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  • 201.
    Gerdes, Mike
    et al.
    Aero - Aircraft Design and Systems Group, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany.
    Galar, Diego
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Division of Operation and Maintenance Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Fuzzy condition monitoring of recirculation fans and filters2016In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 469-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reliable condition monitoring is needed to be able to predict faults. Pattern recognition technologies are often used for finding patterns in complex systems. Condition monitoring can also benefit from pattern recognition. Many pattern recognition technologies however only output the classification of the data sample but do not output any information about classes that are also very similar to the input vector. This paper presents a concept for pattern recognition that outputs similarity values for decision trees. Experiments confirmed that the method works and showed good classification results. Different fuzzy functions were evaluated to show how the method can be adapted to different problems. The concept can be used on top of any normal decision tree algorithms and is independent of the learning algorithm. The goal is to have the probabilities of a sample belonging to each class. Performed experiments showed that the concept is reliable and it also works with decision tree forests (which is shown during this paper) to increase the classification accuracy. Overall the presented concept has the same classification accuracy than a normal decision tree but it offers the user more information about how certain the classification is.

  • 202.
    Gerdes, Mike
    et al.
    Hamburg University of Applied Sciences Aero - Aircraft Design and Systems Group, Hamburg, Germany / Luleå University of Technology, Division of Operation and Maintenance Engineering, Luleå, Sweden.
    Galar, Diego
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Luleå University of Technology, Division of Operation and Maintenance Engineering, Luleå, Sweden.
    Scholz, Dieter
    Hamburg University of Applied Sciences Aero - Aircraft Design and Systems Group, Hamburg, Germany.
    Decision Trees and the Effects of Feature Extraction Parameters for Robust Sensor Network Design2017In: Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc - Maintenance and Reliability, ISSN 1507-2711, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 31-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable sensors and information are required for reliable condition monitoring. Complex systems are commonly monitored by many sensors for health assessment and operation purposes. When one of the sensors fails, the current state of the system cannot be calculated in same reliable way or the information about the current state will not be complete. Condition monitoring can still be used with an incomplete state, but the results may not represent the true condition of the system. This is especially true if the failed sensor monitors an important system parameter. There are two possibilities to handle sensor failure. One is to make the monitoring more complex by enabling it to work better with incomplete data; the other is to introduce hard or software redundancy. Sensor reliability is a critical part of a system. Not all sensors can be made redundant because of space, cost or environmental constraints. Sensors delivering significant information about the system state need to be redundant, but an error of less important sensors is acceptable. This paper shows how to calculate the significance of the information that a sensor gives about a system by using signal processing and decision trees. It also shows how signal processing parameters influence the classification rate of a decision tree and, thus, the information. Decision trees are used to calculate and order the features based on the information gain of each feature. During the method validation, they are used for failure classification to show the influence of different features on the classification performance. The paper concludes by analysing the results of experiments showing how the method can classy different errors with a 75% probability and how different feature extraction options influence the information gain.

  • 203.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Minab Higher Educational Center, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Azar, Adel
    Department of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Fathi, Masood
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lean-green manufacturing: the enabling role of information technology resource2018In: Kybernetes, ISSN 0368-492X, E-ISSN 1758-7883, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 1752-1777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the existing knowledge about the relationships between information technology (IT), lean manufacturing (LM), organizational environmental issues and business performance.

    Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect data from 122 elite manufacturers, and the hypothesized relationships were tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Findings – IT competence in LM acts as a lower-order organizational capability, and its business value should be recognized through the intermediate roles of LM effectiveness and environmental management capability. Findings recommend that the net benefits of LM are mainly materialized through waste and pollution reduction and simplified implementation of proactive environmental practices.

    Research limitations/implications – Among other limitations, relying on a rather small sample size and cross-sectional data of this research, and lack of generalizability of findings, tends to have certain limitations. An interesting direction for future research would be to extend this research by assessing interaction of other types of IT resources with LM and organizational environmental issues.

    Practical implications – Both LM and proactive environmental management are information-intensive. Investment in both technological and human aspects of IT resource aimed at increasing the effectiveness of LM activities and proactive environmental practices is imperative for contemporary manufacturers.

    Originality/value – This study introduces the IT capability of IT competence in LM and two organizational capabilities of LM effectiveness and environmental management capability. By doing so, the study highlights the significant role of organizational environmental issues in devising firms’ IT and advanced manufacturing technology investment strategies in LM context.

  • 204.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Minab Higher Educational Center, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Fathi, Masood
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Fontes, Dalila Benedita Machado Martins
    Faculty of Economics, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Ching, Ng Tan
    Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman - Kuala Lumpur Campus, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Modeling lean manufacturing success2018In: Journal of Modelling in Management, ISSN 1746-5664, E-ISSN 1746-5672, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 908-931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about the process ofachieving Lean Manufacturing (LM) success.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study uses interpretive structural modeling and captures theopinions of a group of LM experts from a world-class Japanese automobile manufacturer, to map theinterrelationships among potential determinants of LM success. This study further uses the data from asurvey of 122 leading automobile part manufacturers by performing structural equation modeling toempirically test the research model proposed.

    Findings – Management support and commitment, financial resources availability, information technologycompetence for LM, human resources management, production process simplicity, supportive culture andsupply chain-wide integration are the key determinants that directly or indirectly determine the level ofachievement of LMsuccess.

    Research limitations/implications – The determinants of LM success as experienced by Asianautomobile manufacturers might be different from determinants of LM success as experienced byWestern automobile manufacturers. An interesting direction for future research would be to capturethe experts’ inputs from Western automobile manufacturers to complement the findings of thisstudy.

    Practical implications – The practical contribution of this study lays in the development of linkagesamong various LM success determinants. Utility of the proposed interpretive structural modeling andstructural equation modeling methodologies imposing order, direction and significance of therelationships among elements of LM success assumes considerable value to the decision-makers and LMpractitioners.

    Originality/value – Building on opinions of a group of LM experts and a case study of leading auto partmanufacturers, the present study strives to model the success of LM, a topic that has received little attentionto date.

  • 205.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Web-based Real-time Monitoring and Control of a Robot2011In: / [ed] Jan-Eric Ståhl, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to enhance production in today’s uncertain manufacturing environments, real-time monitoring and dynamic control capabilities that are responsive and adaptive to rapid changes of production capability and functionality are vital. Targeting the dynamic issue, this paper presents a virtual production aid, a Wise-ShopFloor(Web-based integrated sensor-driven e-ShopFloor) prototype that can integrate Web-based sensor-driven virtual models with a real shop floor.

    The Wise-ShopFloor utilizes Java technologies (e.g., Java 3D and Java Servlet) for system implementation which allows the users to monitor and control distant shop floor operations based on runtime information from the shop floor. Particularly, remote monitoring and control of an industrial robot is chosen as a case study to demonstrate the approach towards web-based adaptive manufacturing. It is envisioned that this approach not only can bridge the gap between virtual and real manufacturing but also can largely enhance manufacturing performance and profitability via remote instant assistance

  • 206.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Spot-welding sequence planning and optimization using a hybrid rule-based approach and genetic algorithm2011In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 714-722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Performing assembly planning to find a valid hierarchical assembling structure of a product (i.e. Manufacturing Bill of Materials or MBOM) based on the constraints and necessities inferred from or declared by different sources is potentially complicated. On the other hand, Engineering Changes (EC) may drastically affect the constraints and necessities which the planning of an MBOM was based on. Managing ECs to evaluate and propagate their effects on the upstream data used in assembly planning and downstream activities and information is crucial but problematic. Often it is possible to define a set of rules for the constraints and necessities of assembly planning and find solutions or check validity of solutions based on the rule-set. This paper proposes a rule-based assembly planning method and introduces the concepts and standard notations on how structured rule-sets can be derived from descriptive rules and then used in an algorithm for generating or validating MBOMs. The method was partially automated and successfully employed along with a commercial Virtual Manufacturing package integrated with an in-house developed GA-based sequence optimizer and applied to the sequence optimization in minimizing the cycle time of the robotic spot welding operations for a sheet-metal assembly found in automotive industry. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 207.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    An Evolutionary Operation Sequence Optimization Tool for Robotic Spot Welding Based on Collision-Free Path Planner in Virtual Manufacturing2011In: Proceedings of NAMRI/SME, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, North American Manufacturing Research Institution, NAMRI/SME , 2011, p. 88-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many problems in the lifecycle of Product and Production Development (PPD) can be formulated as optimization problems. But in most of the real-world cases, they are too complex to be solved by analytical models or classical optimization methods. CAx and Virtual Manufacturing (VM) tools are on the other hand being employed to create virtual representation of products and processes before any physical realization is conducted. Synergy of these two domains is of interest in this paper where planning a process with the minimum cycle-time for assembling a spot welded sheet-metal product is desired. The methodology suggests an extendible virtual manufacturing-based optimization approach using evolutionary algorithms. Accordingly, a novel toolset with integration of evolutionary optimization and a commercial VM environment is developed. More specifically, the latest feature which takes advantage of the collision avoidant segment path planning functionality of the VM tool and integrates it with the sequence optimizer is described.

  • 208.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    An Integrated Approach to Spot Welding Sequence Planning and Optimization2010In: Proceedings of the ASME 2010 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference: Volume 2, New York: ASME Press, 2010, p. 543-551Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost   in   every   discipline   involved   in   Product   and Production Development (PPD), optimization problems arrive. These  real-world  problems  are  too  complex  to  be  solved  by analytical models and classical optimization methods. CAx and Virtual Manufacturing (VM) tools are on the other hand being employed   more  and   more  to   create   virtual  representation models  of  the  products  under  development  and  their  related production   facilities,   processes,   and   systems   in   a   virtual environment  before  any  physical  realization  is  conducted. Synergy of these two domains is of interest in this paper where a PPD problem requiring planning a process with the minimum cycle-time  for  assembling  a  spot  welded  sheet-metal  product was  solved.  The  methodology  suggests  an  extendible  virtual manufacturing-based optimization approach using evolutionary algorithms.  The  methodology  is  also  required  to  be  partially compliant   to   the   concept   of   integrated   Product-Process-Resource  planning  and  optimization.  An  optimization  tool  is developed  accordingly  for  operation  sequence  optimization integrated with a commercial VM environment.

  • 209.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Evolutionary optimization of robotic assembly operation sequencing with collision-free paths2011In: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 196-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many problems in the lifecycle of product and production development (PPD) can be formulated as optimization problems. But in most of the real-world cases, they are too complex to be solved by analytical models or classical optimization methods. CAx and virtual manufacturing (VM) tools are on the other hand being employed to create virtual representation of products and processes before any physical realization is conducted. Synergy of these two domains is of interest in this paper where planning a process with the minimum cycle-time for assembling a spot welded sheet-metal product is desired. The methodology suggests an extendible virtual manufacturing-based optimization approach using evolutionary algorithms. Accordingly, a novel toolset with integration of evolutionary optimization and a commercial VM environment is developed. More specifically, the latest feature which takes advantage of the collision avoidant segment path planning functionality of the VM tool and integrates it with the sequence optimizer is described. (C) 2011 The Society of Manufacturing Engineers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 210.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Production Engineering Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Knowledge-based Operation Planning and Machine Control by Function Blocks in Web-DPP2013In: Advances in Sustainable and Competitive Manufacturing Systems: 23rd International Conference on Flexible Automation & Intelligent Manufacturing / [ed] Américo Azevedo, Springer, 2013, p. 665-679Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the dynamic market requires manufacturing firms to possess high degree of adaptability and flexibility to deal with shop-floor uncertainties. Specifically, targeting SMEs active in the machining and metal cutting sector who normally deal with complex and intensive process planning problems, researchers have tried to address the subject. Among proposed solutions, Web-DPP elaborates a two-layer distributed adaptive process planning system based on function-block technology. Function-block enabled machine controllers are one of the elements of this system. In addition, intensive reasoning based on the features data of the products models, machining knowledge, and resource data is needed to be performed inside the function blocks in machine controller side. This paper reports the current state of design and implementation of a knowledge-based operation planning module using a rule-engine embedded in machining feature function blocks, and also the design and implementation of a common interface (for CNC milling machine controller and its specific implementation for a specific commercial controller) embedded in the machining feature function blocks for controlling the machine. The developed prototype is validated through a case-study.

  • 211.
    Givehchi Yazdi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Operation Sequence Optimization using an extended Virtual Manufacturing tool2011In: Proceedings of the 4th Swedish Production Symposium, Lund, 2011, p. 383-390Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 212.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bringing together Lean, simulation and optimization in a framework for system design and improvement2018In: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, Gothenburg, 9-12 December, 2018 / [ed] M. Rabe, A. A. Juan, N. Mustafee, A. Skoogh, S. Jain, B. Johansson, Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE, 2018, p. 4132-4133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it beneficial to combine lean, simulation and optimization? And if so, how can they be combined for decision-making support in system design and improvement? This research proposes a framework that sets the basis for achieving beneficial interactions between the lean philosophy, methods and tools, and simulation-based optimization. A framework that gives the users the possibility to get better system understanding, conduct a deeper system analysis, and attain an optimal system design and improvement, and thereby, get better foundation for sustainable long time improvement. The framework has been tested in several realworld case studies. Moreover, surveys have been conducted to evaluate the perception of subject matter experts about its usefulness, as well as its usability and perceived quality by end users and decision makers, all of them reporting very positive results.

  • 213.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Improving the Material Flow of a Manufacturing Company via Lean, Simulation and Optimization2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, IEEM2017, IEEE, 2017, p. 1245-1250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are continuously working towards system and process improvement to remain competitive in aglobal market. There are different methods that support companies in the achievement of that goal. This paper presents an innovative process that combines lean, simulation and optimization to improve the material flow of a manufacturing company. A description of each step of the process details the lean tools and principles taken into account, as well as the results achieved by the application of simulation and optimization.The project resulted in an improved layout and material flow that employs an automated guided vehicle. In addition, lean wastes related to transport, inventory levels as well as waiting times were reduced. The utilization of the process that combines lean, simulation and optimization was considered valuable for the success of the project.

  • 214.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Jägstam, Mats
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Lean, Simulation and Optimization: A maturity model2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, IEEM2017, IEEE, 2017, p. 1310-1315Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a maturity model that can be applied to support organizations in identifying their current state and guiding their further development with regard to lean, simulation and optimization. The paper identifies and describes different maturity levels and offers guidelines that explain how organizations can grow from lower to higher levels of maturity. In addition, it attempts to provide the starting point for organizations that have applied lean or are willing to implement it and which may also be considering taking decisions in a more efficient way via simulation and optimization.

  • 215.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Supporting the lean journey with simulation and optimization in the context of Industry 4.02018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 586-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new industrial revolution brings important changes to organizations that will need to adapt their machines, systems and employees’ competences to sustain their business in a highly competitive market. Management philosophies such as lean will also need to adapt to the improvement possibilities that Industry 4.0 brings. This paper presents a review on the role of lean and simulation in the context of Industry 4.0. Additionally, the paper presents a conceptual framework where simulation and optimization will make the lean approach more efficient, speeding up system improvements and reconfiguration, by means of an enhanced decision-making process and supported organizational learning.

  • 216.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    How can decision makers be supported in the improvement of an emergency department?: A simulation, optimization and data mining approach2017In: Operations Research for Health Care, ISSN 2211-6923, E-ISSN 2211-6931, Vol. 15, p. 102-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The improvement of emergency department processes involves the need to take into considerationmultiple variables and objectives in a highly dynamic and unpredictable environment, which makes thedecision-making task extremely challenging. The use of different methodologies and tools to support thedecision-making process is therefore a key issue. This article presents a novel approach in healthcarein which Discrete Event Simulation, Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization and Data Miningtechniques are used in combination. This methodology has been applied for a system improvementanalysis in a Swedish emergency department. As a result of the project, the decision makers were providedwith a range of nearly optimal solutions and design rules which reduce considerably the length of stayand waiting times for emergency department patients. These solutions include the optimal number ofresources and the required level of improvement in key processes. The article presents and discussesthe benefits achieved by applying this methodology, which has proven to be remarkably valuable fordecision-making support, with regard to complex healthcare system design and improvement.

  • 217.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    System design and improvement of an emergency department using Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization2015In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 616, no 1, article id 012015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is nowadays widely used to support decision makers in system analysis and improvement. However, the use of simulation for improving stochastic logistic processes is not common among healthcare providers. The process of improving healthcare systems involves the necessity to deal with trade-off optimal solutions that take into consideration a multiple number of variables and objectives. Complementing DES with Multi-Objective Optimization (SMO) creates a superior base for finding these solutions and in consequence, facilitates the decision-making process. This paper presents how SMO has been applied for system improvement analysis in a Swedish Emergency Department (ED). A significant number of input variables, constraints and objectives were considered when defining the optimization problem. As a result of the project, the decision makers were provided with a range of optimal solutions which reduces considerably the length of stay and waiting times for the ED patients. SMO has proved to be an appropriate technique to support healthcare system design and improvement processes. A key factor for the success of this project has been the involvement and engagement of the stakeholders during the whole process.

  • 218.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Karlberg, Catarina
    Monitoring and Analysis Area, Health Department of Västra Götaland, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wallqvist, Pierre
    Monitoring and Analysis Area, Health Department of Västra Götaland, Skövde, Sweden.
    Improved system design of an emergency department through simulation-based multiobjective-optimization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare facilities, and especially emergency departments (ED), are usually characterized by its complexity due to the variability and stochastic nature of the processes involved in the system. The combination of different flows of patients, staff and resources also increments the complexity of this kind of facilities. In order to increase its efficiency, many researchers have proposed discrete-event simulation (DES) as a powerful improvement tool. However, DES can be a limited approach in the case a simulation model has too many combinations of input parameters, complex correlations between the input and output parameters and different objective functions. Hence, to find the best configuration of a complex system, an approach combining DES and meta-heuristic optimization becomes an even more powerful improvement technique. Simulation-based multiobjective-optimization (SMO) is a promising approach to generate multiple trade-off solutions particularly when multiple conflicting objectives exist within a complex system. The generated solutions provide decision makers with feasible and optimal alternatives to improve, modify or design healthcare systems. The aim of this paper is to present the work done at the ED of the regional Hospital of Skövde in Sweden, where SMO implemented in modeFromtier has been successfully applied. The result and methodology present a successful approach for decision makers in healthcare systems to reduce the waiting time of patients saving considerable time, money and resources.

  • 219.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Jägstam, Mats
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Allert, Anna-Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Tööj, Lars
    Industrial Development Center West Sweden AB.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    Industrial Development Center West Sweden AB.
    An Innovative Collaboration Between Industry, University and Nonprofit Agency, for a Competitive Industry: A Swedish case2011In: ICERI 2001: 4th International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation: Conference proceedings / [ed] I. Candel Torres, L. Gómez Chova, A. López Martínez, International Association of Technology, Education and Development, IATED , 2011, p. 4154-4162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a knowledge based economy, manufacturing industry has to continuously improve their operations, processes and develop their employees in order to remain competitive in the market.

    In this context, the collaboration between industry and universities becomes of vital importance. Universities and industry have traditionally maintained fairly informal or lose ways of cooperation when it comes to education. This article presents a fruitful cooperation which has been established between the University of Skövde, the Industrial Development Center in the region, IDC West Sweden AB, and the manufacturing industry.

    The paper describes the development, lessons learned and the outcome of more than 3 years’ experience of close collaboration between the different stakeholders. It presents a methodology, used by the consortium to help manufacturing industries to improve their competiveness using a well defined process including: a company analysis, applied education and long-term coaching. A special focus is put on a long-term commitment by all partners. This alliance has performed more than 140 company analysis, conducted applied education for more than 2500 employees from more than 120 companies and performed coaching of more than 80 companies on site. The trend is that these figures will increase over time.

    The established collaboration has been strengthened over this period of time by a number of shared research projects. One of these projects involves an evaluation of the impact that this presented consortium has had on the region´s industry. Lean Learning Academies is another project that has been funded by the European Union within the Lifelong Learning Program, with the aim to increase the competitiveness of European companies and enhance the employability of students.

  • 220.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lean, Simulation and Optimization: A Win-Win combination2016In: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal, and M. D. Rossetti, Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 2227-2238Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean and simulation analysis are driven by the same objective, how to better design and improve processes making the companies more competitive. The adoption of lean has been widely spread in companies from public to private sectors and simulation is nowadays becoming more and more popular. Several authors have pointed out the benefits of combining simulation and lean, however, they are still rarely used together in practice. Optimization as an additional technique to this combination is even a more powerful approach especially when designing and improving complex processes with multiple conflicting objectives. This paper presents the mutual benefits that are gained when combining lean, simulation and optimization and how they overcome each other´s limitations. A framework including the three concepts, some of the barriers for its implementation and a real-world industrial example are also described.

  • 221.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Sellgren, Tommy
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Uppsala University.
    Introducing simulation and optimization in the Lean continuous improvement standards in an automotive company2019In: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, Gothenburg, December 9-12, 2018 / [ed] M. Rabe, A. A. Juan, N. Mustafee, A. Skoogh, S. Jain, B. Johansson, Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE, 2019, p. 3352-3363Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly competitive automobile market requires automotive companies to become efficient by continuously improving their production systems. This paper presents a case study where simulationbased optimization (SBO) was employed as a step within a Value Stream Mapping event. The aim of the study was to promote the use of SBO to strengthen the continuous improvement work of the company. The paper presents all the key steps performed in the study, including the challenges faced and a reflection on how to introduce SBO as a powerful tool within the lean continuous improvement standards.

  • 222.
    Griggs, Terry
    et al.
    The Open University, UK.
    Stokes, Klara
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    On Pentagonal Geometries with Block Size 3, 4 or 52016In: Symmetries in Graphs, Maps, and Polytopes: 5th SIGMAP Workshop, West Malvern, UK, July 2014 / [ed] Jozef Širáň, Robert Jajcay, Springer, 2016, p. 147-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Gudfinnsson, Kristens
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Challenges with BI adoption in SMEs2017In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems & Applications (IISA), IEEE, 2017, , p. 6p. 172-177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business intelligence (BI) has become a well-known umbrella term both amongst academics and practitioners. Researchers have studied how companies can take advantage of BI and what challenges companies are facing when working with BI. However, research is mostly focused on large companies, despite the importance of small- and medium sized companies (SMEs) in both society and economically. This paper presents results of an in-depth qualitative case study on challenges faced by SMEs when adopting BI. The challenges are categorized according to a BI maturity model adopted as unit of assessment. The contribution of the results presented is two-folded; 1) It increases current literature regarding challenges when adopting BI in SMEs, and 2) It serves as guidance for SMEs on common pitfalls that ought to be avoided.

  • 224.
    Gudfinnsson, Kristens
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Analyzing Business Intelligence Maturity2015In: Journal of Decision Systems, ISSN 1246-0125, E-ISSN 2116-7052, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 37-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business intelligence has fundamentally changed how companiesconduct their business. In literature, the focus has been on volume-operationcompanies that provide services to millions of customers. In contrast, complexsystemscompanies have fewer customers and pursue customer needs byproviding more customized products and services. This paper presents the resultsof a case study conducted at a complex-systems company, with the overall aim toidentify how complex-systems companies may take advantage of businessintelligence. A framework was used to measure business intelligence maturity ofthe company. In addition, we also explain the current maturity level of the casecompany,based on critical factors for success adopted from the literature. Indoing so, we also contribute on important details regarding factors that must beconsidered by organizations, in order to leverage their analytical capability.Finally, we also propose topics that need to be further investigated, in order toincrease current knowledge regarding BI usage and maturity in complex-systemscompanies.

  • 225.
    Gudfinnsson, Kristens
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    On transforming into the data-driven decision-making era: current state of practice in manufacturing smes2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, Vol. 8, p. 337-342Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research lacks details on how SMMEs are able to capitalize on how their IT-solutions supports data-driven decision-making. Such details are important for being able to support further development of SMMEs and assuring their sustainability and competitive edge. Prosperous SMMEs are vital due to their economical and societal importance. To alleviate the lack of details, this paper presents the results of four case studies towards SMMEs partly aimed at investigating their current state of data-driven decision-making. The findings reveal that IT-solutions in some areas are either underdeveloped or unexplored. Instead, the SMMEs tend to focus on traditional manufacturing techniques, continuous improvements in the manufacturing process, and manual support routines and thereby neglects opportunities offered in relation to e.g. incident management, product quality monitoring, and the usage of KPIs not directly linked to manufacturing.

  • 226.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Using Speech Recognition, Haptic Control and Augmented Reality to enable Human-Robot Collaboration in Assembly Manufacturing: Research Proposal2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years robots have become more adaptive and aware of the surroundings which enables them for use in human-robot collaboration. By introducing robots into the same working cell as the human, then the two can collaborate by letting the robot deal with heavy lifting, repetitive and high accuracy tasks while the human focuses on tasks that needs the flexibility of the human. Collaborative robots already exists today in the market but the usage of these robots are mainly to work in close proximity.

    Usually a teaching pendant is used to program a robot by moving it using a joystick or buttons. Using this teaching pendant for programming is usually quite slow and requires training which means that few can operate it. However, recent research shows that there exist several application using multi-modal communication systems to improve the programming of a robot. This kind of programming will be necessary to collaborate with a robot in the industry since the human in a collaborative task might have to teach the robot how to execute its task.

    This project aims to introduce a programming-by-guidance system into assembly manufacturing where the human can assist the robot by teaching the robot how to execute its task. Three technologies will be combined, speech recognition, haptic control, and augmented reality. The hypothesis is that with these three technologies an effective and intuitive programming-by-guidance system can be used within the assembly manufacturing industry. This project have three main motivators: Allowing workers, with no robot programming expertise, to teach the robot how to execute its task in an assembly manufacturing system; Reducing the development time of the robot by introducing advanced programming-by-guidance technology; Showing that augmented reality can add additional information that is useful when programming the robot.

  • 227.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Human-robot collaboration – towards new metrics for selection of communication technologies2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. 6p. 123-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial robot manufacturers have in recent years developed collaborative robots and these gains more and more interest within the manufacturing industry. Collaborative robots ensure that humans and robots can work together without the robot being dangerous for the human. However, collaborative robots themselves are not enough to achieve collaboration between a human and a robot; collaboration is only possible if a proper communication between the human and the robot can be achieved. The aim of this paper is to identify and categorize technologies that can be used to enable such communication between a human and an industrial robot.

  • 228.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    A New Algorithm Using the Non-dominated Tree to improve Non-dominated Sorting2018In: Evolutionary Computation, ISSN 1063-6560, E-ISSN 1530-9304, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 89-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-dominated sorting is a technique often used in evolutionary algorithms to determine the quality of solutions in a population. The most common algorithm is the Fast Non-dominated Sort (FNS). This algorithm, however, has the drawback that its performance deteriorates when the population size grows. The same drawback applies also to other non-dominating sorting algorithms such as the Efficient Non-dominated Sort with Binary Strategy (ENS-BS). An algorithm suggested to overcome this drawback is the Divide-and-Conquer Non-dominated Sort (DCNS) which works well on a limited number of objectives but deteriorates when the number of objectives grows. This paper presents a new, more efficient, algorithm called the Efficient Non-dominated Sort with Non-Dominated Tree (ENS-NDT). ENS-NDT is an extension of the ENS-BS algorithm and uses a novel Non-Dominated Tree (NDTree) to speed up the non-dominated sorting. ENS-NDT is able to handle large population sizes and a large number of objectives more efficiently than existing algorithms for non-dominated sorting. In the paper, it is shown that with ENS-NDT the runtime of multi-objective optimization algorithms such as the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) can be substantially reduced.

  • 229.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brewster, Rodney
    Volvo Car Corporation, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Human-Robot Collaboration Demonstrator Combining Speech Recognition and Haptic Control2017In: Manufacturing Systems 4.0 - Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Mitchell M. Tseng, Hung-Yin Tsai, Yue Wang, 2017, Vol. 63, p. 396-401Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years human-robot collaboration has been an important topic in manufacturing industries. By introducing robots into the same working cell as humans, the advantages of both humans and robots can be utilized. A robot can handle heavy lifting, repetitive and high accuracy tasks while a human can handle tasks that require the flexibility of humans. If a worker is to collaborate with a robot it is important to have an intuitive way of communicating with the robot. Currently, the way of interacting with a robot is through a teaching pendant, where the robot is controlled using buttons or a joystick. However, speech and touch are two communication methods natural to humans, where speech recognition and haptic control technologies can be used to interpret these communication methods. These technologies have been heavily researched in several research areas, including human-robot interaction. However, research of combining these two technologies to achieve a more natural communication in industrial human-robot collaboration is limited. A demonstrator has thus been developed which includes both speech recognition and haptic control technologies to control a collaborative robot from Universal Robots. This demonstrator will function as an experimental platform to further research on how the speech recognition and haptic control can be used in human-robot collaboration. The demonstrator has proven that the two technologies can be integrated with a collaborative industrial robot, where the human and the robot collaborate to assemble a simple car model. The demonstrator has been used in public appearances and a pilot study, which have contributed in further improvements of the demonstrator. Further research will focus on making the communication more intuitive for the human and the demonstrator will be used as the platform for continued research.

  • 230.
    Hanson, L.
    et al.
    Industrial Development, Scania CV.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bohlin, R
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Chalmers Science Park.
    Carlsson, J.S.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Chalmers Science Park.
    IMMA - Intelligently Moving Manikins: Project Status 20112011In: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Digital Human Modeling, Lyon, France, June, Université Claude Bernard Lyon , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall rationale and assumption for the research project presented in this paper is that a fast, easy to use, and reliable procedure to predict and validate manual assembly tasks is of major importance in product and production development processes to ensure high and robust product quality and process performance. A basic condition for the research is the belief that tools with such functionality are currently not available for companies to utilise in their development process. Hence more research and development is needed in the area. This paper describes the status of the project IMMA - Intelligently Moving Manikins and discusses coming initiatives. The project status is portrayed by a conceivable simulation task of a digital test assembly of a centre console.

  • 231.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Use of Anthropometric Measures and Digital Human Modelling Tools for Product and Workplace Design2012In: Handbook of Anthropometry: Physical Measures of Human Form in Health and Disease / [ed] Victor R. Preedy, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012, p. 3015-3034Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter addresses and demonstrates the application of digital human modelling (DHM) tools to consider anthropometric diversity in product and workplace design. A number of additional methods for evaluating ergonomics conditions are also illustrated. Three cases show how DHM tools can be applied in different design settings and for different design undertakings, focusing on user variation in anthropometry. A number of methods for user representation in the DHM tool are briefl y presented. Method selection depends on the design problem at hand, and the chapter exemplifies the use of different methods for different design tasks. Examples are the use of onedimensional percentile based statistics data, the use of predefined collections of manikins, and the creation of representative cases by using multidimensional statistics. The chapter takes a designer’s view of the uses of DHM tools for anthropometry-related issues and illustrates how the tools can be of value in the design process.

  • 232.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Chalmers Science Park.
    Carlsson, Johan S.
    Chalmers Science Park.
    IMMA - Intelligently Moving Manikin - Project Status2010In: Proceedings of the 3rd Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE) International Conference / [ed] Gavriel Salvendy, Waldemar Karwowski, Louisville: AHFE International , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall rationale and assumption for the research project presented in this paper is that a fast, easy to use, and reliable procedure to predict and validate manual assembly tasks is of major importance in product and production development processes to ensure high and robust product quality and process performance. A basic condition for the research is the belief that tools with such functionality are currently not available for companies to utilise in their development processes. Hence more research and development is needed in the area. This paper describes the basic concepts and initial steps taken in the recently commenced research project IMMA - Intelligently Moving Manikin.

  • 233.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Scania CV / Chalmers.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Carlson, Johan S
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Chalmers.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Stefan, Gustafsson
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Keyvani, Ali
    Högskolan Väst / Chalmers.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre / Chalmers.
    IMMA – Intelligently moving manikins in automotive applications2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 234.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lundström, Daniel
    University of Skövde.
    Wårell, Maria
    ArjoHuntleigh R&D Center, Lund.
    Application of Human Modelling in Health Care Industry2009In: Digital Human Modeling: Second International Conference, ICDHM 2009 Held as Part of HCI International 2009 San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009 Proceedings / [ed] Vincent G. Duffy, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 521-530Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital human modelling (DHM) is commonly utilised for vehicle and workplace design in the automotive industry. More rarely are the tools applied in the health care industry, albeit having similar objectives for cost-efficiency and user-centred design processes. The paper illustrates how a DHM tool is modified and utilised to evaluate a bathing system design from caretakers' and caregivers' ergonomics point of view. Anthropometry, joint range of motion, description and appearance of the manikin was customised to meet the requirements in a health care setting. Furthermore, a preferred bathing posture was defined. A suggested DHM working process scenario illustrates that DHM tools can be customised, applied and useful in health care product design. Except technical customisations of the DHM tool, the development of a working process and work organisation around the tool is proposed for an effective and efficient use of digital human modelling.

  • 235.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Industrial Development, Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden / Wingquist Laboratory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Söderholm, M.
    Industrial Development, Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Digital test assembly of truck parts with the IMMA-tool - an illustrative case2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl 1, p. 2248-2252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several digital human modelling (DHM) tools have been developed for simulation and visualisation of human postures and motions. In 2010 the DHM tool IMMA (Intelligently Moving Manikins) was introduced as a DHM tool that uses advanced path planning techniques to generate collision free and biomechanically acceptable motions for digital human models (as well as parts) in complex assembly situations. The aim of the paper is to illustrate how the IPS/IMMA tool is used at Scania CV AB in a digital test assembly process, and to compare the tool with other DHM tools on the market. The illustrated case of using the IMMA tool, here combined with the path planner tool IPS, indicates that the tool is promising. The major strengths of the tool are its user friendly interface, the motion generation algorithms, the batch simulation of manikins and the ergonomics assessment methods that consider time.

  • 236.
    Hanson, Robin
    et al.
    Institutionen för teknikens ekonomi och organisation, Logistik och transport, Chalmers.
    Brolin, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    A comparison of kitting and continuous supply in in-plant materials supply2011In: Proceedings from the 4th International Swedish Production Symposium, 2011, p. 312-321Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 237.
    Hanson, Robin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Brolin, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    A comparison of kitting and continuous supply in in-plant materials supply2013In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 979-992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of in-plant materials supply, the materials feeding principle of kitting is often discussed as an alternative to the more common continuous supply (also known as line stocking). However, there are few detailed studies describing the relative effects of kitting and continuous supply. The current paper identifies the relative effects of kitting and continuous supply, and provides insight into how these effects arise. The paper draws on empirical data from two case studies in the Swedish automotive assembly industry. In each of the cases, continuous supply has been replaced by kitting, enabling comparison of kitting and continuous supply in the same production environment. The performance areas studied include man-hour consumption, product quality, flexibility, inventory levels, and space requirements. Interviews with production engineers, assemblers, and operators responsible for kit preparation at each company contribute to a broad yet detailed view of the relative effects of the two materials feeding principles.

  • 238.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    et al.
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden / Product and Production Development Department, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Fässberg, Tommy
    Product and Production Development Department, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brolin, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, England.
    Gullander, Per
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Production complexity and its impact on manning2011In: Manufacturing Sustainability: Proceedings of the 28th International Manufacturing Conference (IMC 28) / [ed] J. Geraghty, P. Young, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    et al.
    Department of Product Realization, Swerea IVF AB, Sweden / Department of Product and Production development, Chalmers University, Sweden.
    Gullander, Per
    Department of Product Realization, Swerea IVF AB, Sweden.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Product Realization, Swerea IVF AB, Sweden.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moestam, Lena
    AB Volvo, Sweden.
    Flexible balancing of assembly systems and its impact on performance and human factors – a scenario-based analysis2013In: Proceedings of NES 2013, 45th Nordic Ergonomics & Human Factors Society conference, Iceland, August 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased production complexity challenges traditional methods for planning  and  preparation  of  assembly.  This  paper  addresses alternative approaches for assembly line balancing and an assembly plant  area  was  studied  in  a  cross-disciplinary  scenario-based analysis. Results show that the complexity in products, operations, flow, and organisation increases setting new demands on developing line balancing methods, including meeting the requirements and understanding the impact, e.g. competences, organization, support functions. Further research is suggested for increase knowledge of what impact different line balancing concepts has on performance, human work and working conditions as well as development of strategies and guiding principles for dynamic planning.

  • 240.
    Hedenberg, Klas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Åstrand, Bjorn
    School of Information Technology, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    3D Sensors on Driverless Trucks for Detection of Overhanging Objects in the Pathway2016In: Autonomous Industrial Vehicles: From the Laboratory to the Factory Floor / [ed] Roger Bostelman, Elena Messina, West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International, 2016, p. 41-56Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-operated and driverless trucks often collaborate in a mixed work space in industries and warehouses. This is more efficient and flexible than using only one kind of truck. However, because driverless trucks need to give way to driven trucks, a reliable detection system is required. Several challenges exist in the development of such a system. The first is to select interesting situations and objects. Overhanging objects are often found in industrial environments (e.g., tines on a forklift). Second is choosing a system that has the ability to detect those situations. (The traditional laser scanner situated two decimetres above the floor does not detect overhanging objects.) Third is to ensure that the perception system is reliable. A solution used on trucks today is to mount a two-dimensional laser scanner on top and tilt the scanner toward the floor. However, objects at the top of the truck will be detected too late, and a collision cannot always be avoided. Our aim is to replace the upper two-dimensional laser scanner with a three-dimensional camera, structural light, or time-of-flight (TOF) camera. It is important to maximize the field of view in the desired detection volume. Hence, the sensor placement is important. We conducted laboratory experiments to check and compare the various sensors' capabilities for different colors, using tines and a model of a tine in a controlled industrial environment. We also conducted field experiments in a warehouse. Our conclusion is that both the tested structural light and TOF sensors have problems detecting black items that are non-perpendicular to the sensor. It is important to optimize the light economy—meaning the illumination power, field of view, and exposure time—in order to detect as many different objects as possible.

  • 241.
    Hedenstierna, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Applying Multi-Objective Optimisation to Dynamic Supply Chain Models2010In: Conradi Research Review, ISSN 1459-0980, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 19-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chains are complex industrial systems with several actors that strive towards different purposes. These systems are particularly sensitive to dynamic complexity and are popularly approached using system dynamics simulation. A common problem with system dynamics simulation is the inability to see directly how well a model with several objectives performs. This article suggests multi-objective optimisation as a means of analyzing dynamic supply chain models to (1) find Pareto-optimal parameter sets and (2) allow for comparison of different models by comparing Pareto fronts. Apart from discussing the application of multiobjective optimisation to dynamic supply chain problems, a supply chain model is optimized to give some insight about the benefits of using multi-objective optimisation for supply chain problems.

  • 242.
    Hedenstierna, Philip
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola, Finland.
    An Integrative Approach To Inventory Control2009In: Rapid Modelling for Increasing Competitiveness: Tools and Mindset / [ed] Gerald Reiner, London: Springer London, 2009, p. 105-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inventory control systems consist of three types of methods: forecasting, safety stock sizing and order timing and sizing. These are all part of the interpretation of a planning environment to generate replenishment orders, and may consequently affect the performance of a system. It is therefore essential to integrate these aspects into a complete inventory control process, to be able to evaluate different methods for certain environments as well as for predicting the overall performance of a system. In this research a framework of an integrated inventory control process has been developed, covering all relations from planning environment to performance measures. Based on this framework a simulation model has been constructed; the objective is to show how integrated inventory control systems perform in comparison to theoretical predictions as well as to show the benefits of using an integrated inventory control process when evaluating the appropriateness of inventory control solutions. Results indicate that only simple applications (for instance without forecasts or seasonality) correspond to theoretical cost and service level calculations, while more complex models (forecasts and changing demand patterns) show the need for tight synchronization between forecasts and reordering methods. As the framework describes all relations that affect performance, it simplifies the construction of simulation models and makes them accurate. Another benefit of the framework is that it may be used to transfer simulation models to real-world applications, or vice versa, without loss of functionality.

  • 243.
    Hedenstierna, Philip
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Design of a Framework for Inventory Control - Evaluation of Forecasting and Inventory Control Systems2009In: Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing 2009 (FAIM 2009) / [ed] Farhad Nabhani, Catherine Frost, Sara Zarei, Munir Ahmad, William G. Sullivan, Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, p. 573-580Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing inventories so that overall costs are kept low, while service levels are maintained is the central issue of inventory control, which only regulates two things: the size and the timing of orders. This is typically executed through a planning method, such as the reorder point system or, less frequently, the periodic order quantity system. These take into account a forecast, supposed to gauge the average future demand, and a predetermined safety stock, buffering against forecast errors and demand uncertainty. Pure demand also influences the system, as transactions affect the inventory level. It is crucial to understand how a complete system of demand, forecasts, safety stock calculations and planning methods work together to measure service level and overall cost of the system. This paper outlines a framework for the unambiguous representation of the relations between methods that interpret environmental parameters to plan orders. A number of simulations based on the framework are run to show, how the integration of the inventory control functions may affect the overall performance of the system. The usefullness of the framework lies in its ability to make a system duplicable (i.e. to transfer an inventory control system to a simulation model, or vice versa). Not only is this property important for creating simulation models that exactly depict the system being analysed, it also enables the study of a complete system for order planning, as opposed to optimising individual methods. Studying an inclusive system allow the same metrics to be used to evaluate changes to any method in the system. Another benefit of this approach is that the system's metrics directly reflect changes in the environment. Simulations based on this framework are precise and substantially easier to evaluate than models not adhering to any standard.

  • 244.
    Hedenstierna, Philip
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    University of Skövde. Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Research Unit, Kouvola, Finland.
    Integrative purchasing and inventory control at sawnwood retailer - case study2011In: International Journal of procurement management, ISSN 1753-8432, E-ISSN 1753-8440, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 139-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purchasing order methods and inventory control are vital elements in fulfilling customer orders and building internal performance; this is particularly the case in retailing operations. In this manuscript, we develop different scenarios for various order methods for a wood retailer, where the performance of the different methods is evaluated through simulation, whereupon the fit between environments and methods is compared. Our results indicate that only simple environments follow analytical cost and service level calculations, while increasing complexity increases the synchronisation need between forecasts and reordering methods. In our research we also compare different ordering methods, and find that while the reorder point method is the most robust solution from the retailer’s perspective, it could lead to distortion within entire wood supply chain.

  • 245.
    Hedenstierna, Philip
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    On the placement of the customer order decoupling point2010In: Proceedings of 2010 8th International Conference on Supply Chain Management and Information Systems: Logistics Systems and Engineering, Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University , 2010, p. Article number 5681729-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often suggested that supply chains should start working directly towards customer orders as far upstream as possible, mostly for inventory reduction reasons. However, the customer order decoupling point (CODP) cannot be pushed further upstream than customers are willing to wait. In this paper, we use a system dynamics model to show that the optimal placement of the CODP depends on the demand signal. Our findings indicate that placing the CODP downstream allows for short-term fluctuations in demand to be absorbed by the order book, leading to a stable production rate. This benefit must however be weighed against any additional safety stock a CODP placed far downstream may require.

  • 246.
    Hedenstierna, Philip
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H.C.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Dynamic implications of customer order decoupling point positioning2011In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1032-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The positioning of the customer order decoupling point (CODP) is an important strategic consideration for supply chains. Recently, research has focused only on the static effects of CODP positioning. The purpose of this paper is to expand the body of knowledge by describing the dynamic consequences that arise from shifting the CODP upstream or downstream.

    Design/methodology/approach: A generic assembly-to-order system dynamics simulation model is developed and used to evaluate the dynamic consequences of shifting the CODP.

    Findings: Placing the CODP downstream allows for short-term fluctuations in demand to be absorbed by the order book, leading to a stable production rate and inventory response. This benefit must, however, be weighed against any additional safety stock a CODP placed far downstream may require.

    Research limitations/implications: The paper demonstrates the importance of considering the dynamic aspects of CODP positioning. Further research should investigate the phenomenon for different demand scenarios and supply chain configurations.

    Practical implications: Downstream shifting of the CODP has been identified as a powerful way to reduce variability in assembly-to-order systems.

    Originality/value: This paper introduces the dynamic consequences of CODP location, providing a new perspective that should be considered when positioning the CODP.

  • 247.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Demand-Supply Chain Management2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This research aims to enhance the current understanding and knowledge of the demand-supply chain management (DSCM) concept by determining its elements, benefits, and requirements, as well as by analyzing key elements of the concept. Methodology: This research has utilized the case study strategy and the survey strategy, however, the case study strategy dominates. The case study research has involved five companies originating from Sweden and the collection of empirical data mainly from in-depth interviews with key persons representing senior and middle management. The survey research targeted the largest firms in Sweden and Finland and empirical data was collected through an online questionnaire. Findings: This research has established that the main elements of DSCM include market orientation, coordination of the demand and supply processes, viewing the demand and supply processes as being equally important, as well as value creation, differentiation, innovativeness, responsiveness, and cost-efficiency in the demand and supply processes. It has also been revealed that the main benefits of DSCM include enhanced competiveness, enhanced demand chain performance, as well as enhanced supply chain performance, while the main requirements of DSCM include organizational competences, company established principles, demand-supply chain collaboration, and information technology support. A key element of DSCM further investigated is differentiation focused supply chain design. It has been shown that these efforts can be organized into a process of five stages. In addition, it is important that this process is addressed in parallel with the new product development (NPD) process, that information is exchanged between them, and that they are directed on the basis of the same segmentation model. Another key element of DSCM further investigated is coordination between NPD and SCM. This research has identified several significant linkages between these management directions, which motivate the use of an integrative NPD process where the NPD functions are aligned with the main supply functions in the company and other sales-related functions supporting the commercialization. A final key element of DSCM further investigated is the significance of regarding the demand processes and the supply processes as being equally important. This research has revealed that logistics outsourcing can be risky, if it results in the supply processes being considered less important. Nevertheless, if senior management regards the outsourced processes as equally important as the in-house processes, the effect of logistics outsourcing on company strategies and direction in SCM could be reduced and logistics outsourcing could instead provide an opportunity to improve the design and differentiation of the supply chain. Research limitations/implications: This research has proposed, described, and further analyzed a demand-supply oriented management approach. Such a management approach stresses that the demand processes and the supply processes have to be coordinated and directed at an overlying level, in order to gain and sustain a competitive advantage in competitive and fragmented markets. This research is mainly explorative in nature, and more empirical data, from similar and other research settings, is needed to further validate the findings. Another limitation of the research is that it is essentially limited to Swedish companies (even if some Finnish companies are involved in the survey), however, many of the case companies have a large international presence and are among the top three in their industries, facts which provide some grounds for generalization. Practical implications: This research provides researchers and practitioners with insights into how to develop a demand-supply oriented business. It shows that companies should organize themselves around understanding how customer value is created and delivered, as well as how these processes and management directions can be coordinated. In order for this to occur, the demand and supply processes must be considered as being equally important and the firm needs to be managed jointly and in a coordinated manner by the demand- and supply-side of the company. It is also important that value creation is considered in both the demand and supply processes. Originality/value: Despite strong arguments from both researchers and practitioners for a demand-supply oriented management approach only a minority of companies appear to have effectively coordinated the demand and supply processes. This might be influenced by the lack of research examining how the demand and supply processes can be coordinated, what benefits can be gained by coordinating them, and what requirements are necessary to succeed. This research contributes by investigating these types of aspects further.

  • 248.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Demand-supply chain management: industrial survival recipe for new decade2011In: Industrial management + data systems, ISSN 0263-5577, E-ISSN 1758-5783, Vol. 111, no 2, p. 184-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to enhance the current understanding and knowledge of the demand-supply chain management (DSCM) concept by determining its elements, benefits, and requirements, and by illustrating its occurrence in practice.

    Design/methodology/approach – This research has utilized a literature and case study research strategy. The case study has involved an international manufacturing company from the appliance industry. Empirical data have been collected mainly from in-depth interviews with key persons representing senior and middle management in the case organization.

    Findings – This research has established that the main elements of DSCM include market orientation, coordination of the demand and supply processes, viewing the demand and supply processes as being equally important, as well as value creation, differentiation, innovativeness, responsiveness, and cost efficiency in the demand and supply processes. It has also been revealed that the main benefits of DSCM include enhanced competitiveness, enhanced demand chain performance, and enhanced supply chain performance, while the main requirements of DSCM include organizational competences, company-established principles, demand-supply chain collaboration, and information technology support.

    Research limitations/implications – This research is explorative in nature, and more empirical data, from similar and other research settings, are needed to further validate the findings. Another limitation of the research is that it is limited to one Swedish company; however, the involved case company has a large international presence and is among the top three in its industry, which provides some ground for the generalization. A final limitation of the research is that the involved company only represents one industry.

    Practical implications – This paper provides insights useful to researchers and practitioners on how to develop a demand-supply oriented business. It highlights that firms should organize themselves around understanding how customer value is created and delivered and how these processes and management directions can be coordinated. The demand and supply processes have to be considered as equally important and the firm needs to be managed by the demand side and supply side of the company jointly in a coordinated manner.

    Originality/value – The need to coordinate the demand and supply processes has been emphasized in both the demand and supply chain literature but still remained relatively unexplored; thus, this paper contributes by investigating this matter further.

  • 249.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    How to develop a differentiated supply chain strategy2009In: Industrial management + data systems, ISSN 0263-5577, E-ISSN 1758-5783, Vol. 109, no 1, p. 16-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of supply chain (SC) design and operation by investigating how two case companies have developed and deployed differentiated SC strategies. This study primarily focuses on the operating part of the differentiated SC strategy, that is, how different manufacturing strategies – such as make-to-stock, assembly-to-order, and make-to-order – are used in contemporary manufacturing related SCs. However, this study also includes elements concerning supply and distribution parts.Design/methodology/approach – This study employs a descriptive multiple case study approach. The case organizations originate from Sweden, but they have significant international presence. Empirical data have been collected mainly from in-depth interviews with key persons representing senior and middle management in the case companies.Findings – This research shows how two case companies have developed and deployed a differentiated SC strategy. The case study findings reveal that both the case companies already are employing several manufacturing strategies and also combine these with different distribution strategies. Up to now, the supply part of the differentiated SC strategy has been neglected but probably will be incorporated in the near future. This implies that one efficient way to develop a differentiated SC strategy could be to combine different supply, manufacturing and distribution strategies into various SC solutions. By combining relatively few strategies, it is possible to develop several differentiated SC solutions.Research limitations/implications – The research work is limited to Swedish companies, however, the case companies are in top three in their respective industries measured by sales, which provides ground for the generalization of the research.Practical implications – This paper gives an insight to managers and practitioners in how to develop and deploy a differentiated SC strategy.Originality/value – Several studies have discussed the appropriate SC strategy issue but failed to address the need to utilize several SC solutions concurrently. However, this paper contributes by discussing how to develop and deploy a differentiated SC strategy and how to manage these multiple SCs.

  • 250.
    Hilletofth, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hilmola, Olli-Pekka
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Lappeenranta University of Technology, Kouvola Research Unit, Kouvola, Finland.
    Multi-agent-based supply chain management: a case study of requisites2010In: International Journal of Networking and Virtual Organisations, ISSN 1470-9503, E-ISSN 1741-5225, Vol. 7, no 2/3, p. 184-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply Chains (SCs) are becoming increasingly complex, and intensified competition in the end markets has started to create a situation where cooperation requirements between companies are increasing, and old mechanistic operations management solutions are becoming obsolete. In this paper we analyse a real-life situation in Alpha’s manufacturing plant in Sweden, which serves northern European countries in consumer markets. Case study findings reveal that the product-mix flexibility requirements are high and lead-time requirements in manufacturing as well as purchasing take weeks or months, not days. Based on the empirical observations, we propose an agent system for this company and discuss different levels of decision making, operative responsibilities and decision time horizons.

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