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  • 201.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jonason, Peter K.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Hedonism, Achievement, and Power: Universal Values that Characterize the Dark Triad2015In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 77, p. 173-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sample of Swedes and Americans (N = 385), we attempted to understand the Dark Triad traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) in terms of the universal social values. The Dark Triad traits correlated significantly with all 10 value types, forming a sinusoid pattern corresponding to the value model circumplex. In regression analyses, Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated with the values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the values Hedonism, and Power. In addition, the Dark Triad traits explained significant variance over the Big Five traits in accounting for individual differences in social values. Differences between the Swedish and the US sample in the social value Achievement was mediated by the Dark Triad traits, as well as age. Given the unique complex of values accounted for by the Dark Triad traits compared to the Big Five traits, we argue that the former account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values”, often hidden but constantly contributing in evaluations of others.

  • 202.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e1748Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Johnson, John
    Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University, State College, USA.
    Assessing the Structure of the Five Factor Model of Personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the Public Domain2019In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 260-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of individual differences in personality traits is arguably one of the hallmarks of psychological research. Testing the structural validity of trait measurements is paramount in this endeavor. In the current study, we investigated 30 facet traits in one of the accessible and comprehensive public-domain Five Factor Model (FFM) personality inventories, IPIP-NEO-120 (Johnson, 2014), using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). We present structural loadings for all trait facets organized into respective FFM-trait domain (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Both hierarchical second-order and bi-factor models showed tolerable model fit indices, using confirmatory factor analysis in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. Some facet traits were substantially more representative than others for their respective trait domain, which facilitate further discussions on FFM-construct content. We conclude that IPIP-NEO is sufficiently structurally robust for future use, for the benefit of research and practice in personality assessment.

  • 204.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johnson, John
    Pennsylvania State University, United States.
    Sex differences in 30 facets of the five factor model of personality in the large public (N = 320,128)2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 129, p. 126-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study reports on the scope and size of sex differences in 30 personality facet traits, using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). The study was one of the first to utilize the open access version of the Five-Factor Model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the large public. Overall, across age-groups 19–69 years old, women scored notably higher than men in Agreeableness (d = 0.58) and Neuroticism (d = 0.40). Specifically, women scored d > 0.50 in facet traits Anxiety, Vulnerability, Openness to Emotions, Altruism, and Sympathy, while men only scored slightly higher (d > 0.20) than women in facet traits Excitement-seeking and Openness to Intellect. Sex gaps in the five trait domains were fairly constant across all age-groups, with the exception for age-group 19–29 years old. The discussion centers on how to interpret effects sizes in sex differences in personality traits, and tentative consequences. 

  • 205.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Personality traits across countries: Support for similarities rather than differences2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1-13, article id e0179646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current climate of migration and globalization, personality characteristics of individualsfrom different countries have received a growing interest. Previous research has establishedreliable differences in personality traits across countries. The present study extends thisresearch by examining 30 personality traits in 22 countries, based on an online survey inEnglish with large national samples (NTotal = 130,602). The instrument used was a comprehensive,open-source measure of the Five Factor Model (FFM) (IPIP-NEO-120). We postulatedthat differences in personality traits between countries would be small, labeling this aSimilarities Hypothesis. We found support for this in three stages. First, similarities acrosscountries were observed for model fits for each of the five personality trait structures. Second,within-country sex differences for the five personality traits showed similar patternsacross countries. Finally, the overall the contribution to personality traits from countries wasless than 2%. In other words, the relationship between a country and an individual's personalitytraits, however interesting, are small. We conclude that the most parsimonious explanationfor the current and past findings is a cross-country personality Similarities Hypothesis.

  • 206.
    Kalathilparambil Jayanthan, Jayalal
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Identification of core gut bacterial community of royal pair of a fungus-growing termite, Macrotermes natalensis2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 30 million years ago, ancestors of fungus-growing termites started an obligate mutualistic relationship with a Basidiomycete fungus Termitomyces. The success of this obligate relation is the division of labour and reliance on termite caste gut microbial symbionts. Termites workers maintain Termitomyces fungal garden with their workforce and dual gut passage while the soldier caste protects the colony from predators. The fungal garden concurrently provides enough food for the colony members. Royal pair (a king and a queen) is the centralised caste in the colony, and they control the colony population by their massive reproduction, but their gut community composition remains unexplored. This project aimed to characterise the gut microbes associated with royal pairs of a fungus‐growing termite species Macrotermes natalensis. Four colonies were explored using high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon dataset. The high-throughput sequence result showed that royal gut microbiotas were comprised of a lower number of bacterial taxa than sterile caste (workers and soldiers). This less number of bacterial taxa suggested that the royal pair gut was completely decoupled from the sterile castes gut, which indicates that the royal pair were possibly provided with a unique diet. The study also showed diversity in bacterial genus-level OTUs of royal pairs in all four colonies which indicated that there is a diet variation between the king and queen. The media predicting strategy could facilitate future cultivation efforts for targeted royal pair gut bacterial strains.

  • 207.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Seeing Blue As Red: A Hypnotic Suggestion Can Alter Visual Awareness of Colors2016In: International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 0020-7144, E-ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 261-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some highly hypnotizable individuals have reported changes in objects' color with suggestions given in normal waking state. However, it is not clear whether this occurs only in their imagination. The authors show that, although subjects could imagine colors, a posthypnotic suggestion was necessary for seeing altered colors, even for a hypnotic virtuoso. She reported posthypnotic color alterations also selectively in response to specific target shapes in briefly presented object arrays. Surprisingly, another highly hypnotizable person showed a very different pattern of results. The control participants could not simulate virtuosos' results by applying cognitive strategies. The results imply that hypnosis can alter the functioning of automatic visual processes but only in some of the most hypnotizable individuals.

  • 208.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kaakinen, Johanna K.
    Turku Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Synaesthesia-type associations and perceptual changes induced by hypnotic suggestion2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 17310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are synaesthetic experiences congenital and so hard-wired, or can a functional analogue be created? We induced an equivalent of form-colour synaesthesia using hypnotic suggestions in which symbols in an array (circles, crosses, squares) were suggested always to have a certain colour. In a Stroop type-naming task, three of the four highly hypnotizable participants showed a strong synaesthesia-type association between symbol and colour. This was verified both by their subjective reports and objective eye-movement behaviour. Two resembled a projector-and one an associator-type synaesthete. Participant interviews revealed that subjective experiences differed somewhat from typical (congenital) synaesthesia. Control participants who mimicked the task using cognitive strategies showed a very different response pattern. Overall, the results show that the targeted, preconsciously triggered associations and perceptual changes seen in association with congenital synaesthesia can rapidly be induced by hypnosis. They suggest that each participant's subjective experience of the task should be carefully evaluated, especially when studying hypnotic hallucinations. Studying such experiences can increase understanding of perception, automaticity, and awareness and open unique opportunities in cognitive neuroscience and consciousness research.

  • 209.
    Kallionpää, R. E.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, A.
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland.
    Kallionpää, R. A.
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sandman, N.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, Universityof Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kallioinen, M.
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laitio, R.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland.
    Laitio, T.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland.
    Kaskinoro, K.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland.
    Kuusela, T.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, H.
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland / Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology,Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Spoken words are processed during dexmedetomidine-induced unresponsiveness2018In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 270-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studying the effects of anaesthetic drugs on the processing of semantic stimuli could yield insights into how brain functions change in the transition from wakefulness to unresponsiveness. Here, we explored the N400 event-related potential during dexmedetomidine- and propofol-induced unresponsiveness. Methods: Forty-seven healthy subjects were randomised to receive either dexmedetomidine (n = 23) or propofol (n = 24) in this open-label parallel-group study. Loss of responsiveness was achieved by stepwise increments of pseudo-steady-state plasma concentrations, and presumed loss of consciousness was induced using 1.5 times the concentration required for loss of responsiveness. Pre-recorded spoken sentences ending either with an expected (congruous) or an unexpected (incongruous) word were presented during unresponsiveness. The resulting electroencephalogram data were analysed for the presence of the N400 component, and for the N400 effect defined as the difference between the N400 components elicited by congruous and incongruous stimuli, in the time window 300-600 ms post-stimulus. Recognition of the presented stimuli was tested after recovery of responsiveness. Results: The N400 effect was not observed during dexmedetomidine- or propofol-induced unresponsiveness. The N400 component, however, persisted during dexmedetomidine administration. The N400 component elicited by congruous stimuli during unresponsiveness in the dexmedetomidine group resembled the large component evoked by incongruous stimuli at the awake baseline. After recovery, no recognition of the stimuli heard during unresponsiveness occurred. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine and propofol disrupt the discrimination of congruous and incongruous spoken sentences, and recognition memory at loss of responsiveness. However, the processing of words is partially preserved during dexmedetomidine-induced unresponsiveness.

  • 210.
    Kallionpää, Roosa E.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Pesonen, Henri
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Computer Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Scheinin, Annalotta
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Sandman, Nils
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku,Finland.
    Laitio, Ruut
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Scheinin, Harry
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland / Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Single-subject analysis of N400 event-related potential component with five different methods2019In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 144, p. 14-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several different approaches to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs) at single-subject level, and the aim of the current study is to provide information for choosing a method based on its ability to detect ERP effects and factors influencing the results. We used data from 79 healthy participants with EEG referenced to mastoid average and investigated the detection rate of auditory N400 effect in single-subject analysis using five methods: visual inspection of participant-wise averaged ERPs, analysis of variance (ANOVA) for amplitude averages in a time window, cluster-based non-parametric testing, a novel Bayesian approach and Studentized continuous wavelet transform (t-CWT). Visual inspection by three independent raters yielded N400 effect detection in 85% of the participants in at least one paradigm (active responding or passive listening), whereas ANOVA identified the effect in 68%, the cluster-method in 59%, the Bayesian method in 89%, and different versions of t-CWT in 22–59% of the participants. Thus, the Bayesian method was the most liberal and also showed the greatest concordance between the experimental paradigms (active/passive). ANOVA detected significant effect only in cases with converging evidence from other methods. The t-CWT and cluster-based method were the most conservative methods. As we show in the current study, different analysis methods provide results that do not completely overlap. The method of choice for determining the presence of an ERP component at single-subject level thus remains unresolved. Relying on a single statistical method may not be sufficient for drawing conclusions on single-subject ERPs. 

  • 211.
    Kariminejad, Ariana
    et al.
    Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology & Genetics Centre, Tehran, Iran.
    Almadani, Navid
    Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology & Genetics Centre, Tehran, Iran.
    Khoshaeen, Atefeh
    Mehrgan Genetics Centre, Sari, Iran.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Moslemi, Ali-Reza
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Truncating CHRNG mutations associated with interfamilial variability of the severity of the Escobar variant of multiple pterygium syndrome2016In: BMC Genetics, ISSN 1471-2156, E-ISSN 1471-2156, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:In humans, muscle-specific nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a transmembrane protein with five different subunits, coded by CHRNA1, CHRNB, CHRND and CHRNG/CHRNE. The gamma subunit of AChR encoded by CHRNG is expressed during early foetal development, whereas in the adult, the γ subunit is replaced by a ε subunit. Mutations in the CHRNG encoding the embryonal acetylcholine receptor may cause the non-lethal Escobar variant (EVMPS) and lethal form (LMPS) of multiple pterygium syndrome. The MPS is a condition characterised by prenatal growth failure with pterygium and akinesia leading to muscle weakness and severe congenital contractures, as well as scoliosis.

    RESULTS:Our whole exome sequencing studies have identified one novel and two previously reported homozygous mutations in CHRNG in three families affected by non-lethal EVMPS. The mutations consist of deletion of two nucleotides, cause a frameshift predicted to result in premature termination of the foetally expressed gamma subunit of the AChR.

    CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that severity of the phenotype varies significantly both within and between families with MPS and that there is no apparent correlation between mutation position and clinical phenotype. Although individuals with CHRNG mutations can survive, there is an increased frequency of abortions and stillbirth in their families. Furthermore, genetic background and environmental modifiers might be of significance for decisiveness of the lethal spectrum, rather than the state of the mutation per se. Detailed clinical examination of our patients further indicates the changing phenotype from infancy to childhood.

  • 212.
    Kariminejad, Ariana
    et al.
    Najmabadi Pathology & Genetics Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Ghaderi-Sohi, Siavash
    Najmabadi Pathology & Genetics Center, Tehran, Iran.
    Hossein-Nejad Nedai, Hamid
    Department of Pathology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Varasteh, Vahid
    Division of Thoracic Surgery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Moslemi, Ali-Reza
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Clinical and Medical Genetics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome, the extreme end of the RYR1 spectrum2016In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1-5, article id 109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome (LMPS, OMIM 253290), is a fatal disorder associated with anomalies of the skin, muscles and skeleton. It is characterised by prenatal growth failure with pterygium present in multiple areas and akinesia, leading to muscle weakness and severe arthrogryposis. Foetal hydrops with cystic hygroma develops in affected foetuses with LMPS. This study aimed to uncover the aetiology of LMPS in a family with two affected foetuses.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing studies have identified novel compound heterozygous mutations in RYR1 in two affected foetuses with pterygium, severe arthrogryposis and foetal hydrops with cystic hygroma, characteristic features compatible with LMPS. The result was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    CONCLUSIONS: RYR1 encodes the skeletal muscle isoform ryanodine receptor 1, an intracellular calcium channel with a central role in muscle contraction. Mutations in RYR1 have been associated with congenital myopathies, which form a continuous spectrum of pathological features including a severe variant with onset in utero with fetal akinesia and arthrogryposis. Here, the results indicate that LMPS can be considered as the extreme end of the RYR1-related neonatal myopathy spectrum. This further supports the concept that LMPS is a severe disorder associated with defects in the process known as excitation-contraction coupling.

  • 213.
    Karlsson, David
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Uppskattning av nätselektivitet och populationsstruktur av sik (Coregonus spp) i Vättern2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 214.
    Karlsson, Diana
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Department of Infectious Diseases- Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Multimarker approach for sepsis diagnostics2015In: 25th European Congress of Clinical Mircobiology and Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen, April 25-28, 2015, European Society of ClinicalMicrobiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a multimarker model in distinguishing patients with sepsis from those with non-infective systemic inflammatory response.

    METHODS

    This study is part of a prospective study of community-onset severe sepsis and septic shock in adults conducted from September 2011 to June 2012 at Skaraborg Hospital, in the western region of Sweden. The levels of 92 inflammation-related human protein biomarkers were measured simultaneously using Proseek® Multiplex Inflammation I96x96 (Olink Bioscience, Sweden) in 122 plasma samples collected from patients suspected with sepsis. After pre-processing normalization procedure, measurements of the markers were obtained as Normalized Protein eXpression (NPX) units on a log2 scale (GenEx, MultiD Analyses AB, Sweden). The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board of Gothenburg (376-11). All patients enrolled provided written informed consent.

    To reduce the number of markers, factor analysis was performed. Thereafter, a multimarker model for classification was derived using discriminant analysis. The multimarker model consisted of a linear function of the selected markers. Cross-validation was performed by classifying each sample by the discriminant function derived from all samples other than that specific sample. The performance was assessed as area under receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The cut-off for sensitivity and specificity was derived from the cut score of the discriminant function. Statistical analyses were performed in SPSS 22.0 (IBM Corporation Somers, NY USA).

    RESULTS

    Of the 122 samples, 80 (66%) were from patients diagnosed with sepsis and 42 from patients with non-infective systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The five markers selected for the multimarker model were interleukin-6 (IL-6), cystatin D (CST5), delta and notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor (DNER), STAM-binding protein (STAMPB), macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF 1). Every single marker was statistically different between the groups (p value < 0.001), except for DNER (p value 0.064) and STAMPB (p value 0.060). The area under ROC was higher for the multimarker model (81%) than for each biomarker separately (Figure 1). The accuracy for the multimarker model was 72% [64-80, 95% CI]; sensitivity 84% [77-91, 95% CI]; specificity 60% [51-69, 95% CI]; positive predictive value 79% [72-86, 95% CI]; and negative predictive value 66% [58-74, 95% CI].

    CONCLUSION

    A higher power of discrimination is obtained by combining more than one biomarker. However, the multimarker candidates identified in this study need further assessment.

  • 215.
    Karlsson, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Stress: From a biological, social, and psychological perspective2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years stress has been a term lacking one clear and specific definition. In general, the term stress has been used mostly as an explanation of a response or reaction to a stressor. A stressor can be of both physiological and behavioral character. The experience of stress can occur both due to a real or a perceived stressor. In this literature review, the concept of stress is viewed with insights from biological, psychological, and social perspectives. The stress response is described biologically with the central nervous system (CNS), the brain, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Social and psychological stress are concepts related to how stress is perceived by the mind and due to social surroundings which is described in relation to social support, self-efficacy, the locus of control and cognitive appraisal. Dealing with stress can be done through coping which refers to the individual capacity to handle a stressor and has generally been divided into two categories, active/passive coping and problem-focused/emotion-focused coping. Depending on the individual resources to cope with a stressor and the ability to decrease the stress response when needed, the long-term effects of stress can therefore vary between individuals. It has been found that positive coping (known as reducing stress) can increase the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume and decrease anxiety and depression. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus, and the amygdala are closely linked to the ACC and affect emotions, learning, and memory related to the stress response.

  • 216.
    Karlsson, Markus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Neuroscience of Decision Making: The Importance of Emotional Neural Circuits in Decision Making2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The neuroscience of decision making is laying the puzzle of how the brain computes decisions. It tries to sort out which factors are responsible for causing us to choose one way or the other. This thesis reviews to what extent emotional brain processes and their neural circuits impact decision making. The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) provides a solid dual-system framework for decision making. Dissociating an impulsive system, in which the amygdala is central, and a reflective system mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex(VMPFC). The SMH emphasizes the function of the VMPFC as necessary and crucial formaking favorable long-term decisions. Research on moral decision making also shows that similar systems as used by the SMH has a key role in how we think about moral dilemmas as well. Damage or maldevelopment of these neural circuits can cause myopia for the future and deeply immoral behavior. Abnormalities in emotional neuronal circuits can also be linked to addictive behavior and psychopathy. The findings on decision making and its neuralsubstrates dismantle the common sense notion of free will and moral responsibility. An explanation of how the feeling of free will arises is given using the Interpreter system theoryof consciousness. Moral responsibility without the need for a free will is defended by analternative approach with a framework of a brain in-control versus out-of-control.

  • 217.
    Karpushevskaia, Anastasiia
    et al.
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Nielsen, Anders
    DTU Aqua - National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Mikhaylov, Andrey
    Atlantic Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (AtlantNIRO), Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Luzenczyk, Anna
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Florin, Ann-Britt
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Coastal Research, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Albert, Anu
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Berg, Casper Willestofte
    DTU Aqua National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Ustups, Didzis
    Institute of Food Safety Animal Health and Environment (BIOR), Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Svecovs, Fausts
    Institute of Food Safety Animal Health and Environment (BIOR), Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Bastardie, François
    DTU Aqua, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Kornilovs, Georgs
    Institute of Food Safety Animal Health and Environment (BIOR), Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Strods, Guntars
    Institute of Food Safety Animal Health and Environment (BIOR), Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Strehlow, Harry Vincent
    Thünen Institute, Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Degel, Henrik
    DTU Aqua, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Section for Monitoring and Data, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Karpushevskiy, Igor
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Sics, Ivo
    Institute of Food Safety Animal Health and Environment (BIOR), Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Horbowy, Jan
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Raitaniemi, Jari
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Turku, Finland.
    Boje, Jesper
    DTU Aqua, Arctic Section, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Lövgren, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Pönni, Jukka
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Natural resources and bioproduction, Helsinki, Finland.
    Hommik, Kristiina
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Öhman, Kristin
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Radtke, Krzysztof
    National Marine Fisheries, Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Eero, Margit
    DTU Aqua, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    DTU Aqua, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Plikshs, Maris
    Institute of Food Safety Animal Health and Environment (BIOR), Riga, Latvia.
    Pedersen, Martin Wæver
    DTU Aqua, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Bergenius, Mikaela
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kaljuste, Olavi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Coastal Research, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Afanasyev, Pavel
    Atlantic Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (AtlantNIRO), Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Gasyukov, Pavel
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Jounela, Pekka
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Statistical methods, Turku Finland.
    Oeberst, Rainer
    Thünen Institute, Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Statkus, Romas
    Fisheries Service under the Ministry of Agriculture, Division of Fisheries Research and Science, Klaipeda, Lithuania.
    Carlshamre, Sofia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Jonusas, Stanislovas
    European Commission Directorate for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Brussels, Belgium.
    Neuenfeldt, Stefan
    DTU Aqua, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Section for Fisheries Advice Population Ecology and Genetics, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Stoetera, Sven
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Smolinski, Szymon
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Raid, Tiit
    Estonian Marine Institute University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Arula, Timo
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Dept. of Ecodynamics, Lootsiza, Estonia.
    Gröhsler, Tomas
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Zolubas, Tomas
    Fisheries Service under the Ministry of Agriculture, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Krumme, Uwe
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Amosova, Viktoriia
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Grygiel, Wlodzimierz
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Coastal Research, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Mirny, Zuzanna
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS), 12-19 April 2016, ICES HQ, Copenhagen, Denmark2016Report (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Variations in user-oriented elderly care: a multilevel approach2017In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 219.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Cost and satisfaction trends in Swedish elderly home care2016In: Home Health Care Management & Practice, ISSN 1084-8223, E-ISSN 1552-6739, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 250-255Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 220.
    Khalif, Eman
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Your Not So Neutral Brain: The Role of the Amygdala in Implicit Racial Bias2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether the amygdala plays a significant role in implicit racial bias and to explore the possible explanations that may underlie race-related amygdala neural activity specifically in White and Black Americans. In order to answer these questions, a literature review of several studies is presented. Most of these studies have shown that amygdala plays a crucial role in implicit racial bias since greater amygdala activation was positively correlated with greater implicit racial bias. Hence, subjects that showed greater amygdala activation measured by fMRI also showed greater pro-White or anti-Black bias measured by the implicit association test. However, a few lesion studies on a patient (SP) with a bilateral amygdala damage concluded that the amygdala is not critical for implicit racial bias. Further research is needed to determine the actual role the amygdala plays in implicit racial bias specifically when observing Black American faces. Subsequently, alternative explanations that might explain race-related amygdala activation will be discussed briefly. In essence, the familiarity explanation and the culturally learned negative racial bias.

  • 221.
    Kia, Richard
    et al.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mol & Clin Pharmacol, MRC Ctr Drug Safety Sci, Liverpool, England.
    Kelly, Lorna
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mol & Clin Pharmacol, England / Stem Cells Safer Med, London, England.
    Sison-Young, Rowena L. C.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mol & Clin Pharmacol, MRC Ctr Drug Safety Sci, Liverpool, England.
    Zhang, Fang
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mol & Clin Pharmacol, England / Stem Cells Safer Med, London, England.
    Pridgeon, Chris S.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mol & Clin Pharmacol, England / Stem Cells Safer Med, London, England.
    Heslop, James A.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mol & Clin Pharmacol, MRC Ctr Drug Safety Sci, Liverpool, England.
    Metcalfe, Pete
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mol & Clin Pharmacol, MRC Ctr Drug Safety Sci, Liverpool, England.
    Kitteringham, Neil R.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mol & Clin Pharmacol, England / Stem Cells Safer Med, London, England.
    Baxter, Melissa
    Univ Manchester, Fac Life Sci, Manchester, England / Univ Cent Lancashire, Sch Med & Dent, Preston, England.
    Harrison, Sean
    Stem Cells Safer Med, London, England / Acad Hlth Sci Ctr, Fac Med & Human Sci, Ctr Endocrinol & Diabet,Inst Human Dev, Manchester, England.
    Hanley, Neil A.
    Stem Cells Safer Med, London, England / Univ Manchester, Manchester Acad Hlth Sci Ctr, Fac Med & Human Sci, Ctr Endocrinol & Diabet,Inst Human Dev, Manchester, England / Cent Manchester Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Endocrinol Dept, Manchester England.
    Burke, Zoe D.
    Stem Cells Safer Med, London, England / Univ Bath, Dept Biol & Biochem, Ctr Regenerat Med, Bath, England.
    Storm,, Mike P.
    Stem Cells Safer Med, London, England / Univ Bath, Dept Biol & Biochem, Ctr Regenerat Med, Bath, England.
    Welham, Melanie J.
    Univ Bath, Dept Biol & Biochem, Ctr Regenerat Med, Bath, England.
    Tosh, David
    Stem Cells Safer Med, London, England / Univ Bath, Dept Biol & Biochem, Ctr Regenerat Med, Bath, England.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lewis, Philip J. Starkey
    Univ Edinburgh, MRC Ctr Regenerat Med, Edinburgh EH16 4UU, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Bonner, Frank
    Stem Cells Safer Med, London, England.
    Harpur, Ernie
    Stem Cells Safer Med, London, England / Newcastle Univ, Inst Cellular Med, Sch Med, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE2 4HH, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Sidaway, James
    Univ Edinburgh, MRC Ctr Regenerat Med, Edinburgh EH16 4UU, Midlothian, Scotland / AstraZeneca R&D, Drug Safety & Metab, Cheshire, England.
    Bowes, Joanne
    Univ Edinburgh, MRC Ctr Regenerat Med, Edinburgh EH16 4UU, Midlothian, Scotland / AstraZeneca R&D, Drug Safety & Metab, Cheshire, England.
    Fenwick, Stephen W.
    Aintree Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, North Western Hepatobiliary Unit, Liverpool, England.
    Malik, Hassan
    Aintree Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, North Western Hepatobiliary Unit, Liverpool, England.
    Goldring, Chris E. P.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mol & Clin Pharmacol, MRC Ctr Drug Safety Sci, Liverpool, England / Stem Cells Safer Med, London England.
    Park, B. Kevin
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Mol & Clin Pharmacol, MRC Ctr Drug Safety Sci, Liverpool, England / Stem Cells Safer Med, London, England.
    MicroRNA-122: a novel hepatocyte-enriched in vitro marker of drug-induced cellular toxicity2015In: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 144, no 1, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging hepatic models for the study of drug-induced toxicity include pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) and complex hepatocyte-non-parenchymal cellular coculture to mimic the complex multicellular interactions that recapitulate the niche environment in the human liver. However, a specific marker of hepatocyte perturbation, required to discriminate hepatocyte damage from non-specific cellular toxicity contributed by non-hepatocyte cell types or immature differentiated cells is currently lacking, as the cytotoxicity assays routinely used in in vitro toxicology research depend on intracellular molecules which are ubiquitously present in all eukaryotic cell types. In this study, we demonstrate that microRNA-122 (miR-122) detection in cell culture media can be used as a hepatocyte-enriched in vitro marker of drug-induced toxicity in homogeneous cultures of hepatic cells, and a cell-specific marker of toxicity of hepatic cells in heterogeneous cultures such as HLCs generated from various differentiation protocols and pluripotent stem cell lines, where conventional cytotoxicity assays using generic cellular markers may not be appropriate. We show that the sensitivity of the miR-122 cytotoxicity assay is similar to conventional assays that measure lactate dehydrogenase activity and intracellular adenosine triphosphate when applied in hepatic models with high levels of intracellular miR-122, and can be multiplexed with other assays. MiR-122 as a biomarker also has the potential to bridge results in in vitro experiments to in vivo animal models and human samples using the same assay, and to link findings from clinical studies in determining the relevance of in vitro models being developed for the study of drug-induced liver injury.

  • 222.
    Klarén, Anton
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Dispositional optimism and attentional bias to happy facial expressions2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that the human attentional system is biased towards emotional events in the environment. This attentional bias is believed to be an adaptive function that can provide survival benefits for the organisms that possess it. Dispositional optimism is a trait defined as a general expectation that good things will happen in the future. This trait has received interest as an adaptive trait that has a multitude of psychological and physical benefits for the individuals who exhibit it. The aim of this study is to examine whether there is a difference in the attentional bias towards happy and angry facial expressions based on level of dispositional optimism using the dot-probe paradigm. Thirty-two psychologically and neurologically healthy females (mean age = 26.5, SD = 5.8) participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire measuring dispositional optimism and performed the dot-probe task in a laboratory setting in the University of Skövde. In the dot- probe task a short exposure (100 ms) of photographs depicting happy, angry and neutral facial expressions was used as emotional cues. A general bias towards happy faces across all participants was detected. Also, a clear trend towards an interaction between DO and AB to emotional faces was found in the group high in DO displaying and AB towards happy facial expressions. This study implies that for the psychologically and neurologically healthy population, a fast operating and automatic AB for positive stimuli exists, moreover, this AB may be modulated by individual differences in DO.

  • 223.
    Koberg, Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The menopausal brain: Effects of estrogen depletion on cognition2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Menopause is a major reproductive-related event in a woman’s life, occurring naturally at around the age of fifty years. Accompanying menopause is a drastic decrease in estrogen levels. Estrogen receptors are present throughout the human brain: e.g., in regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, both involved in cognition. Given that about half of the world’s population is female, it is important to examine if and how cognition is affected by the menopausal estrogen depletion, both at the level of public health, and at the individual level. Studies within the field show diverse results due to a wide range of methodology among studies. Behavioral studies foremost point towards a potential estrogenic effect on verbal short- and long-term memory. Structural and functional neuroimaging, together with animal studies, mainly show structural and functional alterations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex that may be related to changes in estrogen levels. Taken together, this thesis reviews estrogenic effects on different cognitive functions, as well as structural and functional changes in the brain in relation to the menopausal estrogen depletion.

  • 224.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Grassini, Simone
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Hurme, Mikko
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Railo, Henry
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Vorobyev, Victor
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Tallus, Jussi
    Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Paavilainen, Teemu
    Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    TMS-EEG reveals hemispheric asymmetries in top-down influences of posterior intraparietal cortex on behavior and visual event-related potentials2017In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 107, p. 94-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical data and behavioral studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggest right-hemisphere dominance for top-down modulation of visual processing in humans. We used concurrent TMS-EEG to directly test for hemispheric differences in causal influences of the right and left intraparietal cortex on visual event-related potentials (ERPs). We stimulated the left and right posterior part of intraparietal sulcus (IPS1) while the participants were viewing and rating the visibility of bilaterally presented Gabor patches. Subjective visibility ratings showed that TMS of right IPS shifted the visibility toward the right hemifield, while TMS of left IPS did not have any behavioral effect. TMS of right IPS, but not left one, reduced the amplitude of posterior N1 potential, 180–220 ms after stimulus-onset. The attenuation of N1 occurred bilaterally over the posterior areas of both hemispheres. Consistent with previous TMS-fMRI studies, this finding suggests that the right IPS has top-down control on the neural processing in visual cortex. As N1 most probably reflects reactivation of early visual areas, the current findings support the view that the posterior parietal cortex in the right hemisphere amplifies recurrent interactions in ventral visual areas during the time-window that is critical for conscious perception.

  • 225.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Grassini, Simone
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Different Electrophysiological Correlates of Visual Awareness for Detection and Identification2017In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1621-1631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting the presence of an object is a different process than identifying the object as a particular object. This difference has not been taken into account in designing experiments on the neural correlates of consciousness. We compared the electrophysiological correlates of conscious detection and identification directly by measuring ERPs while participants performed either a task only requiring the conscious detection of the stimulus or a higher-level task requiring its conscious identification. Behavioral results showed that, even if the stimulus was consciously detected, it was not necessarily identified. A posterior electrophysiological signature 200-300 msec after stimulus onset was sensitive for conscious detection but not for conscious identification, which correlated with a later widespread activity. Thus, we found behavioral and neural evidence for elementary visual experiences, which are not yet enriched with higher-level knowledge. The search for the mechanisms of consciousness should focus on the early elementary phenomenal experiences to avoid the confounding effects of higher-level processes.

  • 226.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kastrati, Granit
    University of Skövde.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Recurrent processing enhances visual awareness but is not necessary for fast categorization of natural scenes2014In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 223-231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are rapid in categorizing natural scenes. Electrophysiological recordings reveal that scenes containing animals can be categorized within 150 msec, which has been interpreted to indicate that feedforward flow of information from V1 to higher visual areas is sufficient for visual categorization. However, recent studies suggest that recurrent interactions between higher and lower levels in the visual hierarchy may also be involved in categorization. To clarify the role of recurrent processing in scene categorization, we recorded EEG and manipulated recurrent processing with object substitution masking while the participants performed a go/no-go animal/nonanimal categorization task. The quality of visual awareness was measured with a perceptual awareness scale after each trial. Masking reduced the clarity of perceptual awareness, slowed down categorization speed for scenes that were not clearly perceived, and reduced the electrophysiological difference elicited by animal and nonanimal scenes after 150 msec. The results imply that recurrent processes enhance the resolution of conscious representations and thus support categorization of stimuli that are difficult to categorize on the basis of the coarse feedforward representations alone.

  • 227.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Grassini, Simone
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Subjective visual awareness emerges prior to P32016In: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 1601-1611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on the neural basis of visual awareness, the subjective experience of seeing, have found several potential neural corre- lates of visual awareness. Some of them may not directly correlate with awareness but with post-perceptual processes, such as reporting one’s awareness of the stimulus. We dissociated potential electrophysiological correlates of visual awareness from those occurring during response selection and thus co-occurring with post-perceptual processing. The participants performed two GO-NOGO conditions. In the aware-GO condition they responded with a key press when they were aware of the stimulus and withheld responding when they were unaware of it. In the unaware-GO condition they withheld responding when they were aware and responded when they were not aware of the stimulus. Thus, event-related potentials could be measured to aware and una- ware trials when responding was required and when not required. The results revealed that the N200 amplitude (180–280 ms) over the occipital and posterior temporal cortex was enhanced in aware trials as compared with trials without awareness. This effect (visual awareness negativity, VAN) did not depend on responding. The amplitude of P3 (350–450 ms) also was enhanced in aware trials as compared with unaware trials. In addition, the amplitudes in the P3 time window depended on responding: they were greater when awareness was mapped to GO-response than when not, suggesting that P3 reflects post-perceptual process- ing, that is, it occurs after awareness has emerged. These findings support theories of visual awareness that assume a relatively early onset of visual awareness before P3. 

  • 228.
    Kokkonen, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Evaluation of next-generation sequencing as a tool for determining the presence of pathogens in clinical samples2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Metagenomic sequencing is an increasingly popular way of determining microbial diversity from environmental and clinical samples. By specifically targeting the 16S rRNA gene found in all bacteria, classifications of pathogens can be determined based on the variable and conserved regions found in the gene. Metagenomic sequencing can therefore highlight the vast difference in microbiological diversity between culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Today, this has expanded into various next-generation sequencing platforms which can provide massively parallel sequencing of the target fragment. One of these platforms is Ion-torrent, which can be utilized for targeting the 16S rRNA gene and with the help of bioinformatics pipelines be able to classify pathogens using the bacteria’s own variable and conserved regions. The overall aim of the present work is to evaluate the clinical use of Ion-torrent 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing for determining pathogenic species from clinical samples, but also to set up a pipeline for clinical practice. Optimal DNA-extraction and quantification methods were determined towards each evaluated sample-type and DNA-eluates were sent for 16S rRNA Sanger and Next-generation sequencing. The result indicated that the next-generation sequencing shows a concordance in results towards the culturing-based method, but also the importance of experimental design and effective quality trimming of the NGS data. The conclusion of the project is that the Ion-torrent pipeline provided by the Public Health Agency of Sweden shows great promise in determining pathogens from clinical samples. However, there is still a lot of validation and standardisations needed for the successful implementation into a clinical setting.

  • 229.
    Kotta, Jonne
    et al.
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Vanhatalo, Jarno
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics and Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jänes, Holger
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia / Centre for Integrative Ecology, Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Orav-Kotta, Helen
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Rugiu, Luca
    Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Jormalainen, Veijo
    Department of Biology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Bobsien, Ivo
    GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Viitasalo, Markku
    Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Virtanen, Elina
    Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nyström Sandman, Antonia
    AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaeus, Martin
    AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jonsson, Per R.
    Department of Marine Sciences – Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Tjärnö, Strömstad, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Department of Marine Sciences – Tjärnö, University of Gothenburg, Tjärnö, Strömstad, Sweden.
    Integrating experimental and distribution data to predict future species patterns2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 1821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictive species distribution models are mostly based on statistical dependence between environmental and distributional data and therefore may fail to account for physiological limits and biological interactions that are fundamental when modelling species distributions under future climate conditions. Here, we developed a state-of-the-art method integrating biological theory with survey and experimental data in a way that allows us to explicitly model both physical tolerance limits of species and inherent natural variability in regional conditions and thereby improve the reliability of species distribution predictions under future climate conditions. By using a macroalga-herbivore association (Fucus vesiculosus - Idotea balthica) as a case study, we illustrated how salinity reduction and temperature increase under future climate conditions may significantly reduce the occurrence and biomass of these important coastal species. Moreover, we showed that the reduction of herbivore occurrence is linked to reduction of their host macroalgae. Spatial predictive modelling and experimental biology have been traditionally seen as separate fields but stronger interlinkages between these disciplines can improve species distribution projections under climate change. Experiments enable qualitative prior knowledge to be defined and identify cause-effect relationships, and thereby better foresee alterations in ecosystem structure and functioning under future climate conditions that are not necessarily seen in projections based on non-causal statistical relationships alone.

  • 230.
    Koukoura, Angeliki
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Is Telling the Truth a New Index for Deception?: An Electrophysiological Approach2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 231.
    Kraish, Bashar
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Analysis of SMN-1 in promotion of insulin secretion in C. elegans2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    smn-1 plays an important role in spinal muscle atrophy and it is a common cause of death of infants. Recently has been shown that smn-1 is also an important factor in secretion of insulin from pancreas β cells since the loss of smn-1 leads to hypoglycemia and reduces the number of β cells. The main secretion effect of smn-1 in C. elegans model organism has been analyzed in order to further understand the molecular mechanism and its role in secretion. To understand this effect, three transgenic GFP stairs have been used: DAF-28::GFP (insulin tagged with GFP), ANF::GFP (dense core vesicle cargo tagged with GFP) and secreted GFP, along with DAF-16/FOXO::GFP (transcription factor). Those strains were analyzed using a fluorescence microscope, western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) techniques to understand how the smn-1 mutation affects secretion mechanism. General secretion defects were observed, together with a defect in insulin secretion (DAF-28::GFP and ANF::GFP), while DAF-16::GFP indicated rescue effect on the sterility phenotype of smn-1 mutant. Western blot analysis has shown normal DAF-28::GFP expression, however the localization of DAF-28::GFP in non-neuronal neuronal cells was significant. By using qPCR, upregulation of daf-28 and daf-16 genes were detected in a strain that over expresses smn-1 gene (cMYC::SMN-1), indicating that the manipulation of the smn-1 level, leads to changes in gene expression. This study shown that using smn-1 mutant (ok355) and SMN-1 tagged with cMYC (cMYC::SMN-1) to study human disease spinal muscle atrophy in C. elegans, provides  useful information about the secretion pathway. 

  • 232.
    Kralj, Andrea
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The neurobiology underlying personality traits and conflict behavior: Examining the similarities in brain regions between agreeableness, aggression and dominating conflict style2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicts are part of our everyday life and the field of psychology describes how specific personality traits relate to specific conflict styles. However, the question remaining is why these relations exist? Recently, personality neuroscience has begun pinning down the neurobiology of personality traits, providing a deeper understanding of the human behavior. The present thesis utilizes the Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1990) of personality to investigate the neurobiology underlying the inverse relation between the specific personality trait of Agreeableness and dominating conflict style (a conflict management style characterized by aggressiveness, authoritarianism and/or need for dominance). Agreeableness overlaps both empathy and aggression which can work as each other’s opposites in explaining conflict behaviors. The goal of the thesis was to investigate whether the inverse relation between Agreeableness and dominating conflict style can be explained by brain regions. Brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex and regions involving anterior cingulate appear to be the most prominent neurobiology describing the relation. Serotonin is the neural substance involved in most cortical and subcortical brain structures and it also regulates the suppression of aggression, making it an important substance both within Agreeableness and the preference for dominating conflict style. The thesis will sum up with a discussion including some limitations within the research and further aspects such the consequences of the findings will be discussed.

  • 233.
    Kristensson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Lundin, Anders
    AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, David
    Emeriti Bio, AZ Bioventure Hub, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Fryklund, Jan
    Emeriti Bio, AZ Bioventure Hub, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Fex, Tomas
    Emeriti Bio, AZ Bioventure Hub, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Delsing, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Ryberg, Erik
    AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Plasminogen binding inhibitors demonstrate unwanted activities on GABAA and glycine receptors in human iPSC derived neurons2018In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 681, p. 37-43, article id S0304-3940(18)30351-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasminogen binding inhibitors (PBIs) reduce the risk of bleeding in hemorrhagic conditions. However, generic PBIs are also associated with an increased risk of seizures, an adverse effect linked to unwanted activities towards inhibitory neuronal receptors. Development of novel PBIs serve to remove compounds with such properties, but progress is limited by a lack of higher throughput methods with human translatability. Herein we apply human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derived neurons in combination with dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) technology to demonstrate robust and reproducible modulation of both GABAA and glycine receptors. These cells respond to GABA (EC50 0.33 ± 0.18 μM), glycine (EC50 11.0 ± 3.7 μM) and additional ligands in line with previous reports from patch clamp technologies. Additionally, we identify and characterize a competitive antagonistic behavior of the prototype inhibitor and drug tranexamic acid (TXA). Finally, we demonstrate proof of concept for effective counter-screening of lead series compounds towards unwanted GABAAreceptor activities. No activity was observed for a previously identified PBI candidate drug, AZD6564, whereas a discontinued analog, AZ13267257, could be characterized as a potent GABAA receptor agonist.

  • 234.
    Krus Hansson, Eric
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Default Mode Network and Its Role in Major Depressive Disorder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates the relationship between a malfunctioning Default Mode Network (DMN) and the diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A deeper understanding of how the DMN affects those brain processes which are implicated in MDD may offer new approaches to reduce the suffering of the very large number of MDD-afflicted patients. The MDD-DMN relationship has been investigated by studying scientific articles within the field of cognitive neuroscience and searching the articles for clues on how a malfunctioning DMN might correlate with the diagnosis of MDD. The essay concludes that there is much experimental evidence in support of there being a strong coupling between a malfunctioning DMN and the diagnosis of MDD.

  • 235.
    Kunze, Angelika
    et al.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden / Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Steel, Daniella
    Cellectis AB, Göteborg, Sweden / Abcam, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Dahlenborg, Kerstin
    Cellectis AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Cellectis AB, Göteborg, Sweden / AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Svedhem, Sofia
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Non-Invasive Acoustical sensing of Drug-Induced Effects on the Contractile Machinery of Human Cardiomyocyte Clusters2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 1-10, article id e0125540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an urgent need for improved models for cardiotoxicity testing. Here we propose acoustic sensing applied to beating human cardiomyocyte clusters for non-invasive, surrogate measuring of the QT interval and other characteristics of the contractile machinery. In experiments with the acoustic method quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), the shape of the recorded signals was very similar to the extracellular field potential detected in electrochemical experiments, and the expected changes of the QT interval in response to addition of conventional drugs (E-4031 or nifedipine) were observed. Additionally, changes in the dissipation signal upon addition of cytochalasin D were in good agreement with the known, corresponding shortening of the contraction-relaxation time. These findings suggest that QCM-D has great potential as a tool for cardiotoxicological screening, where effects of compounds on the cardiomyocyte contractile machinery can be detected independently of whether the extracellular field potential is altered or not.

  • 236.
    Kuzbiel, Dawid
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural correlates of focused attention and open monitoring meditation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Meditation, used initially as a vehicle for self-discovery and attainment of enlightenment, is today a tool for well-being among the general public and has even found its way into the clinical milieu. Meditation is challenging term to define and the variety of meditation practices, all with their own aims, pose a problem in terms of scientific understanding. A better sense of how these practices compare will help both general public and neuroscientists. Here, two of the fundamental practices originating from Buddhist tradition, focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) meditation are compared. FA meditation activates mainly right medial/lateral PFC, parts of the limbic system and ACC. These regions help with sustaining attention and monitoring goal-conflicting distractors. FA deactivates parts of the default mode network (DMN), responsible for non-task specific processes and mind wandering. OM meditation reduces pain by top-down regulation of the limbic system. OM engages left fronto-parietal and insular regions, which help with conscious access of thoughts and emotions. OM seems to affect parts of the DMN. The thalamus is involved in both practices, where it helps to relay sensory signals in accordance with the different aims of each practice. This thesis hopes to contribute to a better understanding of how two main categories of meditation compare concerning their neural correlates.

  • 237.
    Kärrström, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural correlates of mindfulness related to stress: How mindfulness promotes wellbeing2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness practice is used to treat mental and physical symptoms. The problem is that research on the long-term effects and the neural changes involved, correlated with well-being, are inconsistent. The purpose of this review is to create a deeper understanding of mindfulness and its neural correlates related to stress. In mindfulness, one can use focused attention meditation (FA), involving anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal areas, thalamus, visual cortex, intraparietal sulcus, and amygdala. In open monitoring meditation (OM), ACC, PFC, insula, somatosensory cortex, limbic areas and amygdala are involved. In exposure to a high amount of stress, the grey matter volume decreases in the hippocampus, PFC, and amygdala. Research has also shown that 19 000 hours of mindfulness practice increases activation in areas involved in FA and OM. This increased activation might also enhance the subject’s ability to control emotions. After 44 000 hours of meditation, areas involved in FA showed less activation which might imply that more hours of mindfulness practice involve less cognitive activity and a calmer state of mind. Regardless of hours spent on meditating, a decreased activation in the amygdala and ACC occurs, which correlates with less response towards negative stimuli. The neural changes involved in mindfulness practice was related to less experienced stress and enhanced psychological well-being. For future research, an investigation of the interaction between attentional networks and stress would be of relevance.

  • 238.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    et al.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Asplund, A.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Abadie, A.
    Takara Bio Europe SAS, Paris, France.
    Novel human iPSC-derived hepatocytes with advanced functionality and long-term 2D cultures of human primary hepatocytes for metabolic disease studies2018In: Human Gene Therapy, ISSN 1043-0342, E-ISSN 1557-7422, Vol. 29, no 12, p. A146-A146, article id P406Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Laaksonen, L.
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallioinen, M.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Långsjö, J.
    Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
    Laitio, T.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, A.
    University of Turku. Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, J.
    Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
    Kaisti, K.
    Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.
    Maksimow, A.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallionpää, R. E.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Rajala, V.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Johansson, J.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kantonen, O.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
    Nyman, M.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Sirén, S.
    Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Solin, O.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vahlberg, T.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Alkire, M.
    University of California, Irvine, CA, USA.
    Scheinin, Harry
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Comparative effects of dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane, and S-ketamine on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in humans: a positron emission tomography study2018In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 281-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionThe highly selective α2-agonist dexmedetomidine has become a popular sedative for neurointensive care patients. However, earlier studies have raised concern that dexmedetomidine might reduce cerebral blood flow without a concomitant decrease in metabolism. Here, we compared the effects of dexmedetomidine on the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglu) with three commonly used anaesthetic drugs at equi-sedative doses.

    MethodsOne hundred and sixty healthy male subjects were randomised to EC50 for verbal command of dexmedetomidine (1.5 ng ml−1n=40), propofol (1.7 μg ml−1n=40), sevoflurane (0.9% end-tidal; n=40) or S-ketamine (0.75 μg ml−1n=20) or placebo (n=20). Anaesthetics were administered using target-controlled infusion or vapouriser with end-tidal monitoring. 18F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose was administered 20 min after commencement of anaesthetic administration, and high-resolution positron emission tomography with arterial blood activity samples was used to quantify absolute CMRglu for whole brain and 15 brain regions.

    ResultsAt the time of [F18]fluorodeoxyglucose injection, 55% of dexmedetomidine, 45% of propofol, 85% of sevoflurane, 45% of S-ketamine, and 0% of placebo subjects were unresponsive. Whole brain CMRglu was 63%, 71%, 71%, and 96% of placebo in the dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane, and S-ketamine groups, respectively (P<0.001 between the groups). The lowest CMRglu was observed in nearly all brain regions with dexmedetomidine (P<0.05 compared with all other groups). With S-ketamine, CMRgludid not differ from placebo.

    ConclusionsAt equi-sedative doses in humans, potency in reducing CMRglu was dexmedetomidine>propofol>ketamine=placebo. These findings alleviate concerns for dexmedetomidine-induced vasoconstriction and cerebral ischaemia.

  • 240.
    Landegren, Nils
    et al.
    Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sharon, Donald
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, CA, USA / Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
    Shum, Anthony K.
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Khan, Imran S.
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Fasano, Kayla J.
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Hallgren, Åsa
    Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kampf, Caroline
    Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Freyhult, Eva
    Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Bioinformatics Infrastructure for Life Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ardesjö-Lundgren, Brita
    Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alimohammadi, Mohammad
    Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rathsman, Sandra
    Department of Laboratory Medicine/Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundh, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Motrich, Ruben
    Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba 5000, Argentina.
    Rivero, Virginia
    Centro de Investigaciones en Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba 5000, Argentina.
    Fong, Lawrence
    University of California San Francisco Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.
    Giwercman, Aleksander
    Molecular Reproduction Research, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Perheentupa, Jaakko
    The Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00029, Finland.
    Husebye, Eystein S.
    Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, and Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen 5020, Norway.
    Anderson, Mark S.
    Diabetes Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
    Snyder, Michael
    Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford 94305, CA, USA.
    Kämpe, Olle
    Department of Medicine (Solna), Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Transglutaminase 4 as a prostate autoantigen in male subfertility2015In: Science Translational Medicine, ISSN 1946-6234, E-ISSN 1946-6242, Vol. 7, no 292, article id 292ra101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1), a monogenic disorder caused by AIRE gene mutations, features multiple autoimmune disease components. Infertility is common in both males and females with APS1. Although female infertility can be explained by autoimmune ovarian failure, the mechanisms underlying male infertility have remained poorly understood. We performed a proteome-wide autoantibody screen in APS1 patient sera to assess the autoimmune response against the male reproductive organs. By screening human protein arrays with male and female patient sera and by selecting for gender-imbalanced autoantibody signals, we identified transglutaminase 4 (TGM4) as a male-specific autoantigen. Notably, TGM4 is a prostatic secretory molecule with critical role in male reproduction. TGM4 autoantibodies were detected in most of the adult male APS1 patients but were absent in all the young males. Consecutive serum samples further revealed that TGM4 autoantibodies first presented during pubertal age and subsequent to prostate maturation. We assessed the animal model for APS1, the Aire-deficient mouse, and found spontaneous development of TGM4 autoantibodies specifically in males. Aire-deficient mice failed to present TGM4 in the thymus, consistent with a defect in central tolerance for TGM4. In the mouse, we further link TGM4 immunity with a destructive prostatitis and compromised secretion of TGM4. Collectively, our findings in APS1 patients and Aire-deficient mice reveal prostate autoimmunity as a major manifestation of APS1 with potential role in male subfertility.

  • 241.
    Landron, Teddy
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Electroencephalographic frontal alpha asymmetry and biological markers of the immune system: A correlation study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The immune system has been suggested as crucial in brain and psychological functioning. More precisely, immune markers reflecting immune system activity are important for psychological and mental health, as evident by their role in the physiopathology of depression and in the impairment of executive functions. Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA), an electroencephalographic marker of brain function, has also been linked to such psychopathology and is thought to reflect psychological processes underlying approach- versus withdrawal-related motivation and higher-order inhibitory control. Only a few studies have linked FAA to immune markers but notably found a negative association between IL-6, a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine, and FAA. The aim of the present work is thus to study the relationship between various immune markers (including pro-inflammatory cytokines and IL-6) and FAA. 35 healthy young male participants underwent a resting EEG recording and blood sampling from which immune markers were measured. The results did not suggest an association between IL-6 and FAA. No other immune markers were either suggested to be associated to FAA. The complexity of the immune system (e.g., effect of cytokines) is underlined and may explain the results. Despite such results, the implication of true negative correlations between FAA and circulating immune markers, as suggested in previous studies, is discussed in the light of the theoretical models of FAA.

  • 242.
    Larsson, Mathias
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Stress and Seizures: Behavioural Stress-Reduction Interventions’ Efficiency in Lowering Seizure Frequency2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Epilepsy is the most common, chronic, serious neurological disease in the world, with an estimated 65 million people affected worldwide. Recent studies on people diagnosed with epilepsy suggest that stress might trigger epileptic seizures. Interventions aimed at lowering stress might be able to reduce the risk for epileptic seizures among epileptics. In an attempt to explore this possibility, I conducted a systematic review addressing the efficacy of behavioral interventions targeted at lowering stress on seizure frequency among an epileptic population. This article also investigated the efficacy of these interventions on lowering self-perceived stress in the same population. Three databases were searched for obtaining 54 references. After a systematic filtering process, a set of 2 studies was retained after the full search procedure. The results suggest stress-reducing behavioral interventions do not have any statistically significant effects on lowering seizure frequency but have a statistically significant effect on lowering self-perceived stress ratings among an epileptic population. The small but promising results from trials and systematic reviews not included in this review warrant further research into the topic. Limitations regarding search procedure included studies and consideration for further research and reading for the presented topics are discussed.

  • 243.
    Lawenius, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Sambandet mellan fetch och förekomst av stormusslor: En studie i Vänern2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Freshwater bivalves are important organisms in the ecosystems they live, they also function as an ecosystem service for the human society. Swedish freshwater bivalves are divided into two groups; one with freshwater clams Sphaeriidae, and freshwater mussel with polyphile bivalves that are larger. Freshwater mussel lives in lakes and rivers, in Lake Vänern four species of the Swedish freshwater mussel have been observed. Fetch is the length of the open water from a point on shore to the nearest land or island. The structure of the lake bottom sediment can vary dependent on what value of fetch a shore has. In this report the freshwater mussel’s relation to the shore fetch is presented. More knowledge of the freshwater mussel is needed to develop a more suitable conservation work for them.   

    Inventory of mussel have been done on 20 different places in the southeast area of Lake Vänern. The results in this study shows a trend towards a relation between presence of freshwater mussel and shore fetch. Analysis on the highest density of mussel when the fetch data is divided in different classes shows a statistic significance for reduced density of mussel with increased fetch. Previous research shows similar results. However, more variables seem to be dependent factors for how and if fetch affect mussel.

  • 244.
    Leidenberger, Sonja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Boström, Sven
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wayland, Matthew T.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, England.
    Morphological observations on three Baltic species of Corynosoma Lühe, 1905 (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae)2019In: European Journal of Taxonomy, ISSN 2118-9773, Vol. 514, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Necropsies of Baltic grey (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seals (Pusa hispida) presented a rare opportunity to study their acanthocephalan fauna. Both species hosted adults of three species of the genus Corynosoma Lithe, 1904, namely C. magdaleni Montreuil, 1958, C. semerme (Forsell, 1904) Lithe 1911 and C. strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) Lithe 1904. A comparative morphological analysis of these three species of Corynosoma, combining both light and scanning electron microscopy, was performed for the first time. Sexual dimorphism in the size and shape of the trunk was observed in both C. magdaleni and C. semerme, but there was insufficient material to investigate this phenomenon in C. strumosum. Genital spines were not observed in any of the female acanthocephalans. Three possible explanations for the presence of genital spines in some females, but not others are (i) cryptic speciation, (ii) phenotypic variation and (iii) loss by extraction or shearing when the copulatory cap is released. Copulatory caps were observed on female C. semerme. The size and morphology showed considerable variability and all caps were strongly autofluoresecent.

  • 245.
    Leverin, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Skogsbrukets påverkan på artmångfalden hos mossor och lavar: Är artmångfalden större i en skog vid kontinuitetsskogsbruk än vid trakthyggesbruk?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The most common forestry model in Sweden, the clear cutting forestry, has caused problems for the biodiversity in the forests. In 2010, Sweden had 319 different bryophytes and lichens in the Red List that were connected to the forest. Some of which are dependant of forest continuity, old decaying wood, forest fire or other natural phenomenon found only in more or less undisturbed forests. The alternative to this forestry model is the continuous cover forestry as was common in the past, before forestry became an industry. At the time when the farmers themselves plucked out the wood they needed for they own survival, the forests could still function as an ecosystem. This report aims to compare and account for possible differences in species diversity between the tree forest type natural forest, continuous cover managed and clear-cutting managed forest. This study was based on four different continuous cover managed forests in Skåne, Västra Götaland and Östergötland County. Based on these forests prerequisites, natural forests and clear-cutting managed forests have been selected in acceptable closeness. The results of the survey show that the clear-cutting managed forests differ significant in biodiversity from the other forest types. Natural forests and continuous cover managed forests are richer in biodiversity and have more congruent values, however the presence of epiphytes is higher in natural forests. The result also shows that the presence of indicator species is higher in a continuous cover managed forest than in a clear-cutting managed forest.

  • 246.
    Li, Kaitao
    et al.
    Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, USA.
    Cheng, Xiaoxiao
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Tilevik, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Davis, Simon J.
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Zhu, Cheng
    Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Institute for Bioengineering and Bioscience, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA.
    In situ and in silico kinetic analyses of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor, programmed cell death ligands, and B7-1 protein interaction network2017In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 292, no 16, p. 6799-6809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor with an essential role in maintaining peripheral tolerance and is among the most promising immunotherapeutic targets for treating cancer, autoimmunity, and infectious diseases. A complete understanding of the consequences of PD-1 engagement by its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, and of PD-L1 binding to B7-1 requires quantitative analysis of their interactions at the cell surface. We present here the first complete in situ kinetic analysis of the PD-1/PD-ligands/B7-1 system. Consistent with previous solution measurements, we observed higher in situ affinities for human (h) than murine (m) PD-1 interactions, stronger binding of hPD-1 to hPD-L2 than hPD-L1, and comparable binding of mPD-1 to both ligands. However, in contrast to the relatively weak solution affinities, the in situ affinities of PD-1 are as high as those of the T cell receptor for agonist pMHC and of LFA-1 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1) for ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) but significantly lower than that of the B7-1/CTLA-4 interaction, suggesting a distinct basis for PD-1- versus CTLA-4-mediated inhibition. Notably, the in situ interactions of PD-1 are much stronger than that of B7-1 with PD-L1. Overall, the in situ affinity ranking greatly depends on the on-rate instead of the off-rate. In silico simulations predict that PD-1/PD-L1 interactions dominate at interfaces between activated T cells and mature dendritic cells and that these interactions will be highly sensitive to the dynamics of PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression. Our results provide a kinetic framework for better understanding inhibitory PD-1 activity in health and disease.

  • 247.
    Lidén, Josefin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Intrinsic Motivation and its Neural Correlates2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Why is motivation important? The answer is simple to most of us: it is what makes people push forward and act. Intrinsic motivation is the kind of motivation that arises from within a person, making her or him strive towards a goal for no other reward than the feeling it will bring. Additionally, this kind of motivation has shown correlations with enhanced learning, creativity, performance, optimal development, and well-being. While intrinsic motivation has long been a topic within the field of psychology, the neural correlates underlying it have only recently become of interest for researchers, and studies have shown some interesting but also contradictory findings. Therefore, the aim of this literature review thesis is to investigate the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation further. Firstly, a background review of motivation in general and intrinsic motivation in particular is presented, focusing on concepts such as the self-determination theory, flow, and cognitive evaluation theory. This is followed by a chapter on motivation- and intrinsic motivation from a neuroscientific perspective, concerning concepts such as the reward system, the undermining effect, and studies examining the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation. These studies show that there was activity in several different areas when participants were intrinsically motivated. However, a frequent pattern of activity in dopaminergic pathways involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was detected in most studies, indicating the involvement of these areas in particular when a person is intrinsically motivated.

  • 248.
    Liljebjer, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Mental Visualisering i Ledarskap2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will examine the link between mental visualization and leadership. As times change so will also the role for a good leader change. I will first examine what distinguishes such a leadership and which qualities characterize a good leader. Futhermore, I will examine the possible problems  that might occur with using modern neuroscience techniques to identify the characteristics that are considered relevant for a good leadership. One such feature that I will examine closer is mental visualization. Where and how is this property active in the brain? Finally, I will try to answer how or if,  visualization is a critical characteristic of good leadership.

  • 249.
    Lindberg, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Relations Between the Capgras and Cotard Delusions2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Delusions are commonly thought of as bizarre and fascinating; a delusion is a false belief that is held despite counterevidence. They have also been hard to study, in part because of the many forms that they can take. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have made it possible to study delusions more empirically, by using methods such as Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to locate neural correlates. The Capgras delusion is a syndrome in which a patient has the belief that someone has been replaced by an impostor. The Cotard delusion is a syndrome in which a patient has the belief that oneself does not exist or is dead. These two delusions have been found to have some curious similarities. This thesis investigates how the Capgras and Cotard delusions relate to each other, with a focus on the neural correlates. The nature of delusions is explained, along with the Capgras and Cotard delusions. Relevant case reports for each delusion are presented. Neural correlates are also reviewed and compared between the delusions. Studies on the similarities in face recognition impairments are included, as well as on attribution styles. The findings demonstrated in this thesis show that the Capgras and Cotard delusions relate to each other in several ways, including in terms of overlapping neural correlates, in face recognition impairments, attribution styles and the fact that both delusions sometimes co-exist and follow each other. It is possible that the Capgras and Cotard delusions share fundamentally similar causes.

  • 250.
    Lindberg, Markus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural correlates of lucid dreaming and comparisons with phenomenological aspects2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the neural correlates of lucid dreaming has recently gained more underlying data. By exploring seven studies that investigated the neural basis of lucid dreaming, this essay sought to examine which neural correlates are associated with lucid dreaming and how proposed neural correlates relate to phenomenological aspects. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was judged as the region most associated with lucid dreaming, in support of a DLPFC hypothesis. Support for reactivation of DLPFC in lucid dreaming consisted of data from electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and transcranial direct current stimulation. Phenomenological aspects associated with this region involved meta-awareness, working-memory, decision-making, and conscious perception. Other regions of interest were parietal areas, frontal areas, and precuneus. Data was not always compatible, implying need for further research. The possibility of further research was judged as promising, based on a recent study inducing lucid dreaming in a significant percent of its test subjects.

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