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  • 201.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    Sustainable Manufacturing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Adaptive instructions to novice shop-floor operators using Augmented Reality2017In: Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, ISSN 2168-1015, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 362-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel system using Augmented Reality and Expert Systems to enhance the quality and efficiency of shop-floor operators. The novel system proposed provides an adaptive tool that facilitates and enhances support on the shop-floor, due to its ability to dynamically customize the instructions displayed, dependent upon the competence of the user. A comparative study has been made between an existing method of quality control instructions at a machining line in an automotive engine plant and this novel system. It has been shown that the new approach outcompetes the existing system, not only in terms of perceived usability but also with respect to two other important shop-floor variables: quality and productivity. Along with previous research, the outcomes of these test cases indicate the value of using Augmented Reality technology to enhance shop-floor operators’ ability to learn and master new tasks.

  • 202.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Frantzén, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Falmouth University, Penryn, Cornwall, United Kingdom.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A methodology facilitating knowledge transfer to both research experienced companies and to novice SMEs2017In: International Journal of Enterprise Network Management, ISSN 1748-1252, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 123-140, article id IJENM0080202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, knowledge transfer is defined as a process of disseminating both technological and theoretical understanding as well as enhancing both industrial and academic knowledge through conducted research to project partners collaborating within a research project. To achieve this, a new methodology called 'user groups' is introduced. It facilitates knowledge transfer between project participants in collaborative research programs engaging both experienced and unexperienced partners regardless of level of input. The introduced methodology 'user groups' provides tools for collaborating with several research partners even though their levels of engagement in the project and prior research experience may vary without dividing them into separate groups. It enables all project partners to gain new knowledge and by so doing extending the knowledge society. The case study shows that the eight engaged companies are able to cooperate, achieve their own objectives and, both jointly and individually, contribute to the overall project goals.

  • 203.
    Hoyos Rodriguez, David
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Realistic Computer aided design: model of an exoskeleton2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The musculoskeletal disorders have significant health care, social and economic consequences in the factories nowadays. One of the most promising possible solutions is the use of exoskeletons in the workstations. Exoskeletons are assistive wearable robotics connected to the body of a person, which aims to give mechanical power or mobility to the user (Wang, Ikuma, Hondzinski, & de Queiroz, 2017).

    The objective of this project is to create a realistic CAD model of a passive exoskeleton which will be used in future research to analyse the behaviour of the workers in a virtual environment with and without the exoskeleton. This model will be a virtual representation of the exoskeleton EKSOVest which has been designed to support these workers who have to realize overhead tasks. This virtual representation will be carried out in PTC CREO and exported to IPS IMMA in order to check the viability of this model. To achieve a realistic model, the exoskeleton should have the same characteristics than the real exoskeleton. The objectives of this project will be defined for these characteristics, which are part creation, mechanisms, forces simulation, and parametrization. The parts and the mechanisms will be created and defined in PTC CREO with the same dimensions and behaviour as the real exoskeleton. Furthermore, this report will be focussed mainly in force simulation and the parametrization.

    The forces of the EKSOVest are generated by two different spring and by a high-pressure spring. To simulate these forces, the equation of these springs will be obtained and introduced in PTC CREO. These equations will be obtained through the regression of a set of points, which will be obtained from the real exoskeleton using a dynamometer. The parametrization will be carried out with the objective to make the virtual model adaptable for every type of mannequins. This parametrization will modify the length of the exoskeleton’s spine bar and the distance between the mechanical arms. These distances will be adapted according to the mannequin’s measures which will be introduced by the user. The measures that have to be introduced by the user are shoulder height, liac spine height, and chest width.

    In conclusion, it can be said that the regression of the springs obtained are an accurate result which can imitate quite well the forces of this exoskeleton. Furthermore, the results of the parametrization allow the exoskeleton adaptable to any type of dimensions that the mannequin could have. The final model obtained has been exported to IPS IMMA and implemented in a mannequin.

  • 204.
    Huertas Dominguez, Ana
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Perez Bueno, Maria del Pilar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    ENTRY/EXIT IMPROVED SEAT FOR A PASSENGER’S CAR: Sliding Seat for Volvo S802012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work is focused on the design of a mechanism for the passenger’s seat of a Volvo S80. This mechanism will facilitate the problems arised when somebody with limited mobility, either permanent or temporal, is entering or exiting the vehicle.

    The main aim is to obtain an affordable device that enhances the life of those with reduced mobility, but paying special attention to those who do not receive any kind of economical help from the government. The idea is to be able to move the seat to the outside of the car so that one can seat with no special effort. Then, the mechanism, manually, performs the movements to bring it back to the inside. The concept of being manual is to avoid electronic devices that will surely increase the cost.

    In this project, a possible design solution has been developed. A model was created with Autodesk Inventor 2012. The three basic positions of the mechanism were studied to determine the structural behavior of the product. For these studies, a load compensating the weight of a human was applied and the stresses and the deformation were analyzed by Finite Element Methods and the study was concluded when the safety factor was over 2.

  • 205.
    Hugo, Perea Lisbona
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bachelor Degree Project: Suitcase for Laptop Computer with integrated cooling system and workstation functionality2007Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes a Bachelor Degree Project in Product Design Engineering,

    carried out during the spring semester in 2007 by one student on the Product Design

    Engineering programme at University of Skövde. The project was performed as an

    assignment for Comfort Cooling AB, a company in Skövde that manufactures cooling

    clothes and products for medical use.

    The purpose of the project is to design a suitcase for laptops that is used also as a

    workstation. It has a cooler system, provided by Comfort Cooling that works with no

    external energy. It has a base made of foam sheet, to adapt it to the legs of the user. And it

    has as well all the normal features characteristically of a suitcase for laptops, such as

    pockets, handles and security features.

    The first step in the project was to perform market research in order to gather

    customer needs. It was found that the primary features of a laptop suitcase are that it is

    waterproof, that it is possible to carry the suitcase on ones back, that there are trays on both

    sides of the suitcase, and that the suitcase will be available in a range of patterns and

    colours. After that, the design of the possible solutions for each requirement started to be

    developed. Once all the requirements of the project were satisfied with different solutions,

    each one of them were evaluated in order to identify the solutions that in the best way met

    the stated product requirements. Finally a mock-up was produced for communicating the

    final design proposal and for enabling basic user trials to be carried out, as well as the final

    result, i.e. the design and the mock-up of the laptop suitcase.

    The report portrays the product design process and methods utilized in the project,

    as well as the final result (the mock up) of the laptop computer bag with integrated cooling

    effect and workstation.

  • 206.
    Hultman, Madeleine
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Tillverkningsprocesser för fläktväggar: Förslag på nya processer2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has investigate one manufacturing processes at a manufacturing company. The company has been Swegon Operations AB and is located in Kvänum, where they manufacture units for indoor climate.

    The current study investigation is on a fan wall, which is a sheet wall adjacent to the fan in the units. The purpose of the project is to identify the current manufacturing process with both customer and product requirements. Subsequently give two alternative manufacturing processes one internally and one external manufacturing process. Which can make the fan wall and meet the requirements for the costumer and product with the lowest manufacturing cost.

    In the current process, the fan wall is manufactured in a value flow consisting of three activities in the process. The problem with this process is that it has not been investigated and compared with other alternative manufacturing processes with a lower manufacturing cost. Today's manufacturing process has been in place since 2001 when a custom-made machine was installed in the factory.

    The study in the project has investigated a value stream analysis for the current process, the possibilities for developing the process and how a future version of the manufacturing processes could look. The two alternative manufacturing processes are internal and external processes. The internal process consists of existing machinery from the factory and the external process consists of existing machinery and a plastic item is purchased externally.

    The study has also focused on sustainable development and Plan Do Check Act (PDCA). Consider why sustainable development is something that has to take into account and how the company works with it, as well as draw conclusions about how the different processes affect. The process of the entire project has followed the PDCA by first planning the entire work up and a value stream analysis is made to find possibilities and know the starting point. Then implement the possibilities of the proposed processes of how they would result and then check through analyses to propose the best manufacturing process. In the end, follow up that all goals have been met.Investigate how todays and the two proposed processes can affect the environment and the study has been structured according to PDCA. Analysis of costs, lead time and pros and cons will be discussed and conclusions about the project will be presented.

  • 207.
    Hurme, Mikko
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Railo, Henry
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    V1 activity during feedforward and early feedback processing is necessary for both conscious and unconscious motion perception2019In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 185, p. 313-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of blindsight has revealed a seminal dissociation between conscious vision and visually guided behavior: some patients who are blind due to V1 lesions seem to be able to employ unconscious visual information in their behavior. The standard assumption is that these findings generalize to the neurologically healthy. We tested whether unconscious processing of motion is possible without the contribution of V1 in neurologically healthy participants by disturbing activity in V1 using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Unconscious processing was measured with redundant target effect (RTE), a phenomenon where participants respond faster to two stimuli than to one stimulus, when the task is just to respond as fast as possible when one stimulus or two simultaneous stimuli are presented. We measured the RTE caused by a motion stimulus. V1 activity was interfered with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) to test whether TMS delivered in a specific time window suppresses conscious perception (participant reports seeing only one of the two stimuli) but does not affect unconscious processing (RTE). We observed that at each SOA, when TMS suppressed conscious perception of the stimulus, the RTE was also eliminated. However, when visibility of the redundant target was suppressed with a visual mask, we found unconscious processing of motion. This suggests that unconscious processing of motion depends on V1 in neurologically healthy humans. We conclude that the neural mechanisms that enable motion processing in blindsight are modulated by neuroplastic changes in connectivity between subcortical areas and the visual cortex after the V1 lesion. Neurologically healthy observers cannot process motion unconsciously without functioning of V1. 

  • 208.
    Hylander Ruiz, Gustavo
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Sustainable delivery vehicle for last mile delivery services2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pollution levels in urban areas continue to rise, with transportation being the number one cause. As cities ban fossil fuel cars access to the city center, this project looks at the delivery of packgaes from internet purchases. A three-wheeled, human-powered and electrically assisted vehicle is designed. This vehicle is dsigned to work together with last-mile logistics. A scientific design process was carried out to define the stakeholders, competition and requirements of the project, among others.The results yielded a semi-finished vehicle, comprising of the frame, general design, FEA analysis, delivery system and an optimization process for the frame. Future work includes economical or social study, design of the brakes and gear system or a design of the frame-cabin connection.

  • 209.
    Häggblom, Hanna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Tillståndsbaserat underhåll på verktygsmaskiner: Utvärdering av det tillståndsbaserade underhållet på verktygsmaskiner hos Volvo Cars i Skövde och hur det kan utvecklas2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A company can use different strategies when performing maintenance. One strategy is corrective maintenance where maintenance is carried out after a failure has occurred. Another strategy is preventive maintenance. A combination of the two is often used. The preventive maintenance can be predetermined or condition based. Advantages with the condition based maintenance are e.g. that the replacement of parts can be planned according to observations indicating there’s an increasing risk of failure. When choosing preventive maintenance, the RCM method can be used to determine risk of failure modes and the cause of function failures. Decisions regarding the preventive maintenance should be based on knowledge in new techniques, history of failures and the equipment and competence available.

    Volvo Cars in Skövde is doing more or less the same preventive maintenance on machine tools regardless of whether it’s a new or old machine. The company is using condition based maintenance on some of the components and units. Mostly it consists of human inspections, a subjective control of the machine’s condition, and spindle vibration analysis. Through interviews it has been determined that new techniques are rarely implemented and that the decided maintenance plan for a machine is rarely changed. The company is aware of the development of new techniques for condition based maintenance and wants to investigate whether it is appropriate to evolve their condition based maintenance on machine tools. The techniques further investigated are measurement with Ball bar, monitoring of process parameters and geometrical verification.

    To make accurate decisions regarding the implementation of new techniques, a data collection of the history of frequent failures was done. To limit the amount of data a five year old processing line was studied. Data from the maintenance system Maximo was sorted by long failures from the recent years and by prioritizing with the Pareto principle it showed the recurring failures of ball screws. The component do have a condition based maintenance activity today, there is an inspection once a year. However, the inspection is rarely able to predict or find a failure on the ball screw. Four out of twenty-seven ball screws with fault have been changed after inspection over the last five years. By mapping the components failures on fifteen machine tools and when preventive maintenance has been done, several options for improvements were found.

    The cost of the replacement of a ball screw when a failure has already occurred is as much as ten times the cost of replacement before failure. This is caused by cost of scrap and long down time. A new, improved preventive maintenance task is therefore highly justified. The motif is both reducing the scrap cost related to failure and with increased availability.

    The company is recommended an investment in Ball bar as a new method for condition based maintenance. It should be used to increase the objective control of the mechanical parts of a machine tool. The method is not totally new for the company and relatively easy to implement. The current subjective control on the machine tools should be revised to increase the probability of finding degradation of functions. Today the activity takes rather long time and has therefore not been done in time, it should be shorter. The company is also recommended to investigate new methods for preventive maintenance continually. Today there is no employee with that mission and to evolve maintenance, the company has to be updated on new techniques.

  • 210.
    Hägglund, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Berglund, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    ROTORSAKSANALYS AV TIDIGARE 5S-ARBETE PÅ ETT TILLVERKANDE FÖRETAG I SKARABORG2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Cementa AB är ett företag som idag ingår i Heidelberg koncernen som är en stor aktör inom tillverkning av cement. Företagets anläggning i Skövde har som uppgift att implementera 5S i sina lokaler främst inom underhållsavdelningen. På grund av tidigare misslyckat försök har företaget inte lyckats att implementera 5S fullt ut i företaget men kommer 2017 att göra ett nytt försök för att kunna lyckas implementera 5S i verksamheten. Denna gång tar företaget in två studenter från Högskolan i Skövde vars uppgift blir att ta reda på varför den tidigare implementeringen misslyckades och vad som kan göras bättre vid ny 5S-implementering.Examensarbetet går ut på att genomföra en rotorsaksanalys av de tidigare försök av varför 5S inte lyckades drivas igenom på Cementas underhållsavdelning och eventuellt hur företagets operatörer och ledning bör jobba vidare för att lyckas med 5S-implementering och inte riskera att hamna i samma situation.Teorin som examensarbetet använder sig av stöds från hållbar utveckling och Lean-filosofin, med metoden 5S och slöseri. Teori om att lyckas med förbättringsarbeten tas med, för att kunna förklara hur förbättringsarbeten bör utformas och vilka viktiga delar som behöver finnas med för att lyckas med en ny metod eller ett arbetssätt inom en verksamhet.Metoderna som tillämpades var observationer, intervjuer med ledning, enkät med operatörer och en workshop. Alla resultat som studenterna fick från ledningen och operatörer sammanställdes och jämfördes mot teori för att se vilka orsaker som påverkade den tidigare misslyckade 5S-implementationen och hur nuläget ser ut för att kunna implementera 5S i verksamhetens underhållsavdelning.Resultatet sammanställdes och presenteras varför förbättringsarbetet med 5S misslyckades och vilka bidragande orsaker som avgjorde resultatet. Även vilka slöseri som kunde identifieras och dess negativa orsaker och påverkande faktorer på underhållsavdelningen redovisades.Det som framkommer av resultatet är att ledningen och operatörer har skilda åsikter som påverkar en 5S-implementering i nuläget. Men det finns även gemensamma åsikter som kan stödja en framtida 5S-implementering. Att påbörja en implementering utan kunskap om metoden skulle riskera ännu en misslyckad 5S-implementering i lokalerna.Det som påverkar är att inga tydliga mål har satts med vad verksamheten vill få ut av 5S. Andra faktorer var kunskap och brister om förståelse vad 5S är för något och hur arbetet ska bedrivas för att lyckas.Bristerna identifierades och förklaras i rapportens diskussionsdel där resultatet av studien kommenteras hur det har varit och vilka påverkande händelser som har lett till resultatet av arbetet på Cementa. Åtgärdsförslaget till fortsatta arbete för 5S på Cementa förklaras stegvis i rapporten, hur de skall jobba vidare med 5S och möjligheten att kunna nå målet dit hela företaget strävar efter att få komma. Förslaget är inspirerat av ett liknande företag som tillämpade en lyckad metod för sin 5S-implementering.

  • 211.
    Häggström, Maja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Holstensson, John
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av hyttmodul för fritidsbåt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the end of the 1950s the boat manufacturer Ryds, situated in Småland, has been producing everything from canoes to cabin boats. Their latest successful cabin boat was last manufactured in 2012 and since then the company has modernized their production plant and new goals and methods have been introduced. This new way of manufacturing boats, including modular design, have not yet given the opportunities of introducing a new cabin boat, which is now one of the company’s strong visions for 2017. This thesis has been carried out at the University of Skövde in collaboration with Ryds, with the same goals and vision. The project goal was to develop a cabin boat through methods of module design and new assembly strategies in the boat manufacturing industry. The cabin module was to be assembled as an external part to an existing leisure boat with the main focus on areas such as safety, performance, design and cost efficiency.

    Requirements for the cabin boat were to withstand the marine environment in terms of weather and water conditions as well as mechanical stress. The design and manufacturing costs were to be adapted to the target group preferences and competing cabin boats of similar size. Target group of this project were archipelago habitants which use the boat as their main transport every day all year round more or less.

    The initial phase of the project was to collect necessary information of boat manufacturing, suitable material as well as performing interviews and analysing competitors’ design and manufacturing strategies. Information about competitors was mainly collected through the Boat Show 2016 in Gothenburg. Using this background information a set of requirements were established. This specification list was used as the basis platform for concept generation, concept evaluation and prototyping phases as well as the conducting of mechanical strength calculations, which resulted in a finished cabin boat concept.

    The developed cabin module is carefully balanced in manufacturing and assembly, costs suited for the target group’s wallets and a design adapted to the existing hull and Ryds’ profile. The cabin module fulfils the mechanical strength requirements and the strains from the marine environment. Ergonomic aspects have been adapted to existing and competing cabin boat dimensions. The assembly of the cabin boat is done by lowering a cockpit into the deck of the leisure boat, whereupon lists, windows, doors, hatches and roof are assembled followed by final sealing. Two suggestions of aesthetic character have been presented to demonstrate the possibilities of personal equipment and expressions. 

  • 212.
    Häkkinen, Markus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Viktiga faktorer produktutveckling enligt set based concurrent engineering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Product development usually has the same general approach: A specification for a new product is provided to the product development department from the marketing department. Product developers then generate concepts which are developed into prototypes before the products are manufactured and sold. The procedure usually differs by the use of different models such as Lean product development or integrated product development in the process.

    The part of Lean product development (LPD) that is used when developing concepts is called set based concurrent engineering (SBCE) and these are new concepts in Sweden. What is required to work with set based concurrent engineering in a successful manner? Is it possible to identify important factors when developing products using SBCE in companies?

    A literature study which resulted in a list with five potentially important factors when developing products using SBCE was created before a qualitative study was conducted at five companies. Semi structured interviews were conducted at Husqvarna, Saab, Furhoffs, Ericsson Radio and GKN Aerospace to gather data for an analysis. In the analysis, comparisons were made between the companies’ way of developing products with the list that was created in the end of the literature study.

    A conclusion of the study was a number of important factors when developing products using SBCE could be: Wide solution space, Knowledge based screening of concepts, Recycling of knowledge, Technically competent project management, Cross functional teams.

    The study also showed that an investment in the right type of leadership could potentially be an important factor when implementing SBCE since the company management need to understand the working model if SBCE is going to have a positive effect.

  • 213.
    Härström, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Gunnarson Ljungblom, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Optimering Scania DL: VICI Industri AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vici Industri AB är ett företag som tillverkar vipparmar vilket är en ingående komponent i förbränningsmotorer. Segmentet som företaget verkar inom är den tunga fordonsindustrin och de är leverantör åt bland annat Scania och Volvo. Scanias vipparmar tillverkas i en produktionsprocess som kallas Scania DL. Uppgiften som tilldelades syftade till att undersöka nuvarande kapacitet, ta fram valid simulering för att därigenom påvisa kostnadseffektiva åtgärder.

    Data som krävdes för att validera simulering fanns inte i dåvarande dagsläge och därför krävdes ett grundligt undersökande av produktionsprocessens kapacitet. Det genomfördes även för att påvisa de brister som fanns i nuläget. Flertalet produktionstekniska verktyg användes till analysering för att nå korrekt rotorsak och utifrån det togs förslag, till åtgärder att tillämpa, fram. Dessutom togs valid simulering fram som användes för att experimentera och påvisa effekten av de framtagna åtgärderna.

    Genom initial stopptidsuppföljning gick det bland annat att belysa att reaktionstiden stod för cirka 35 % av stopptiden. Dessutom framkom de stopporsaker med högst frekvens som stod för största delen av stopptiden. Efter analysering av orsaker och framtagna åtgärder visades en möjlighet att i genomsnitt öka output med cirka 10 %. Arbetet i sig har gett en möjlighet att lyfta fram de slöserier som förekommer i produktionsprocessen och med hjälp av det framföra förbättringspotential.

  • 214.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ergonomics Integration and User Diversity in Product2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Concideration of products' ergonomic qualitys is one important component for  successful product developement. Product designers engaged in the core activity of product developement need methods that support the consideration of ergonomics along with other product requirements. this thesis aims to adress these needs.

    The first part of the thesis investigates how people working within product developement organisations communicate with and about users of their products. The general need for methods to support communication of user aspects in product development is indentified trough formal interviews whith product developers and a review of the management, ergonomics and design litterature.

    The second part of the thesis studies the factors wich affect th integration of ergonomics in product design. Supportive methods, including User Characters, for evoking user concideration among designers together with Overlapping methods fos scheduling ergonomics evaluation in product design processes are introduced and argued.

    The third part of the thesis reviews an discusses computer aided ergonomics as a mens for integration of ergonomics in product design. A web-based support system for effective employment of human  simulation tools is developed using a participativa approach and evaluated based on the system's usability.

    The objective of the fourt part of the thesis is to study how human simulation tool can aid designers' consideration of human diversity  to accomodate users of diverse anthropometric characteristics in multivariate design problems such as automobile cockpits. The work involves the evaluation off different approaches for th egeneration of specific manikin families wich can be used as test groups for fitting trials in the virtual design process.

    The research demonstrates enchantments in design methodology knowledge to support integration of ergonomics in design product processes with a focus on anthopometric diversity in vehicledesign.

  • 215.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Use of finite element method in trailer deck design2001In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 117, no 1-2, p. 238-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The employment of the finite element (FE) method in conceptual and detail design of a secondary deck platform for trailer bodies is presented. The main objective of the project is to design a versatile, light and cheap secondary deck. To assist the designer with sufficient means for the concept generation and evaluation process, the FE method is used in order to gain fair structural analysis data. Assistance from the computer software stimulates creativity, reduces the time required in the design process, and eventually increases probability to gain customer satisfaction. This approach is precise enough for comparison purposes at this stage of the design process. The structural data gained is compared mainly with weight and access criteria.

  • 216.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, L.
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    A pragmatic approach to define anthropometric boundary manikins for multiple populations2012In: NES2012 Proceedings, Saltsjöbaden, Sweden, August 19-22, 2012: Ergonomics for sustainability and growth / [ed] Ann-Beth Antonsson & Göran M. Hägg, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper addresses the call for methods that can assist designers to consider anthropometric diversity when designing products or workstations, and hence formulate more sustainable design solutions. A basic method for the definition of boundary manikins for bivariate design problems and combined populations is described, exemplified and evaluated. The method can be used for defining virtual test groups when using digital human modelling tools for evaluating anthropometry related aspects of human-product interfaces at early design phases. It can also be used to indentify persons with certain anthropometry to build up test groups for performing physical tests.

  • 217.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Basic Method for Handling Trivariate Normal Distributions in Case Definition for Design and Human Simulation2014In: Advances in Applied Digital Human Modeling, AHFE Conference , 2014, p. 27-40Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 218.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Case, Keith
    Loughborough University.
    Supporting 'Design for All' in Automotive Ergonomics2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry faces increasingly tough competition in a global market. One key for competitiveness is product differentiation, in order to attract clearly defined market segments. However, designing cars for specific customer groups incorporates the risk that a car appeals to only a small number of potential buyers. Another issue is that the actual customer group in many cases differs fromthe initially targeted customer group. The use of the ‘design for all’ (DfAll) concept may very well enlarge a car manufacturer’s market and improve the vehicles by making them suit larger populations. This paper discusses the aims of a research project that seeks to identify areas where both the main targeted customer group andothers can gain from a ‘design for all’ approach. Other objectives are to suggest working methods that enable ‘design for all’ in the automotive development process and the identification of computer tools, such as virtual manikins, that can support these objectives early in a virtual design process.

  • 219.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Case, Keith
    Loughborough University.
    De Vin, Leo J
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Overlapping Ergonomic Evaluation in the Automotive Design Process2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomic evaluation typically comes late in the automotive design process, often not performed until physical mock-ups are produced. This may lead to expensive and cumbersome iterations, or to reductions of the final product quality due to low priority of meeting set ergonomic requirements. Computer aided design (CAD) is intensively used for design in the automotive industry. Performance and usability of computers and software are improving at a rapid pace, which enables CAD to be employed even more intensively. This encourages a digital design process where expensive, inflexible and time consuming physical mock-ups are only built at the end of the design process. This incorporates the risk that ergonomic evaluation will be put back even further. A way to address this problem is to enable ergonomics to be evaluated in the digital design process - in a virtual product. However, in many cases, evaluation made in a physical prototype is unbeatable in establishing ergonomic conditions. This paper discusses possible advantages of moving ergonomic evaluation earlier in the automotive design process by implementing planned overlapping strategies. It also shows initial results from a project at a car company, which aims at improving ergonomics integration in the automotive design process, e.g. by looking at task overlapping. These strategies are believed to be applicable both for evaluations made in a virtual environment and evaluations performed in the real world.

  • 220.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bohlin, Robert
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre.
    Carlson, Johan S.
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre.
    Creating and shaping the DHM tool IMMA for ergonomic product and production design2016In: International Journal of the Digital Human, ISSN 2046-3375, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 132-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The history, status and outlook of the research and development actions associated with the creation of the digital human modelling tool intelligently moving manikins (IMMA) are described. The underlying fundamental concepts are described and research and development results so far are illustrated or referred to. Two case studies illustrating use of IMMA on industry-based problems are described. The paper also covers reflections on conceptions for prospective DHM tool developments from a general perspective, relating to areas of ergonomics and design methodology, as well as describing some of the plans for further developments and applications of the IMMA tool. These may be of assistance when identifying challenges for future research and development of DHM tools that are used in product and production design processes in industry.

  • 221.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Castro, Pamela
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Mårdberg, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre, Gothenburg.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Centre, Gothenburg.
    Nurbo, Pernilla
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg.
    Fragoso, Paulo
    Scania CV, Södertälje.
    Andersson, Lina
    Volvo Trucks, Gothenburg.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    DHM Based Test Procedure Concept for Proactive Ergonomics Assessments in the Vehicle Interior Design Process2018In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume V: Human Simulation and Virtual Environments / [ed] Sebastiano BagnaraRiccardo TartagliaSara AlbolinoThomas AlexanderYushi Fujita, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, Vol. 822, p. 314-323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a digital human modelling (DHM) based test procedure concept for the assessment of physical ergonomics conditions in virtual phases of the vehicle interior design process is illustrated and discussed. The objective of the test procedure is to be a valuable tool for ergonomic evaluations and decision support along the design process, so that ergonomic issues can be dealt with in an efficient, objective and proactive manner. The test procedure is devised to support companies in having stable and objective processes, in accordance with lean product development (LPD) philosophies. The overall structure and fundamental functionality of the test procedure concept is explained by a simplified use case, utilizing the DHM tool IPS IMMA to: define manikin families and manikin tasks; predict manikin motions; and visualize simulations and ergonomics evaluation outcomes.

  • 222.
    Högberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Chavez, Nathalie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Effektivisering av material- och informationsflödet: En fallstudie på SKF2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 223.
    Högberg, Jia Li
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Mixed mode loaded adhesive layers: from measurement of material data to analysis of structural behaviour2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In manufacturing of multi-material products, a joining method that is able to cost-effectively assemble components made of dissimilar and similar material, with irregular geometries, is optimal. As an alternative, adhesive bonding is in-creasingly adapted by the industry, which is also used in manufacturing of multi-phase materials. In practice, adhesives are constrained to thin layers. An adhesive as a constrained layer behaves differently compared to the adhesive as a bulk material. In general, adhesive layers are loaded in peel (mode I), or in shear (mode II or III), or in a combination of peel and shear (mixed mode). This thesis deals with mixed mode loaded adhesive layers, from measurement of ma-terial data to analysis of structural behaviour. For studying of structural behaviour of adhesive joints, an integrated approach is developed. Arbitrarily end-loaded single-layer adhesive joints with arbitrary ad-herends of arbitrary length are analysed with the Beam/Adhesive layer (B/A) model. Closed-form solutions are obtained for the adhesive layer as well as for the adherends. For joints with a semi-infinite symmetric geometry, i.e. relative long joints with identical adherends loaded at one end, basic loading cases are obtained. Solutions to these basic loading cases are easy to use in designing of joints with this type of geometry. For nonlinear or general adhesive layers, a mode-dependent cohesive law is de-veloped. The normalized formulation is easy to implement in numerical simula-tions, yet, it captures the characteristics of adhesive layers. For experimental studies, this cohesive law is used to obtain the constitutive behaviour of an adhe-sive layer. The results confirm the ability and suitability of this cohesive law in modelling of adhesive layers. To obtain material data of adhesive layers, experimental methods are developed based on the J-integral. Two specimens, the Mixed mode double Cantilever Beams (MCB) specimen and the Unbalanced Double Cantilever Beams (UDCB) specimen, are designed to allow adhesive layers to be loaded in mixed mode. The MCB-specimen is implemented experimentally and the constitutive behav-iour of the tested adhesive layer is obtained.

  • 224.
    Högberg, Li
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Mechanical Behaviour of Single-Layer Adhesive Joints: an integrated approach2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative products that are competitive on the market are likely to employ newtypes of materials and unusual geometries. A method that can assemble dissimilarmaterials and irregular geometries cost-effectively and at the same time offera joint that is light in weight and imperceptible, is optimal. Conventional joiningmethods, such as welding and riveting, can no longer satisfy the joining purposecompletely. Adhesive joints satisfy all mentioned requirements above and henceoffer design engineers a wider choice of materials and an increased freedom ingeometry design of the components, which most likely leads to a better design ina shorter time. The prediction of the mechanical behaviour of a joint, preferablywith simple and efficient formulas, plays an important role in the product designprocess. In this thesis, single-layer adhesive joints are analysed through the integratedapproach, i.e. an extensive stress analysis followed by a fracture analysisto determine the energy release rate and the mode-mixity due to general endloads. The purpose is to provide easy-to-use design formulas and to investigatedifferent specimen configurations for the experimental determination of the mechanicalproperties of adhesives under mixed mode loading.In the stress analysis, a systematic and easy to use closed-form solution based onthe beam/adhesive layer (B/A) model is presented to determine the stress andstrain in a linear elastic single-layer adhesive joint. In the fracture analysis, fourtypes of single-layer adhesive joints are investigated based on the closed-formsolution given in the stress analysis. The B/A model is compared to two continuummodels: one neglecting the existence of the adhesive layer (Suo and Hutchinson1990) and the other accounting the adhesive layer by the use of FEM.The results of the B/A model compares favourably to the FE-analyses. Threetypes of basic loading systems are identified for the symmetric semi-infinitejoint geometry. Two specimens for testing mode mixity are suggested. Accordingto the theoretical studies by use of the B/A model, the specimen denoted theMixed Mode B with a short crack length offers good flexibility, variety and stability.

  • 225.
    Igelmo, Victor
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Using a general robot programming system to control an industrial robot2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial robot programs are usually created with the programming language that the manufacturer provides. These languages are often limited to cover the common usages within the industry. However, when a more advanced program is needed, then third-party programs are often used to, e.g., locating objects using vision systems, applying correct force with force torque sensors, etc.

    Instead of using both the language of the robot and third-party programs to create more advanced programs, it is preferable to have one system that can fully control the robot. Such systems exist, e.g., Robot Operating System (ROS), Yet Another Robot Language (YARP), etc. These systems require more time to fully set up, but once they are set up supposedly they can be used for a lot of different applications and can be used on several industrial robots from different manufacturers.

    Currently, University of Skövde have robots from Universal Robots (UR) with several peripheral equipment which has limited control because the built-in language does not support it. Therefore, they need help with both investigating which robot system could be used and implementing that robot system.

    This thesis will prove the suitability of using ROS to control aforesaid hardware, fulfilling all the requirements. It will be also demonstrated the feasibility of ROS in the long-term, according to the future plans for this equipment in University of Skövde.

  • 226.
    Inglot, Agnieszka
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Franzén, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    PREVENTION OF WHEEL WEAR, A CASE STUDY: Developing a functioning wheel profile for rail-mounted transportation trolley.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s degree project aimed to improve the wheel profile of a rail mounted trolley and determine the cause of wheel failure. The proceedings of this project where modelled after an approach for solving wear problems with an emphasis on designing for sustainability. A case study and root cause analysis (RCA) was performed and the flanged wheels were deemed insufficient for the given heavy-haul system. Possible areas of wheel profile improvement were identified and further researched with multiple literature reviews. Throughout the projects duration several limitations were introduced that reduced the concept testing to exclusively theoretical prediction models. Archard’s model was implemented to predict wear and operating time for the proposed material and wheel tread profile concepts. The wheel flange dimensions were chosen based on recommendations from wheel and rail interference handbooks among other sources. The final wheel and rail profile suggestion improved operating time by approximately 300% and wear resistance by 50% compared to its predecessor. This result was achieved by applying the same theoretical prediction model to both current and suggested profiles. The findings of this project are meant to aid SCA among others in similar cases and additionally highlight the value of product improvement from a technological, sociological, and environmental perspective.

  • 227.
    Irazu, Aitor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Uranga, Maider
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Design optimisation of a mechanism used to handle heavy objects2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a design optimisation of a mechanism used to lift and turn heavy objects, in this case, a specific gear that weights 3000 kg. The objective pursued during the development of the project was to reduce the weight of the mechanism, and thus, make it more cost-efficient, as well as to improve the clamping system to secure that the heavy objects are safely handled. The method followed was to first identify the critical parts in cooperation with the client. Then, the corresponding analysis has been developed for each of those parts, by minimising the mass of two of them, and by selecting and dimensioning the guideways for the clamping motion in the other case. The key results obtained from these analyses were that the weight of one of the parts was reduced by 50 %, the clamping system was improved and that the stress analysis shows that the maximum stress is far below acceptable levels. Hence, it is concluded that it was possible to optimise the mechanism and reduce the weight, improving the handling of heavy objects.

  • 228.
    Iriondo, Aitor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Oscarsson, Jan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Simulation Data Management in a Product Lifecycle Management Context2017In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXI: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, Incorporating the 32nd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 5–7, 2017, University of Greenwich, UK / [ed] James Gao, Mohammed El Souri, Simeon Keates, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2017, p. 476-481Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reuse of virtual engineering models and simulations improves engineering efficiency. Reuse requires preserving the information provenance. This paper suggests a framework based on the 7W data provenance model to be part of simulation data management implemented in product lifecycle management systems. The resulting provenance framework is based on a case study in which a product was re-engineered using finite element analysis.

  • 229.
    Iriondo Pascual, Aitor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ruiz Castro, Pamela
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Mahdavian, Nafise
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Scania CV, Södertalje, Sweden.
    Proposal of an Intuitive Interface Structure for Ergonomics Evaluation Software2018In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VIII: Ergonomics and Human Factors in Manufacturing, Agriculture, Building and Construction, Sustainable Development and Mining / [ed] Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander, Yushi Fujita, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 825, p. 289-300Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, different technologies and software for ergonomics evaluations are gaining greater relevance in the field of ergonomics and production development. The tools allow users such as ergonomists and engineers to perform assessments of ergonomic conditions of work, both related to work simulated in digital human modelling (DHM) tools or based on recordings of work performed by real operators. Regardless of approach, there are many dimensions of data that needs to be processed and presented to the users.

    The users may have a range of different expectations and purposes from reading the data. Examples of situations are to: judge and compare different design solutions; analyse data in relation to anthropometric differences among subjects; investigate different body regions; assess data based on different time perspectives; and to perform assessments according to different types of ergonomics evaluation methods. The range of different expectations and purposes from reading the data increases the complexity of creating an interface that considers all the necessary tools and functions that the users require, while at the same time offer high usability.

    This paper focuses on the structural design of a flexible and intuitive interface for an ergonomics evaluation software that possesses the required tools and functions to analyse work situations from different perspectives, where the data input can be either from DHM tools or from real operators while performing work. 

  • 230.
    Iriondo Pascual, Aitor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Application of Multi-objective Optimization on Ergonomics in Production: A Case Study2020In: Advances in Additive Manufacturing, Modeling Systems and 3D Prototyping: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Additive Manufacturing, Modeling Systems and 3D Prototyping, July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA / [ed] Massimo Di Nicolantonio, Emilio Rossi, Thomas Alexander, Springer, 2020, p. 584-594Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking a holistic perspective is central in production development, aiming to optimize ergonomics and overall production system performance. Hence, there is a need for tools and methods that can support production companies to identify the production system alternatives that are optimal regarding both ergonomics and production efficiency. The paper presents a devised case study where multi-objective optimization is applied, as a step to towards the development of such an optimization tool. The overall objective in the case study is to find the best order in which an operator performs manual tasks during a workday, considering ergonomics and production system efficiency simultaneously. More specifically, reducing the risk of injury from lifting tasks and improving the throughput are selected as the two optimization objectives. An optimization tool is developed, which communicates with a digital human modelling tool to simulate work tasks and assess ergonomics. 

  • 231.
    Jalderyd, Emil
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Legendi, Linus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Konstruktion av motoruppkopplingsadapter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the thesis work is to develop and construct a new solution for connecting engines that goes through a quality check at the testing facility at Volvo Trucks. The thesis work is the final segment of the mechanical engineering program at the University of Skövde.

    Growing demands within manufacturing have led to higher requirements regarding customized products. This puts a higher demand on product variety which leads to greater varieties in production.

    Volvo Trucks manufactures a variety of engines which requires a more flexible way of connecting these different types of engines in the testing facility for testing and quality checks. The current state of this connection is inadequate, improvised and non-flexible. Volvo Trucks have expressed a wish to improve the quality- and testing process regarding the exhaust connection of the engines, as Volvo Trucks are planning a future reconstruction of the testing facility.

    The project started by performing an extensive literature review to investigate how variety in production and demands for a more flexible connection can be solved through product design. The variations that affected the connection between the different motor types and the testing facility were documented and used as a foundation for further work.

    A number of concepts regarding the handling of the different motor types were developed and reviewed with 3D-printed prototypes. A final concept was calculated, dimensioned and constructed. The result shows that it is possible to handle the vast variation in production with the help of robust design. The result also showed that the present connections are oversized and insufficient.

    The authors of this report recommend that Volvo Trucks should continue with implementing the new connection in production to perform tests and develop this connection further.

  • 232.
    Johansson, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Karlsson, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av fäste och skyltar för bakrutetorkare på personbilar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis discloses a bachelor degree project in Product Design Engineering at the University of Skövde. The project was performed in collaboration with a company called The Best of Sweden AB where the assignment was to develop a universal mount and signs for rear window wipers on cars.

    The development process started with a prestudy where customer needs where analyzed. Different factors which affect the product in the environment of use, such as the aerodynamics of cars and the force in the rear window wiper engine, were examined as well during the prestudy. A field study was carried out on existing rear window wipers which became the basis of the dimensions of the signs as well as the mount. The result of the pilot study ended in a list of requirements that the final concept was to be compared to. Different structured design methods was used during concept generation as well as concept evaluation which was followed by a development of the details of the final concept. A proposition of material selection and manufacturing method was determined as well as an estimation of manufacturing cost.

    The result was a fastening device and signs for rear window wipers on cars which makes it possible for the user to mount personalized signs if various different formats. The fastening device consists of a base mount and a strap, where the strap is tightened around the rear window wiper and keeps the base mount in place. The symmetry of the product enables it to be mounted to a rear window wiper that either rotates clockwise or counter-clockwise.

  • 233.
    Johansson, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. matte_j96@hotmail.com.
    Wirdelius, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. oscar.wirdelius@gmail.com.
    Utveckling av ett växthus för inom- och utomhusbruk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The degree project’s purpose was to develop a product following a methodological approach. The product was a miniature greenhouse for indoor and outdoor use, commissioned by a company. The goal of the project was to develop an entire product. An extensive prestudy was performed focused on understanding plants and their needs. Wishes and demands of users were collected by questionnaires and interviews. The answers collected became the basis for many decisions regarding function and form. Furthermore, a lot of focus was on developing a trendy and sustainable product. The development process followed Pahl and Beitz’s model which consists of 4 phases: Planning/specification, Conceptual design, Concept development and Detail design.

    The result is a greenhouse with the possibility for growing in pots or soil. The lid acts as a storage space and encapsulates the synthetic lights that will help the plants grow, especially in climates with less sun. The lid also contains a system that makes watering the plants easier. The modular construction gives the user 360-degree access to the plants from soil level.

  • 234.
    Johansson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Persson, Anton
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    HALVAUTOMATISERING OCH BEREDNING AV PARTITILLVERKNING2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett examensarbete har utförts på ett företag där trädetaljer tillverkas. Arbetet gick ut på att förbättra processen vid tillverkning av glaspartier. Företaget är ledande i Skandinavien beträffande sina träprodukter. Tillverkningen sker till stor grad av helautomatiserad produktion men har fortfarande några manuella stationer kvar. Företaget omsätter omkring 450 miljoner kronor per år och har cirka 70 anställda.

    Syftet med examensarbetet var att förbättra processen vid produktion av glaspartier för att reducera den totala operationstiden och minska interna kvalitetsförluster. Huvudmålen var att reducera interna kvalitetsförluster med 10 % samt att reducera operationstiderna med 15 %. För att uppnå målen valdes verktygen go to gemba, frekvensstudie, tidsstudie samt spagettidiagram för att hitta olika slöserier i produktionen och kartlägga operationstiderna. Metod valdes genom att läsa på om de olika verktygen och jämföra dem mot andra verktyg i den teoretiska referensramen.

    Det visade sig att det fanns en del slöserier i processen. Framför allt en hel del onödiga rörelser för både material och för operatörer. Det fanns också många olika lager som varierade i väntetid för det bearbetade materialet under flödet samt en hel del manuellt arbete som företaget helst ville bygga bort. Vid undersökning av nuläget sågs det också att företaget saknade ett standardiserat arbete samt ett 5S arbete i flödet av glaspartier.

    Genom en summering av nuläget kunde ett förbättringsförslag läggas fram. En del av förbättringsförslaget var att bygga bort det manuella arbetet genom att införskaffa en maskin som byggs in i den automatiserade karmlinan. Det leder till mindre kvalitetsförluster, men också färre lager eftersom glaspartitillverkningen kommer att ske i karmlinan. En annan del av förbättringsförslaget var att bygga in slutmonteringen i den befintliga karmlinan där andra liknande produkter redan tillverkades. Som nuläget såg ut var slutmonteringen en separat process vid sidan av karmlinan. Det gjorde att produkterna lades på vagnar och ställdes på ett lager för att sedan ha en lång väntetid innan de monterades. Genom att bygga in slutmonteringen i karmlinan kommer företaget att montera glaspartierna i karmlinan utan onödiga lager. Ett sista förbättringsförslag var att implementera 5s och standardiserat arbetssätt över hela tillverkningen av glaspartier. Det troliga utfallet av förbättringsförslagen beräknades på reducerad operationstid med 59 % och reducerade interna kvalitetsförluster med 80 %

  • 235.
    Johansson, Ulrika
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Logistisk tillämpning idag: en historisk återblick2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the rate of changes condition of the market in shape of increasing competitiveness situation, local as global, this leads to that logistics has to be developed in the same rate. Logistics has been developed from the military and after the war, logistics was figurative to the companies transport- and store problems. After this, logistics had been divided up into four different time phases (the seventies to the 21:th century). All these time phases have together develop the spectacle and focus of the logistics today. Afterward further developing of the logistics approach to Supply Chain Management (SCM) and afterward SCM, Demand Chain Management (DCM) was developed in aim to secure that the right products were manufactured on the basis of the end customers real requirement and wishes.

    This paper is taking the aim and problem formulation as a starting point. The problem formulation that I will answer is:

     DCM, a new concept or the Emperor New Clothes?

    The aim with this paper is that I will examine how the historical developing has lead to the spectacle and application of logistics today. Further is the aim to see which difference and likeness the concept SCM and DCM has, in order to see if there is a further time phase of the logistics development that is in approaching. The aim is also to see how DCM practically can be applying. To be able to reach the aim of this paper, a qualitative procedure has been applied. Further I have done literary studies of theory around chosen problem area and I have done an interview.

    Empirical information has been collected by Electrolux AB, which are a world’s leader within manufacturing domestic appliance and corresponding equipment for professional user. The reason why Electrolux were chosen was because they were an early adopter of DCM.

    On the basis of the theory that was studyed around chosen problems area and the empirical information that has analysed, I have draught some conclusion to be able to answer the papers problem area and aim. Some of the conclusion I draught is that the historical development and the four time phrases that it includes, is that the four time phrases successive has formed the methods and tools that SCM constitute of. This developing has taken place under the years of the forties century until today, which makes SCM the result of a historical development rather then as a result of new revelationary ideas. Further I draught the conclusion that SCM should be implemented before DCM. I draught the conclusions that Electrolux apply DCM in a way that they has succeed too apply the theory that is described about DCM, but Electrolux has made an own interpretation of the concept. Via implement the analysis around the papers problem area and aim I consider that DCM is a variant of SCM, where the tool consumer insight is applying. On the basis of this I draught the conclusion that there isn’t sufficient that separate DCM from SCM to be able to approaching that DCM is a new time phrase in the logistical development.

  • 236.
    Jonsson, Martin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Jensen, Tobias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utböjningsfenomen vid svarvning av vevaxel - En finita elementstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During turning, processes are faced with tough tolerances that can be difficult to maintain due to vibrations and bending. The company Volvo Cars would therefore like to examine the work station OP30, which is a turning process for crankshafts, to better understand why this is. The company has the ambition to implement virtual analyses with the finite element method (FEM) in its production lines. This is sought after to prevent physical examinations which can cause delays due to time-consuming physical tests. In order to investigate the causes for the tolerance not being met, the crankshafts deflection will be examined using FE-analyses that will consider the clamping conditions of the crankshaft, the centrifugal forces and the cutting forces. The natural frequencies of the crankshafts are also examined to confirm that the turning process is not carried out near any critical rotational velocities. 

    In order to verify the FE-analyses performed on the crankshafts, an analytical calculation based on beam theory of a simplified geometry is made using MATLAB. This is then compared with FE-analyses of the same simplified geometry, which shows that solid models used in FE-analyses gives reliable results compared with the beam theory. In order to confirm the deflection that is obtained from the FE-analyses, a measuring method using laser triangulation is developed. This is tested on a lathe at the University of Skövde. 

    The results of this work show that the FEM is a good approach for examining the deflection of a complex geometry. It also shows that the deflection that occurs due to centrifugal forces can be considered small compared to the tolerances that need to be met and the deflection that occurs due to axial displacement of the crankshaft. Therefore the conclusion is drawn that the deflection due to centrifugal forces is not the main source for the tolerances not being met. The work shows that the most important factors to consider are the cutting forces and the axial displacement of the crankshaft. It also shows that there is no risk of resonance occurring within the work parameters of OP30. The work also shows that the measuring method using laser triangulation can be used on a rotating crankshaft, although the equipment used cannot measure the deflection itself.

  • 237.
    Junefjäll, Johan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bäckerstam, Valentina
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Livscykelanalys: Pelletspanna från kvänum energi2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study will identify the environmental impact in terms of carbon dioxide for a boiler house on behalf of Kvänum energi. The boiler central consists of a main building, which in turn contains multiple components such as boilers, pipes, etc, the boiler central uses pellets fuel. It also includes a silo and an ash container. The total weight of the boiler is about 63 tons. Each boiler has an output of 600 kW; the central includes three boilers with room for a fourth if necessary. The study has followed the ISO 14040 as far as it has been possible. The boiler central is manufactured at Kvänum Energi’s plant in Kvänum and then assembled on-site for the customer. When analyzing the system the entire product has been divided into smaller parts to make the analysis more manageable. The breakdown was made regarding the material. The conclusions from the calculations of emissions were that material was of greater importance to the environment than transportation. Design improvement proposal was mainly focused on materials and how any change of material would affect the environment and energy consumption. The ability to construct the building and silo in aluminum was investigated from the strength, price and environmental impact point of views. From design point of view, steel and aluminum are equivalent for the purpose, but in terms of cost, aluminum is more expensive. However the recycling option is significantly better for aluminum. EPS (Environmental Priority Strategies), which is a Swedish method developed for engineers at Volvo, was used for the calculation of environmental impact. When comparing steel and aluminum, the aluminum construction received a lower value regarding carbon dioxide i.e. better from an environmental perspective. The study includes a short survey on a transport to a fossil fuel dependent country, and it is investigated whether such a transport would be justified. The transport would be by boat and truck and the resulting emissions from the transport is about 1 ton of CO2. In the study, Lithuania has been chosen as an example because it has the same climate as in Sweden, i.e. a large need for heating during winter, and also because that Lithuania has a high dependence of oil and gas for heating.

  • 238.
    Jönsson, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av hanteringslösning för processat avloppsslam på boendeplattformar i offshore industrin2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This product development project has been carried out in cooperation with the company, Pegil Innovations AB. The purpose of the project was to develop a management solution for processed sewage sludge (dust) on accommodation vessels in the offshore industry. The process of the project combined the Front-End process with details from Set-Based Concurrent Engineering.

    The project started with a preliminary study and user studies to obtain deeper understanding regarding the relevant knowledge area. Details that were of importance to the project was gathered in a specification that was used through the entire process as a support. Then an idea generation was preformed, to discover and explore different solutions. From the idea generation five different idea solutions were created. These five solutions were explored deeper and then compared to a new specification. The specification was an updated version from the first one to better reflect what conditions the idea solutions should meet. When the idea solutions were explored, a new idea generation was performed, resulting in two concepts. These concepts were explored deeper and then compared to a new specification. Then followed another idea generation to explore how the concepts could be improved.

    In conclusion to the project a concept was chosen. The result was a plastic bag which was fastened around a spigot, that was filled with the dust and then the air was withdrawn (to create a vacuum). Then the opening of the plastic bag was heat sealed. The personal could then easily carry the bag to discard this together with the dust.

  • 239.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Production Engineering, Componenta, Nossebro, Sweden.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Production Engineering, Arkivator AB, Falköping, Sweden.
    Systemic change management: An opportunity for manufacturing organizations2008In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: FAIM 2008 / [ed] Leo J. de Vin, 2008, Vol. 1, p. 654-659Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines potential opportunities at two SMEs (small to medium-sized enterprises) to improve the decision making process for change in their manufacturing organizations. Present procedures of the decision making process for manufacturing system development have been studied by applying feedback systems thinking. A framework for systemic change management is proposed utilizing a bottom-up perspective to acknowledge individual competence and creativity. In conclusion applying system principles facilitates an environment for proactive developments towards a learning organization.

  • 240.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    An interactive decision support system using simulation-based optimization and knowledge extraction2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of simulation to improve existing manufacturing systems is not new, but simulation can also be used increase the understanding of production systems that have not yet been built. The power of simulation models can be further enhanced by using simulation-based optimization, in which an optimization algorithm tries to find optimal solutions, given certain objectives. However, extracting knowledge from the data resulting from simulation experiments and simulation-based optimization is a complex task. Therefore, tools are needed to assist users in this task. These tools can be visual, like diagrams, or can be generated by data mining. The process of running a study using simulation-based optimization to extract knowledge is a manual task that can in part be automated using existing tools, but to the author’s knowledge there is no software that implements the complete process. This work aims to develop a novel decision support system to support the generic decision process when using simulation and simulation-based optimization. The first step in setting up such a system is to understand how industry currently uses simulation and simulation-based optimization in manufacturing operations. Thus a questionnaire was distributed to manufacturing companies and organizations. The results showed that these techniques are being used, but that companies want more help with the analysis of the results as well as an automated guide in the decision process. This work proposes a system that supports a generic decision process by providing a tool with which a user can define a workflow in their organization, using simulation-based optimization as one component. The decision support system then provides tools for extracting knowledge in the form of diagrams and performs data mining for automated analysis. Data mining is part of the workflow as a tool for extracting knowledge after an optimization, as well as a tool for guiding optimization to suit the users’ preferences. The decision support system also provides for visualization of simulation models and optimization results using augmented reality. A head-mounted display helps users to see the results and model behaviors in 3D. This technology also makes it possible for users to collaborate, both in the same location and remotely. These visual and automatic analysis tools are shown to be effective in several application studies of real-world production scenarios in which data mining has been used to extract important knowledge that would be hard to obtain manually. Together with the automated workflow and efficient visualization of simulation and optimization results in augmented reality, the decision support system is believed to be an effective tool for extracting knowledge for general production systems design and analysis.

  • 241.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bernedixen, Jacob
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Pehrsson, Leif
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Combining augmented reality and simulation-based optimization for decision support in manufacturing2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] W. K. V. Chan, A. D’Ambrogio, G. Zacharewicz, N. Mustafee, G. Wainer, and E. Page, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 3988-3999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the idea of using Augmented Reality and simulation within manufacturing is not a new one, the improvement of hardware enhances the emergence of new areas. For manufacturing organizations, simulation is an important tool used to analyze and understand their manufacturing systems; however, simulation models can be complex. Nonetheless, using Augmented Reality to display the simulation results and analysis can increase the understanding of the model and the modeled system. This paper introduces a decision support system, IDSS-AR, which uses simulation and Augmented Reality to show a simulation model in 3D. The decision support system uses Microsoft HoloLens, which is a head-worn hardware for Augmented Reality. A prototype of IDSS-AR has been evaluated with a simulation model depicting a real manufacturing system on which a bottleneck detection method has been applied. The bottleneck information is shown on the simulation model, increasing the possibility of realizing interactions between the bottlenecks. 

  • 242.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    An interactive decision support system using simulation-based optimization and data mining2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal, and M. D. Rossetti, IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2112-2123Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a decision support system (DSS) built on knowledge extraction using simulation-based optimization and data mining. The paper starts with a requirements analysis based on a survey conducted with a number of industrial companies about their practices of using simulations for decision support.Based upon the analysis, a new, interactive DSS that can fulfill the industrial requirements, is proposed.The design of the cloud-based system architecture of the DSS is then described. To show the functionality and potential of the proposed DSS, an application study has been performed for the optimal design of a hypothetical but realistic flexible production cell. How important knowledge with respect to different preferences of the decision maker can be generated as rules, using the new Flexible Pattern Mining algorithm provided in the DSS, will be revealed by the results of this application study.

  • 243.
    Karlsson, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Sjöberg, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Framtagning av snabbkoppling i polymera material för vätskekylda datacentraler2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the Bachelor thesis is to create a concept proposal in collaboration with CEJN. This report is presenting activities involved in the development process used to obtain the final result.

    Referring to the expansive market for liquid cooled data centres, CEJN aims to be in the leading edge with a new quick connection coupling. This demands reduction of production costs relative their existing aluminium coupling, partly by change of material to plastics. Outsourcing is relevant as the company does not produce plastic components at set.

    The idea generation phase has been based on a pre-study consisting of literature studies, analyses of competing products through demolition, and user tests. Prototypes have been used for testing and evaluation throughout the process.

    The outer components of the quick connection coupling proved to be among the costliest details. Locking mechanism, the formation of an inner slot for seals and the junction between nipple- or coupling body and back part to allow assembly and to ensure a non-drip application, have been developed separately. Decisions for final concept selection were made with the company of commission, with data regarding costs, usage interpreted from prototypes and verdicts from external experts within plastics production.

    Sub solutions mentioned, were combined into a final concept which reduces costs and fulfils demands regarding performance, appearance and usability. The material from the project is propositioned to form the basis for further development and testing to ensure high product quality representing CEJN.

  • 244.
    Kedbäck, Miranda
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Exploring Dynamic Complexity in the Symbiosis of Operations and Maintenance Functions: A Simulation-Based Optimisation Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance, the process of preserving the condition of the equipment and performance in a production facility, stands for a considerable large cost in the budget of manufacturing organisations and is strongly affected by short-term philosophy. Therefore, both the long-term and short-term consequences of maintenance strategies need to be examined and analysed. The aim with this research is to investigate the dynamic complexity between the requirements from operations on the performance of maintenance, to illustrate the challenge of trading long-term and short-term requirements and benefits. These aspects have been studied through system dynamics (SD) modelling, simulation-based optimisation (SBO) and multi-objective optimisation (MOO). In order to illustrate the analysed problems, a state-of-the-art literature review has been created and two different scenarios have been evaluated. The scenarios are to investigate both the effects of more or less planned maintenance and the implication of a stock-and-flow structure for hiring and retirements of maintenance resources. A conceptual base model, created in previous research, has been applied and developed in order to meet the objectives.

    From the performed experiments, it can be confirmed that with the use of SD simulation trends and consequences over longer periods of time are truly visualised. In the first scenario, the results indicate that a short-term maintenance management strategy is unprofitable over time. The simulation also reveals that improvement strategies and proactive work can revolutionise capability and profit over time, even if these strategies initially generate a higher cost. In the second scenario, where the effects of a major retirement are visualised, the results confirm that the company needs to act proactively in order to avoid great financial losses. Employee and average skill losses cause long-term negative effects on the capability and availability. The optimisation that has been performed, with the hiring rate as the main variable and the objectives of maximising availability, minimising the direct cost and minimising the indirect cost, has generated feasible solutions on the Pareto front.

    In conclusion, the results from the experiments identify the behaviours and causal relationships in a maintenance system in symbiosis with operations. With the long-term goal of generating less reactive workload on the maintenance function, there are many benefits to obtain. The charted delays and causal relationships in the system indicate multi-level consequences, where a management approach should benefit financially from emphasising the importance of acting proactively and directing resources to improvement strategy work.

  • 245.
    Kedbäck, Miranda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ekdahl, Stellan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Arbetsstandard, tidsunderlag och förbättringsarbete vid manuella arbetsstationer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Brodit AB is a company located in Karlsborg, which manufactures holders for technical communication devices for mounting in vehicles. The manual manufacturing, where bending and assembly takes place, lacks a method for standardisation, a base for time scheduling, a base for manpower planning and a method for continuous improvements. The aim of this bachelor thesis was to develop a base for standardised work, time scheduling and manpower planning as well as a method for continuous improvements. To reach these aims a number of sub targets needed to be reached, which were to sustain an analysis of the current situation through observations and time studies, develop standard data for work tasks, divide the tasks into value adding work, non-value adding work and necessary non-value adding work, develop a suggestion to an improved work standard and develop a method for continuous improvements.

    To reinforce choices of methods and conclusions, a number of engineering areas have been studied. Based on the theoretical frame of references, a number of methods for the empirical study were formed.  The study was conducted of observations according to genchi genbutsu, grouping of work tasks, time motion studies performed with a time watch and SAM analysis, calculation of standard data times, evaluation of value adding-, non-value adding- and necessary non-value adding work, SMED analysis and spaghetti diagrams.

    The result of the empirical study was a base for time scheduling with calculated standard times for each work task, where every work task was evaluated as value adding, non-value adding or necessary non-value adding. Based on this, a base for manpower planning can be compiled. The compilation of standard data times as well as the SAM analysis resulted in cycle times far shorter than the cycle times measured in current production. Also, the setup times appeared to be long and irregular with several unnecessary work tasks performed. The result of the spaghetti diagrams also shows unnecessary movements. The conclusion of this is that non-value adding work tasks occurs in the process, that the work is performed in different ways which causes waste in the process and that the work performance rating is below 100 %. With a standardised way of work as well as eliminated non-value adding work tasks, the production could be increased with 60 %; alternatively, the manpower could be decreased with two workers. With the compiled improvement suggestions implemented, the cycle time at the bending working stations could be decreased with at least 50 % and the total setup time could be decreased with at least 57 %.

    A method for continuous improvements has been developed, based on a PDCA cycle. With improved conditions on each working station and a standardised way to work, possible improvements can be achieved in reduced setup times, reduced cycle times as well as the implementation of a culture of continuous improvements. 

  • 246.
    Keyvani, Ali
    et al.
    Product and Production Development Dep., Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Hanson, Lars
    Industrial Development, Scania CV, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Virtual Methods & IT, Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Delfs, Niclas
    Fraunhofer Chalmers Research Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rhen, Ida-Märta
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Product and Production Development Dep., Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ergonomic Risk Assessment of a Manikin’s Wrist Movements - a Test Study in Manual Assembly2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of digital human modeling (DHM) tools enables early assessment of ergonomic risks in the production development process. This early risk assessment can indicate needs for preventive actions in order to decrease risks for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. A method for the assessment of physical workload has been developed, for the analysis of wrist joint data produced by a DHM tool. The method is tested in a simulation model of an actual manual assembly station in industry where it is assumed that physical workload problems exist. The results show that the method can be successfully applied on an industrial case. In addition, presumptive risks and possible diagnoses are predicted based on the similarity of the simulated task’s motions with motions from other known work class profiles stored in a database based on epidemiological research.

  • 247.
    Khaki Boukani, Farzad
    University of Skövde.
    Overcoming logistical problems in organizations: The case of Elicom AB2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an empirical case study of the company Elicom AB. Elicom AB is producing electrical devices that are mostly used in the telecom market where the main customers are. The data that was collected from this case was collected through observations, interviews and the study of company documents. This allowed the author to compare secondary and primary data, as well as quantitative and qualitative information. The problem, the company is facing in the logistical field, was discovered in the labeling production process.

    The production of the labels is unnecessarily complicated and inefficient due to incompatibility of the computer systems. Therefore some parts of the label design have to be made manually, even though the company has a scanning system. When analyzing the problem in detail it became clear to the author that it could be fixed easily and fast and that the key individuals involved in the process already knew the answer to the problem. Therefore the question of the underlying cause of the problem arose. Why has the company not yet fixed the problem if it is so obvious and also everybody in the organization is aware of it?

    When further reanalyzing the problem, the author discovered a second problem, which was not lying in the logistics of the production process, but had its roots in the organizational structure. The problem of interfering authorities and responsibilities made it impossible for the company to overcome the changes needed to solve the logistical problem in the labeling production process. Therefore this problem must be addressed first, together with overcoming the obstacles to change in the organization, to make a problem-solving-process in the logistical area possible.

    In general this paper shows the interrelation of logistics with organization and the highly complex environment manufacturing companies are facing when it comes to changes in the production process.

  • 248.
    Kjellén, Linus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Björnell, Jonna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ställtids- och kassationsreducering, svarvning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett examensarbete är utfört på ett tillverkande företag med cirka 140 stycken anställda och utför skärande bearbetning i stål, aluminium och gjutjärn till bland annat bil-, telekom och övrig verkstadsindustri. Produktsortimentet består till största delen av kopplingar till ramlager, medbringare, fyrhjulsdrifter och robotkomponenter. Företaget har en svarvgrupp med tre stycken CNC-svarvar som har problem med långa omställningstider och det upptar en stor del av produktionstiden. Det försvårar för svarvgruppen att leverera produkter i tid, i samband med omställningarna förekommer även en stor mängd kassationer som orsakar kostnader och som även är en bidragande orsak till de långa omställningstiderna.

    Syftet och huvudmålen var att reducera omställningstiden med 30 %, minska kassationer vid omställning med 30 % och att ta fram lämplig metod för ställtidsreducering. För att uppnå syftet och huvudmålen valdes metoden Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED) som är en metod för att reducera omställningstid. Valet gjordes utifrån en litteraturstudie där metoden visat sig vara resultatrik i liknande fallstudier.

    Med användning av videodokumentation, spagettidiagram och kassationsdokument kunde nuläget fastställas i svarvgruppen. Orsakerna till den långa omställningstiden och kassationerna varierade, en stor anledning till deras långa omställningstider var att de genomförde alla aktiviteter under den inre omställningen. En annan anledning var att svarvgruppen saknade ett standardiserat arbetssätt samt struktur och framförhållning i arbetet.

    Utifrån nulägesanalysen utvecklades förbättringsförslag som implementerades inför en pilotstudie som kunde frambringa ett resultat. Omställningen kunde reduceras med 38 % och kassationer i samband med omställning reducerades med 50 %. Resultatet av studien visar även att metoden är lämplig för fortsatt arbete med ställtidsreducering för svarvgruppen. Genom implementering av SMED metoden har omställningstiden och kassationerna reducerats, vilket medför en ökad flexibilitet eftersom det finns en större förmåga att snabbt genomföra en omställning från en produkt till en annan och snabbare bemöta kundernas efterfrågan.

  • 249.
    Klarin, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Johansson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av en moduluppbyggd destinationsskylt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A modular destination sign for buses was developed. The work was performed at the University of Skövde in cooperation with the company Mobitec AB that for instance sells the signs that was currently used in the city buses in London. The sign that was developed was meant to serve as a replacement for the signs with printed blinds that were existing in the London city buses. The sign therefore had to live up to the demands on the resolution and readability. This would be achieved by building up the sign with a modular system of Superfine Pitch LED Matrix Card.

     

    The modular system needed to sustain vibrations from the bus and allow individual modules to be easily assembled and disassembled. To develop a functioning system guidelines for DFA and DFD was used, and user needs from installers and repairers were investigated. During the concept generation set-based concurrent engineering was used to avoid further development of non-functioning concept at the expense of elimination of good concepts.

     

    Three remaining, equivalent concepts were modeled and tested for vibration by doing simulations in Creo Parametric 2.0. The vibrations were also tested on 3D-printed models from CAD files. The results showed that all the solutions managed the vibrations. The final concept selection was made by matrices and by usability testing.

  • 250.
    Korpi, Mika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Karlsson, Sandra
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Drivanordning för bandtransportör: En förstudie till en modulbaserad drivsektion2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Kellve manufactures conveyors for bulk and material handling and the company offers specific solutions according to customer preferences. The conveyor typically consists of a drive section, truss frame and safety equipment. The purpose of the thesis is to create a concept for a new modularized drive section in order to be able to continue offering customers the same range of options as before, but with fewer parts. The number of variations of the drive section Kellve offers their customers are identified and presented. The new drive section concept is visualized by a CAD model and a strength analysis is performed. The strength analysis is done using the finite element method and it is performed on both the concept and a basic drive section, which is a standard model of a drive section from Kellve, to ensure that the modifications made to the drive section do not lead to deterioration in strength in comparison with the basic drive section.

    A general introduction to corporate environmental awareness, environmental responsibility, codes of conduct and social responsibility is presented with a description of methods of how a company can promote sustainable development.

    A feasibility study is conducted giving a theoretical background on topics relevant to the thesis. A report of different product development stages, modularization and how these tools are implemented in a product is given followed by a description of the finite element method.

    In order to fully understand the current status of the company’s drive sections the thesis will begin with a study of a typical drive section. Drawings, dialogue and meetings with supervisors at the company are used as background material to fully comprehend the situation. After a status report is created, groundwork for concept generation phase begins, which consists of customer needs identification and development and definition of concept requirements. The work continues with efforts to identify the module drivers and is followed by brainstorming sessions to generate concepts. A number of concepts are selected using a concept selection matrix. The chosen concepts are presented to the company and after discussions the "winning" concept is chosen. The concept includes modularization and vertical assembly/disassembly of the drive pulley in order to achieve a more ergonomic working position during maintenance work.

    The concept and basic drive section are modeled and analyzed in Pro/ENGINEER. The purpose of this analysis is to compare the strength of the basic drive section with the new concept. The drive section is compared in an operational mode and a service mode.

    The outcome of the thesis is that a modularization of the drive section is achieved by maintaining its height regardless of the size of the drive pulley. The sides of the drive section are also combined with bearing plates, which are adapted depending on the size and type of bearing that is used. The bearing plate is no longer dependent on the drive pulley diameter. A modularization of the belt cleaner is conducted by constructing a plate that has distinct holes for each drive pulley diameter.

    With effective stress concentrations surpassing the yield limit, the result of the strength analysis reveals weaknesses in the basic drive section in operational mode as well as service mode. The concept section drive shows very low stress concentrations in operational mode and low effective stress levels not exceeding half of the yield limit in service mode. The recommendation is to evaluate the validity of the input data in the analysis, redesign the basic drive section and conduct new, more accurate analyzes. Furthermore, the modularization work should continue.

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