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  • 201.
    Galar, Diego
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Kans, Mirka
    Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Big Data in Asset Management: Knowledge Discovery in Asset Data by the Means of Data Mining2016In: Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Engineering Asset Management (WCEAM 2015) / [ed] Kari T. Koskinen, Helena Kortelainen, Jussi Aaltonen,Teuvo Uusitalo, Kari Komonen, Joseph Mathew, Jouko Laitinen, Springer, 2016, p. 161-171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assets are complex mixes of complex systems, built from components which, over time, may fail. The ability to quickly and efficiently determine the cause of failures and propose optimum maintenance decisions, while minimizing the need for human intervention is necessary. Thus, for complex assets, much information needs to be captured and mined to assess the overall condition of the whole system. Therefore the integration of asset information is required to get an accurate health assessment of the whole system, and determine the probability of a shutdown or slowdown. Moreover, the data collected are not only huge but often dispersed across independent systems that are difficult to access, fuse and mine due to disparate nature and granularity. If the data from these independent systems are combined into a common correlated data source, this new set of information could add value to the individual data sources by the means of data mining. This paper proposes a knowledge discovery process based on CRISP-DM for failure diagnosis using big data sets. The process is exemplified by applying it on railway infrastructure assets. The proposed framework implies a progress beyond the state of the art in the development of Big Data technologies in the fields of Knowledge Discovery algorithms from heterogeneous data sources, scalable data structures, real-time communications and visualizations techniques.

  • 202.
    Galindo Aranda, Patricia Cristina
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Bottleneck analysis using reverse-score: An experimental study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are manufacturing systems all over the world and all of them present dif- ferent characteristics. To get close to those manufacturing systems and aid them to analyze data and improve their efficiency, it arises FACTS Analyzer®. The present project concerns the development of a bottleneck analysis using REVERSE- SCORE (Simulation based COnstraint REmoval), feature included in FACTS Ana- lyzer. It is used Simulation-based Multi-Objective Optimization (SMO) to ana- lyze the different variables of a production line and investigate how to best extend previous application of SMO for bottleneck detection to not only consider im- provements of system parameters but also degradations of them. Degrading some system parameters can have many hidden advantages such as reduce power con- sumption, increase material efficiency or lengthen the useful life of the machines or tools, advantages that can draw near sustainability.

  • 203.
    Gandhi, Kanika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Machine maintenance decision support system: A systematic literature review2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11 – 13, 2018, Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, p. 349-354Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing competition market situations have emerged the requirement of the real-time data, understanding data behaviour, and maintenance actions in the manufacturing system. The future decision-making process in manufacturing needs to be more flexible to adapt to various methods for maintenance decision support systems (MDSS). This paper classifies various application areas of MDSS through a systemic literature review. Specifically, it identifies the relationship between the machine maintenance areas and the processes in which it integrates different tools and techniques to develop MDSS. The accumulated information helps in analyzing trends and shortcomings to concentrate the efforts for future research work. The reviewed papers are selected based on the contents, application tool assessments and clustered by their application areas. Furthermore, it proposes a structure outlined based on the functional knowledge as well as the information flow design during the development of MDSS, along with the relationship among application areas.

  • 204.
    Gandhi, Kanika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Schmidt, Bernard
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards data mining based decision support in manufacturing maintenance2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. 261-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current work presents a decision support system architecture for evaluating the features representing the health status to predict maintenance actions and remaning useful life of component. The evaluation is possible through pattern analysis of past and current measurements of the focused research components. Data mining visualization tools help in creating the most suitable patterns and learning insights from them. Estimations like features split values or measurement frequency of the component is achieved through classification methods in data mining. This paper presents how the quantitative results generated from data mining can be used to support decision making of domain experts.

  • 205.
    Garay, Beñat
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    High-level language design for IMMA-Virtual Driver DHM Research2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growing implementation of ergonomics in the automotive sector sets high demands on Digital Human Modelling (DHM) functionalities towards the simulation of more realistic environments and the reduction of physical model dependency. During the current degree project a leading element that smartly assembles DHM usage (implementation of high-level commanding languages) was designed, revolving around the industries’ needs which were gathered and interpreted in order to organize current functions in this language and suggest new complementary functions that would create a language environment suitable for non-expert users. This was achieved by focusing in an intuitive word-function structure, the proposal of defaults and other tools that aid users with different kinds of expertise. The need for realism of simulations was assessed by the language design especially by designing means to coordinate synchronic manikin-actions. 

  • 206.
    Garcia Rivera, Francisco
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Hoyos Rodriguez, David
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Implementation of Metallic Profiles in Social Houses2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a metallic structural solution for communities with minor resources, which is able to adapt to the climatic conditions of La Guajira (Colombia). The mains objectives of this structure are to reach good quality and reduce execution time as well as cost.

    The structure was designed by using Light Weight Steel Framing method, due to its simplicity as well as its ease in the assembly due to the lack of resources in those communities. The design was calculated by using an iterative method in which a compromise solution between prices and strength was reached.

    This paper concludes that the same structure which was being built, can be improved (decreasing of the price, and industrialisation of the method) by using the structural solution proposed by this work.

  • 207.
    García Concejero, Yeray
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Salazar del Río, Miguel Antonio
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Emulation of industrial Fieldbus modules for Virtual Commissioning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of the industry, known as industry 4.0, has introduced new technologies such as Virtual Commissioning and Industrial Internet of things. Nowadays, virtual models of automated systems are being created in order to be tested while being built in real life, what includes PLC programs, robots, etc. In order to provide a real behaviour emulation, these virtual models should be as similar to reality as possible. Currently, the components communication in a real system is done through Internet with the use of fieldbuses I/O modules. Right now, these modules are not integrated in the virtual model, as the PLC program returns an error due to the hardware not being found. This implies that the PLC project must be modified, and a workaround must be done in order to connect the I/O cards components of the modules. Furthermore, it means that two PLC projects need to be maintained at the same time, one for the real system and another for the virtual system. In this thesis, a research was done to prove if fieldbuses modules could be emulated, helping to improve Virtual Commissioning. The final goal is to allow a PLC project created for a real system to be run again the corresponding virtual model without any change. To achieve this, a driver able to emulate the communication behaviour of an Ethernet/IP fieldbus module is developed and tested against a real PLC program.

  • 208.
    García Gil, Antonio Rafael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    El Mernissi, Oualid
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Spot welded ENF-Specimen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The behaviour of spot welded joints is to be studied in shear mode by using the end notched flexure (ENF) specimen. The specimen counts on several spot welds spaced with the same gap along the entire length except for the notch. Different configurations of the test specimen spacing gap and spot diameter are to be preliminary designed in software PTC-CREO 2.0 in order to obtain accurate results. The results obtained from the software are to be compared with the experimental analysis performed by means of a servo-hydraulic testing machine. Both the virtual and the experimental results will be used to extract the stress-shear displacement relation around the first spot weld which is in contact with the notch, that is, the corresponding cohesive law. In addition, a comparison between adhesive and spot weld behaviours will be carried out by means of analytical equations in order to prove an existing equalisation between each other. Despite assuming several sources of error and after facing some problems related to the experimental work, accurate convergences between experimental and theoretical results were not accomplished in any of the three tests performed in lab. Due to the plastic deformation of the specimens in lab, the cohesive law was possible to be extracted only from the theoretical analysis, but not from the experimental one. In its place, the load-shear displacement was extracted. Some alternatives to solve this issue and to improve the performance of the tests are given at the end of this paper.

  • 209.
    García Martín, Rafael Adrián
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. Universidad de Málaga, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Industrial.
    Gaspar Sánchez, José Manuel
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. Universidad de Málaga, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Industrial.
    Screening for important factors in large-scale simulation models: some industrial experiments2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present project discusses the application of screening techniques in large-scale simulation models with the purpose of determining whether this kind of procedures could be a substitute for or a complement to simulation-based optimization for bottleneck identification and improvement.

    Based on sensitivity analysis, the screening techniques consist in finding the most important factors in simulation models where there are many factors, in which presumably only a few or some of these factors are important. The screening technique selected to be studied in this project is Sequential Bifurcation. This method consists in grouping the potentially important factors, dividing the groups continuously depending on the response generated from the model of the system under study.

    The results confirm that the application of the Sequential Bifurcation method can considerably reduce the simulation time because of the number of simulations needed, which decreased compared with the optimization study. Furthermore, by introducing two-factor interactions in the metamodel, the results are more accurate and may even be as accurate as the results from optimization. On the other hand, it has been found that the application of Sequential Bifurcation could become a problem in terms of accuracy when there are many storage buffers in the decision variables list.

    Due to all of these reasons, the screening techniques cannot be a complete alternative to simulation-based optimization. However, as shown in some initial results, the combination of these two methods could yield a promising roadmap for future research, which is highly recommended by the authors of this project.

  • 210.
    García-García, Daniel
    et al.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Alicante, Spain.
    Balart, Rafael
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Alicante, Spain.
    Lopez-Martinez, Juan
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Alicante, Spain.
    Ek, Monica
    School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moriana, Rosana
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Optimizing the yield and physico-chemical properties of pine cone cellulose nanocrystals by different hydrolysis time2018In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 2925-2938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were isolated for the first time from pine cones (PC) by alkali and bleaching treatments and subsequent sulfuric acid hydrolysis (64%) at 45 degrees C. The influence of the hydrolytic reaction time (30, 45, and 90 min) on the yield, chemical composition and structure, and thermal stability of CNCs was evaluated. The removal of non-cellulosic constituents during the alkaline and bleaching treatment resulted in high pure cellulosic fibres. The isolation of CNCs from these cellulosic fibres at different reaction times was verified by the nano-dimensions of the individual crystals (< 3 and < 335 nm of average diameter and length, respectively). The highest yield (15%) and the optimum CNCs properties in terms of aspect ratio, thermal stability and crystallinity were obtained for an extraction time of 45 min. PC appeared to be a new promising source of cellulose fibres and CNCs with potential to be applied as reinforcement in composites and for food-packaging.

  • 211.
    García-García, Daniel
    et al.
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales-ITM, Universitat Politècnica de València, Alicante, Spain.
    Lopez-Martínez, Juan
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales-ITM, Universitat Politècnica de València, Alicante, Spain.
    Rafael, Balart
    Instituto de Tecnología de Materiales-ITM, Universitat Politècnica de València, Alicante, Spain.
    Strömberg, Emma
    School of Engineering Science in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moriana, Rosana
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. School of Engineering Science in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reinforcing capability of cellulose nanocrystals obtained from pine cones in a biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PHB/PCL) thermoplastic blend2018In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 104, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, different loads (3, 5 and 7 wt%) of pine cone cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were added to films ofpoly(3-hydroxybutyrate)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PHB/PCL) blends with a composition of 75 wt% PHB and 25 wt% PCL (PHB75/PCL25). The films were obtained after solvent casting followed by melt compounding in anextruder and finally subjected to a thermocompression process. The influence of different CNCs loadings on themechanical, thermal, optical, wettability and disintegration in controlled compost properties of the PHB75/PCL25blend was discussed. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed the best dispersion of CNCson the polymeric matrix was at a load of 3 wt%. Over this loading, CNCs aggregates were formed enhancing thefilms fragilization due to stress concentration phenomena. However, the addition of CNCs improved the opticalproperties of the PHB75/PCL25films by increasing their transparency and accelerated the film disintegration incontrolled soil conditions. In general, the blend with 3 wt% CNCs offers the best balanced properties in terms ofmechanical, thermal, optical and wettability

  • 212.
    Gastañares, Xabier
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Bastida, Iñaki
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Evaluation of virtual confidence: turn-table model & mechatronic concept designer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents an evaluation of the virtual confidence that can be achieved in the software Mechatronic Concept Designer. The virtual confidence is defined as the reliability that a model or software offer, based on their capacity to replicate reality accurately. Reference system for the evaluation is a turn table used at AB Volvo in the production of front lids. After conducting the simulations and different kind of analyses (such as friction analyses), the main conclusion has been that both the original model and the software offered some limitations that made a high level of virtual confidence impossible. Taking into account this fact, future improvement lines have been suggested. 

  • 213.
    Gerdes, M.
    et al.
    Hamburg Univ Appl Sci, Aeroaircraft Design & Syst Grp, Hamburg, Germany..
    Galar, Diego
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Luleå Univ Technol, Div Operat & Maintenance Engn, Luleå, Sweden.
    Scholz, D.
    Hamburg Univ Appl Sci, Aeroaircraft Design & Syst Grp, Hamburg, Germany.
    Genetic algorithms and decision trees for condition monitoring and prognosis of A320 aircraft air conditioning2017In: International Journal of Condition Monitoring, ISSN 1354-2575, E-ISSN 1754-4904, Vol. 59, no 8, p. 424-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unscheduled maintenance is a large cost driver for airlines, but condition monitoring and prognosis can reduce the number of unscheduled maintenance actions. This paper discusses how condition monitoring can be introduced into most systems by adopting a data-driven approach and using existing data sources. The goal is to forecast the remaining useful life (RUL) of a system based on various sensor inputs. Decision trees are used to learn the characteristics of a system. The data for the decision tree training and classification are processed by a generic parametric signal analysis. To obtain the best classification results for the decision tree, the parameters are optimised by a genetic algorithm. A forest of three different decision trees with different signal analysis parameters is used as a classifier. The proposed method is validated with data from an A320 aircraft from Etihad Airways. Validation shows that condition monitoring can classify the sample data into ten predetermined categories, representing the total useful life (TUL) in 10% steps. This is used to predict the RUL. There are 350 false classifications out of 850 samples. Noise reduction reduces the outliers to nearly zero, making it possible to correctly predict condition. It is also possible to use the classification output to detect a maintenance action in the validation data.

  • 214.
    Gerdes, Mike
    et al.
    Aero - Aircraft Design and Systems Group, Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany.
    Galar, Diego
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Division of Operation and Maintenance Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Fuzzy condition monitoring of recirculation fans and filters2016In: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 469-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reliable condition monitoring is needed to be able to predict faults. Pattern recognition technologies are often used for finding patterns in complex systems. Condition monitoring can also benefit from pattern recognition. Many pattern recognition technologies however only output the classification of the data sample but do not output any information about classes that are also very similar to the input vector. This paper presents a concept for pattern recognition that outputs similarity values for decision trees. Experiments confirmed that the method works and showed good classification results. Different fuzzy functions were evaluated to show how the method can be adapted to different problems. The concept can be used on top of any normal decision tree algorithms and is independent of the learning algorithm. The goal is to have the probabilities of a sample belonging to each class. Performed experiments showed that the concept is reliable and it also works with decision tree forests (which is shown during this paper) to increase the classification accuracy. Overall the presented concept has the same classification accuracy than a normal decision tree but it offers the user more information about how certain the classification is.

  • 215.
    Gerdes, Mike
    et al.
    Hamburg University of Applied Sciences Aero - Aircraft Design and Systems Group, Hamburg, Germany / Luleå University of Technology, Division of Operation and Maintenance Engineering, Luleå, Sweden.
    Galar, Diego
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Luleå University of Technology, Division of Operation and Maintenance Engineering, Luleå, Sweden.
    Scholz, Dieter
    Hamburg University of Applied Sciences Aero - Aircraft Design and Systems Group, Hamburg, Germany.
    Decision Trees and the Effects of Feature Extraction Parameters for Robust Sensor Network Design2017In: Eksploatacja i Niezawodnosc - Maintenance and Reliability, ISSN 1507-2711, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 31-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable sensors and information are required for reliable condition monitoring. Complex systems are commonly monitored by many sensors for health assessment and operation purposes. When one of the sensors fails, the current state of the system cannot be calculated in same reliable way or the information about the current state will not be complete. Condition monitoring can still be used with an incomplete state, but the results may not represent the true condition of the system. This is especially true if the failed sensor monitors an important system parameter. There are two possibilities to handle sensor failure. One is to make the monitoring more complex by enabling it to work better with incomplete data; the other is to introduce hard or software redundancy. Sensor reliability is a critical part of a system. Not all sensors can be made redundant because of space, cost or environmental constraints. Sensors delivering significant information about the system state need to be redundant, but an error of less important sensors is acceptable. This paper shows how to calculate the significance of the information that a sensor gives about a system by using signal processing and decision trees. It also shows how signal processing parameters influence the classification rate of a decision tree and, thus, the information. Decision trees are used to calculate and order the features based on the information gain of each feature. During the method validation, they are used for failure classification to show the influence of different features on the classification performance. The paper concludes by analysing the results of experiments showing how the method can classy different errors with a 75% probability and how different feature extraction options influence the information gain.

  • 216.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Minab Higher Educational Center, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Azar, Adel
    Department of Management and Economics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
    Fathi, Masood
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lean-green manufacturing: the enabling role of information technology resource2018In: Kybernetes, ISSN 0368-492X, E-ISSN 1758-7883, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 1752-1777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the existing knowledge about the relationships between information technology (IT), lean manufacturing (LM), organizational environmental issues and business performance.

    Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect data from 122 elite manufacturers, and the hypothesized relationships were tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Findings – IT competence in LM acts as a lower-order organizational capability, and its business value should be recognized through the intermediate roles of LM effectiveness and environmental management capability. Findings recommend that the net benefits of LM are mainly materialized through waste and pollution reduction and simplified implementation of proactive environmental practices.

    Research limitations/implications – Among other limitations, relying on a rather small sample size and cross-sectional data of this research, and lack of generalizability of findings, tends to have certain limitations. An interesting direction for future research would be to extend this research by assessing interaction of other types of IT resources with LM and organizational environmental issues.

    Practical implications – Both LM and proactive environmental management are information-intensive. Investment in both technological and human aspects of IT resource aimed at increasing the effectiveness of LM activities and proactive environmental practices is imperative for contemporary manufacturers.

    Originality/value – This study introduces the IT capability of IT competence in LM and two organizational capabilities of LM effectiveness and environmental management capability. By doing so, the study highlights the significant role of organizational environmental issues in devising firms’ IT and advanced manufacturing technology investment strategies in LM context.

  • 217.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran / Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
    Fathi, Masood
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Corporate survival in Industry 4.0 era: the enabling role of lean-digitized manufacturing2019In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    purpose– The study demonstrates how small manufacturing firms can leverage their Information Technology (IT) resources to develop the lean-digitized manufacturing system that offers sustained competitiveness in the Industry 4.0 era.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study performs an in-depth 5-years case study of a manufacturing firm, and reports its journey from failure in the implementation of enterprise resource planning to its success in integrating IT-based technology trends of Industry 4.0 with the firm’s core capabilities and competencies while pursuing manufacturing digitization.

    Findings – Industry 4.0 transition requires the organizational integration of many IT-based modern technologies and the digitization of entire value chains. However, Industry 4.0 transition for smaller manufacturers can begin with digitization of certain areas of operations in support of organizational core strategies. Development of leandigitized manufacturing system is a viable business strategy for corporate survivability in the Industry 4.0 setting.

    Research limitations/implications – Although the implementation of lean-digitized manufacturing system is costly and challenging, this manufacturing strategy offers superior corporate competitiveness in the long run. Since this finding is rather limited to the present case study, assessing the business value of lean-digitized manufacturing system in a larger-scale research context would be an interesting avenue for future research.

    Practical implications – Industry 4.0 transition for typical manufacturers should commensurate with their organizational, operational, and technical particularities. Digitization of certain operations and processes, when aligned with the firm’s core strategies, capabilities, and procedures, can offer superior competitiveness even in Industry 4.0 era, meaning that the strategic plan for successful Industry 4.0 transition is idiosyncratic to each particular manufacturer.

    Social implications – Manufacturing digitization can have deep social implications as it alters inter and intra organizational relationships, causes unemployment among low-skilled workforce, and raises data security and privacy concerns. Manufacturers should take responsibility for their digitization process and steer it in a direction that simultaneously safeguards economic, social, and environmental sustainability.

    Originality/value – The strategic roadmap devised and employed by the case company for managing its digitization process can better reveal what manufacturing digitization, mandated by Industry 4.0, might require of typical manufacturers, and further enable them to better facilitate their digital transformation process.

  • 218.
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Minab Higher Educational Center, University of Hormozgan, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Fathi, Masood
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Fontes, Dalila Benedita Machado Martins
    Faculty of Economics, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Ching, Ng Tan
    Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman - Kuala Lumpur Campus, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Modeling lean manufacturing success2018In: Journal of Modelling in Management, ISSN 1746-5664, E-ISSN 1746-5672, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 908-931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about the process ofachieving Lean Manufacturing (LM) success.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study uses interpretive structural modeling and captures theopinions of a group of LM experts from a world-class Japanese automobile manufacturer, to map theinterrelationships among potential determinants of LM success. This study further uses the data from asurvey of 122 leading automobile part manufacturers by performing structural equation modeling toempirically test the research model proposed.

    Findings – Management support and commitment, financial resources availability, information technologycompetence for LM, human resources management, production process simplicity, supportive culture andsupply chain-wide integration are the key determinants that directly or indirectly determine the level ofachievement of LMsuccess.

    Research limitations/implications – The determinants of LM success as experienced by Asianautomobile manufacturers might be different from determinants of LM success as experienced byWestern automobile manufacturers. An interesting direction for future research would be to capturethe experts’ inputs from Western automobile manufacturers to complement the findings of thisstudy.

    Practical implications – The practical contribution of this study lays in the development of linkagesamong various LM success determinants. Utility of the proposed interpretive structural modeling andstructural equation modeling methodologies imposing order, direction and significance of therelationships among elements of LM success assumes considerable value to the decision-makers and LMpractitioners.

    Originality/value – Building on opinions of a group of LM experts and a case study of leading auto partmanufacturers, the present study strives to model the success of LM, a topic that has received little attentionto date.

  • 219.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Adamson, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Web-based Real-time Monitoring and Control of a Robot2011In: / [ed] Jan-Eric Ståhl, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to enhance production in today’s uncertain manufacturing environments, real-time monitoring and dynamic control capabilities that are responsive and adaptive to rapid changes of production capability and functionality are vital. Targeting the dynamic issue, this paper presents a virtual production aid, a Wise-ShopFloor(Web-based integrated sensor-driven e-ShopFloor) prototype that can integrate Web-based sensor-driven virtual models with a real shop floor.

    The Wise-ShopFloor utilizes Java technologies (e.g., Java 3D and Java Servlet) for system implementation which allows the users to monitor and control distant shop floor operations based on runtime information from the shop floor. Particularly, remote monitoring and control of an industrial robot is chosen as a case study to demonstrate the approach towards web-based adaptive manufacturing. It is envisioned that this approach not only can bridge the gap between virtual and real manufacturing but also can largely enhance manufacturing performance and profitability via remote instant assistance

  • 220.
    Goienetxea, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H.C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bringing together Lean and simulation: a comprehensive review2019In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588XArticle, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean is and will still be one of the most popular management philosophies in the Industry 4.0 context and simulation is one of its key technologies. Many authors discuss about the benefits of combining Lean and simulation to better support decision makers in system design and improvement. However, there is a lack of reviews in the domain. Therefore, this paper presents a four-stage comprehensive review and analysis of existing literature on their combination. The aim is to identify the state of the art, existing methods and frameworks for combining Lean and simulation, while also identifying key research perspectives and challenges. The main trends identified are the increased interest in the combination of Lean and simulation in the Industry 4.0 context and in their combination with optimisation, Six Sigma, as well as sustainability. The number of articles in these areas is likely to continue to grow. On the other hand, we highlight six gaps found in the literature regarding the combination of Lean and simulation, which may induce new research opportunities. Existing technical, organisational, as well as people and culture related challenges on the combination of Lean and simulation are also discussed.

  • 221.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bringing Together Lean, Simulation and Optimization: Defining a framework to support decision-making in system design and improvement2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid changes in the market including globalization, the requirement for personalizedproducts and services by the customers, shorter product life-cycles, the exponential growthof technological advances, and the demographical changes, will demand organizations toeffectively improve and design their systems in order to survive. This is the actual paradigmcharacterizing the industrial and service sectors. This scenario presents a considerablechallenge to decision makers who will need to decide about how to design and improve amore than ever complex system without compromising the quality of the decision taken.Lean, being a widely applied management philosophy with very powerful principles, itsmethods and tools are static in nature and have some limitations when it comes to the designand improvement of complex and dynamic systems. Some authors have proposed thecombined use of simulation with Lean in order to overcome these limitations. Furthermore,optimization and post-optimization tools coupled to simulation, provide knowledge aboutoptimal or nearly optimal system configurations to choose from. However, even if Leanprinciples, methods and tools, as well as simulation and optimization, pursue the objectiveof supporting organizations regarding system design and improvement, a bilateral approachfor their combination and its benefits have barely been addressed in the literature.Many studies focus only on how specific Lean tools and simulation can be combined, treatingLean purely as a toolbox and not considering how Lean can support the simulation process.The aim of this research is to address this knowledge gap by analyzing the mutualbenefits and presenting a framework for combining Lean, simulation and optimization tobetter support decision makers in system design and improvement where the limitationsof Lean tools and simulation are overcome by their combination. This framework includesa conceptual framework explaining the relationships between the Lean philosophy, methodsand tools with simulation and optimization; the purposes for this combination and stepby step processes to achieve these purposes; the identification of the roles involved in eachprocess; a maturity model providing guidelines on how to implement the framework; existingbarriers for the implementation; and ethical considerations to take into account. Anindustrial handbook has also been written which explains how to deploy the framework.The research has been conducted in three main stages including an analysis of the literatureand the real-world needs, the definition and formulation of the framework, and finally, itsevaluation in real-world projects and with subject matter experts. The main contributionof this research is the reflection provided on the bilateral benefits of the combination, aswell as the defined and evaluated framework, which will support decision makers take qualitydecisions in system design and improvement even in complex scenarios.

  • 222.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bringing together Lean, simulation and optimization in a framework for system design and improvement2018In: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, Gothenburg, 9-12 December, 2018 / [ed] M. Rabe, A. A. Juan, N. Mustafee, A. Skoogh, S. Jain, B. Johansson, Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE, 2018, p. 4132-4133Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it beneficial to combine lean, simulation and optimization? And if so, how can they be combined for decision-making support in system design and improvement? This research proposes a framework that sets the basis for achieving beneficial interactions between the lean philosophy, methods and tools, and simulation-based optimization. A framework that gives the users the possibility to get better system understanding, conduct a deeper system analysis, and attain an optimal system design and improvement, and thereby, get better foundation for sustainable long time improvement. The framework has been tested in several realworld case studies. Moreover, surveys have been conducted to evaluate the perception of subject matter experts about its usefulness, as well as its usability and perceived quality by end users and decision makers, all of them reporting very positive results.

  • 223.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Improving the Material Flow of a Manufacturing Company via Lean, Simulation and Optimization2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, IEEM2017, IEEE, 2017, p. 1245-1250Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are continuously working towards system and process improvement to remain competitive in aglobal market. There are different methods that support companies in the achievement of that goal. This paper presents an innovative process that combines lean, simulation and optimization to improve the material flow of a manufacturing company. A description of each step of the process details the lean tools and principles taken into account, as well as the results achieved by the application of simulation and optimization.The project resulted in an improved layout and material flow that employs an automated guided vehicle. In addition, lean wastes related to transport, inventory levels as well as waiting times were reduced. The utilization of the process that combines lean, simulation and optimization was considered valuable for the success of the project.

  • 224.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Jägstam, Mats
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Lean, Simulation and Optimization: A maturity model2017In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, IEEM2017, IEEE, 2017, p. 1310-1315Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a maturity model that can be applied to support organizations in identifying their current state and guiding their further development with regard to lean, simulation and optimization. The paper identifies and describes different maturity levels and offers guidelines that explain how organizations can grow from lower to higher levels of maturity. In addition, it attempts to provide the starting point for organizations that have applied lean or are willing to implement it and which may also be considering taking decisions in a more efficient way via simulation and optimization.

  • 225.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Department of Engineering Science, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Supporting the lean journey with simulation and optimization in the context of Industry 4.02018In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 25, p. 586-593Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new industrial revolution brings important changes to organizations that will need to adapt their machines, systems and employees’ competences to sustain their business in a highly competitive market. Management philosophies such as lean will also need to adapt to the improvement possibilities that Industry 4.0 brings. This paper presents a review on the role of lean and simulation in the context of Industry 4.0. Additionally, the paper presents a conceptual framework where simulation and optimization will make the lean approach more efficient, speeding up system improvements and reconfiguration, by means of an enhanced decision-making process and supported organizational learning.

  • 226.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    How can decision makers be supported in the improvement of an emergency department?: A simulation, optimization and data mining approach2017In: Operations Research for Health Care, ISSN 2211-6923, E-ISSN 2211-6931, Vol. 15, p. 102-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The improvement of emergency department processes involves the need to take into considerationmultiple variables and objectives in a highly dynamic and unpredictable environment, which makes thedecision-making task extremely challenging. The use of different methodologies and tools to support thedecision-making process is therefore a key issue. This article presents a novel approach in healthcarein which Discrete Event Simulation, Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization and Data Miningtechniques are used in combination. This methodology has been applied for a system improvementanalysis in a Swedish emergency department. As a result of the project, the decision makers were providedwith a range of nearly optimal solutions and design rules which reduce considerably the length of stayand waiting times for emergency department patients. These solutions include the optimal number ofresources and the required level of improvement in key processes. The article presents and discussesthe benefits achieved by applying this methodology, which has proven to be remarkably valuable fordecision-making support, with regard to complex healthcare system design and improvement.

  • 227.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    System design and improvement of an emergency department using Simulation-Based Multi-Objective Optimization2015In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 616, no 1, article id 012015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is nowadays widely used to support decision makers in system analysis and improvement. However, the use of simulation for improving stochastic logistic processes is not common among healthcare providers. The process of improving healthcare systems involves the necessity to deal with trade-off optimal solutions that take into consideration a multiple number of variables and objectives. Complementing DES with Multi-Objective Optimization (SMO) creates a superior base for finding these solutions and in consequence, facilitates the decision-making process. This paper presents how SMO has been applied for system improvement analysis in a Swedish Emergency Department (ED). A significant number of input variables, constraints and objectives were considered when defining the optimization problem. As a result of the project, the decision makers were provided with a range of optimal solutions which reduces considerably the length of stay and waiting times for the ED patients. SMO has proved to be an appropriate technique to support healthcare system design and improvement processes. A key factor for the success of this project has been the involvement and engagement of the stakeholders during the whole process.

  • 228.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Zúñiga, Enrique
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Karlberg, Catarina
    Monitoring and Analysis Area, Health Department of Västra Götaland, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wallqvist, Pierre
    Monitoring and Analysis Area, Health Department of Västra Götaland, Skövde, Sweden.
    Improved system design of an emergency department through simulation-based multiobjective-optimization2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare facilities, and especially emergency departments (ED), are usually characterized by its complexity due to the variability and stochastic nature of the processes involved in the system. The combination of different flows of patients, staff and resources also increments the complexity of this kind of facilities. In order to increase its efficiency, many researchers have proposed discrete-event simulation (DES) as a powerful improvement tool. However, DES can be a limited approach in the case a simulation model has too many combinations of input parameters, complex correlations between the input and output parameters and different objective functions. Hence, to find the best configuration of a complex system, an approach combining DES and meta-heuristic optimization becomes an even more powerful improvement technique. Simulation-based multiobjective-optimization (SMO) is a promising approach to generate multiple trade-off solutions particularly when multiple conflicting objectives exist within a complex system. The generated solutions provide decision makers with feasible and optimal alternatives to improve, modify or design healthcare systems. The aim of this paper is to present the work done at the ED of the regional Hospital of Skövde in Sweden, where SMO implemented in modeFromtier has been successfully applied. The result and methodology present a successful approach for decision makers in healthcare systems to reduce the waiting time of patients saving considerable time, money and resources.

  • 229.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Sellgren, Tommy
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    Uppsala University.
    Introducing simulation and optimization in the Lean continuous improvement standards in an automotive company2019In: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference, Gothenburg, December 9-12, 2018 / [ed] M. Rabe, A. A. Juan, N. Mustafee, A. Skoogh, S. Jain, B. Johansson, Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE, 2019, p. 3352-3363Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly competitive automobile market requires automotive companies to become efficient by continuously improving their production systems. This paper presents a case study where simulationbased optimization (SBO) was employed as a step within a Value Stream Mapping event. The aim of the study was to promote the use of SBO to strengthen the continuous improvement work of the company. The paper presents all the key steps performed in the study, including the challenges faced and a reflection on how to introduce SBO as a powerful tool within the lean continuous improvement standards.

  • 230.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lean, Simulation and Optimization: A Win-Win combination2016In: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal, and M. D. Rossetti, Piscataway, New Jersey: IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 2227-2238Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean and simulation analysis are driven by the same objective, how to better design and improve processes making the companies more competitive. The adoption of lean has been widely spread in companies from public to private sectors and simulation is nowadays becoming more and more popular. Several authors have pointed out the benefits of combining simulation and lean, however, they are still rarely used together in practice. Optimization as an additional technique to this combination is even a more powerful approach especially when designing and improving complex processes with multiple conflicting objectives. This paper presents the mutual benefits that are gained when combining lean, simulation and optimization and how they overcome each other´s limitations. A framework including the three concepts, some of the barriers for its implementation and a real-world industrial example are also described.

  • 231.
    González Albea, Estela
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Redesign of retro van for being used in city tours2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 232.
    Griggs, Terry
    et al.
    The Open University, UK.
    Stokes, Klara
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    On Pentagonal Geometries with Block Size 3, 4 or 52016In: Symmetries in Graphs, Maps, and Polytopes: 5th SIGMAP Workshop, West Malvern, UK, July 2014 / [ed] Jozef Širáň, Robert Jajcay, Springer, 2016, p. 147-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 233.
    Gudfinnsson, Kristens
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Taking Advantage of Business Intelligence in a Complex-Systems Environment2014In: DSS 2.0 – Supporting Decision Making with New Technologies / [ed] Gloria Phillips-Wren, Sven Carlsson, Ana Respício & Patrick Brézillon, IOS Press, 2014, p. 265-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business intelligence (BI) has fundamentally changed how many companies conduct their business. In literature, focus has been on volume-operation companies that provide services to millions of customers. In contrast, complex-systems companies have fewer customers and pursue customer needs by providing more customized products and services. This paper presents the results at a case of a complex-systems company with the overall aim to see how a complex-systems company has taken advantage of BI. In addition, a framework was used to measure the BI maturity of the company. Literature also emphasis that complex-system companies may benefit from adopting BI applications from volume-operations companies, but the results indicate that there may be a difference in the importance of BI tools, which in turn may negatively influence such cross-category adoptions.

  • 234.
    Gudfinnsson, Kristens
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Challenges with BI adoption in SMEs2017In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems & Applications (IISA), IEEE, 2017, , p. 6p. 172-177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business intelligence (BI) has become a well-known umbrella term both amongst academics and practitioners. Researchers have studied how companies can take advantage of BI and what challenges companies are facing when working with BI. However, research is mostly focused on large companies, despite the importance of small- and medium sized companies (SMEs) in both society and economically. This paper presents results of an in-depth qualitative case study on challenges faced by SMEs when adopting BI. The challenges are categorized according to a BI maturity model adopted as unit of assessment. The contribution of the results presented is two-folded; 1) It increases current literature regarding challenges when adopting BI in SMEs, and 2) It serves as guidance for SMEs on common pitfalls that ought to be avoided.

  • 235.
    Gudfinnsson, Kristens
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    On transforming into the data-driven decision-making era: current state of practice in manufacturing smes2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018, University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, Vol. 8, p. 337-342Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research lacks details on how SMMEs are able to capitalize on how their IT-solutions supports data-driven decision-making. Such details are important for being able to support further development of SMMEs and assuring their sustainability and competitive edge. Prosperous SMMEs are vital due to their economical and societal importance. To alleviate the lack of details, this paper presents the results of four case studies towards SMMEs partly aimed at investigating their current state of data-driven decision-making. The findings reveal that IT-solutions in some areas are either underdeveloped or unexplored. Instead, the SMMEs tend to focus on traditional manufacturing techniques, continuous improvements in the manufacturing process, and manual support routines and thereby neglects opportunities offered in relation to e.g. incident management, product quality monitoring, and the usage of KPIs not directly linked to manufacturing.

  • 236.
    Gudfinnsson, Kristens
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Analyzing Business Intelligence Maturity2015In: Journal of Decision Systems, ISSN 1246-0125, E-ISSN 2116-7052, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 37-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business intelligence has fundamentally changed how companiesconduct their business. In literature, the focus has been on volume-operationcompanies that provide services to millions of customers. In contrast, complexsystemscompanies have fewer customers and pursue customer needs byproviding more customized products and services. This paper presents the resultsof a case study conducted at a complex-systems company, with the overall aim toidentify how complex-systems companies may take advantage of businessintelligence. A framework was used to measure business intelligence maturity ofthe company. In addition, we also explain the current maturity level of the casecompany,based on critical factors for success adopted from the literature. Indoing so, we also contribute on important details regarding factors that must beconsidered by organizations, in order to leverage their analytical capability.Finally, we also propose topics that need to be further investigated, in order toincrease current knowledge regarding BI usage and maturity in complex-systemscompanies.

  • 237.
    Guil López, Alejandro
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Guerrero Valadez, Isabel María
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Design of a set of stool and table with a sustainable approach by using DFA and DFE principles2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers the conduction of a final thesis project for the University of Skövde in collaboration with Carlos Jimenez Design studio (Spain).

    The aim of this project was to design and present a set of furniture consisting in a high stool and a high chair of a similar nature to the ones which are usually found in bars, oriented to the domestic environment and to the Scandinavian market.

    The main special characteristic of this project is that the design has been carried out with a focus on environmental sustainability, which has been approached in such a way that assembly has a big part in it, which at the same time relates to user experience. Therefore, the project combines design for assembly (DFA), design for environment (DFE) and user experience design (UXD) in such a way that all the approaches taken for each of these factors are interrelated in complete and thorough design process, were all the aspects of the final product have been taken into account.

  • 238.
    Gunnarsson Ljungblom, Joel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Larsson, Rikard
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Identifiering av variabler vid framtagning av optimerad stickprovsfrekvens2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work on measuring frequencies, which is how often a produced detail is to be measured, within Volvo Cars’ production currently does not follow a standardized approach. The work around it basically builds on past experiences and what similar equipment has for measurement frequency. Volvo Cars requests more knowledge in the area to get more cost-effective quality assurance.

    The main objective of the work has contained identification of the variables that affect the measurement frequency, as well as construction of a simpler model where the variables are applied. Interviews have also been conducted on a number of companies, where some of the key conclusions are:

    • Measuring frequencies are worked retrospectively, rather than proactively.

    • Capability is currently the most common for work with measurement frequencies.

    • Working with measurement frequencies does not occur standardized.

    • Improving measurement frequencies occur to a low extent, and when done, it is often triggered by a man-time analysis.

    The work has resulted in the identification of two main variables; capability and quality costs. Although the reality is more complicated, these two variables can be seen as main categories. Under capability and quality costs, there are subcategories.

    For capability, tool-related properties such as wear and its material are available. The material of the detail and its thermodynamic properties also affect the capability. Finally, error intensity, vibrations and stability of the process are found.

    Regarding quality deficiency there are error costs arising within the company's walls, internal error costs, and the error costs that occur when the product is delivered to the customer, external error costs. In addition to the two, there are also control costs and prevention costs.

    In addition, the work has resulted in a simpler model, taking into account experience from interviews and data from Volvo Cars. Several of the data contained in the model have been developed by analyzing three-week production data from Volvo Cars. Data used in the model related to quality is the capability and the percentage distribution of the current variant. The data that impact on quality costs is how many operations the flow has and the current operation location in relation to the total number. The cost of the raw material, the severity of the quality lack of the current property and the scrap cost is also used.

    The model has then been applied to one of the machines covered by the work to check the outcome. With data imported based on production data from Volvo Cars, a sampling rate of 62 has been generated.

  • 239.
    Gustafsson, Rasmus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Time study and flow-simulation: Current and future analysis2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete-event simulations are increasingly being used to solve problems and to aid in decision making which are proving useful in the manufacturing industry. The main aim for this thesis was to compare the current production line and how implementing changes for a future state as a supporting basis for making the decision.

    The theoretical framework focused on the Lean philosophy merged with simulation-based methods. The simulation model was build using the collected data. A time study was conducted in order to verify the process and setup times since these were only estimated at the time. Two simulation models were built for the current production line and the future state. The future state was based on the current one since no changes in the process and setup times would be made during the two simulation-model. Experiments were then done to compare the different states, one with batch and the other single-piece flow. The parameters were set on equal terms and the compared values were throughput (TH), lead-time (LT) and work in process (WIP). The conclusion drawn from the results is that the future state would be more efficient.

  • 240.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    SIMULATION-BASED OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCT PRIORITIZATION IN A MANUFACTURING FLOWSHOP AT GKN AEROSPACE2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace in Trollhättan manufactures different components for aircraft engines and aero derivative gas turbines. A new workshop has recently been installed that is highly automated and includes operations such as laser welding, x-ray and burring. Their production flow is mostly based on first in first out rules except for the x-ray stations where the workers can select which part they want to begin with. Currently, the workers select the parts based on experience which sometimes is not the most optimal solution. Therefore, they want to improve their selection process in order to reduce delays in their production which is why a priority system is required. Simulation based optimization will be used in order to find near optimal priority lists.

    Experts at GKN Aerospace have created a discrete event simulation model over their workshop using SIMUL8. In order to find near optimal priority lists for the workshop a new optimization program needs to be created that is compatible with SIMUL8. The program will need to fulfill some requirements to both work as an optimization program and also to be used by the workers at GKN Aerospace.

    Since multi objective evolutionary algorithms have the advantage of exploring the objective space, this type of method is utilized. The objective is to minimize the total delay in the system which makes this a single-objective optimization problem but since the simulation model contains stochastic behavior the result will differ between each run and therefore several replications is needed. With several replications more outputs can be read, in this case mean value and standard deviation will make this a multi objective optimization problem.

    The question that is investigated throughout this thesis is: Can a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm efficiently find a robust solution with low delays by considering both mean value and standard deviation as objectives?

    The aim of this project is to create a priority system that uses an optimization algorithm which together with the simulation model can optimize the production at GKN Aerospace. The purpose of the optimization algorithm is to find robust solutions with low delays in order to improve the production at GKN Aerospace. With the priority system GKN Aerospace may improve their process by following priority lists which has been optimized and therefore reduce waste in form of delays. With the aim of reducing both standard deviation and mean value, a robust solution may be found which means that a small change in the production will not disturb the outcome of the workshop.

    During this project a priority system was created that considers both the developer and the workers at GKN Aerospace. The priority system is web based where the workers uses a web browser to access the priority list while the developer uses an experiment system in order to improve the underlying optimization algorithm. With the experiment system the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II was implemented in order to solve the real case problem.

  • 241.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Using Speech Recognition, Haptic Control and Augmented Reality to enable Human-Robot Collaboration in Assembly Manufacturing: Research Proposal2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years robots have become more adaptive and aware of the surroundings which enables them for use in human-robot collaboration. By introducing robots into the same working cell as the human, then the two can collaborate by letting the robot deal with heavy lifting, repetitive and high accuracy tasks while the human focuses on tasks that needs the flexibility of the human. Collaborative robots already exists today in the market but the usage of these robots are mainly to work in close proximity.

    Usually a teaching pendant is used to program a robot by moving it using a joystick or buttons. Using this teaching pendant for programming is usually quite slow and requires training which means that few can operate it. However, recent research shows that there exist several application using multi-modal communication systems to improve the programming of a robot. This kind of programming will be necessary to collaborate with a robot in the industry since the human in a collaborative task might have to teach the robot how to execute its task.

    This project aims to introduce a programming-by-guidance system into assembly manufacturing where the human can assist the robot by teaching the robot how to execute its task. Three technologies will be combined, speech recognition, haptic control, and augmented reality. The hypothesis is that with these three technologies an effective and intuitive programming-by-guidance system can be used within the assembly manufacturing industry. This project have three main motivators: Allowing workers, with no robot programming expertise, to teach the robot how to execute its task in an assembly manufacturing system; Reducing the development time of the robot by introducing advanced programming-by-guidance technology; Showing that augmented reality can add additional information that is useful when programming the robot.

  • 242.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Human-robot collaboration – towards new metrics for selection of communication technologies2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. 6p. 123-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial robot manufacturers have in recent years developed collaborative robots and these gains more and more interest within the manufacturing industry. Collaborative robots ensure that humans and robots can work together without the robot being dangerous for the human. However, collaborative robots themselves are not enough to achieve collaboration between a human and a robot; collaboration is only possible if a proper communication between the human and the robot can be achieved. The aim of this paper is to identify and categorize technologies that can be used to enable such communication between a human and an industrial robot.

  • 243.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    A New Algorithm Using the Non-dominated Tree to improve Non-dominated Sorting2018In: Evolutionary Computation, ISSN 1063-6560, E-ISSN 1530-9304, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 89-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-dominated sorting is a technique often used in evolutionary algorithms to determine the quality of solutions in a population. The most common algorithm is the Fast Non-dominated Sort (FNS). This algorithm, however, has the drawback that its performance deteriorates when the population size grows. The same drawback applies also to other non-dominating sorting algorithms such as the Efficient Non-dominated Sort with Binary Strategy (ENS-BS). An algorithm suggested to overcome this drawback is the Divide-and-Conquer Non-dominated Sort (DCNS) which works well on a limited number of objectives but deteriorates when the number of objectives grows. This paper presents a new, more efficient, algorithm called the Efficient Non-dominated Sort with Non-Dominated Tree (ENS-NDT). ENS-NDT is an extension of the ENS-BS algorithm and uses a novel Non-Dominated Tree (NDTree) to speed up the non-dominated sorting. ENS-NDT is able to handle large population sizes and a large number of objectives more efficiently than existing algorithms for non-dominated sorting. In the paper, it is shown that with ENS-NDT the runtime of multi-objective optimization algorithms such as the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) can be substantially reduced.

  • 244.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brewster, Rodney
    Volvo Car Corporation, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Human-Robot Collaboration Demonstrator Combining Speech Recognition and Haptic Control2017In: Manufacturing Systems 4.0 - Proceedings of the 50th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Mitchell M. Tseng, Hung-Yin Tsai, Yue Wang, 2017, Vol. 63, p. 396-401Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years human-robot collaboration has been an important topic in manufacturing industries. By introducing robots into the same working cell as humans, the advantages of both humans and robots can be utilized. A robot can handle heavy lifting, repetitive and high accuracy tasks while a human can handle tasks that require the flexibility of humans. If a worker is to collaborate with a robot it is important to have an intuitive way of communicating with the robot. Currently, the way of interacting with a robot is through a teaching pendant, where the robot is controlled using buttons or a joystick. However, speech and touch are two communication methods natural to humans, where speech recognition and haptic control technologies can be used to interpret these communication methods. These technologies have been heavily researched in several research areas, including human-robot interaction. However, research of combining these two technologies to achieve a more natural communication in industrial human-robot collaboration is limited. A demonstrator has thus been developed which includes both speech recognition and haptic control technologies to control a collaborative robot from Universal Robots. This demonstrator will function as an experimental platform to further research on how the speech recognition and haptic control can be used in human-robot collaboration. The demonstrator has proven that the two technologies can be integrated with a collaborative industrial robot, where the human and the robot collaborate to assemble a simple car model. The demonstrator has been used in public appearances and a pilot study, which have contributed in further improvements of the demonstrator. Further research will focus on making the communication more intuitive for the human and the demonstrator will be used as the platform for continued research.

  • 245.
    Gutierrez Hernandez, Lucero
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ramirez Garcia, Wenny Fernanda
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Sustainable System for Water Desalination2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ankarstiftelsen, a non-profit organization with the mission of assuring the access to basic necessities in developing countries, presented a brief for a sustainable water desalination system, to obtain acceptable drinking water, in the region of La Guajira, Colombia.  The main objective of the project is the creation of an initial proposal for a sustainable desalination system using solar energy with a minimal cost of construction. 

     

    This project required large amounts of research regarding the principles of desalination and water purification systems. As well as the living conditions, weather, and water situation in La Guajira. Empirical studies helped verify initial information and provided a better understanding of desalination systems and their principles. Methodologies such as user personas, interviews, and Function analysis were used to determine key constraints and aspects to be considered in the project development.  In addition, simple functionality tests were conducted to evaluate the concepts generated. The resulting design proposal is a collection of technical functionality aspects and user identity that aims to create a meaningful and coherent product to be implemented in its designated context.

  • 246.
    Gutiérrez Rodríguez, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Morales Salto-Weis, María
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Design of a cozy and ergonomic workplace2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to develop an armchair for work, in collaboration with the furniture company Jooy. A background study was first performed to define the mission statement and to set the requirements. The background study includes a market research to know who the customers and the potential clients can be, a study of the Scandinavian design style and gathering data from customers to define the users’ needs. After the background study, potential users were delivered a questionnaire to clarify the objectives. The next step has been to set the specifications. At this point, the idea generation stage was carried out using creative and rational design methods, such as the Morphological Chart, until the final concept was chosen. Using the specifications and creative methods such as Brain drawing, different possible solutions were generated. When the product was defined, a study in materials and ergonomics was performed. In addition, a prototype was built to test by users at University of Skövde. Finally, 3D CAD model was implemented in PTC Creo Parametric. The design process followed is inspired by the front-end concept development process.   During the development of the project the collaboration with the company has been crucial in order to learn about materials, ergonomics and how to make a prototype. Also feedback from the supervisor and the company has been continuously considered to improve the project.

  • 247.
    Hamrin, Ebba
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Justerbart bord för hem- och skolmiljö2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande arbete syftar till att ta fram ett justerbart bord för stående arbete anpassat för skola och hemmiljö. Produktutvecklingen har skett i samarbete med Freedesk, ett företag lokaliserat i Lund som tillverkar höj- och sänkbara bord för stående arbete.

    Designprocessmodellen som använts i produktutvecklingen är Archer´s trefasmetod kombinerad med  4-stegsmodellen.

    Produktutvecklingens analytiska fas inleddes med en litteraturstudie inom ämnesområdena  ergonomi och mervärde. Därefter gjordes en användarstudie relaterad till Freedesk’s befintliga produkt, innefattade skola och hemanvändare, bestående av intervjuer, studiebesök, fokusgruppsmöten och en enkät. Därefter gjordes en målträds-analys. En funktionsanalys av Freedesk´s originalprodukt utfördes i samband med målträdsanalysen för att få en bild av vilka funktioner som redan fanns.

    De kreativa metoder som användes var brainstorming, konceptträd och morfologiska tabeller. Resultatet blev att 5 olika koncept togs fram med tillhörande illustrationer. För att avsluta den kreativa fasen hölls ett  konceptvalsmöte med företaget där ett huvudsakligt koncept valdes ut med hjälp av Pugh´s konceptvalsmetod.

    Utförandefasen inleddes med en fördjupning i ämnesområdena tillverkningsteknik och DFMA. Slutligen gjordes en Cad-modell av konceptet.

    Resultatet blev ett höj- och sänkbart bord med en skiva som går att vinkla i 3 olika steg för att addera ytterligare en ergonomisk aspekt till designen. Ytterligare funktioner är en steglöst flytbar hållare för mobiltelefon eller surfplatta samt förvaring under den vinklingsbara skivan.

    Bordsskivan har försetts med en stålram för att åstadkomma mer stabilitet. I stålramen har kuggskenor samt gångjärn integrerats för att undvika att detaljerna fästs direkt i bordsskivan och samtidigt öka hållfastheten i konstruktionen. Benen och ramen har försetts med inåtböjningar där handtagen är placerade för att minska klämrisken samt ge produkten ett unikt utseende.

  • 248.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Scania CV / Chalmers.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Carlson, Johan S
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Chalmers.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Stefan, Gustafsson
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre.
    Keyvani, Ali
    Högskolan Väst / Chalmers.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Centre / Chalmers.
    IMMA – Intelligently moving manikins in automotive applications2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 249.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Carlson, Johan S.
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Spensieri, Domenico
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Björkenstam, Staffan
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Nyström, Johan
    Geometry and Motion Planning group, Fraunhofer-Chalmers Center, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ore, Fredrik
    School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Industrial path solutions - intelligently moving manikins2019In: DHM and Posturography / [ed] Sofia Scataglini, Gunther Paul, London: Academic Press, 2019, p. 115-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IPS IMMA (Industrial Path Solutions - Intelligently Moving Manikins) is a digital human modeling tool developed in close cooperation between academia and industry in Sweden. The academic consortium behind the software consists of expertise within applied mathematics, ergonomics, and engineering. The development of IMMA was initiated from the vehicle industries’ need of an effective, efficient, objective, and user-friendly software for verification of manufacturing ergonomics. The ‘Industrial path solutions - intelligently moving manikins’ chapter consists of two main sections: the first about the commercially available tool, and the second about current or recent research projects developing the software further. Commercial IPS IMMA is presented by describing the biomechanical model and appearance, anthropometrics module, motion prediction, instruction language, and ergonomics evaluation. The research projects focus on dynamic motions simulation, muscle modelling and application areas such as human-robot collaboration, occupant packaging, and layout planning.

  • 250.
    Hartelius, Belinda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Fransson, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Vibrationsanalys av vevaxel vid fräsoperation2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The finite element method (FEM) is evaluated with the purpose of avoiding time consuming physical testing which is currently used for optimizing machine settings, both in new and existing machines. The studied milling machine machines crankshafts through eight machining steps. Resonance frequencies could be identified with a FEM-model and then be avoided by adjusting the cutting speed.

    The literature study includes machining through cutting, vibrations, oscillation theory and FEM. Crankshaft models are provided by the employer and eigenfrequency analyses are carried out with the software Abaqus, simulating the crankshaft mounted in the milling machine during all machining steps. The eigenfrequencies are compared to the cutting frequency from the milling tool.

    Milling with eigenfrequency occurs during machining step two. The influence on the vibrations is assumed to be small due to the variable teeth spacing on the tool. The machine will therefore only be machining in eigenfrequency every sixth cut. Vibration data created by the employer also indicate that vibrations are low during the machining step. Verification of the FEM-models is conducted through physical experiments with impact hammer testing. The test is carried out on a freely hinged crankshaft and compared to the FEM-results for a constraint-free crankshaft. The difference in eigenfrequency between the impact hammer test and the FEM-analysis is a maximum of 5 %, which demonstrates the reliability of the model. Furthermore a simplified model of the cutting tool is made and analyzed for eigenfrequencies in Abaqus. The eigenfrequencies are shown to be higher than the highest possible cutting frequency which confirms that the cutting tool is not machining in its own eigenfrequency.

    FEM is a useful method for determining eigenfrequencies and thereby avoiding machining vibrations caused by resonance. However, due to the variable teeth spacing the cutting frequency is constantly changing for the operation, which indicates that the vibrations are not caused by the resonance phenomena.

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