.

  • 219.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Eek, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Equity, Equal Shares or Equal Final Outcomes?: Group Goal Guides Allocations of Public Goods2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, s. 1-7, artikel-id 36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experiment we investigate preferences for allocation of a public good among group members who contributed unequally in providing the public good. Inducing the group goal of productivity resulted in preferences for equitable allocations, whereas inducing the group goals of harmony and social concern resulted in preferences for equal final outcomes. The study makes a contribution by simultaneously treating provision and allocation of a public good, thus viewing these as related processes. Another contribution is that a new paradigm is introduced that bears closer resemblance to real life public good dilemmas than previous research paradigms do.

  • 220.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Variations in user-oriented elderly care: a multilevel approach2017Ingår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 138-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 221.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Cost and satisfaction trends in Swedish elderly home care2016Ingår i: Home Health Care Management & Practice, ISSN 1084-8223, E-ISSN 1552-6739, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 250-255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 222.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Division of Gerontology, Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    User-oriented elderly care: A validation study in two different settings using observational data2015Ingår i: Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, ISSN 1471-7794, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 140-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - User-oriented care, defined as individualized assisting behaviors, is the dominant approach within elderly care today. Yet, there is little known about its conceptual structure. This paper proposes that user-oriented care has a bi-partite structure which may be decomposed into the two dimensions of task and relation. Design/methodology/approach - Care workers were "shadowed" (i.e. observed) at their work (n=391 rated interactions). User-oriented care was assessed along ten process quality indicators targeting the acts of caregiving (i.e. task focus, relation focus, involvement, time-use, body language, autonomy, respect, warmth, encouragement, and information) in two elderly care settings, i.e. home care and nursing home. Observations added up to 45 hours. Findings - Principal component analyses confirmed the proposed two-factor structure of user-oriented care. Specifically, the user-oriented care indicators loaded on two distinct factors, i.e. task and relation. The underlying structure of user-oriented care revealed to be invariant across the two settings. However, the results revealed interesting structural differences in terms of explained variance and the magnitude of factor loadings in the home care and nursing home settings. Differences also emerged specifically pertaining to the indicators of autonomy and time-use. These findings suggest that user-oriented behavior may to some extent denote different acts of caregiving and what may be called task- and relation-orientation may be loaded with different meanings in these two care settings. Originality/value - This is the first study investigating user-oriented behavior in the context of elderly care using a quantitative observational approach. The authors propose that the observed differences between the two care settings are primarily not due to better elderly care work in home care, but due to some inherent differences between these two contexts of care (e.g. better health and living at home). © Ali Kazemi and Petri J. Kajonius. Published by Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 223.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Pilotstudie om psykisk ohälsa och utanförskap bland unga vuxna: Personliga berättelser och reflektioner kring vägar som bär till förändring2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 224.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Stark Ekman, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Differing attitudes toward health and sickness2014Ingår i: Encyclopedia of human services and diversity / [ed] Linwood H. Cousins, Sage Publications, 2014, s. 616-618Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 225.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Rättvist ledarskap2009Ingår i: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 37-63Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 226.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 227.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 228.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 229.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Social Justice Research2015Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 230.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Social Justice Research2015Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 231.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Social Justice Research2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 232.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Social Justice Research2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 233.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Social Justice Research2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 234.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Social Justice Research2014Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 235.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 236.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Third-Party Allocation of Rewards: The Effects of Categorization and Request for Justice2014Ingår i: Small Group Research, ISSN 1046-4964, E-ISSN 1552-8278, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 435-450Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study shows that categorization of reward recipients into different entities affects distributive preferences by third-party non-recipient allocators. Rewards were allocated more equally to members of one group than to members of two dyads or to independent recipients. Moreover, allocators who were explicitly requested to allocate rewards justly were more egalitarian than those who were not requested to do so. More interestingly, rewards were allocated more equally between members in each of two dyads and between independent recipients, when a just allocation request was made, than when such a request was not made. This implies that a request for just allocation modifies the effects of recipient entity categorization toward more equal reward allocations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  • 237.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mikula, Gerold
    University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Justice: Social Psychological Perspectives2015Ingår i: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences / [ed] James D. Wright, Oxford: Elsevier, 2015, 2, s. 949-955Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the concept of justice from a social psychological perspective. The authors begin by briefly outlining some theoretical precursors of current social psychological research on justice. Another part is devoted to an overview of theories and empirical research in the areas of distributive and procedural justice. The article furthermore addresses interactional justice, why people care about justice, and reactions to injustice in the context of which individual differences in conceptions of justice are briefly discussed. The article ends by discussing some current trends, social applications, and some future challenges in social psychological inquiries of social justice.

  • 238.
    Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / Institute of Health and Caring Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden / Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA / Johns Hopkins University, School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Browall, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA / Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden / Johns Hopkins University, School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland, USA / Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gaston-Johansson, Fannie
    Johns Hopkins University, School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
    Symptom Burden Clusters: A Challenge for Targeted Symptom Management. A Longitudinal Study Examining Symptom Burden Clusters in Breast Cancer2014Ingår i: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, ISSN 0885-3924, E-ISSN 1873-6513, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 731-741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Although there has been a growing interest in cancer symptom clusters, less is known about symptom burden clusters. Objectives: To explore clusters of burdensome symptoms over time, the impact on health status and quality of life, and coping capacity in patients with breast cancer. Methods: In this longitudinal study, a sample of 206 patients completed the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, and the Sense of Coherence scale, at diagnosis of primary or recurrent breast cancer, and at one-, three-, and six-month follow-ups. Results: Three clusters of burdensome symptoms were identified: emotional symptom burden, gastrointestinal symptom burden, and unwellness symptom burden. Most burdensome were emotional symptoms, with worrying, feeling sad, and feeling nervous as the core or defining symptoms. Over time, additional symptoms escalated the emotional symptom burden. The gastrointestinal symptom burden, with "change in the way food tastes" as a core symptom, was more often associated with chemotherapy. Less stable over time, the unwellness symptom burden could be interpreted as short- and long-term side effects of hormonal therapy. Of these clusters, only the emotional symptom burden cluster significantly diminished health status and quality of life. Patients reporting lower coping capacity experienced higher levels of symptom burden. Conclusion: This study provides insights into symptom burden clusters over time. A challenging approach toward symptom management in clinical oncology is to target the burden of a symptom cluster and to recognize the need for individually designed interventions to ameliorate symptom burden in cancer patients. © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee.

  • 239.
    Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Lena B.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Andersson, Bengt A.
    Department of Clinical immunology and transfusion medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Per
    Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital,Sweden University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Mindfulness and its efficacy for psychological and biological responses in women with breast cancer2017Ingår i: Cancer Medicine, ISSN 2045-7634, E-ISSN 2045-7634, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 1108-1122Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many breast cancer survivors have to deal with a variety of psychological andphysiological sequelae including impaired immune responses. The primary purposeof this randomized controlled trial was to determine the efficacy of amindfulness-basedstress reduction (MBSR) intervention for mood disorders inwomen with breast cancer. Secondary outcomes were symptom experience, healthstatus, coping capacity, mindfulness, posttraumatic growth, and immune status.This RTC assigned 166 women with breast cancer to one of three groups: MBSR(8 weekly group sessions of MBSR), active controls (self-instructingMBSR) andnon-MBSR.The primary outcome measure was the Hospital Anxiety and DepressionScale. Secondary outcome measures were: Memorial Symptom AssessmentScale, SF-36,Sense of Coherence, Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire,and Posttraumatic Growth Index. Blood samples were analyzed using flow cytometryfor NK-cellactivity (FANKIA) and lymphocyte phenotyping; concentrationsof cytokines were determined in sera using commercial high sensitivityIL-6and IL-8ELISA (enzyme-linkedimmunosorbent assay) kits. Results provideevidence for beneficial effects of MBSR on psychological and biological responses.Women in the MBSR group experienced significant improvements in depressionscores, with a mean pre-MBSRHAD-scoreof 4.3 and post-MBSRscore of 3.3(P = 0.001), and compared to non-MBSR(P = 0.015). Significant improvementson scores for distress, symptom burden, and mental health were also observed.Furthermore, MBSR facilitated coping capacity as well as mindfulness and posttraumaticgrowth. Significant benefits in immune response within the MBSRgroup and between groups were observed. MBSR have potential for alleviatingdepression, symptom experience, and for enhancing coping capacity, mindfulnessand posttraumatic growth, which may improve breast cancer survivorship.MBSR also led to beneficial effect on immune function; the clinical implicationsof this finding merit further research.

  • 240.
    Kharkova, Olga A.
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway,Tromsø, Norway / International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia.
    Grjibovski, Andrej M.
    International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia / Department of Public Health, North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Russia / Department of Preventive Medicine, International Kazakh-Turkish University, Turkestan, Kazakhstan.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nieboer, Evert
    Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Odland, Jon Ø.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Effect of Smoking Behavior before and during Pregnancy on Selected Birth Outcomes among Singleton Full-Term Pregnancy: A Murmansk County Birth Registry Study2017Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, nr 8, s. 1-11, artikel-id E867Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of our study was to assess associations between smoking behavior before and during pregnancy and selected adverse birth outcomes. This study is based on the Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR). Our study includes women who delivered a singleton pregnancy after 37 weeks of gestation (N = 44,486). Smoking information was self-reported and assessed at the first antenatal visit during pregnancy. We adjusted for potential confounders using logistic regression. The highest proportion of infants with low values of birth weight, birth length, head circumference, ponderal index and of the Apgar score at 5 min was observed for women who smoked both before and during pregnancy. We observed a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy and the odds of the aforementioned adverse birth outcomes; neither were there significant differences in their occurrences among non-smokers and those who smoked before but not during pregnancy. Moreover, smoking reduction during pregnancy relative to its pre-gestation level did not influence the odds of the adverse birth outcomes. Our findings emphasize a continued need for action against tobacco smoking during pregnancy.

  • 241.
    Kharkova, Olga A.
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia.
    Grjibovski, Andrej M.
    International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia / Department of International Public Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway / Department of Preventive Medicine, International Kazakh-Turkish University, Kazakhstan / Department of International Public Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway / Department of Preventive Medicine, International Kazakh-Turkish University, Turkestan, Kazakhstan.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nieboer, Evert
    Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Odland, Jon Ø.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    First-trimester smoking cessation in pregnancy did not increase the risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia: A Murmansk County Birth Registry study2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 8, artikel-id e0179354Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although prior studies have shown that smoking reduces preeclampsia/eclampsia risk, the consequence of giving up this habit during pregnancy should be assessed. The aims of the current study were threefold: (i) describe maternal characteristics of women with preeclampsia/eclampsia; (ii) examine a possible association between the number of cigarettes smoked daily during pregnancy and the development of this affliction; and (iii) determine if first-trimester discontinuation of smoking during pregnancy influences the risk.

    METHODS: A registry-based study was conducted using data from the Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR). It included women without pre-existing hypertension, who delivered a singleton infant during 2006-2011 and had attended the first antenatal visit before 12 week of gestation. We adjusted for potential confounders using logistic regression.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of preeclampsia/eclampsia was 8.3% (95%CI: 8.0-8.6). Preeclampsia/eclampsia associated with maternal age, education, marital status, parity, excessive weight gain and body mass index at the first antenatal visit. There was a dose-response relationship between the number of smoked cigarettes per day during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia (adjusted OR1-5 cig/day = 0.69 with 95%CI: 0.56-0.87; OR6-10 cig/day = 0.65 with 95%CI: 0.51-0.82; and OR≥11 cig/day = 0.49 with 95%CI: 0.30-0.81). There was no difference in this risk among women who smoked before and during pregnancy and those who did so before but not during pregnancy (adjusted OR = 1.10 with 95%CI: 0.91-1.32).

    CONCLUSIONS: Preeclampsia/eclampsia was associated with maternal age, education, marital status, parity, excessive weight gain, and body mass index at the first antenatal visit. There was a negative dose-response relationship between the number of smoked cigarettes per day during pregnancy and the odds of preeclampsia/eclampsia. However, women who gave up smoking during the first trimester of gestation had the same risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia as those who smoked while pregnant. Consequently, antenatal clinic specialists are advised to take these various observations into account when counselling women on smoking cessation during pregnancy.

  • 242.
    Kharkova, Olga A.
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Grjibovski, Andrej M.
    International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia / Department of International Public Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway / Department of Preventive Medicine, International Kazakh-Turkish University, Turkestan, Kazakhstan / North-Easten Federal University, Yakutsk, Russia.
    Nieboer, Evert
    Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Odland, Jon Øyvind
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy and changes in this habit during pregnancy in Northwest Russia: a Murmansk county birth registry study2016Ingår i: Reproductive Health, ISSN 1742-4755, E-ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 1-9, artikel-id 18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Smoking during pregnancy leads to adverse maternal and birth outcomes. However, the prevalence of smoking among women in Russia has increased from < 5 % in the 1980s to > 20 % in the 2000s. We conducted a registry-based study in Murmansk County, Northwest Russia. Our aims were twofold: (i) assess the prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy; and (ii) examine the socio-demographic factors associated with giving up smoking or reducing the number of cigarettes smoked once pregnancy was established.

    METHODS: This study employs data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR) collected during 2006-2011. We used logistic regression to investigate associations between women's socio-demographic characteristics and changes in smoking habit during pregnancy. To avoid departure from uniform risk within specific delivery departments, we employed clustered robust standard errors.

    RESULTS: Of all births registered in the MCBR, 25.2 % of the mothers were smokers before pregnancy and 18.9 % continued smoking during pregnancy. Cessation of smoking during pregnancy was associated with education, marital status and parity but not with maternal age, place of residence, and ethnicity. Women aged ≤ 20-24 years had higher odds of reducing the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy than those aged ≥ 30-34 years. Moreover, smoking nulliparae and pregnant women who had one child were more likely to reduce the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day compared to women having ≥ 2 children.

    CONCLUSIONS: About 25.0 % of smoking women in the Murmansk County in Northwest Russia quit smoking after awareness of the pregnancy, and one-third of them reduced the number cigarettes smoked during pregnancy. Our study demonstrates that women who have a higher education, husband, and are primiparous are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. Maternal age and number of children are indicators that influence reduction in smoking during pregnancy. Our findings are useful in identifying target groups for smoking intervention campaigns.

  • 243.
    Khidir, N.
    et al.
    Department of Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Al Dhaheri, M.
    Department of Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    El Ansari, Walid
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / College of Medicine, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Al Kuwari, M.
    Department of Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Sargsyan, D.
    Department of Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar.
    Bashah, M.
    Department of Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar / Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, Qatar / Qatar Metabolic Institute, Doha, Qatar.
    Outcomes of Laparoscopic Gastric Greater Curvature Plication in Morbidly Obese Patients2017Ingår i: Journal of Obesity, ISSN 2090-0708, E-ISSN 2090-0716, Vol. 2017, artikel-id 7989714Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic gastric greater curvature plication (LGGCP) is a restrictive bariatric procedure without gastrectomy. However, limited literature on effectiveness of gastric plication exists.

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed LGGCP's efficacy, effects on associated comorbidities, safety and the rate of complications, and patient satisfaction with LGGCP's outcomes among morbidly obese patients.

    METHOD: Analysis of retrospectively data collected from medical records of 26 patients who had undergone LGGCP at Hamad General Hospital, Qatar, during 2011-2012.

    RESULTS: Most patients (92%) were Qatari nationals. The sample's mean age was 35.1 years. Mean duration of hospital stay was 3.9 ± 1.2 days. Mean preoperative BMI was 40.7 kg/m(2) that decreased at 2 years to 34.6 kg/m(2). LGGCP's effects on comorbidities were such that 7.6% of patients experienced resolutions of their comorbidities. There were no mortality or postoperative complications that required reoperation. Six patients (23%) were satisfied with the LGGCP's outcomes while 10 patients (38.5%) underwent sleeve gastrectomy subsequently.

    CONCLUSION: LGGCP had acceptable short term weight loss results, exhibited almost no postoperative complications, and improved patients' comorbidities. Despite the durability of the gastric fold, some patients regained weight. Future research may assess the possibility of an increase in the gastric pouch size postplication associated with weight regain.

  • 244.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jokela, Markus
    Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Inserm U1018, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden / Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Koege Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA), Berlin, Germany.
    Casini, Annalisa
    School of Public Health, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.
    Clays, Els
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Dragano, Nico
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Erbel, Raimund
    Department of Cardiology, West-German Heart Center Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Geuskens, Goedele A.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Hamer, Mark
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Hooftman, Wendela E.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Houtman, Irene L.
    TNO, Hoofddorp, Netherlands.
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Kittel, France
    School of Public Health, Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lunau, Thorsten
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    Unit of Social Medicine, Frederiksberg University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    The Danish National Centre for Social Research, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark / Department of Public Health and Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland / Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    O'Reilly, Dermot
    Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Kumari, Meena
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Institute for Social and Economic Research, University of Essex, Colchester, United Kingdom.
    Batty, G. David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology and Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / School of Community and Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Tampere and Turku, Finland.
    Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished data for 603 838 individuals2015Ingår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 386, nr 10005, s. 1739-1746Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Long working hours might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but prospective evidence is scarce, imprecise, and mostly limited to coronary heart disease. We aimed to assess long working hours as a risk factor for incident coronary heart disease and stroke. Methods We identified published studies through a systematic review of PubMed and Embase from inception to Aug 20, 2014. We obtained unpublished data for 20 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium and open-access data archives. We used cumulative random-effects meta-analysis to combine effect estimates from published and unpublished data. Findings We included 25 studies from 24 cohorts in Europe, the USA, and Australia. The meta-analysis of coronary heart disease comprised data for 603 838 men and women who were free from coronary heart disease at baseline; the meta-analysis of stroke comprised data for 528 908 men and women who were free from stroke at baseline. Follow-up for coronary heart disease was 5.1 million person-years (mean 8.5 years), in which 4768 events were recorded, and for stroke was 3.8 million person-years (mean 7.2 years), in which 1722 events were recorded. In cumulative meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic status, compared with standard hours (35-40 h per week), working long hours (>= 55 h per week) was associated with an increase in risk of incident coronary heart disease (relative risk [RR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26; p=0.02) and incident stroke (1.33, 1.11-1.61; p=0.002). The excess risk of stroke remained unchanged in analyses that addressed reverse causation, multivariable adjustments for other risk factors, and different methods of stroke ascertainment (range of RR estimates 1.30-1.42). We recorded a dose-response association for stroke, with RR estimates of 1.10 (95% CI 0.94-1.28; p=0.24) for 41-48 working hours, 1.27 (1.03-1.56; p=0.03) for 49-54 working hours, and 1.33 (1.11-1.61; p=0.002) for 55 working hours or more per week compared with standard working hours (p(trend)<0.0001). Interpretation Employees who work long hours have a higher risk of stroke than those working standard hours; the association with coronary heart disease is weaker. These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to the management of vascular risk factors in individuals who work long hours. 

  • 245.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kuosma, Eeva
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Luukkonen, Ritva
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland .
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden / Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Batty, G David.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Brunner, Eric J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Fransson, Eleonor
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden / School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Inserm UMS 011, Population-Based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nordin, Maria
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Pentti, Jaana
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland .
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Department of Public Health and Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark / National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Inserm U1018, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, Sakari B.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.
    Theorell, Töres
    Inserm UMS 011, Population-Based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zins, Marie
    Inserm UMS 011, Population-Based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Hamer, Mark
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Bell, Joshua A.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Tabak, Adam G.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / 1st Department of Medicine, Semmelweis University Faculty of Medicine, Budapest, Hungary.
    Jokela, Markus
    Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Overweight, obesity, and risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity: pooled analysis of individual-level data for 120 813 adults from 16 cohort studies from the USA and Europe2017Ingår i: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-3667, Vol. 2, nr 6, s. e277-e285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although overweight and obesity have been studied in relation to individual cardiometabolic diseases, their association with risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity is poorly understood. Here we aimed to establish the risk of incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity (ie, at least two from: type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke) in adults who are overweight and obese compared with those who are a healthy weight.

    METHODS: ) to achieve sufficient case numbers for analysis. The main outcome was cardiometabolic multimorbidity (ie, developing at least two from: type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke). Incident cardiometabolic multimorbidity was ascertained via resurvey or linkage to electronic medical records (including hospital admissions and death). We analysed data from each cohort separately using logistic regression and then pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analysis.

    FINDINGS: Participants were 120  813 adults (mean age 51·4 years, range 35-103; 71 445 women) who did not have diabetes, coronary heart disease, or stroke at study baseline (1973-2012). During a mean follow-up of 10·7 years (1995-2014), we identified 1627 cases of multimorbidity. After adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, compared with individuals with a healthy weight, the risk of developing cardiometabolic multimorbidity in overweight individuals was twice as high (odds ratio [OR] 2·0, 95% CI 1·7-2·4; p<0·0001), almost five times higher for individuals with class I obesity (4·5, 3·5-5·8; p<0·0001), and almost 15 times higher for individuals with classes II and III obesity combined (14·5, 10·1-21·0; p<0·0001). This association was noted in men and women, young and old, and white and non-white participants, and was not dependent on the method of exposure assessment or outcome ascertainment. In analyses of different combinations of cardiometabolic conditions, odds ratios associated with classes II and III obesity were 2·2 (95% CI 1·9-2·6) for vascular disease only (coronary heart disease or stroke), 12·0 (8·1-17·9) for vascular disease followed by diabetes, 18·6 (16·6-20·9) for diabetes only, and 29·8 (21·7-40·8) for diabetes followed by vascular disease.

    INTERPRETATION: The risk of cardiometabolic multimorbidity increases as BMI increases; from double in overweight people to more than ten times in severely obese people compared with individuals with a healthy BMI. Our findings highlight the need for clinicians to actively screen for diabetes in overweight and obese patients with vascular disease, and pay increased attention to prevention of vascular disease in obese individuals with diabetes.

    FUNDING: NordForsk, Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Finnish Work Environment Fund, and Academy of Finland.

  • 246.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Clinicum, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki and Turku, Finland.
    Luukkonen, Ritva
    Clinicum, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Batty, G. David
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Research Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Clinicum, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki and Turku, Finland.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Clinicum, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki and Turku, Finland.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / School of Health Sciences and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden / Division of Epidemiology, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Population-based Epidemiologic Cohort Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Clinicum, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kuosma, Eeva
    Clinicum, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nordin, Maria
    Division of Epidemiology, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Folkhälsan Research Center, Folkhälsan, Helsinki, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Theorell, Töres
    Division of Epidemiology, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vuoksimaa, Eero
    Clinicum, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Institute for Molecular Medicine (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Division of Epidemiology, Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zins, Marie
    Population-based Epidemiologic Cohort Unit, France.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Department of Neurobiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden / National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Clinicum, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Institute for Molecular Medicine (FIMM), University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Population-based Epidemiologic Cohort Unit, France / Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jokela, Markus
    Institute of Behavioral Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Body mass index and risk of dementia: Analysis of individual-level data from 1.3 million individuals2018Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 601-609Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Higher midlife body mass index (BMI) is suggested to increase the risk of dementia, but weight loss during the preclinical dementia phase may mask such effects. Methods: We examined this hypothesis in 1,349,857 dementia-free participants from 39 cohort studies. BMI was assessed at baseline. Dementia was ascertained at follow-up using linkage to electronic health records (N = 6894). We assumed BMI is little affected by preclinical dementia when assessed decades before dementia onset and much affected when assessed nearer diagnosis. Results: Hazard ratios per 5-kg/m(2) increase in BMI for dementia were 0.71 (95% confidence interval = 0.66-0.77), 0.94 (0.89-0.99), and 1.16 (1.05-1.27) when BMI was assessed 10 years, 10-20 years, and >20 years before dementia diagnosis. Conclusions: The association between BMI and dementia is likely to be attributable to two different processes: a harmful effect of higher BMI, which is observable in long follow-up, and a reverse-causation effect that makes a higher BMI to appear protective when the follow-up is short. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Alzheimer's Association.

  • 247.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, United Kingdom / Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Clinicum, Helsinki, Finland / Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Clinicum, Helsinki, Finland.
    Batty, G. David
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, United Kingdom / Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom.
    Kawachi, Ichiro
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Social & Behav Sci, Boston, USA.
    Jokela, Markus
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Dept Psychol & Logoped, Helsinki, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Occupat & Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden / Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjorner, Jakob B.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Borritz, Marianne
    Bispebjerg Univ Hosp Copenhagen, Dept Occupat & Environm Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Burr, Hermann
    Fed Inst Occupat Safety & Hlth BAuA, Berlin, Germany.
    Dragano, Nico
    Univ Düsseldorf, Inst Med Sociol, Fac Med, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Jönköping Univ, Sch Hlth & Welf, Jönköping, Sweden / Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heikkilä, Katriina
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Hlth Serv Res & Policy, London, United Kingdom / Royal Coll Surgeons England, Clin Effectiveness Unit, London, United Kingdom.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Clinicum, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kumari, Meena
    Univ Essex, Inst Social & Econ Res, Wivenhoe Pk, Colchester, Essex, England, United Kingdom.
    Madsen, Ida E. H.
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Martin L.
    AS3 Co, AS3 Employment, Viby, Denmark.
    Nordin, Maria
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden / Umeå Univ, Dept Psychol, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pejtersen, Jan H.
    Danish Natl Ctr Social Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Med, Clinicum, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    Natl Res Ctr Working Environm, Copenhagen, Denmark / Univ Copenhagen, Dept Publ Hlth, Copenhagen, Denmark / Univ Copenhagen, Dept Psychol, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Salo, Paula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Turku, Finland.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England, United Kingdom.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Turku, Finland.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Turku, Finland / Turku Univ Hosp, Turku, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Akad Sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England, United Kingdom.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Hop Paul Brousse, INSERM, U1018, Ctr Res Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Villejuif, France.
    Hamer, Mark
    Loughborough Univ Technol, Natl Ctr Sport & Exercise Med, Sch Sport Exercise & Hlth Sci, Loughborough, Leics, England, United Kingdom.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, Bristol, Avon, England, United Kingdom.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Tabak, Adam G.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England, United Kingdom / Semmelweis Univ, Fac Med, Dept Med 1, Budapest, Hungary.
    Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: a multi-cohort study2017Ingår i: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 38, nr 34, s. 2621-2628Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working long hours (>= 55 per week) and those working standard 35-40 h/week. Methods and results In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years) with no recorded atrial fibrillation. Working hours were assessed at study baseline (1991-2004). Mean follow-up for incident atrial fibrillation was 10 years and cases were defined using data on electrocardiograms, hospital records, drug reimbursement registers, and death certificates. We identified 1061 new cases of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI= 1.13-1.80, P= 0.003). There was no significant heterogeneity between the cohort-specific effect estimates (I-2= 0%, P = 0.66) and the finding remained after excluding participants with coronary heart disease or stroke at baseline or during the follow-up (N= 2006, hazard ratio= 1.36, 95% CI= 1.05-1.76, P = 0.0180). Adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as obesity, risky alcohol use and high blood pressure, had little impact on this association. Conclusion Individuals who worked long hours were more likely to develop atrial fibrillation than those working standard hours.

  • 248.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    Clinicum, Faculty of Medicine, and Helsinki Institute of Life Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Clinicum, Faculty of Medicine, and Helsinki Institute of Life Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Batty, G David.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Clinicum, Faculty of Medicine, and Helsinki Institute of Life Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jokela, Markus
    Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Institute of Public Health and Caring Sciences, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden / Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dragano, Nico
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Fransson, Eleonor I.
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden / School of Health and Welfare, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden / Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Inserm UMS 011, Population-Based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France / Versailles St-Quentin University, UMS 011, Villejuif, France.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Division of Health Psychology, SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities in Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland / Administrative Data Research Centre Northern Ireland, Centre for Public Health, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Luukkonen, Ritva
    Clinicum, Faculty of Medicine, and Helsinki Institute of Life Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark / Department of Public Health and Department of Psychology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Siegrist, Johannes
    Institute for Medical Sociology, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom / Inserm UMR 1018, Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Villejuif, France.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland / School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Väänänen, Ari
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter J. M.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zins, Marie
    Inserm UMS 011, Population-Based Epidemiological Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France / Versailles St-Quentin University, UMS 011, Villejuif, France.
    Strandberg, Timo
    Clinicum, Faculty of Medicine, and Helsinki Institute of Life Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland / Department of Internal Medicine, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland / Center for Life Course Health Research, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Steptoe, Andrew
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Deanfield, John
    National Centre for Cardiovascular Prevention and Outcomes, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Work stress and risk of death in men and women with and without cardiometabolic disease: a multicohort study2018Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, ISSN 2213-8587, E-ISSN 2213-8595, Vol. 6, nr 9, s. 705-713, artikel-id S2213-8587(18)30140-2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although some cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines suggest a need to manage work stress in patients with established cardiometabolic disease, the evidence base for this recommendation is weak. We sought to clarify the status of stress as a risk factor in cardiometabolic disease by investigating the associations between work stress and mortality in men and women with and without pre-existing cardiometabolic disease.

    METHODS: In this multicohort study, we used data from seven cohort studies in the IPD-Work consortium, initiated between 1985 and 2002 in Finland, France, Sweden, and the UK, to examine the association between work stress and mortality. Work stress was denoted as job strain or effort-reward imbalance at work. We extracted individual-level data on prevalent cardiometabolic diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, or diabetes [without differentiation by diabetes type]) at baseline. Work stressors, socioeconomic status, and conventional and lifestyle risk factors (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, smoking status, BMI, physical activity, and alcohol consumption) were also assessed at baseline. Mortality data, including date and cause of death, were obtained from national death registries. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to study the associations of work stressors with mortality in men and women with and without cardiometabolic disease.

    RESULTS: We identified 102 633 individuals with 1 423 753 person-years at risk (mean follow-up 13·9 years [SD 3·9]), of whom 3441 had prevalent cardiometabolic disease at baseline and 3841 died during follow-up. In men with cardiometabolic disease, age-standardised mortality rates were substantially higher in people with job strain (149·8 per 10 000 person-years) than in those without (97·7 per 10 000 person-years; mortality difference 52·1 per 10 000 person-years; multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1·68, 95% CI 1·19-2·35). This mortality difference for job strain was almost as great as that for current smoking versus former smoking (78·1 per 10 000 person-years) and greater than those due to hypertension, high total cholesterol concentration, obesity, physical inactivity, and high alcohol consumption relative to the corresponding lower risk groups (mortality difference 5·9-44·0 per 10 000 person-years). Excess mortality associated with job strain was also noted in men with cardiometabolic disease who had achieved treatment targets, including groups with a healthy lifestyle (HR 2·01, 95% CI 1·18-3·43) and those with normal blood pressure and no dyslipidaemia (6·17, 1·74-21·9). In all women and in men without cardiometabolic disease, relative risk estimates for the work stress-mortality association were not significant, apart from effort-reward imbalance in men without cardiometabolic disease (mortality difference 6·6 per 10 000 person-years; multivariable-adjusted HR 1·22, 1·06-1·41).

    INTERPRETATION: In men with cardiometabolic disease, the contribution of job strain to risk of death was clinically significant and independent of conventional risk factors and their treatment, and measured lifestyle factors. Standard care targeting conventional risk factors is therefore unlikely to mitigate the mortality risk associated with job strain in this population.

    FUNDING: NordForsk, UK Medical Research Council, and Academy of Finland.

  • 249.
    Kivimäki, Mika
    et al.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England / Univ Helsinki, Clinicum, Finland /Univ Helsinki, Helsinki Inst Life Sci, Finland.
    Singh-Manoux, Archana
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, England / INSERM, U1153, Epidemiol Ageing & Neurodegenerat Dis, Paris, France.
    Pentti, Jaana
    Univ Helsinki, Clinicum, Finland / Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Finland.
    Sabia, Séverine
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, England / INSERM, U1153, Epidemiol Ageing & Neurodegenerat Dis, Paris, France.
    Nyberg, Solja T.
    Univ Helsinki, Clinicum, Finland.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    INSERM, UMS 011, Populat Based Epidemiol Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Koskenvuo, Markku
    Univ Helsinki, Clinicum, Finland.
    Koskinen, Aki
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kouvonen, Anne
    Univ Helsinki, Fac Social Sci, Finland / SWPS Univ Social Sci & Humanities Wroclaw, Poland / Queens Univ Belfast, Ctr Publ Hlth, Adm Data Res Ctr Northern Ireland, Belfast, Antrim, North Ireland.
    Nordin, Maria
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Sweden / Umea Univ, Dept Psychol, Sweden.
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Strandberg, Timo
    Univ Helsinki, Clinicum, Finland / Helsinki Univ Hosp, Finland / Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Finland.
    Suominen, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Finland.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Sweden.
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Univ Turku, Dept Publ Hlth, Finland / Turku Univ Hosp, Finland.
    Väänanen, Ari
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Virtanen, Marianna
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Educ Sci & Psychol, Joensuu, Finland.
    Westerholm, Peter
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Sweden.
    Zins, Marie
    INSERM, UMS 011, Populat Based Epidemiol Cohorts Unit, Villejuif, France.
    Seshadri, Sudha
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr San Antonio, Glenn Biggs Inst Alzheimers & Neurodegenerat Dis, San Antonio, TX 78229 USA / Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA USA.
    Batty, G. David
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England.
    Sipilä, Pyry N.
    Univ Bristol, Bristol Med Sch, Populat Hlth Sci, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Shipley, Martin J.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England.
    Lindbohm, Joni V.
    Univ Helsinki, Clinicum, Finland.
    Ferrie, Jane E.
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London WC1E 6BT, England / Univ Bristol, Bristol Med Sch, Populat Hlth Sci, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Jokela, Markus
    Univ Helsinki, Biomedicum, Fac Med, Finland.
    Physical inactivity, cardiometabolic disease, and risk of dementia: an individual-participant meta-analysis2019Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 365, artikel-id l1495Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether physical inactivity is a risk factor for dementia, with attention to the role of cardiometabolic disease in this association and reverse causation bias that arises from changes in physical activity in the preclinical (prodromal) phase of dementia. DESIGN Meta-analysis of 19 prospective observational cohort studies. DATA SOURCES The Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium, the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research, and the UK Data Service, including a total of 19 of a potential 9741 studies. REVIEW METHOD The search strategy was designed to retrieve individual-participant data from prospective cohort studies. Exposure was physical inactivity; primary outcomes were incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease; and the secondary outcome was incident cardiometabolic disease (that is, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke). Summary estimates were obtained using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS Study population included 404 840 people (mean age 45.5 years, 57.7% women) who were initially free of dementia, had a measurement of physical inactivity at study entry, and were linked to electronic health records. In 6.0 million person-years at risk, we recorded 2044 incident cases of all-cause dementia. In studies with data on dementia subtype, the number of incident cases of Alzheimer's disease was 1602 in 5.2 million person-years. When measured < 10 years before dementia diagnosis (that is, the preclinical stage of dementia), physical inactivity was associated with increased incidence of all-cause dementia (hazard ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.71) and Alzheimer's disease (1.36, 1.12 to 1.65). When reverse causation was minimised by assessing physical activity >= 10 years before dementia onset, no difference in dementia risk between physically active and inactive participants was observed (hazard ratios 1.01 (0.89 to 1.14) and 0.96 (0.85 to 1.08) for the two outcomes). Physical inactivity was consistently associated with increased risk of incident diabetes (hazard ratio 1.42, 1.25 to 1.61), coronary heart disease (1.24, 1.13 to 1.36), and stroke (1.16, 1.05 to 1.27). Among people in whom cardiometabolic disease preceded dementia, physical inactivity was non-significantly associated with dementia (hazard ratio for physical activity assessed > 10 before dementia onset 1.30, 0.79 to 2.14). CONCLUSIONS In analyses that addressed bias due to reverse causation, physical inactivity was not associated with all-cause dementia or Alzheimer's disease, although an indication of excess dementia risk was observed in a subgroup of physically inactive individuals who developed cardiometabolic disease.

  • 250.
    Kjellsdotter, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Lantz, Björn
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ottosson, Cornelia
    Division of Neonatology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Healthcare Professionals' Views on Parental Participation in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units2018Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 41, nr S1, s. 3-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the associations between age, gender, and profession in relation to the perceived importance of parental participation in Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

    DESIGN AND METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional design was used. Participants were recruited consecutively from all 40 existing NICU units in Sweden. A total of 443 healthcare professionals (372 nurses and 71 physicians) participated in the study. Participants completed the Swedish version of the Empowerment of Parents in the Intensive Care-Neonatology (EMPATHIC-N) questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analyses.

    RESULTS: The findings indicated that profession and age, but not gender, had an overall perceived importance on how nurses and physicians rated specific aspects of parental participation in NICUs.

    CONCLUSIONS: Being a nurse, compared to a physician, was associated with an increase in overall perceived importance of parental participation in NICUs. These differences may affect and may be crucial for how parents take a part in the care of their infant and also for how they adapt to the parental role.

    PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Nurses and physicians require education and training that support parental participation based on age and their different roles, rather than simply conveying information about the technical medical aspects of NICU care. For a sustainable outcome all team members should be invited to discuss cases from their perspectives.

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