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  • 201.
    Bi, Z. M.
    et al.
    Queen's University Belfast, UK.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Design of a Cobot with Three Omni-Wheels2009In: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing / [ed] Farhad Nabhani, Catherine Frost, Sara Zarei, Munir Ahmad, William. G. Sullivan, Gemini International Ltd , 2009, p. 360-367Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robots (Cobots) have been proposed to guide and assist human operators to move heavy objects in a given trajectory. Most of the existing cobots us steering wheels; typical drawbacks of using steering wheels include (i) the difficulty to follow a trajectory with a curvature larger than that of the base platform, (ii) the difficulty to mount encoders on steering wheels due to self-spinning of the wheels, and (iii) the difficulty to quarantine dynamic control performance since it is purely kinematic control. In this paper, a new cobot with the omni-wheels has been proposed, and its design model has been developed, and a simulation has been conducted to validate this control performance.

  • 202.
    Bi, Z. M.
    et al.
    Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Energy Modeling of Machine Tools for Optimization of Machine Setups2012In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 607-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a new energy model is developed based on the kinematic and dynamic behaviors of a chosen machine tool. One significant benefit of the developed energy model is their inherited relationship to the design variables involved in the manufacturing processes. Without radical changes of the machine tool’s structure, the proposed model can be readily applied to optimize process parameters to reduce energy consumption. A new parallel kinematic machine Exechon is used as a case study to demonstrate the modeling procedure. The derived energy model is then used for simulation of drilling operations on aircraft components to verify its feasibility. Simulation results indicate that the developed energy model has led to an optimized machine setup which only consumes less than one-third of the energy of an average machine setup over the workspace. This approach can be extended and applied to other machines to establish their energy models for green and sustainable manufacturing.

  • 203.
    Bi, Z. M.
    et al.
    Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Feasibility Study on a Collaborative Robot with Omni-wheels2010In: Proceedings of the 12th Mechatronics Forum Biennial International Conference / [ed] Thomas Kennel, Zürich: IWF Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing , 2010, p. 114-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robotics has brought radical changes to maximise the productivity of modern manufacturing. However, a full  automation  is  not  always  advantageous;  sometimes  robots  and  human  being  must  work  together  in  a shared  environment  to  meet  specific  requirements.  A  robot  used  in  a  collaborative  environment  is  a collaborative robot. In this paper, a collaborative robot to assist human being’s locomotion is considered: omni-wheels  are  used  to  increase  the  flexibility  and  mobility  of  the  robot  and  they  are  controlled dynamically  to  confine  the  robot  in  a  prescribed  trajectory.  The  new  control  algorithms  are  developed  to meet the following challenges (a) unpredictable driving force from a human operator; (b) the rotation of an omni-wheel along two axes but with one independent motion; and (c) the strongly-coupled kinematics and dynamics of the mobile robot.

  • 204.
    Bi, Z. M.
    et al.
    Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne, USA.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Optimal design of reconfigurable parallel machining systems2009In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 951-961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reconfigurable machining system is usually a modularized system, and its configuration design concerns the selections of modules and the determination of geometric dimensions in some specific modules. All of its design perspectives from kinematics, dynamics, and control have to be taken into considerations simultaneously, and a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) tool is required to support the configuration design process. This paper presents a new MDO tool for reconfigurable machining systems, and it includes the following works: (i) the literatures on the computer-aided design of reconfigurable parallel machining systems have been reviewed with a conclusion that the multidisciplinary design optimization is essential, but no comprehensive design tool is available to reconfigurable parallel machining systems; (ii) a class of reconfigurable systems called reconfigurable tripod-based machining system has been introduced, its reconfiguration problem is identified, and the corresponding design criteria have been discussed; (iii) design analysis in all of the disciplines including kinematics, dynamics, and control have been taken into considerations, and design models have been developed to evaluate various design candidates; in particular, the innovative solutions to direct kinematics, stiffness analysis for the design configurations of tripod-based machines with a passive leg, and concise dynamic modelling have been provided; and (iv) A design optimization approach is proposed to determine the best solution from all possible configurations. Based on the works presented in this paper, a computer-aided design and control tool have been implemented to support the system reconfiguration design and control processes. Some issues relevant to the practical implementation have also been discussed.

  • 205.
    Bi, Z. M.
    et al.
    Department of Engineering, Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne, IN, USA.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Optimization of machining processes from the perspective of energy consumption: A case study2012In: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 420-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the primary objectives of sustainable manufacturing is to minimize energy consumption in its manufacturing processes. A strategy of energy saving is to adapt new materials or new processes; but its implementation requires radical changes of the manufacturing system and usually a heavy initial investment. The other strategy is to optimize existing manufacturing processes from the perspective of energy saving. However, an explicit relational model between machining parameters and energy cost is required; while most of the works in this field treat the manufacturing processes as black or gray boxes. In this paper, analytical energy modeling for the explicit relations of machining parameters and energy consumption is investigated, and the modeling method is based on the kinematic and dynamic behaviors of chosen machine tools. The developed model is applied to optimize the  machine setup for energy saving. A new parallel kinematic machine Exechon is used to demonstrate the procedure of energy modeling. The simulation results indicate that the optimization can result in 67% energy saving for the specific drilling operation of the given machine tool. This approach can be extended and applied to other machines to establish their energy models for sustainable manufacturing.

  • 206.
    Bi, Z. M.
    et al.
    Indiana University - Purdue University of Fort Wayne, USA.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Visualisation and Verification of Communication Protocols for Networked Distributed Systems2010In: Enterprise Networks and Logistics for Agile Manufacturing / [ed] Lihui Wang, S. C. Lenny Koh, London: Springer, 2010, p. 333-357Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The successful design and application of a large and complex manufacturing system relies not only  on  the  maturity  of  its  fundamental  design,  but  also  on  the  technologies  for  seamless integration  and  coordination  of  system  components,  since  a  large  manufacturing  or  logistic system  often  adopts  a  decentralised  control  architecture  to  manage  its  complexity.  System components  are  usually  distributed;  their  behaviours  are  enacted  locally  and  autonomously. The control objective at the system-level is achieved by the executions of the sub-objectives at the component level, subjected to the condition that the controls of the sub-systems have to be coordinated via effective communication. In developing algorithms for communication and coordination  of  a  networked  distributed  system,  algorithm  verification  is  complicated  and trivial,  due  to  the  invisible  information  system.  In  this  chapter,  we  propose  to  use  the conventional   simulation   tool,   Deneb/QUEST,   for   modelling   and   visualisation   of   the coordinating  behaviours.  Its  vivid  graphical  environment  can  be  a  great  assistance  in accelerating  software  debugging  and  verification  and  in  reducing  the  time  for  software development. General architecture of a networked distribute system is introduced, the system components  are  analysed,  and  the  correspondences  between  these  components  and  QUEST elements  are  established.  A  case  study  for  the  verification  of  ring  extrema  determination (RED) algorithm is used as an example to illustrate the general procedure and the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  • 207.
    Bi, Z.M.
    et al.
    Indiana University Purdue University Fort Wayne.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Dynamic control model of a cobot with three omni-wheels2010In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 558-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a new collaborative robot with omni-wheels has been proposed and its dynamic control has been developed and validated. Collaborative robots (Cobots) have been introduced to guide and assist human operators to move heavy objects in a given trajectory. Most of the existing cobots use steering wheels; typical drawbacks of using steering wheels include the difficulties to (i) follow a trajectory with a curvature larger than that of the base platform, (ii) mount encoders on steering wheels due to self-spinning of the wheels, and (iii) quarantine dynamic control performance since it is purely kinematic  control.  The  new  collaborative  robot  is  proposed  to  overcome  the  above-mentioned shortcomings. The methodologies for its dynamic control are focused and the simulation has been conducted to validate the control performance of the system.

  • 208.
    Bialecki, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Olofsson, Markus
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Skatteundandraganden i kontantbranschen: En studie om hur Skatteverket upptäcker skatteundandragande och vilka åtgärder de vidtar2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skatteundandraganden inom kontantbranschen är ett stort problem. Restaurangbranschen är den bransch som är mest drabbad men det förekommer även i taxi- och frisörbranschen. Med kontantbranschen avses en verksamhet, där det mest förekommer kontanter och där köparna oftast inte har något intresse av kvitto. Syftet med denna uppsats har varit att ta reda på hur Skatteverket får kännedom om ett eventuellt skatteundandragande inom kontantbranschen. Utifrån den kännedomen har det varit intressant att även undersöka vilka åtgärder Skatteverket vidtar därefter.

    Skatteverket får reda på skatteundandraganden på en mängd olika sätt exempelvis genom att företaget inte fört personalliggare eller att skatterevisorerna fått in orena revisionsberättelser av de externa revisorerna eller genom anonyma tips från allmänheten. Skatteverket kan även genom kund- respektive kontanträkning hitta felaktigheter i företagens redovisning. Skatteverket kan genom en skatterevision avgöra om felaktigheterna har skett genom misstag och okunskap, eller om det har skett på ett avsiktligt sätt, för att företaget skall kunna stoppa undan kontanter som egentligen skall beskattas. Beror felen på avsiktlighet från företagets sida har de begått ett brott och skatterevisorn skall genast göra en anmälan till EBM.

    Genom att intervjua tre skatterevisorer samt två skatteinformatörer, har slutsatser kunnat dras att Skatteverkets arbete för att försöka bekämpa skatteundandraganden är mycket omfattande. Skatteverket har olika metoder de kan använda sig av för att försöka upptäcka skatteundandraganden. Det senaste är att det kommer en ny lag år 2010 som kräver att alla företag som säljer varor och tjänster mot kontant betalning skall ha certifierade kassaregister och då kommer Skatteverket ytterliggare ett steg närmare fusket inom framförallt restaurangbranschen som är den bransch där det förekommer mest skattefusk.

  • 209.
    Biel, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Cohesive laws for adhesives at repeated loading: an experimental methodManuscript (Other academic)
  • 210.
    Biel, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Constitutive behaviour and fracture toughness of an adhesive layer2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the fracture energy and the complete stress – elongation relation for a structural adhesive loaded in modus I. The experiments are performed on the Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen and the method to analyse the experiments is based on the J-integral approach which means that the energy release rate, i.e. J, is measured continuously during an experiment. Since J is given by the area under the stress – elongation relation for the adhesive layer, both the fracture energy and the stress – elongation relation can be measured in the experiments. The geometry of the specimens is varied in order to examine if the evaluated stress – elongation relation is a unique constitutive relation for the adhesive layer. No dependence on the specimen geometry has been detected provided that the adherends only deform elastically. If the adherends are allowed to deform plastically the fracture energy increases and the stress – elongation relation from the elastically deforming tests cannot be used to simulate the structural behaviour. This is interpreted as an effect of a substantially shorter damage zone with the plastically deforming adherends. An evaluation of effects of the loading rate is also performed. This shows that the fracture energy increases with the loading rate. A number of standardized methods are available to evaluate the fracture properties of adhesives from experiments on the DCB-specimen. Furthermore, alternative methods have recently been suggested by Tamuzs et al. (2003). In an effort to examine the accuracy of the alternative methods, FE-simulations are performed and evaluated according to the alternative methods. The simulations are based on the stress – elongation relation evaluated from the present experiments. Large differences between the correct and the evaluated fracture energies are found for most of the methods. Two of the methods show good accuracy and appear particularly promising. Stress whitening is used to evaluate the length of the damage zone. This length compares reasonably well with the length evaluated from FE-simulations of the experiments.

  • 211.
    Biel, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Mechanical behaviour of adhesive layers: experimental methods, cohesive laws, and fracture mechanics2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesive joining is today viewed as one of the key technologies to achieve decreased emissions in the automobile industry. To decrease weight, optimal material selection often results in different materials for different parts. This leads to the necessity to join mixed material. Here, the use of adhesives is the most promising joining technology. For a rational design process, good models for strength analysis of adhesively joined structures are essential. With cohesive modelling, fracture of the adhesive layer is modelled with a stress-deformation law. This law - often denoted a cohesive law - gives the traction exerted on the adherends due to the deformation of the adhesive layer. This thesis is concerned with experimental methods to measure cohesive properties of engineering adhesives and standardized methods to measure the fracture energy of adhesives. A new method to measure cohesive laws is developed. With this method, the cohesive law of an epoxy adhesive is measured in shear. In peel loading, with elastically deforming adherends, the cohesive law is shown to be independent of the geometry of the specimen. If the adherends deform plastically the fracture energy increases. Experiments are performed in order to determine the temperature dependence of the cohesive layer for an epoxy adhesive. It is shown that the peak stress is strongly dependent on the temperature while the fracture energy shows only small temperature dependence. Experiments are also performed to study the influence of strain rate in peel and shear loading. The experiments show that the peak stress increases with an increasing strain rate and that the fracture energy increase in peel loading and decreases in shear with increasing strain rate. A new method to experimentally determine the relation between damage and plasticity in the adhesive during the fracture process is developed. For the present adhesive, it is shown that only minor plasticity occurs during the fracture process in peel loading. For peel, several commonly used methods to evaluate the fracture energy using the double cantilever beam specimen are critically studied. For some methods the error in evaluated fracture energy is larger than 40 %. It is shown that the evaluated fracture energy is more dependent on the choice of method than on the cohesive properties of the adhesive layer.

  • 212.
    Biel, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Carlberger, Thomas
    SAAB Automobile AB, SE-461 80 Trollhättan, SWEDEN .
    Influence of temperature on cohesive parameters for adhesives2007In: Interface design of polymer matrix composites: mechanics, chemistry, modelling and manufacturing / [ed] B. F. Sørensen, L. P. Mikkelsen, H. Lilholt, S. Goutianos, F. S. Abdul-Mahdi, 2007, p. 143-148Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments are performed to evaluate the temperature dependence of the stress-elongation relation for an engineering epoxy adhesive. Seven temperatures from -40ºC to 80ºC are considered. At each temperature, about seven experiments are performed with a double cantilever beam specimen. The experiments are evaluated using an inverse solution. The results show that the peak stress decreases monotonically with temperature, from about 55 MPa at -40ºC to about 11 MPa at 80ºC. Thus, the shape of the stress-elongation relation varies with the temperature. At higher temperatures, the fracture energy decreases slightly.

  • 213.
    Biel, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Carlberger, Thomas
    Influences of temperature on cohesive parameters for adhesives2007In: Proceedings of the 28th Risø International Symposium on Materials Science, Risö national laboratory , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments are performed to evaluate the temperature dependence of the stress-elongation relation for an engineering epoxy adhesive. Seven temperatures from -40ºC to 80ºC are considered. At each temperature, about seven experiments are performed with a double cantilever beam specimen. The experiments are evaluated using an inverse solution. The results show that the peak stress decreases monotonically with temperature, from about 55 MPa at -40ºC to about 11 MPa at 80ºC. Thus, the shape of the stress-elongation relation varies with the temperature. At higher temperatures, the fracture energy decreases slightly.

  • 214.
    Biel, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Stigh, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    An analysis of the evaluation of the fracture energy using the DCB-specimen2007In: Archives of Mechanics, ISSN 0373-2029, Vol. 59, no 4-5, p. 311-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The methods to estimate the fracture energy using DCB-specimens as advocated in common standards. For instance, ASTM D 3433 and BS 7991:2001 are based on a compliance method, i.e. on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). Since the mechanical properties of almost all adhesives are non-linear, errors are generated. In some of the standards, the non-linear behaviour is compensated for by the use of correction terms generated from the experiments. An analysis of the methods of evaluation the fracture energy from experiments is performed. This analysis is performed first by simulating an experiment using realistic data for an engineering adhesive and then, by analysing the results with different methods. In this way, the correct fracture energy is known beforehand and the error in the evaluated fracture energy can be determined. In the present work it is shown that the magnitude of this error depends on the length of the crack. The results show that some commonly  used methods generate substantial errors when a large region of non-linear deformation precedes the crack tip. It is also shown that methods based on nonlinear fracture methods do not produce this kind of error.

  • 215.
    Biel, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Stigh, Ulf
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Damage and plasticity in adhesive layer: an experimental study2010In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673, Vol. 165, no 1, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental method is developed to identify a suitable model of in-elastic behaviour of an adhesive layer. Two prototype models are considered: an elastic-plastic model where the in-elasticity is considered due to permanent straining of the adhesive and an elastic-damage model where the in-elasticity is due to a reduction in elastic stiffness. Simulations show that the evaluated property is sensitive to the choice of model. In the experimental study of an engineering epoxy adhesive, the elastic-damage model fits the experiments. The study also reveals that plasticity and damage accumulated at the crack tip influences the evaluated fracture properties.

  • 216.
    Biel, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Stigh, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Damage and plasticity of adhesive layers: an experimental study2011In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 10, p. 2280-2285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time independent inelasticity is often modelled as due to plasticity and/or damage. The difference is manifested at reversed loading; plasticity reveals itself by a remaining strain in the unloaded state while damage is revealed by a decrease in the elastic stiffness during unloading. With thin adhesive layers, the deformation is inhomogeneously distributed along the layer. Large deformations occur at the ends of the layer. In the more central parts, the layer is virtually undeformed. This makes a direct measurement of the unloading properties virtually impossible. In the present paper, novel experiments are performed in order to evaluate the inelastic properties of epoxy adhesives. The load is first increased to a level corresponding to 50, 60, 70 or 80% of the fracture energy. The load is then reversed. The first step creates a zone of inelastically deformed adhesive at the start of the layer. During a final loading phase, the properties of this zone are analysed. Major differences due to the loading direction are observed. Some comparisons with simulation models are performed.

  • 217.
    Biel, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Stigh, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Effects of constitutive parameters on the accuracy of measured fracture energy using the DCB-specimen2008In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 75, no 10, p. 2968-2983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several methods exist to estimate the fracture energy for adhesive joints using the double cantilever beam specimen and linear elastic fracture mechanics. Since the mechanical properties of all adhesives are non-linear, errors are generated. By use of an exact solution experiments are simulated. These are evaluated with eight different methods. The influence of the constitutive parameters is systematically studied. This influence is small for most methods. The error due to the choice of evaluation method is considerably larger. One of the commonly used methods gives accurate results; the error is less than 3%. However, most methods yield substantial errors.

  • 218.
    Biel, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Stigh, Ulf
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Walander, Tomas
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    A Critical Study of an Alternative Method to Measure Cohesive Properties of Adhesive Layers2012In: Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Fracture, Kazan Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A perfect experiment is only sensitive to the properties to be analysed. However, evaluation of experimental results is always based on assumptions. Depending on the assumptions, the derived results are more or less correct. In this paper a method based on linear elastic fracture mechanics is compared to a method based on the path independence of the J-integral and the assumptions of the existence of a cohesive zone. Contrary to the other methods, the J-integral method only rests on the assumption that the material of the specimen has a strain energy density that not explicitly depends on the position in the direction of crack propagation. That is, the conditions for J to be path independent. Evaluation of simulated experiments gives the exact value of the fracture energy. The alternative method is based on linear elastic fracture mechanics. Contrary to the conventional methods we use an expression where the crack length is eliminated in favour of the flexibility of the specimen.

    Influences of assumptions are studied both experimentally and numerically. Differences in stiffness are achieved by changing the type of adhesive and the layer thickness. Two different adhesives are studied. One is a modern crash resistant epoxy adhesive, SikaPower-498. This is a relatively stiff and tough adhesive. The other adhesive is a soft and extremely tough polyurethane based adhesive, Sikaflex-UHM. Two layer thicknesses are tested; 1.0 mm for the epoxy and 3.0 mm for the polyurethane based adhesive. The results show that the two methods give similar results for the thinner and stiffer epoxy adhesive but differences are recorded for the soft polyurethane based adhesive. This analysis gives a better understanding of the evaluation methods and their limitations and possibilities to extract cohesive laws.

  • 219.
    Biel, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Walander, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Stigh, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Influence of Edge-boundaries on the Cohesive Behaviour of an Adhesive Layer2012In: ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, November 9–15, 2012, Houston, Texas, USA: Volume 8: Mechanics of Solids, Structures and Fluids, ASME Press, 2012, p. 507-511Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparison with other adhesives e.g. epoxies, polyurethane adhesives (PUR) are soft. In automotive applications, the thickness of PUR-adhesive layers is between about 2 to 5 mm. Since these adhesives cure by moisture, the width of the joints is limited. Often, the width is only marginally larger than the thickness of the layer. In numerical FE-simulations it is now common to represent epoxy adhesive layers by cohesive elements. With this model, both stress distribution and fracture can be modelled using mesh sizes that allows for large-scale analyses. Material properties are usually the result from experiments with coupon type specimens, e.g. the double cantilever beam specimen (DCB). With PUR-adhesives this approach is problematic. The adhesive is very flexible and effects from the edge-boundaries cannot be ignored. In order to study the influence of the edge-boundaries in peel loading, experiments with the DCB-specimens are performed. Specimens with a layer thickness of 3 mm and three different widths between 10.6 mm to 40.6 mm are studied. The PUR-adhesive SikaFlex-UHM is used. All the experiments are performed at a constant loading rate. The cohesive law is measured. The experimental results show that the maximum peel stress is increasing with an increasing width of the specimen, i.e. when the influences from the edges decrease. When the width increases from 10.6 mm to 40.6 mm, the maximum evaluated peak stress increases from about 5 MPa to about 7 MPa. From visual inspections during the experiments it is conjectured that crack growth starts with voids initiating inside the adhesive. At a critical point, the voids rapidly reach the surface and crack growth starts.

  • 220.
    Bilgiç, Emrah
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Causal relationship between Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth in Turkey2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is a considerable evidence on the link between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and economic growth in developing countries, the causal relationship of these two variables still remains an important question. This study attempts to examine the possible causal relationship between FDI and economic growth in Turkey, during the period 1992 (Quarter 2) – 2006 (Quarter 3). We employed the Johansen Cointegration and Granger Causality tests for detecting the long run or short run causality. Our results showed that there is no long run relationship between the variables, which led us to search the causality in the short run. However we couldn’t find any evidence for a causality running from FDI to economic growth or economic growth to FDI in Turkey.

  • 221.
    Birgersson, Niklas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ekman, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Rättvist ledarskap inom kriminalvården2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att attribuera effekten av rättvist ledarskap på arbetstillfredsställelse då det saknats specifik forskning inom området. Studien genomfördes i ett verksamhetsområde inom kriminalvården. Studien syftade även till att undersöka effekten av rättvist ledarskap på turnover intention och förekomsten av psykosomatiska besvär hos de anställda. Totalt 103 kriminalvårdare besvarade enkäten som mätte ovan nämnda variabler. Resultaten visade ett signifikant positivt samband mellan samtliga former av rättvisa och arbetstillfredsställelse. Resultaten visade vidare ett samband att rättvist ledarskap leder till en minskning av psykosomatiska besvär och minskad grad av turnover intention.

  • 222.
    Björk, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Skoglund, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kundlojalitet: påverkas lojaliteten hos en person med synskador av en dagligvarubutiks butiksmiljö i val av butik?2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att behålla lojala kunder är viktigt för många företag och butiker då de lojala kunderna anses vara mer lönsamma än att rekrytera nya. Det har under senare år ägnats mycket tid att förstå vad som påverkar kunders lojalitet. Uppsatsens undersökning bygger på att beskriva hur lojaliteten hos en person med synskador påverkas av dagligvarubutikernas butiksmiljö i val av butik. Personer med funktionsnedsättning fråntas ofta möjligheter som för andra kunder är självklara genom brister i butiksmiljön. Konsumenterna går till de butiker som inte försvårar deras sätt att utföra sin handel. I och med att kunden också registrerar ett helhetsintryck över företagets värderingar, beteenden och synliga faktorer påverkar detta i valet av butik.

    Uppsatsen har till syfte att genom kvalitativa undersökningsmetoder, öppna individuella intervjuer och butiksobservationer undersöka om lojaliteten hos en person med synskada påverkas av en dagligvarubutiks butiksmiljö i val av butik. Syftet är vidare att beskriva hur personerna påverkas och analysera detta med utgångspunkt från Dick & Basus lojalitetsindelning (Dick AS & Basu, K 1994). I ett större perspektiv syftar uppsatsen till att fungera som underlag och/eller inspiration till butiker som har intresse av att arbeta med butiker som är tillgängliga och anpassade för alla samhällets individer, framförallt synskadade personer.

    Utifrån de resultat studien producerat har vi kommit fram till att svaret på vår undersökning visar sig vara att butikernas miljö spelar roll, i form av att förenkla urvalet av butik vid konsumtion av dagligvaror. Efter att ha analyserat svaren från intervjuerna kan vi konstatera att service från besök i butikerna är det primära i butiksmiljön som påverkar beteendet hos en person med synskada. En god, hjälpsam och kunnig personal tycks vara det som spelar störst roll i beteendet av lojalitet för de synskadade utifrån vår studie. Butiksmiljön spelar också en stor roll, då det är en avgörande faktor i val av butik.

  • 223.
    Björn, Jenny-Ann
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Thörnqvist, Angelica
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Vilken enskild faktor har störst påverkan vid val av dagligvaruhandel?2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many daily purchasing decisions involve purchases for the home and for our daily living. Food, toilet paper and other necessary goods are often purchased at the same store over and over again. For what reason do we return to the store to perform the purchase of what can count as the most regular products we use?This paper focuses on finding differences and similarities between men's and women's shopping behavior and for which reasons they choose to shop at the grocery stores that they have chosen as their primary.To answer the question if men and women indicate the same factor as the most influential factor in the choice of grocery store we conducted two surveys on each 72 respondents. A study was conducted in municipalities with populations between 1,000 - 30 000. Another study was conducted in large cities with populations over 30 000.Based on these studies we have concluded that there are some similarities between male and female shopping behavior, as both men and women believes that the location is the single most influential factor and that the store should be close to home, but also the differences that men are not as price sensitive as women or that they prefer to spend less time in the grocery stores.

  • 224.
    Björnsson, Berit
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Finns en bank även för kvinnor?: Småföretagares erfarenheter av rådgivningsmöten i bank2003In: Småföretaget och kapitalet: svensk forskning kring små företags finansiering / [ed] Hans Landström, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2003, 1, p. 134-150Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 225.
    Björnsson, Berit
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Counselling encounters between banks and entrepreneurs: a gender perspective2005In: International Journal of Bank Marketing, ISSN 0265-2323, E-ISSN 1758-5937, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 444-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – To examine how customers, both men and women entrepreneurs, perceive service quality of the latest counselling encounters with their banks, and to find out if men and women differ in their satisfaction for two or more counselling encounters.

    Design/methodology/approach – A combination of research methods is used. First, data have been collected through focus-groups interviews in a pilot-study; second, data have been collected through a survey study. The focus is on perceived service quality and customer satisfaction and further business, personal and situational factors are included. A total of 215 women and 487 men participated in the survey.

    Findings – There are few gender-related significant differences among women and men in their perceptions of service quality, and no signs which indicate that women perceive the service quality as less good. One group of women, in retail services, has perceived the service quality as being significantly different and positive compared with a group of men. Further, there are no gender-related significant differences between women and men regarding customer satisfaction. Another result is that significant differences are observed between one group of women and one group of men depending on the place where the parties met. The encounters took place more often in the women customers' office or somewhere else outside the bank.

    Originality/value – This paper shows that the belief that women as business owners, in general, are discriminated against by financial institutions is a myth rather than a reality.

  • 226.
    Blake, Christopher
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Östman, Britt-Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Relationer och projekt: En studie av det mellanmänskliga i det rationella2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Projects are often spoken of in the terms of rational systems. However, some researchers point out the relevance of viewing projects as sets of relationships. Little is published about what aspects of relationships that are important for the managing of projects. We have argued for the necessity of such research. With previous research, our case study and interviews we indentified communication, responsibility, cooperation, togetherness and trust as important relational aspects in projects.

    The overall perceived success for projects in this case, was increased with the adoption of new agile methods. These new methods clearly favored communication and togetherness. We wish to present a perspective that will view projects as people and their relationships.

  • 227.
    Blom, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Varumärkesidentitetens betydelse för relationen mellan leverantör och butik2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever i ett samhälle där vi ständigt står inför nya bemötanden, där kläder bland annat används för att för att uttrycka intressen, åsikter och attityder till människor i vår omgivning. För att uttrycka sin livsstil lägger konsumenter större vikt vid sådant som tilltalar deras känslor vid köpbeslut, vilket medfört att varumärkesinnehavare anspelar på olika känslor för att differentiera sig mot andra märken. Varumärkesinnehavarna skapar en egen identitet som skall särskilja dem från andra. Butiker kan med hjälp av varumärkenas differentiering vända sig mot ett ofta nischat segment vilket är kunder som efterfrågar en viss typ av varumärken. Jag har varit intresserad av att undersöka hur relationen mellan en butik och en leverantör påverkas av varumärkesidentitet. Jag har därför samarbetat med grosister, varumärkesinnehavare och butiker för att besvara uppsatsens frågeställning "vilken betydelse har varumärkesidentitet har för relationen mellan leverantör och butik." I uppsatsen redovisas resultatet från mina intervjuer vilket bland annat visar att butiker har en viktig roll i att kommunicera varumärkesidentitet vidare till slutkonsumenten, men också vad märkesinnehavarna på grund av varumärkesidentiteten ser över innan en butik får representera varumärket.

  • 228.
    Blomquist, Yohan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Savas, Emel
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Spång, Michaela
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ledarskapsstilar: En jämförelse av ledarskapsstilar inom privat och offentlig sektor2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport fokuserar på vilka skillnader och likheter det finns mellan ledarskapsstilar inom privat och offentlig sektor. Rapporten använder sig av ett statistiskt underlag som tagits fram med hjälp av beteendeprofileringsverktyget Interpersonal Dynamics Inventory (IDI). Dessutom har ett flertal intervjuer genomförts med utvalda ledare inom privat och offentlig sektor. Rapporten undersöker vilka ledarskapstilar som finns och vilka som är vanligast förekommande. Rapporten tar även upp viktiga faktorer som skiljer den privata sektorn från den offentliga.

    Syftet med denna rapport är att identifiera skillnader och likheter vad gäller ledarskapsstilar inom privat och offentlig sektor. Dessutom redogör rapporten för ett antal orsaker som bidrar att det finns skillnader och likheter mellan de båda sektorerna. Den teoretiska referensramen utgår från teorier som fokuserar på traditionella ledarskapsstilar och vad som omfattas av privat respektive offentlig sektor, dessa jämförs i sin tur med statistik och intervjuer.

    Undersökningen visade att skillnaderna mellan privat och offentlig sektor inte var stora vad gäller ledarskapsstilar. Samma typ av ledarstil var vanligast bland chefer oavsett vilken sektor som granskades.

  • 229.
    Blomé, Mikael
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hanson, Lars
    Lund University.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Jönsson, Maria
    Arjo R&D Center.
    Lundström, Daniel
    CARAN AB .
    Lämkull, Dan
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Visualisation of Human Characteristics in Vehicle and Health Care Product Development2007In: 2007 year’s SIGRAD conference: Uppsala University, 2007, November 29-30, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2007, p. 31-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the research project described in this paper is to improve the efficiency of product development processes by exchanging knowledge and experiences about user centred design methods and technologies between the two branches: vehicle and health care industries. The health care industry can benefit from visualisation and simulation tools that include computer manikins, a physical representation of the human, and the vehicle industry can benefit from manikins having personal characteristics, which has proven to be successful in the health care industry.

  • 230.
    Bobar, Amela
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Caperman, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The phenomenon of motivation within an employment & staffing company: A qualitative study at Proffice2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study concerns motivation to work and aims to contribute to a better understanding about the area. Motivation is however complex to understand. The complexity can be illustrated by, still to date there exists no single accepted definition about the meaning of motivation. As long as motivation means different things it will be a difficult area to study.

    Since individuals have different needs and are motivated by different factors, makes the area even more complex to study. Since money makes it possible to acquire different things and satisfy some of the human needs, it is also considered by some to be motivating, why we chose to include wage in our study as well.

    The study has been applied to an employment & staffing companym, to contribute with a better understanding about motivation in this kind of company in practice since the working conditions differ somewhat from a traditional employment where individuals work directly for their employer.

    Problem area: -What motivates individuals to work for an employment & staffing company?

    - What effect does the wage have on employee motivation in an employment & staffing company?

    Purpose: The purpose with the study is to gain a better understanding about motivation to work and the relationship between wage and motivation in an employment and staffing company.

    Method: We chose to conduct a qualitative study at Proffice where we interviewed four permanently employed consultants.

    Conclusions: Individuals have different needs and are motivated by different things which makes it difficult to draw general conclusion about motivation. The individuals in this particular study were pleased with the variation of jobs since it allowed them to develop and learn new things which in turn can be motivating. The factors that the individuals were unsatisfied with were the lack of security with the employment and the social relations to colleagues and employer, aspects that in turn can have a negative effect on motivation when not satisfied.

    Despite that the majority of the individuals in the study were dissatisfied with the wage it did not seem to have a negative effect on their performance since they would not been able to remain for such a long time at their current mission if they had not performed well at the job. Although the dissatisfaction seemed to have a negative effect on motivation to stay within the employment & staffing company in the long run.

    Recommendations for further studies: Further studies on the subject could be performed using other methods to conduct the research since the results are very much dependent on the methods used. Another approach could be to include respondents from other offices. Since we only included permanently employed respondents the study could also be further developed by involving probationary employed.

  • 231.
    Boers, Börje
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Jönköping International Business School.
    The codetermined family business: a paradox?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work in progress paper introduces codetermination as phenomenon to the family business field. The study aims at exploring the role of employee-representatives in boards of non-listed family businesses and thereby contributes to understanding ownership and governance processes in family businesses.

  • 232.
    Bohlin, R.
    et al.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Delfs, N.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Carlson, J. S.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Automatic creation of virtual manikin motions maximizing comfort in manual assembly processes2012In: Technologies and Systems for Assembly Quality, Productivity and Customization: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP Conference on Assembly Technologies and Systems / [ed] S. Jack Hu, Conference on Assembly Technologies & Systems (CIRP), 2012, p. 209-212Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective simulation of manual assembly operations considering ergonomic load and clearance demands requires detailed modeling of human body kinematics and motions, as well as a tight coupling to powerful algorithms for collision-free path planning. The focus in this paper is a unified solution that automatically creates assembly motions for manikins taking kinematic constraints, balance, contact forces, collision avoidance and comfort into account. The manikin used in this work has 162 degrees of freedom - six exterior fictitious joints determine the position of the lower lumbar and the remaining ones are interior joints. The inverse kinematic problem leads to an underdetermined system allowing us to pick a solution that maximizes a scalar valued comfort function. The comfort function offers a generic way to give preference to certain poses while avoiding others, typically by considering joint limits, forces and moments on joints, and magnitude of contact forces. In order to avoid collisions, poses close to collision are penalized. The method is implemented and demonstrated on two challenging assembly operations taken from the automotive industry.

  • 233.
    Bohlin, Robert
    et al.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics.
    Hanson, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Carlson, J. S.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics.
    Unified solution of manikin physics and positioning - Exterior root by introduction of extra parameters2011In: Proceedings of DHM, First International Symposium on Digital Human Modeling, Université Claude Bernard Lyon , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulating manual assembly operations considering ergonomic load and clearance demands requires detailed modeling of human body kinematics and motions, as well as a tight coupling to powerful algorithms for collision-free path planning. The focus in this paper is kinematics including balance and contact forces, and ergonomically preferable motions in free space. A typical manikin has more than 100 degrees of freedom. To describe operations and facilitate motion generation, the manikin is equipped with coordinate frames attached to end-effectors like hands and feet. The inverse kinematic problem is to find joint values such that the position and orientation of hands and feet matches certain target frames during an assembly motion. This inverse problem leads to an underdetermined system of equations since the number of joints exceeds the end-effectors' constraints. Due to this redundancy there exist a set of solutions, allowing us to consider ergonomics aspects and maximizing comfort when choosing one solution.The most common approach to handle both forward and inverse kinematics is building a hierarchy of joints and links where one root must be defined. A popular place to define the root is in a body part, e.g. in a foot. This leads to a two-step procedure; (i) one level determining when to re-root when moving the root part, (ii) then the Penrose pseudoinverse is used to match the end-effectors' constraints.In this paper we propose using a fixed exterior root by introducing six additional parameters positioning the lower lumbar - three rotations and three translations. This makes it possible to reposition the manikin without a series of re-rooting operations. Another important aspect is to keep the manikin, affected by internal and external forces and moments, in balance. However, by utilizing the exterior root and its added degrees of freedom it is possible to solve the balance, positioning, contact force and comfort problems simultaneously in a unified way. A manikin was implemented, and two test cases demonstrate the applicability of the presented method.

  • 234.
    Bolin, Joakim
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ljung, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Målstyrning i skolan: En fallstudie i gymnasieskolan2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och problemformulering: År 1990 fastställdes beslut om den s.k. ansvarsprincipen för skolan. Syftet med denna ansvarsprincip var att tydliggöra ansvarsfördelningen inom skolan samt att målstyrning skall användas. Staten skall se till att utbildningen i landet är likvärdig och av hög kvalitet genom att sätta nationella riktlinjer och mål. Kommunerna har stor frihet att själva utveckla skolverksamheten inom de lagar och riktlinjer som fastställts av regering och riksdag. Skolenheterna i sin tur skall forma innehållet och strukturen för skolarbetet, utifrån de nationella målen och riktlinjer samt de förutsättningar som råder inom kommunen. Lärare och rektorer skall även bryta ner de övergripande målen och precisera de till sin egen verksamhet. Denna decentralisering av skolan har komplicerat styrningen av skolan ytterligare. Skolan formas idag av nationella politiker, kommunala politiker och professionella aktörer. Dessa mål, normer och styrsignaler från olika håll kan vara svåra att förena och det leder till skilda tolkningar. Utifrån detta har vi kommit fram till följande problemformulering.

    Hur tolkas och prioriteras komplexa mål som fastställs av stat och kommun på de olika nivåerna inom den kommunala skolan?

    Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att analysera hur man inom den kommunala skolans olika hierarkiska nivåer, från utbildningschef till lärare, tolkar, prioriterar och praktiserar de övergripande mål och riktlinjer som fastställs av stat och kommun.

    Metod: Syftet med vårt arbete var att analysera och öka förståelsen för det valda ämnet. En kvalitativ studie syftar till att erhålla en djupare förståelse. Vi har valt att göra en fallstudie då fallstudier används för att skaffa sig djupgående insikter om en viss situation och hur de inblandade personerna tolkar denna. Vi valde att intervjua personer från samtliga hierarkiska nivåer inom gymnasieskolan för att se hur de upplever målstyrning och tolkar mål.

    Slutsats: Tolkningen och prioriteringarna av mål styrs i stor utsträckning av den politiska, administrativa och professionella logik som finns i skolan. Dessa logiker har olika sätt att se på skolan och kommer att påverka på vilket sätt prioriteringar och tolkningar av målen görs. Dessa tolkningar mellan logikerna sker både på individnivå och på organisatorisk nivå. Vilket leder till att skolan är komplex. Utfallet av dessa tolkningar och prioriteringar kan ses som en förhandlad ordning och en socialt konstruerad praktik.

    Förslag till vidare forskning: Utifrån vårt arbete anser vi att följande vore intressanta ämnen att utreda ytterligare. Vad är det kommuner vill med skolan? Viljan borde vara att göra den attraktiv för att få in resurser, samtidigt som ska ge en utbildning som möter de statliga kvalitetskraven. Var går pengarna skolan får i form av elevpeng och liknande? Går alla pengar till skolan eller går det till andra former av kommunal verksamhet?

  • 235.
    Borén, Sven
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Analys av ventilmekanism i Husabergs motorcykelmotor2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The small company Husaberg design and develop motorcycles for competition purpose with the goal to be the best of the best and not be too expensive. The field testing is often used to determine the design, which in some cases will then miss a few essential safety factors. The powerful four-stroke engine is design to ensure high rideability and is based on the old Husqvarna motorcycle engines. To re-calculate and test everything when doing changes would be very expensive and time consuming and the field testing is therefore the most common verification method, even if the fatigue properties can’t be established.The engine has no overspeed protection and that, combined with reaching beyond the yield strength limit (Relmin) in the rocker fingers that pushes down the exhaust poppet valves, does result in fatigue.Husaberg enlarged in 1996 the rocker fingers where they broke off and the consumer claims ceased.

  • 236.
    Boström, Alexandra
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Efremoska, Dijana
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Den personliga försäljningens hemligheter: Hur skiljer sig säljtekniken för produkter med olika produktattribut?2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För detaljhandelsbutiker har den personliga försäljningen blivit en viktig faktor att konkurrera med på marknaden. Det hela innebär att säljaren ska kunna förmedla sina produkter på bästa sätt och genom olika påverkningsmetoder styrka kundens beslut inför ett köp. Vi kommer med den här rapporten att introducera dig som läsare om hur den personliga försäljningen skiljer sig mellan de två branscherna för skönhet/kläder samt elektronik. Här har även en koppling gjorts till hur kunden samt säljarens beteende och agerande varierar beroende på om butiken säljer låg- eller högengagemangsprodukter samt påverkan från produkternas attribut.Undersökningen för uppsatsen har utförts med sammanlagt åtta personliga intervjuer. Fyra av dem med två butiker inom skönhet/klädesbranschen samt de resterande fyra med två butiker inom elektronikbranschen. Syftet med intervjuerna var att ta reda på hur butikerna arbetade med den personliga försäljningen och hur de kunde använda sig av olika påverkningsmetoder. Utöver dessa har även fyra observationer utförts, en i vardera butik. Observationerna genomfördes för att se interaktionen mellan säljare och kund för att sedan kunna jämföra detta med informationen som framkom i intervjuerna.Vårt syfte med uppsatsen är att med hjälp av den information som framkommit i undersökningen, kunna sammanställa skillnader kring den personliga försäljningens utformning i skönhet/klädes- och elektronikbranschen. Varierar den personliga försäljningens betydelse och utformning beroende på butikens sortiment och vilka påverknings metoder lämpar sig bäst inom de två olika branscherna? Dessa frågor har med utgångspunkt från våra teorier och insamlad information, kunnat analyseras för att vidare presentera våra egna slutsatser.De viktigaste slutsatserna som framgått är att den personliga försäljningen skiljer sig mellan skönhet/klädes- och elektronikbranschen. Samtliga butiker i de båda branscherna använder sig av likvärdiga säljprocesser, men vi kunde se att den var mer framträdande i elektronikbranschen. Detta anser vi ligger till grund för att elektronikbranschens sortiment utgör sig till mestadels av högengagemangsprodukter som gör att kunden behöver mer information och trygghet inför ett köp. Vi kunde även dra slutsatsen att vissa påverkningsmetoder lämpade sig och användes mer i skönhet/klädesbranschen medan de andra var mer användbara i elektronikbranschen, även detta beroende på butikernas sortiment.

  • 237.
    Bremert, Michael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Persson, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Flermålsoptimering och analys av produktionslinje samt identifiering av förbättringsmål2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the demands from their customers Volvo Powertrain has set a new production goal for cylinder heads for 13-liter diesels engines. The production lines are built as a flow line of grouped CNC machines, served by a gantry for loading and unloading. The new production goal for one of the production lines, segment 2, is 33 cylinder heads per hour. Volvo Powertrain has also found through the production monitoring-system, Duga, that the waiting time for the loading equipment is a significant amount of the available production time.

    The aim of this project is hence twofold: (1) to verify that the calculations of the waiting time made in Duga are correct; (2) to investigate and propose improvements for the production line in order to achieve the original targeted production goal. This has been done by using simulation and simulation-based optimization technology and for this purpose a generic simulation module of a gantry was made. This project will not answer questions regarding economic consequences, staffing and quality losses in the production line.

    A simulation model has been built in the first phase of the project for a machining cell in Segment 2, which contains one gantry for the loading and unloading operations of four different CNC machining centers connected in series. The simulation model shows that the waiting time of the loading equipment in real time is not as big as what is calculated in Duga. This discrepancy is due to a misleading definition of the waiting time made in Duga.

    The generic gantry module has been used to build a simulation model of Segment 2. Three different optimization runs has been made with an optimization client from the University of Skövde. One of the optimization runs found a solution that matches Volvo Powertrains production goal. From this optimization run one preferred and realistic solution was chosen. The solution includes new levels in buffers along the production line, line balancing and improved availability to the different machines and gantries. The preferred and realistic solution increases the production rate by 10%.

     

  • 238.
    Bridfelt, Nathalie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Olivares Neira, Maddelyn
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kundservice: I mindre butiker2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption in today’s society is increasing and competition between stores today is tougher than ever. For a smaller store it can be a crucial factor to differentiate itself in the current market by understanding the customer’s needs and provide distinctive customer service, in order to create a good opportunity for a long-term and profitable future. This report deals with customer service with a focus on the personal interaction with customers in smaller stores that are independent and not part of a retail chain and operates on a surface which is easy to overview. Our assumption is that these stores perhaps handle customer service in a different way than major leading retail chains in Sweden. The report aims to determine what expectations customers have regarding customer service in smaller stores in compare to what the store managers and store employees characterizes as great customer service. The report also aims to compare conducted interviews with selected and relevant theories in the field of customer service and customer care. With this we will also be able to see where any differences and similarities between what theory claims should be done in a store to maintain good customer service, in compare to practical application. Presentation of the results from the interviews have been conducted in the form of empiricist where this material is then analyzed and compared with all of the respondents attitude towards customer service in relation to the selected theory. The final section of the report discuss conclusions based on conducted analysis in which the authors own opinions and theories are used to explain the reasons for the respondents opinions and potential differences, but also where the views are consistent. . The result of the report state that customers have different needs and expectations of what according to them is good customer service. We also noted that stores that have been analyzed only follow theories of customer care and service to a certain degree, as they formed their customer service through experience. It cannot be concluded that this is the case for all smaller shops, because the investigation has been conducted on a local level, but we can still draw the conclusion that every customer requirements is different during the personal meeting, but that smaller independent stores with a customer focus have good conditions for store managers and employees to reach and live up to customer expectations. This could be a result of small stores being able to create a personal relationship with the customer, which leads to the store recognizing their customers, learn what they value and what their needs are.

  • 239. Briner, Rob B.
    et al.
    Engwall, Lars
    Juillerat, Tina L.
    Mintzberg, Henry
    Morgeson, Frederick P.
    Pratt, Michael G.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bridging the management theory and practice gap2012In: The Work of Managers: Towards a Practice Theory of Management / [ed] Stefan Tengblad, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 318-336Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Brodén, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ohlsson, Nathalie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kundbemötande: Samspelet mellan butikspersonalens bemötande och kundens förväntningar2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kundens förväntningar på kundbemötandet uppfylls är viktigt, då det påverkar kundens lojalitet samt ger effekter på butikens lönsamhet. Vi ville därför ta reda på hur butikspersonalens bemötande i just klädkedjebutiker kan påverka kundens tillfredsställelse och lojalitet. Genom att anpassa bemötandet efter vad kunden förväntar sig kan detta uppnås, men för att kunna anpassa bemötandet krävs kunskap om vilka förväntningar kunden har. För att uppnå kundtillfredsställelse och få lojala kunder kan butikerna arbeta efter Zeithamls (2009) kundgapsmodell, som visar kundens förväntningar på bemötandet i förhållande till butikspersonalens uppfattning om hur kunden vill bli bemött. För att ta reda på om butikschefer och kunder har olika uppfattning om bemötandet har vi använt oss av en kvalitativ datainsamlingsmetod, där vi utfört tre personliga intervjuer med butikschefer i klädkedjebutiker i Varberg samt en fokusgrupp med butikernas kunder. I analysen har vi utgått från teorier om kundbemötande och lojalitet. De resultat som vi funnit visar att det finns skillnader mellan butikspersonalens uppfattning om hur kunden vill bli bemött och de förväntningar kunden har på bemötandet. Det visade sig också att kunderna har låga förväntningar på kundbemötandet i klädkedjebutiker och att bemötandet inte anses vara den viktigaste faktorn för att kunna uppnå kundtillfredsställelse. Butikscheferna arbetar inte aktivt med att sprida positiv word-of-mouth, men däremot med att förhindra spridning av negativ word-of-mouth med hjälp av bemötandet. Då en stor mängd informationsspridare är positivt ur ett lönsamhetsperspektiv är det viktigt för butikspersonalen att arbeta med både spridning av positiv word-of-mouth, men också att förhindra spridning av negativ word-ofmouth. Vår främsta rekommendation till butikscheferna är att använda kundgapsmodellen, som kan fungera som ett effektivt verktyg för att uppnå kundtillfredsställelse och lojalitet. Det råder delade meningar om butikens stamkunder eller nya potentiella kunder ska prioriteras, men vi anser att butikspersonalen har möjlighet att skapa fler stamkunder med hjälp av hur de bemöter nya kunder. Butikspersonalens humör påverkar kundens uppfattning. Därför måste butikspersonalen tänka på hur de bemöter kunderna, men samtidigt kan kundens eget humör också påverka hur bemötandet uppfattas.

  • 241.
    Brolin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Case, Keith
    Inadequate presented information and its effect on the cognitive workload2011In: Manufacturing Sustainability: Proceedings of the 28th International Manufacturing Conference (IMC 28) / [ed] Geraghty, J & Young, P, 2011, p. 121-129Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Brolin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Use of kitting to ease assemblers' cognitive workload2011In: Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference, University of Oulu , 2011, p. 77-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The higher level of product variation in the automotive industry leads to an increasing workload for the assembler that has to search, fetch and assemble all the variants. This puts high demands on the information that is given to the assembler to fulfil the assembly task. This paper describes the impact of information overload and sources, and their influence on the assembler. Through observations conducted in the Swedish automotive industry, the study has shown that the assembly personnel perceive the kit as structured information and that structured kits are able to present distinct information at a certain place to the assembler, which in turn reduces the searching, resulting in decreased cognitive workload.

  • 243.
    Brolin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kitting as an information source in manual assembly2012In: Advances in Ergonomics in Manufacturing / [ed] Stefan Trzcieliński & Waldemar Karwowski, CRC Press, 2012, p. 346-353Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In manual assembly, a strategy to meet the goal of efficient production is the increased use of kitting as a material supply principle. Even though kitting is already implemented in industry, there are still uncertainties regarding the effects of introducing kits, particularly from a human factors perspective.

    This paper presents initial steps in the development of a method to be used for the evaluation of kitting. This from an information source point of view and for studying effects related to productivity and quality. The methodology is projected to act as a foundation for how to carry out a subsequent comprehensive case study. The purpose of the case study is to explore how kitting affects the cognitive workload compared to the ordinary material rack combined with part numbers used in the current manufacturing industry. This is done by measuring productivity; time spent on assembling a product, and quality; number of assembly errors. One step in the methodology development process, which is described in this paper, was to conduct a pilot study, primarily to test the methodology related to the selection of measurement parameters, as well as for getting experiences from running the methodology with real test subjects.

  • 244.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Consideration of anthropometric diversity: Methods for virtual product and production development2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomics and Human Factors address factors important to consider in the product and production development process. This is done through a User Centred Design process where focus is put on human-machine interactions. Digital human modelling (DHM) tools provide and facilitate rapid simulations, visualisations and analyses of the human-machine interactions in a virtual environment. Anthropometry, the study of human measurements, is central in DHM simulations due to the necessity of ensuring intended accommodation levels. Several methods have been described to consider the anthropometric diversity that exists within human populations. Still, many simulations are done with few human models, so called manikins, in industry today due to the time consuming processes when working with many manikins in current DHM tools. Hence, there is a need for better tools and methods. To increase the understanding among DHM users there is also a need to illustrate differences in results when using different approaches, and to evaluate the validity of the assumptions that methods for anthropometric diversity consideration are based upon.

    In this thesis current methods for anthropometric diversity considerations have been reviewed and the differences in evaluation results when utilizing different approaches have been analysed. New methods and functionality have been developed and implemented in DHM tools and the possibilities to include more physical characteristics and in turn consider more aspects of human diversity have been explored. Results shows that the proposed methods are advantageous compared to approaches often used in industry today and will, if used, increase the consideration of anthropometric diversity when using DHM tools for the design of products and workplaces.

  • 245.
    Brolin, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Conditional Regression Model for Prediction of Anthropometric Variables2013In: 2013 Digital human modeling symposium / [ed] Matt Reed, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In digital human modelling (DHM) systems consideration of anthropometry is central. Important functionality in DHM tools is the regression model, i.e. the possibility to predict a complete set of measurements based on a number of defined independent anthropometric variables. The accuracy of a regression model is measured by how well the model predicts dependent variables based on independent variables, i.e. known key anthropometric measurements. In literature, existing regression models often use stature and/or body weight as independent variables in so-called flat regressions models which can produce estimations with large errors when there are low correlations between the independent and dependent variables. This paper suggests a conditional regression model that utilise all known measurements as independent variables when predicting each unknown dependent variable. The conditional regression model is compared to a flat regression model, using stature and weight as independent variables, and a hierarchical regression model that uses geometric and statistical relationships between body measurements to create specific linear regression equations in a hierarchical structure. The accuracy of the models is assessed by evaluating the coefficient of determination, R2 and the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD). The results from the study show that using a conditional regression model that makes use of all known variables to predict the values of unknown measurements is advantageous compared to the flat and hierarchical regression models. Both the conditional linear regression model and the hierarchical regression model have the advantage that when more measurements are included the models will give a better prediction of the unknown measurements compared to the flat regression model based on stature and weight. A conditional linear regression model has the additional advantage that any measurement can be used as independent variable. This gives the possibility to only include measurements that have a direct connection to the design dimensions being sought. Utilising the conditional regression model would create digital manikins with enhanced accuracy that would produce more realistic and accurate simulations and evaluations when using DHM tools for the design of products and workplaces.

  • 246.
    Brolin, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hanson, Lars
    Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertalje, Sweden / Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Description of boundary case methodology for anthropometric diversity consideration2012In: International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, ISSN 1742-5549, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 204-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and evaluates the boundary case methodology for the simultaneous consideration of variance for a number of selected anthropometric variables. The methodology includes the calculation of key dimension values for extreme but likely anthropometric measurement combinations. This data can be applied when utilising digital human modelling (DHM) tools for proactive design work and entered as input data when representative manikins are defined. The mathematical procedure is clearly described and exemplified to demonstrate how to use the methodology in design work. The outcome of the method is illustrated and compared using several different cases where the number of measurements is varied and where principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the number of dimensions in one case. The paper demonstrates that the proposed boundary case method is advantageous compared to approaches based on the use of univariate percentile data in design.

  • 247.
    Brorström, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Edström, Anders
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Oudhuis, Margareta
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Uthålligt företagande: Om regionala förutsättningar och förhållningssätt2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 248.
    Buryla, Eliza
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Relation between Accounting Choices, Book Values and Stock Prices2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between stock prices and accounting figures, primarily the book value of equity and earnings, as well as the market perception of accounting choices implemented by

    companies. Market event studies from late sixties have initiated numerous of researches, and the majority of contemporary results were consistent with strong belief in the market efficiency theory. The

    book value of equity and earnings have been proved to have the highest explanatory power of future stock prices. Other accounting-related issues, like inventory methods or accounting for business combination, were proven to have reliable impact on the stock prices. Moreover, the cash flow implications triggered by the accounting change are not an indispensable condition to influence the stock price level. Although a great body of research has treated the relationship between accounting

    choices and stock prices, a clear-cut mechanism is not well specified. The evidence is inconsistent, and the consequences of accounting change are difficult to measure. However, the accounting figures

    included in financial statements remain the most important measure of the companies’ performance. Due to the economic and technical progress, which considerably modified the structure of companies

    and the environment in which they operate, further studies are advisable in order to maintain the reliability of accounting figures on significant level.

  • 249.
    Bäcklund, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Carlsson, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Returflöden inom e-handel av kläder2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 250.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Information Flow and Product Quality in Human Based Assembly2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information is an important part of the manual assembly process. Information provides the user with the means to fulfil assembly tasks so that the right quality as well as high productivity are accomplished. This thesis addresses issues connected to information and information use in a modern manual assembly environment, and how these issues affect human operators, quality and productivity. The overall objectives of the research were to gain further knowledge on how attention affects the internal reject rate, to investigate these phenomena in industrial and laboratory environments and finally to propose a suitable evaluation method to be utilised at the design stage of an information system.

    Studies were performed with the purpose of investigating how the assembly personnel were affected by the information and how it affected quality and productivity. The studies were performed in an assembly plant and in the laboratory. Quantitative data collection included 10 days and nights of production where the information impact on quality was investigated. Connected to this study was a qualitative survey performed among 171 persons from the assembly personnel. The laboratory study took place during three days, approximately eight hours each day. It involved 30 persons, all experienced assembly workers from the reference assembly plant. The focus of this study was how information affected the personnel and thereby the productivity.

    The findings revealed that information affected the quality rates and productivity and that this can be linked to how the information is presented as well as when the information is presented. It was possible to link these findings to the outcome of a successful information search process, and to conclude that a use of an evaluation method or work process during the product lifecycle could have made it possible to avoid some of the problems connected to the information presentation. This is the basis for a proposed pragmatic evaluation method. The method was tested as a support system during the design of a prototype user interface to be used at the pilot plant.

    The major contribution of this research is the connection between attention and quality as well as the connection between attention and productivity. Knowledge regarding the importance of presenting the information at the right time must also be regarded as an important and proven contribution.

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