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  • 201.
    Bäckström, Caroline
    et al.
    Skaraborgs sjukhus.
    Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ekström, Anette
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Två sidor av amningsstöd2012In: Jordemodern - Tema Amning, ISSN 0021-7468, no 3, p. 40-41Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 202. Campbell, Ann-Mari
    et al.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Pilhammar Andersson, Ewa
    Natten är dagens förutsättning: En studie av nattpersonalens arbetsförhållanden och arbetsuppgifter2004Report (Other academic)
  • 203.
    Campbell, Ann-mari
    et al.
    Malmö Univ, Inst Hlth Soc, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Pilhammar-Andersson, Ewa
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Hlth Care Sci.
    Night duty as an opportunity for learning2008In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 346-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This paper is a report of a study to examine what opportunities night nurses have to learn in terms of being able to distinguish variations in the patients' conditions.

    Background. Night nurses often lack access to the formalized in-service training offered to day nurses. As every clinical experience can be seen as an opportunity for learning, learning takes place even at night. However, the learning of night nurses has not been studied previously.

    Method. This study is based on interviews with a convenience sample of 10 night nurses at a medium-sized Swedish hospital in 2001. These interviews were reanalysed in 2006 concerning learning situations. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded and examined using latent content analysis.

    Findings. There are certain opportunities for learning during the night shift, and three learning situations come to the fore: (1) the report situation, (2) the personal assessment round, where the nurses form their own picture of the patient, (3) in assessment prior to contact with the doctor on duty. Nurses learn from variations in patients' conditions and when they have to report their experience verbally. Learning does take place at night and gestalt psychology is a helpful tool for understanding how former knowledge and experience affect night nurses' learning.

    Conclusion. Knowledge developed during the night shift is a neglected field. There is a need for further investigations of what night nurses learn, and this knowledge ought to be integrated in the body of nursing knowledge.

  • 204.
    Candelli, Tito
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    NOVEL APPROACH TO STORAGE AND STORTING OF NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING DATA FOR THE PURPOSE OF FUNCTIONAL ANNOTATION TRANSFER2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of functional annotation of novel sequences has been a sigfinicant issue for many laboratories that decided to apply next generation sequencing techniques to less studied species. In particular experiments such as transcriptome analysis heavily suer from this problem due to the impossibility of ascribing their results in a relevant biological context. Several tools have been proposed to solve this problem through homology annotation transfer. The principle behind this strategy is that homologous genes share common functions in dierent organisms, and therefore annotations are transferable between these genes. Commonly, BLAST reports are used to identify a suitable homologousgene in a well annotated species and the annotation is then transferred fromthe homologue to the novel sequence. Not all homologues, however, possess valid functional annotations. The aim of this project was to devise an algorithm to process BLAST reports and provide a criterion to discriminate between homologues with a biologically informative and uninformative annotation, respectively. In addition, all data obtained from the BLAST report isto be stored in a relational database for ease of consultation and visualization. In order to test the solidity of the system, we utilized 750 novel sequences obtained through application of next generation sequencing techniques to Avena sativa samples. This species particularly suits our needs as it represents the typical target for homology annotation transfer: lack of a reference genome and diculty in attributing functional annotation. The system was able to perform all the required tasks. Comparisons between best hits asdetermined by BLAST and best hits as determined by the algorithm showed a significant increase in the biological significance of the results when thealgorithm sorting system was applied.

  • 205.
    Cannmo, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Forsgren, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Faktorer som påverkar vårdrelationen: En litteraturbaserad studie om mötet mellan patienten med anorexia nervosa och sjuksköterskan.2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 206.
    Cardelli, Christofer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjöstrand, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nederländska sjuksköterskors personliga åsikter om dödshjälp2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of the study is to highlight Dutch nurses’ opinions about assisted death. Background. Since 2002 it has been legally justified for physicians to assist a patients’ death in the Netherlands. Public and ethical debate, scientific research, guidelines for prudent practice and legislatures focus predominantly on the role of physicians, seemingly assuming that the tasks of other health care professionals are less important. Though, the nurse cares for the patient on a daily basis, and has a close relationship with the terminally ill and their next of kin. Method. A qualitative method was used. Twelve nurses were used in the study, and they received a questionnaire with open questions where they were supposed to motivate their personal opinions related to assisted death. Results. Three main categories (and seven sub categories) highlights the nurses’ opinions; the meeting (discussion, next of kin), inner conflicts (religion, participation) and influences (pain relief, living will, laws and criteria). Conclusions. The Swedish taboo concerning assisted death need to be removed. The quality of the palliative care is decisive of when the patients’ request of assisted death is putted. Continuous discussion elicits underlying factors of why a request of assisted death is putted.

  • 207.
    Carlsson, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lundin, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nordiska kvinnors upplevelser av klimakteriet: en litteraturöversikt2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Menopause is a natural part of a woman's life. The climacteric also known as the menopausal, is a period when a woman's physiological body undergoes hormonal changes. The days of climacteric appear individually. Most common is that climacteric is present when the woman passed the age of 40. Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe the Nordic women's experience of climacteric. Method: The method used follows Friberg (2006) recommendations regarding a literature review. Result: The result is based on nine research articles, which are both qualitative and quantitative. The result is presented in four themes, Personal growth, Quality of life, Bodily changes and symptoms and The sexual life together. Conclusion:  The study findings show that women's experiences of climacteric are different. We are all unique and therefore understands the trials of life different. Although individual experiences shows results of the study that many women experience climacteric positively. They perceive that they developed as a person as well as they see that they become better prepared for the next life. The authors link women's positive experiences to the KASAM, sense of coherence, which suggests that humans can better meet the challenges of life if she can understand its relevance and meaning.

  • 208.
    Carlsson, Christina
    et al.
    Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden / Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Hospital, SE - 221 85 Lund, Sweden.
    Bendahl, Pär-Ola
    Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nilbert, Mef
    Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden.
    Benefits from membership in cancer patient associations: Relations to gender and involvement2006In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 559-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer patient associations report a growing number of members and increasing possibilities to influence health care, but knowledge about the members' views on the benefit of involvement is scarce. We therefore investigated how members (n = 1742) of Swedish patient associations for breast cancer and prostate cancer rate the benefit of membership for their physical and psychological well-being and social adjustment to cancer. Using a scoring scale, 2/3 of the members reported that membership had benefit for psychological well-being, whereas half of the members reported benefit for physical well-being and social adjustment. Individuals who had been actively involved in board work and/or contact person activities within the associations reported significantly more benefit for all three parameters. Gender differences were observed with men, represented by individuals affected by prostate cancer, reporting greater benefit for all three parameters, although especially evident for psychological well-being. Individuals who obtained membership within two years of diagnosis reported greater benefit for psychological well-being and social adjustment compared to those who became members later. In conclusion, members in patient associations for cancer report benefit particularly for their psychological well-being and actively involved members and men affected by prostate cancer perceive the greatest benefit from membership.

  • 209.
    Carlsson, Christina
    et al.
    Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden / Department of Research and Development, County Hospital, SE-301 85 Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nilbert, Mef
    Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Patients' involvement in improving cancer care: experiences in three years of collaboration between members of patient associations and health care professionals2006In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 61, no 1, p. 65-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to explore how members of patient associations (PACPs) and health care professionals (HCPs) experience collaboration in a network initiated by the health care system and aimed at improving cancer care.

    Methods

    The participants were asked to describe, after 1 and 3 years, their experiences of collaboration. Data collected were in the form of a written answer to a single, open-ended question, and the answers were analysed using inductive content analysis.

    Results

    The analysis revealed four themes: the impact of processes that occur within the network, the impact of learning, the impact of innovation and development in cancer care, and the impact of PACP members’ personal cancer experience. Statements about the impact of the processes that occur within the network dominated at both occasions.

    Conclusion

    This study of experiences of collaboration provides new data on the importance ascribed to such efforts between patients in an organised association and HCPs.

    Practice implications

    We suggest that differences in perceptions and expectations should be taken into account in future collaborations between representatives of patient associations and of health care systems in order to reach out and to influence developments in cancer care.

  • 210.
    Carlsson, Christina
    et al.
    Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, SE - 221 85 Lund, Sweden / Dept. of Research and Development, County Hospital, SE - 301 85 Halmstad, Sweden.
    Nilbert, Mef
    Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, SE - 221 85 Lund, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Supporter or obstructer: experiences from contact person activities among Swedish women with breast cancer2005In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 5, p. 9-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Swedish patient associations for breast cancer patients (PABCPs) offer patients with breast cancer unlimited meetings with a breast cancer survivor, a contact person (CP). We applied the voluntary action perspective in this interview study with members of Swedish PABCPs in order to explore how women with breast cancer experienced their contact with a CP from a PABCP.

    Methods: Audio-taped narratives from 8 women were analysed using Reissman's monitoring and Gee's analysis structure.

    Results: Three themes appeared: 1. Shared experiences give new perspectives on having cancer, 2. Feelings of isolation are a part of the identity of the illness and 3. Relations with others enable self-help. However, the relationship with the CP is sensitive to timing, correct information and understanding.

    Conclusions: CPs act as sounding boards and should optimally have capacity for listening, gives support and act as partner in this conversation. On the other hand, CPs should be aware that their presence and limited general medical knowledge could at times disturb the patient's psychological recovery and strengthen feelings of isolation. Thus, PABCPs must be careful in selecting CPs and offer relevant educational activities related to the themes identified herein.

  • 211.
    Carlsson, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Engström, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att bemöta patienter som söker vård på grund av psykisk ohälsa i sjukvårdsrådgivning: En intervjustudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mental illness is today an extensive problem, which affect the public health in Sweden. Many people with mental illness, try to get help through healthcare call centres. The aim of the study was to examine in what way nurses in healthcare call centres experience receiving patients, suffering from mental illness. To implement this study, a qualitative method was chosen. Seven nurses who work with counselling by phone were interviewed. Five themes appeared in the result: “to feel that you mean something to another human being”, “to feel discomfort with some calls”, “feeling insufficient and feelings of dejection”, “lack of time and resources” and “being unable see each other”. This study emphasizes that it is important for the nurses to mean something to the person who calls the healthcare call centre. Its also shows that calls about mental illness could create stress and discomfort feelings among the nurses. This study also shows advantages and disadvantages about the disability of not seeing the patient.

  • 212.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad Univ, Sch Social & Hlth Sci, SE-30118 Halmstad, Sweden / Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden / Halmstad Cty Hosp, SE-30185 Halmstad, Sweden .
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Halmstad Univ, Sch Social & Hlth Sci, SE-30118 Halmstad, Sweden .
    Sahlberg-Blom, Eva
    Univ Örebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Örebro, Sweden .
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Maintaining power: Women's experiences from labour onset before admittance to maternity ward2012In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: in Sweden pregnant women are encouraged to remain at home until the active phase of labour. Recommendation is based on evidence, that women who seek care and are admitted in the latent phase of labour are subjected to more obstetric interventions and suffer more complications than women who remain at home until the active phase of labour. The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of how women, who remain at home until the active phase of labour, experience the period from labour onset until admission to labour ward. Method: interviews were conducted with 19 women after they had given birth to their first child. A Constructivist Grounded theory method was used. Findings: 'Maintaining power' was identified as the core category, explaining the women's experience of having enough power, when the labour started. Four related categories: to share the experience with another', to listen to the rhythm of the body', to distract oneself and to be encased in a glass vessel', explained how the women coped and thereby maintained power. Conclusions: the first time mothers in this study, who managed to stay at home during the latent phase of labour, had a sense of power that was expressed as a driving force towards the birth, a bodily and mental strength and the right to decide over their own bodies. This implies that women who maintain power have the ability to make choices during the birth process. The professionals need to be sensitive, supportive and respectful to women's own preferences in the health-care encounter, to promote the existing power throughout the birthing process. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 213.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Davidsson, Sabina
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Urol, Orebro, Sweden / Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, Orebro, Sweden.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Lab Med, Orebro, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Lab Med, Orebro, Sweden.
    Lubovac, Zelmina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Andren, Ove
    Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Urol, Orebro, Sweden .
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    A miRNA expression signature that separates between normal and malignant prostate tissues2011In: Cancer Cell International, ISSN 1475-2867, E-ISSN 1475-2867, Vol. 11, p. 14-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate genes involved in several key biological processes and thus are involved in various diseases, including cancer. In this study we aimed to identify a miRNA expression signature that could be used to separate between normal and malignant prostate tissues. Results: Nine miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed (p < 0.00001). With the exception of two samples, this expression signature could be used to separate between the normal and malignant tissues. A cross-validation procedure confirmed the generality of this expression signature. We also identified 16 miRNAs that possibly could be used as a complement to current methods for grading of prostate tumor tissues. Conclusions: We found an expression signature based on nine differentially expressed miRNAs that with high accuracy (85%) could classify the normal and malignant prostate tissues in patients from the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort. The results show that there are significant differences in miRNA expression between normal and malignant prostate tissue, indicating that these small RNA molecules might be important in the biogenesis of prostate cancer and potentially useful for clinical diagnosis of the disease.

  • 214.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    et al.
    Örebro University / Örebro University Hospital.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University / Örebro University Hospital.
    Karlsson, Mats G.
    Örebro University / Örebro University Hospital.
    Andrén, Ove
    Örebro University / Örebro University Hospital.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Differences in microRNA expression during tumor development in the transition and peripheral zones of the prostate2013In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 13, article id 362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prostate is divided into three glandular zones, the peripheral zone (PZ), the transition zone (TZ), and the central zone. Most prostate tumors arise in the peripheral zone (70-75%) and in the transition zone (20-25%) while only 10% arise in the central zone. The aim of this study was to investigate if differences in miRNA expression could be a possible explanation for the difference in propensity of tumors in the zones of the prostate. Methods: Patients with prostate cancer were included in the study if they had a tumor with Gleason grade 3 in the PZ, the TZ, or both (n=16). Normal prostate tissue was collected from men undergoing cystoprostatectomy (n=20). The expression of 667 unique miRNAs was investigated using TaqMan low density arrays for miRNAs. Student's t-test was used in order to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, followed by hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) to study the separation of the tissues. The ADtree algorithm was used to identify markers for classification of tissues and a cross-validation procedure was used to test the generality of the identified miRNA-based classifiers. Results: The t-tests revealed that the major differences in miRNA expression are found between normal and malignant tissues. Hierarchical clustering and PCA based on differentially expressed miRNAs between normal and malignant tissues showed perfect separation between samples, while the corresponding analyses based on differentially expressed miRNAs between the two zones showed several misplaced samples. A classification and cross-validation procedure confirmed these results and several potential miRNA markers were identified. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the major differences in the transcription program are those arising during tumor development, rather than during normal tissue development. In addition, tumors arising in the TZ have more unique differentially expressed miRNAs compared to the PZ. The results also indicate that separate miRNA expression signatures for diagnosis might be needed for tumors arising in the different zones. MicroRNA signatures that are specific for PZ and TZ tumors could also lead to more accurate prognoses, since tumors arising in the PZ tend to be more aggressive than tumors arising in the TZ.

  • 215.
    Carlsson, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Helenius, Gisela
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Karlsson, Mats
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Lubovac, Zelmina
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Andrén, Ove
    Örebro University Hospital.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Validation of suitable endogenous control genes for expression studies of miRNA in prostate cancer tissues2010In: Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, ISSN 2210-7762, E-ISSN 2210-7770, Vol. 202, no 2, p. 71-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, there is a need for correction of technical variation between experiments. This correction is most commonly performed by using endogenous control genes, which are stably expressed across samples, as reference genes for normal expression in a specific tissue. In microRNA (miRNA) studies, two types of control genes are commonly used: small nuclear RNAs and small nucleolar RNAs. In this study, six different endogenous control genes for miRNA studies were investigated in prostate tissue material from the Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort. The stability of the controls was investigated using two different software applications, NormFinder and BestKeeper. RNU24 was the most suitable endogenous control gene for miRNA studies in prostate tissue materials.

  • 216.
    Carlstrand, Pernilla
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Olsson, Anngelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kommunikation mellanpatienter med afasi ochsjuksköterskor: En litteraturöversikt2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Aphasia is a complication after stroke that can affect people of all ages butmost elderly. Aphasia can be of various kinds and has many different degrees of severitythat depends on what part of the brain that is damaged. In mild aphasia the damage canheal because the brain can regain the function. While another type of aphasia produce moreserious adverse events in which patients lose most of the language. When the verbalcommunication is lost it’s important that nurses look to the non-verbal communicationinstead, where body language, intonation and facial expression are important parts.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this literature review is to highlight the communication betweenthe patients with aphasia and nurses from both a patient perspective and a nursingperspective.METHOD: Literature review. Fifteen articles from previous research with qualitative andquantitative approach has been included and analyzed.RESULTS: The result showed five areas of communication non-verbal communication,lack of communications, interaction of communications, support for communication andenvironmental effects on communication.DISCUSSION: Patients with aphasia experience that nurses don’t have the knowledgeabout communication and that they need more support. Communication facilities areavailable but not used enough. More research is needed on patients experience whencommunication between nurses and patients with aphasia is an important factor in goodcare.

  • 217.
    Carlström, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Stensby, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors bedömningssitutationer inom prehospital sjukvård: en intervjustudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to enlighten nurses assessment situations in prehospital care.Method: Four men and four women participated in the study, all with a various length of experience from prehospital emergency care. All the interviewed participants are working in a region in the middle of Sweden. Interview data was analyzed with content analysis. Result: The results show that the assessments are based on signs and symptoms (what the nurse sees, what the nurse listens to, what experience tells, what decision support sets) and by creating a good relationship (explain and inform, calm creates confidence, participation and consensus) Summary: The nurse in the prehospital field performs assessments independently and uses an open mind to make correct assessments and decisions. They use their lived experiences to evaluate and to improve their ability to perform assessments. The nurse seeks support from guidelines, sometimes even physicians but most importantly they seek support from their lived experiences. They also try to improve the assessment capability of patients as often as possible.

  • 218.
    Carlström Ödegaard, Anja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Fransson, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Patientens upplevelser av att befinna sig i livets slutskede: En litteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research showed that caring meetings with the nurse strengthened the patients self image and feelings of security. Uncaring meetings with the nurse created feelings of being broken. Patients wanted to be involved in their own care. Being next of kin to someone in the end of life was not easy. Little was written about patient experiences in the end of life. The aim of the study is to describe the patient’s experiences of being in the end of life. The study was a literature review with a qualitative approach. Differences and similarities in the results of the studies were compared in the analysis. The results showed that an adapted care was of importance for patient feelings of independence. Feelings of togetherness and wellbeing arose when the patients were together with the family. A good relation with the nurse meant a lot for the patient at the end of life. A bad relation to the nurse could create feelings of being violated. The study created an understanding of the importance to offer patients an opportunity to be involved in their own care. Furthermore it gave an understanding of the importance to confirm the patient as an individual. 

  • 219.
    Carlén, Helena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Rånge, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans bedömning av smärta postoperativt2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of all the research done in the field of postoperative pain, the fact remains that a number of patients still experience unrelieved pain postoperatively. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse current research in the areas that affect nurses pain assessment in the care of postoperative patients. The study has been accomplished as a literature study with a qualitative approach. From the result four categories emerged that distinctly describe the areas that affect nurses pain assessment: (1) patients way of showing pain, (2) what the patient says, (3) assessment based on experience and (4) prevailing norms. In pain assessment the nurse often uses several of these categories. Using earlier experiences, the nurse observes the general appearance of the patient combined with vital signs. The result shows that when the nurse listens to the patient, her pain assessment is most consistent with the patients own assessment. The result also reveals that social patterns existing in the working unit has a big influence on nurses pain assessment.

  • 220.
    Carlén, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Andlighet i vården: en intervjustudie bland vårdpersonal2008In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 13-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research found that spirituality seems difficult to give meaning and to work with in caring. The aim of this interview study was to explore how the nursing staff experienced the spiritual dimension within caring. Data was obtained from ten nursing staff at a Swedish infection department and analyzed with content analyze. The result shows that conditions to discover and to meet spirituality depend on the staff’s ripeness, that self-knowledge affect consciousness about spirituality and in the relationship of care spirituality is visible. The meaning of spirituality is to relate to God and other people, seeking the meaning of life and attitude at fateful occasions. This study shows there is a lot of knowledge released about patients’ spiritual needs only by asking: what do you believe in? The knowledge from this study is usable booth in nursing and in educational settings.

  • 221.
    Carrelli, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    FÖRSTUDIE OM RESTAURERING AV VÄNGA MOSSE2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vänga bog is one of the six large peat bogs in the Borås municipality which all have high biodiversity. All of these bogs are threatened by encroachment of shrubs and trees. This report presents a study of how the shrubs and trees are invading Vänga bog, and what the possible causes might be.

    A comparison of vegetation via five aerial photos over Vänga bog from 1955, 1964, 1983, 1996 and 2007, was conducted using ArcGIS. Aerial photos are made up of pixels and the method used was to dived the pixels in two values (open ground and shrubs-trees) and then to calculate how the area of shrubs and trees has changed over time. The analysis shows that there was an increase in growth of 43.5% from 1955 to 2007 and that the annual growth varied considerably between the different periods.

    Four factors were examined to determine the possible cause of such changes, namely, temperature, precipitation, atmospheric nitrogen (nitrate and ammonium) and sulphur deposition. The analysis contained within this report shows that temperature, precipitation and nitrogen deposits have a positive correlation to the growth of shrubs and trees. However, sulphur deposition exhibited the strongest correlation, indicating an inhibiting effect on growth of shrubs and trees during the end of the last century. These are new results when sulphur deposition was assumed to be a potential cause of growth of shrubs and trees on bogs in southern Sweden.

  • 222.
    Carré, H.
    et al.
    Univ Hosp, Dept Publ Hlth, SE-90185 Umeå, Sweden / Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Med, SE-90185 Umeå, Sweden / Univ Hosp, Dept Dermatol & Venerol, SE-90185 Umeå, Sweden.
    Boman, J.
    Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Microbiol & Virol, Umeå, Sweden.
    Österlund, A.
    Sunderby Hosp, Luleå, Sweden.
    Gärden, Bodil
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nylander, E.
    Univ Hosp, Dept Publ Hlth, SE-90185 Umeå, Sweden / Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Med, SE-90185 Umeå, Sweden / Univ Hosp, Dept Dermatol & Venerol, SE-90185 Umeå, Sweden.
    Improved contact tracing for Chlamydia trachomatis with experienced tracers, tracing for one year back in time and interviewing by phone in remote areas2008In: Sexually Transmitted Infections, ISSN 1368-4973, E-ISSN 1472-3263, Vol. 84, no 3, p. 239-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the Swedish model for contact tracing and especiallythe "Västerbotten model" with centralised, extended contactinterview periods, sometimes by telephone.

    Methods: Using questionnaires, the contact tracing and interview procedurewas evaluated during 2002, followed by an evaluation of contactinterviewing by phone in 2005–6.

    Results: Patients with diagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis infection reportedon average 2.5 sexual contacts, 3.0 contacts when contact interviewingwas performed at the clinic, and 2.3 contacts when performedby phone. 65% of the sexual contacts with a known test resultwere infected.

    Conclusion: Centralised contact tracing, exploring the sexual history forat least 12 months back in time, shows good results. Combinedwith screening of certain risk groups it is probably one effectiveway of preventing C trachomatis infections. Preventing C trachomatisby primary prevention such as information and counselling is,however, still of great importance.

  • 223.
    Cartemo, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Starck, Frida
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Larsson, Elin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hur vardagslivet gestaltar sig hos patienter med diagnosen ALS och MS: En studie gjord för att öka kunskapen och förståelsen hos sjuksköterskan2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis are both neurological diseases that cause physical limitations and have consequences on daily life. The aim of this study was to clarify how this daily life appears for these patients. The study is based on a qualitative method with six autobiographies and one biography, which gives an insight of their own, lived experiences on how it is to live with ALS or MS. The result contains four main subjects; Relations, Limitations, Psychical health and Thoughts. In sickness relations becomes more of value, but it also cause stress within a relationship. The limitations make life more difficult in different aspects, such as home environment, leisure activities and work. The mental health can develop into a depression and it becomes a daily fight where they seek a meaning with life and try to take control over the situation. Thoughts are about new values in life, an uncertainty about the future and to accept the situation. The findings of this study can give nurses more knowledge and understanding and be helpful when adjusting nursing care for each of these individuals. It can also be a help to other people who take care of these patients, such as family members and other involved care staff.

  • 224.
    Cederholm, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Gulin, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Utbildning av vårdpersonal stärker stöd till förstföderskor i samband med tidig och sen hemgång efter barnafödande2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

     

     

  • 225.
    Cedermark, Ulrika
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Förstagångsmammor, Amning och deras upplevelse av Amningsstöd2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The health benefits of breastfeeding are well documented and guidelines for infant feeding have supported exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months. The breastfeeding prevalence has decreased in Sweden during the last ten years. The aim with this study was to find out if primaparous mothers could breastfeed as long as they had planned to do, reasons for stopping breastfeeding and how the mothers had perceived breastfeeding support, especially the support from the child health care. A questionnaire was sent out to 65 primiparous women and 35 mothers participated in the study. Almost half of the mothers had stopped breastfeeding earlier than they wanted to do. The result showed that many mothers looked for support in their own social network. The support from antenatal care, delivery and maternity ward, child health care was important in initiating breastfeeding as well as to maintain breastfeeding. There is a need of more education in breastfeeding and breast milk to health professionals and breastfeeding supporters to be able to support those mothers who want to breastfeed their babies.

  • 226.
    Charonis, Georgios
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Central Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden / Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden / Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kärnsjukhuset, 541 85 Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Per-Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Prolonged use of intrauterine contraceptive device as a risk factor for tubo-ovarian abscess2009In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 88, no 6, p. 680-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is the most preferred method of reversible contraception in the world today. The Swedish Medical Products Agency currently recommends that women who had a copper IUCD inserted around age 40 do not need to have it extracted until one year after the menopause. Design. Retrospective study. Setting. Skövde Central Hospital, Sweden. Population. All 114 women receiving in-patient treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) over five years between January 2001 and December 2005. Methods. Comparison between cases of tubo-ovarian abscesses and salpingitis with focus on the effects of IUCDs used continually for >5 years after insertion. Main outcome measures. Age-adjusted risk of PID within or after five years of use, microbiological findings in blood, intraabdominal pus, cervical secretions or on extracted IUCDs. Results. There were 31 cases of tubo-ovarian abscesses, 63 of salpingitis, four of endometritis, and 16 of mild genital infection. When comparing women with the same IUCD > 5 years to women having the same IUCD ≤ 5 years, the risk of tubo-ovarian abscess was higher than the risk of salpingitis (OR 19.7; 95% CI 4.5-87.2). The risk remained significant after adjustment for age, both on multiple regression analysis (OR 13.5; 95% CI 2.5-72.9) and in stratified analysis for the age group 35-50 years (OR 12.0; 95% CI 1.8-81.7). Blood or abdominal cultures from patients operated upon were positive in 47.7% of the sampled cases. Intestinal tract microbes and upper respiratory tract microbes were more common than sexually transmitted infection microbes. Conclusions. The current Medical Products Agency recommendation that a woman nearing the end of her reproductive phase can safely use the same IUCD for a period exceeding five years is challenged.

  • 227.
    Chauhan, Dushyant
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Protein import into peroxisomes and oxidative stress: a study to elucidate the potential functional role of the conserved cysteine in Pex5p2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The oxidation status of a cell plays a crucial role in aging. As cells get aged, their redox state gets increased. Pex5p is a peroxisomal recycling receptor which binds to newly synthesized cargo proteins in the cytosol and imports them across the peroxisomal membrane. During this transport event, Pex5p gets monoubiquitinated at a conserved cysteine (C11) residue. This C11 is very essential for the recycling of Pex5p from the peroxisomal membrane to back into the cytosol. If the cysteine is replaced by serine, Pex5p does not get recycled back to the cytosol and accumulates on the peroxisomal membrane. In the present study, we have investigated whether the C11 in Pex5p could act as a redox switch. We measured the redox state of the cytosol and the peroxisomal matrix as well as the subcellular localization of catalase in aging cells. We found that an increase in the redox state of peroxisomes (in WT) leads to an increase in the redox state of the cytosol, which ultimately results in the impairment of PTS1 import. Interestingly, in the C11K condition, we did not see an impairment of PTS1 import. These observations support our hypothesis that C11 may act as a redox switch. We also performed some challenging experiments with H2O2. The results of these experiments show that a) import of catalase into peroxisomes sensitizes the cytosol and b) catalase overexpression does have a protective effect against oxidative stress caused by H2O2. In summary the results of our experiments support our hypothesis. However, further evaluation is needed to reveal the precise role of C11 in Pex5p function during cellular aging. 

  • 228.
    Chawade, Aakash
    et al.
    CropTailor AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindlöf, Angelica
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. CropTailor AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Olof
    CropTailor AB, Lund, Sweden / Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Global expression profiling of low temperature induced genes in the chilling tolerant japonica rice jumli marshi2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 12, p. e81729-, article id e81729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low temperature is a key factor that limits growth and productivity of many important agronomical crops worldwide. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is negatively affected already at temperatures below +10°C and is therefore denoted as chilling sensitive. However, chilling tolerant rice cultivars exist and can be commercially cultivated at altitudes up to 3,050 meters with temperatures reaching as low as +4°C. In this work, the global transcriptional response to cold stress (+4°C) was studied in the Nepalese highland variety Jumli Marshi (spp. japonica) and 4,636 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed within 24 hours of cold stress. Comparison with previously published microarray data from one chilling tolerant and two sensitive rice cultivars identified 182 genes differentially expressed (DE) upon cold stress in all four rice cultivars and 511 genes DE only in the chilling tolerant rice. Promoter analysis of the 182 genes suggests a complex cross-talk between ABRE and CBF regulons. Promoter analysis of the 511 genes identified over-represented ABRE motifs but not DRE motifs, suggesting a role for ABA signaling in cold tolerance. Moreover, 2,101 genes were DE in Jumli Marshi alone. By chromosomal localization analysis, 473 of these cold responsive genes were located within 13 different QTLs previously identified as cold associated.

  • 229.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Nordlander, Carola
    CMB-Genetics, Lundberg Laboratory, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Behboudi, Afrouz
    CMB-Genetics, Lundberg Laboratory, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Klinga Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Deriving evolutionary tree models of the oncogenesis of endometrial adenocarcinoma2007In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 120, no 2, p. 292-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, but not much is known about the underlying genetic factors involved in the development of this complex disease. In the present work, we used 3 different algorithms to derive tree models of EAC oncogenesis from data on the frequencies of genomic alterations in rat chromosome 10 (RNO10). The tumor material was derived from progenies of crosses between the EAC susceptible BDII inbred rat strain and two non susceptible inbred rat strains. Data from allelic imbalance scans of RNO10 with microsatellite markers on solid tumor material and corresponding tissue cultures were used. For the analysis, RNO10 was divided into 24 segments containing a total of 59 informative microsatellite markers. The derived tree models show that genomic alterations have occurred in 11 of the 24 segments. In addition, the models provide information about the likely order of the alterations as well as their relationship with each other. Interestingly, there was a high degree of consistency among the different tree models and with the results of previous-studies, which supports the reliability of the tree models. Our results may be extended into a general approach for tree modeling of whole genome alterations during oncogenesis. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  • 230.
    Cheng, Xiaoxiao
    et al.
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.
    Veverka, Vaclav
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom, the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Flemingovo Namesti 2, 166 10 Prague 6, Czech Republic.
    Radhakrishnan, Anand
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030.
    Waters, Lorna C.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom.
    Muskett, Frederick W.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom.
    Morgan, Sara H.
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.
    Huo, Jiandong
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.
    Yu, Chao
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.
    Evans, Edward J.
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.
    Leslie, Alasdair J.
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine [Oxford].
    Griffiths, Meryn
    UCB Pharma, Slough SL1 4EN, United Kingdom.
    Stubberfield, Colin
    UCB Pharma, Slough SL1 4EN, United Kingdom.
    Griffin, Robert
    UCB Pharma, Slough SL1 4EN, United Kingdom.
    Henry, Alistair J.
    UCB Pharma, Slough SL1 4EN, United Kingdom.
    Jansson, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ladbury, John E.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ikemizu, Shinji
    Division of Structural Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Kumamoto 862 0973, Japan.
    Carr, Mark D.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom.
    Davis, Simon J.
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine and Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, United Kingdom.
    Structure and Interactions of the Human Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor2013In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 288, no 17, p. 11771-11785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PD-1, a receptor expressed by T cells, B cells, and monocytes, is a potent regulator of immune responses and a promising therapeutic target. The structure and interactions of human PD-1 are, however, incompletely characterized. We present the solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based structure of the human PD-1 extracellular region and detailed analyses of its interactions with its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. PD-1 has typical immunoglobulin superfamily topology but differs at the edge of the GFCC' sheet, which is flexible and completely lacks a C '' strand. Changes in PD-1 backbone NMR signals induced by ligand binding suggest that, whereas binding is centered on the GFCC' sheet, PD-1 is engaged by its two ligands differently and in ways incompletely explained by crystal structures of mouse PD-1.ligand complexes. The affinities of these interactions and that of PD-L1 with the costimulatory protein B7-1, measured using surface plasmon resonance, are significantly weaker than expected. The 3-4-fold greater affinity of PD-L2 versus PD-L1 for human PD-1 is principally due to the 3-fold smaller dissociation rate for PD-L2 binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is entropically driven, whereas PD-1/PD-L2 binding has a large enthalpic component. Mathematical simulations based on the biophysical data and quantitative expression data suggest an unexpectedly limited contribution of PD-L2 to PD-1 ligation during interactions of activated T cells with antigen-presenting cells. These findings provide a rigorous structural and biophysical framework for interpreting the important functions of PD-1 and reveal that potent inhibitory signaling can be initiated by weakly interacting receptors.

  • 231.
    Claesson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hagström, Terése
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Rosensporre- Vigerland, Linnéa
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    En beskrivning av kommunikationen mellan sjuksköterska och närstående i palliativ vård: En litteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When curing care is no longer possible it requires a personal and deliberate approach in care to help both patient and relatives. In palliative care death is seen as a normal process, palliative care neither speed up or postpone death. Palliative care support people to live with dignity and welfare in the end of life. In palliative care patient and relative is seen as a unit, to guarantee that they receive the best care possible. Aim: To describe communication among nurse and relative in palliative care. Method: A literature review that includes both qualitative and quantitative articles. Result: Through the study hope is a great aspect of importance, discussed by both relatives and nurses. Hope is an important factor to deal with experiences of death and to create a good relation between nurses and relatives. A good relation requires time for conversation and understanding. The result is present in five categories that explain aspects of importance in communication. Conclusion: It´s important that nurses is aware of relative’s values of importance when they communicate. A nurse is supposed to guide the conversation but relatives should be given priority of interpretation.

  • 232.
    Claesson, Cim
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Is Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification a good method for screening formalin fixed paraffin embedded neuroblastoma tumors?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroblastoma is one of the most enigmatic solid tumors for scientists and pediatric oncologists. Neuroblastoma is primary a childhood form of cancer, consisting of neuroectodermal cells that originate from the neural crest and is destined for the  adrenal medulla and sympathetic nervous system. The Neuroblastoma group at The University of Gothenburg received formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded  tumor samples from Vietnam and this project was to examine if the quality of the DNA from, is good enough to run comparative genome hybridization array experiment  on by using a cheaper technique Multiplex  Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification   technique. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MRC Holland) is a multiplex PCR method that can detect abnormalities such as deletions and amplifications. By using probes consisting of one short synthetic arm with a PCR primer sequence Y at the 3´end, and one long probe with a stuffer sequence, and a PCR primer sequence X at the 5´end that can hybridize and ligate. If these probes ligate it is possible to amplify them by PCR just using specific primers for the X and Y sequences. The resulting amplification products can then be analyzed bycapillary electrophoresis. These patient that the DNA was derived from had all stage 4  neuroblastoma, and that is why they all present many aberrations. Among the fascinating data from this experiment, there are many patients with both 11q  deletions and has an extreme amplification of MYCN. In Sweden only a few cases has been discovered. In this material even though all patients are stage 4 patients, 16 have this combination.   

  • 233.
    Claesson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Midsten, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Basala hygienrutiner: faktorer som påverkar följsamheten för sjuksköterskor inom somatisk vård2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nosocomial infections are a big threat to everyone admitted to a hospital and are associated with heavy expenses. The cause is bad hand hygiene routines and the problem could be eliminated with higher compliance. Aim: The aim of the study was to enlighten factors affecting healthcare workers hand hygiene compliance. Method: A literature review where articles with both qualitative and quantitative design, fulfilling predetermined criteria, were chosen for analysis. Twelve articles were selected. Result: Several factors affecting compliance were found. These were divided into four major headings: education, working environment, demographic factors and point of view. Discussion: There is no simple answer to the problem. A combination of factors in the four areas studied might be one way to approach the problem, where the good example needs attention. A strong focus from management would probably be required to carry out a fundamental behavioral change in compliance to hygiene routines amongst those key health care workers that from a care perspective are highly rated as trustworthy and professional. Continuous feedback of qualitative and quantitative goals should be evaluated by the entire health care team. Open discussions of the effect of daily short comings might contribute to a higher compliance and awareness. Long-term economic savings could be achieved with decreased nosocomial infections. By using good hand hygiene routines, good caring may be accomplished, where economic values and patient suffering is minimized.

  • 234.
    Claesson, Jan-Eric
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Induced cardioinhibitory carotid sinus syndrome: Studies on syncope or pre-syncope and health-related quality of life in patients with or without a permanent pacemaker2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 235.
    Claesson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kristensson, Bo-Erik
    Cent Hosp Skövde, Dept Cardiol, Skövde, Sweden.
    Edvardsson, Nils
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Div Cardiol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Währborg, Peter
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Less syncope and milder symptoms in patients treated with pacing for induced cardioinhibitory carotid sinus syndrome: a randomized study2007In: Europace, ISSN 1099-5129, E-ISSN 1532-2092, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 932-936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims The aim of this study was to examine the effect on symptoms in patients with induced cardioinhibitory carotid sinus syndrome (ICSS) when treated or not treated with a pacemaker.

    Methods and results Sixty patients with a history of syncope or pre-syncope and ICSS were randomized to receive a permanent pacemaker (P group, n = 30) or no pacing (NP group, n = 30). ICSS was defined as a ventricular pause (i.e. asystole) lasting 3 s or more in response to carotid sinus stimulation. The patients were seen at 3 and 12 months and at symptoms. At 12 months, the rate of syncope in the NP group was 40% (n = 12) compared with 10% (n = 3) in the P group (P = 0.008). The majority (11 of 12) of the syncope recurrences in the NP group occurred during the first 3 months. Pre-syncope occurred in two patients (7%) in the NP group and in eight (27%) in the P group. Ten patients (33%) with recurrent syncope in the NP group later crossed-over to receive pacemaker implant.

    Conclusions A history of syncope or pre-syncope, plus ICSS, was a strong predictor of subsequent syncope or pre-syncope. Most of the new symptoms occurred within 3 months. Pacemaker treatment effectively reduced syncope and/or resulted in milder symptoms.

  • 236.
    Cohen, Joel E.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Populations, Rockefeller Univ. and Columbia Univ., Box 20, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, United States.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Müller, Christine B.
    Centre for Population Biology, Department of Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7PY, United Kingdom / Institute of Environmental Sciences, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Godfray, H. C. J.
    Centre for Population Biology, Department of Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7PY, United Kingdom.
    Van Savage, M.
    Bauer Center for Genomics Research, Harvard University, Sherman, Bauer Laboratory, 7 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States.
    Body sizes of hosts and parasitoids in individual feeding relationships2005In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 684-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a natural community of 49 species (12 species of aphids and 37 species of their parasitoids), body lengths of 2,151 parasitoid individuals were, to an excellent approximation, related to the body lengths of their individual aphid hosts by a power law with an exponent close to 3/4. Two alternative models predict this exponent. One is based on surface area to volume relationships. The other is based on recent developments in metabolic ecology. Both models require a changing ratio (in both host and parasitoid) of length to diameter with increasing body length. These changing ratios are manifested differently in the two models and result in testably different predictions for the scaling of body form with increasing size. The estimated exponent of 3/4 for the relationship between individual host body size and individual parasitoid body size degrades to an exponent of nearly 1/2, and the scatter in the relationship between aphid and parasitoid body length is substantially increased, if the average length of a parasitoid species is examined as a function of the average length of its aphid host species instead of using measurements of individuals.

    allometry | aphids | development | metabolism | weight–length relations

    Explaining the size of organisms is an enduring challenge to ecologists and evolutionary biologists (1, 2) to cellular and developmental biologists (3). Ecological studies of the relationship between consumer and resource body sizes (4–8) usually assume that the average body size of a species is an adequate approximation to the size of the individuals taking part in a particular trophic interaction. However, individuals of different size within one resource species may be selectively consumed by different consumer species or individuals of different size within a given consumer species. Vice versa, individuals of different size within one consumer species may selectively consume resource species of different average size or individuals of different size within a given resource species. To understand the relationship between consumer and resource body sizes, it is important that the data correctly represent the body sizes of the consumers and resources involved in the trophic interactions. What are the consequences of focusing on body sizes of consumer and resource individuals vs. average sizes of taxonomic species for understanding feeding relations in natural communities? To answer this question, here we report quantitative field data on body sizes in individual events of parasitism.

    Animal consumers are often considerably larger than their prey (4), whereas parasites and pathogens are generally much smaller than their resources (5). Solitary insect parasitoids that complete their larval development on or in the body of other living insects, and require just a single host to complete development, lie between these extremes: they are often similar in size to their insect hosts. Parasitoid and host body sizes are well suited to shed light on the role of individual differences in consumer-resource body size relations because the variations in both parasitoid and host body sizes are likely to be of comparable magnitude.

    Parasitoids are important components of all terrestrial ecological communities. Probably 1–2 million species are parasitoids (9), and they are thus a significant fraction of all species on this planet. As potentially important regulators of their host populations, parasitoids are intensively used in biological control (10). Most prior studies of the body sizes of hosts and parasitoids consider only a single species of host. The few studies (11–14) that consider host–parasitoid size relationships of multiple species have only one data point per species.

    We studied quantitatively the relationship between final individual aphid host and parasitoid body length in a natural aphid-parasitoid community with multiple species of hosts and parasitoids. The objectives of the study were to (i) describe the relationship between final aphid host and parasitoid body size, (ii) analyze the consequences of focusing on body sizes of consumer and resource individuals vs. average sizes of taxonomic species for the apparent relationship between final aphid host and parasitoid body size, and (iii) offer two alternative explanations for the relationship between final aphid host and parasitoid body size. We hope that future studies will discriminate between these alternative explanations.

  • 237.
    Collberg, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ekman, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    NÄTMOBBNING OCH DESS PÅVERKAN PÅ ELEVERS HÄLSA: -UR ETT SKOLSKÖTERSKEPERSPEKTIV2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The use of internet offers an arena for social interaction but can imply a risk of being subjected for cyberbullying. Several children and youth describe negative emotional and psychological effects as a cause of cyberbullying. It is a part of the school nurse responsibility to work proactive and health- promoting with physical, psychological and social environment in the school.Aim: The purpose of the study was to describe school nurses experience of how cyberbullying affects health of pupils in intermediate- and senior level.Method: Data collection was made by qualitative interviews with seven school nurses. Data was analyzed using an inductive approach to a qualitative content analysis according to Graneheim and Lundman (2004).Results: The analysis showed that cyberbullying has a deteriorating effect on pupil’s wellbeing in various ways. It drains the pupils mentally, affects the self-esteem, causes self destructive behavior and creates stress. It can also affect exposed pupils social relationship by the way it causes degraded self confidence, alienation and acting out behavior.Conclusion: The school nurses experience matches the results from earlier research studies where children and youth describe how they are affected by cyberbullying. Cyberbullying may sometimes affect not only the exposed pupil but also be regarded as a collective insult against a whole group or family. According to the authors, cyberbullying may be seen as a risk factor which can affect the pupil’s sense of coherence and thus affect their health in a negative way.

  • 238.
    Corrochano, Ana
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Anorexia Nervosa: patienters erfarenheter av den mänskliga kontaktens betydelse i möten med vårdpersonalen - en kvalitativ studie baserad på självbiografier2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En av de viktigaste aspekterna i omvårdnad är betydelsen av mänsklig kontakt i interaktionen mellan patienter och vårdgivare. Anorexia Nervosa är en komplex sjukdom av psykisk och fysisk karaktär och vårdpersonal spelar en viktig roll för dessa patienters tillfrisknad. Målet med denna studie var att nå en djupare förståelse för den mänskliga kontaktens betydelse i omvårdnaden av patienter med Anorexia Nervosa samt att belysa essensen i en vårdande relation. Syftet med studien var att beskriva Anorexia Nervosa patienters erfarenheter av den mänskliga kontaktens betydelse i möten med vårdpersonalen. En kvalitativ ansats valdes och datainsamlingen grundade sig på sex självbiografier, skrivna av sex unga kvinnor som har varit sjuka i Anorexia Nervosa. En kvalitativ textanalys användes för att tolka data. Åtta teman framkom i resultatet: ”att känna förtroende” ”att få hjälp med att gå till botten med problemet”, ”att inte bli förstådd”, ”att inte våga öppna sig”, ”att inte bli sedd”, ” att få bekräftelse”, ”att känna maktlöshet” och slutligen, ”att någon talar till den friska delen”. Dessa teman speglade dessa personers erfarenheter av den mänskliga kontaktens betydelse i möten med hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal. Denna studie kan bidra med att ge en ökad förståelse för den mänskliga kontaktens betydelse i omvårdnaden av patienter som lider av Anorexia Nervosa samt att hjälpa vårdpersonal att tillmötesgå dessa patienters behov.

  • 239.
    Dahlgren, Ida
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Persson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors roll i rehabiliteringen av en skallskadad patient: En litteraturöversikt2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskor är en viktig länk i omvårdnaden kring den traumatiskt skallskadade patienten och dennes anhöriga. Den tidigare forskningen inom området har visat hur viktigt bemötandet och anhörigmedverkan är för patientens tillfrisknande. De kognitiva problem som ofta uppstår hos en traumatisk skallskadad patient är också de som är svårast att bemöta och behandla. Syfte: Att sammanställa och belysa forskning, som beskriver sjuksköterskors roll i omvårdnadsarbetet av traumatiskt skallskadade patienters speciella behov av omvårdnad. Metod: En litteraturöversikt med 13 empiriska artiklar. Resultat: Sjuksköterskor har en nyckelroll i att förmedla information till patient, anhöriga och övriga i rehabiliteringsteamet. En annan del av rollen är att koordinera samverkan mellan olika yrkeskategorier för att främja patientens välbefinnande. Diskussion: Sjuksköterskor som arbetar på en rehabiliteringsavdelning, behöver mer kunskap och utbildning om bl. a kognitiva beteendeproblem. Dessutom behöver patient och anhöriga få bättre och mer enhetlig information om skadan och rehabiliteringsprocessen.

  • 240.
    Dahlqvist, Catarina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Torstensson, Henny
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Patienters existentiella behov i livets slut: en studie av självbiografier2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In our work with patients in end of life we have seen a lack of knowledge in how we respond to the existential needs. Also there is a lack of time in listening to the patients when they want to express their existential needs. It is so much easier to give sedatives to comfort the patients instead of taking the time and effort to listen to the extential needs. The aim of this study was, based on autobiographies, to examine patients existential needs in end-of-life. In order to find out what needs they had we read autobiographies. The analysis was performed with a narrative method. Four main-categories were found; Need of confidence, need to have a faith in something, need to live a everyday-life and need of life that goes on. The family, close friends and the everyday-life was very important. Also the confidence for the caregivers was of significance. Patients who had a faith kept their faith to the end of life, inspite that there was no miracle. Everyday-life with family and friends at home was the most appreciated in end-of-life.

  • 241.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University / Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping.
    Backe, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Karlstad University.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University.
    Timpka, Toomas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Linköping University / Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping.
    Is "Football for All" Safe for All?: Cross-Sectional Study of Disparities as Determinants of 1-Year Injury Prevalence in Youth Football Programs2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 8, p. e43795-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Football (soccer) is endorsed as a health-promoting physical activity worldwide. When football programs are introduced as part of general health promotion programs, equal access and limitation of pre-participation disparities with regard to injury risk are important. The aim of this study was to explore if disparity with regard to parents’ educational level, player body mass index (BMI), and self-reported health are determinants of football injury in community-based football programs, separately or in interaction with age or gender.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: Four community football clubs with 1230 youth players agreed to participate in the cross-sectional study during the 2006 season. The study constructs (parents’ educational level, player BMI, and self-reported health) were operationalized into questionnaire items. The 1-year prevalence of football injury was defined as the primary outcome measure. Data were collected via a postal survey and analyzed using a series of hierarchical statistical computations investigating associations with the primary outcome measure and interactions between the study variables. The survey was returned by 827 (67.2%) youth players. The 1-year injury prevalence increased with age. For youths with parents with higher formal education, boys reported more injuries and girls reported fewer injuries than expected; for youths with lower educated parents there was a tendency towards the opposite pattern. Youths reporting injuries had higher standardized BMI compared with youths not reporting injuries. Children not reporting full health were slightly overrepresented among those reporting injuries and underrepresented for those reporting no injury.

    Conclusion: Pre-participation disparities in terms of parents’ educational level, through interaction with gender, BMI, and self-reported general health are associated with increased injury risk in community-based youth football. When introduced as a general health promotion, football associations should adjust community-based youth programs to accommodate children and adolescents with increased pre-participation injury risk.

  • 242.
    Dahlvid, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sandberg, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    MÄNNISKORS UPPLEVELSER AV ATT LEVA MED TYP-2-DIABETES: EN INTERVJUSTUDIE2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Type-2-diabetes is a chronic welfare disease that is associated with life-style changes. Traditionally, the caring of type-2-diabetes has been associated with self-care and patient information. There is an extensive knowledge on type-2-diabetes and which consequences it results in. It is also important that health care professionals also have knowledge on people’s unique experiences of health and well-being living with type-2-diabetes. Otherwise there is a risk that the health care professionals focus too much on the disease and miss the subjective illness behind the unique person. The aim of this study is to describe people’s experiences of living with type-2-diabetes. A qualitative method was chosen. Data was collected through interviews. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The authors found one theme; Balance between security – insecurity and the experience of activities as demands and possibilities give manageability. This study shows that people with type-2-diabetes generally experience good health and well-being in terms of their own resources. However, the lived experiences and the different demands of handling type-2-diabetes vary among people. This indicates that the health care professionals need to pay attention to the experiences of the unique person.

  • 243.
    Dahlén, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Wallenstein, Rikard
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    När erektionen försvinner: Mäns erfarenheter av erektil dysfunktion till följd av diabetes mellitus typ 2. En litteraturöversikt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is commonly known that erectile dysfunction, popularly known as impotence, is caused by several factors including enlarged prostate, depression and diabetes. The erectile dysfunction caused by diabetes has a more difficult progress than other causes.Aim: The aim of this study was to illustrate sexually active men’s experiences of erectile dysfunction caused by diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Method: The chosen method was a literature review based of qualitative and quantitative articles. Ten quantitative and two qualitative articles were analysed.

    Results: Two categories were identified, Affects on life and Understanding the situation with subcategories.

    Conclusions: There is lack of knowledge about why men suffer from erectile dysfunction. Several of the men do not believe there is a treatment for their problem. If erection status was a part of the annual diabetes check-ups as well as valid information and adequate treatment the men and their partner would have better knowledge and awareness about the condition. This would also result in less anxiety, better sexual and mental health and a better relation.

  • 244.
    Dahlén, Inga Margareta
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Skolsköterskans upplevelse av psykisk ohälsa hos elever2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The mental unhealth is increasing of children and youth. The increasedmental problems of students can be connected to the individualization that is a part of themodern development. It is urgent to detect and treat mental unhealth as early as possible.The school nurse is central to school health nursing as she is available in the students’everyday life.Aim: To illuminate the school nurse’s experience of mental unhealth of students.Method: As data collecting method semi structured interview was chosen. The materialwas analyzed with a qualitative content analysis. The result of the analysis describes fiveschool nurse’s experiences of mental unhealth of students.Findings: The result of the analysis was six categories: Pain, Coming, Overactivity, Tired,Self damaging behaviour and friends. The result shows on a high frequency of revisits. Thestudents mostly visited for headache and stomach ache. It is mostly girls who visit theschool nurse, for boys it is more difficult to accept help.

  • 245.
    Dahlén, Ingrid
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Westin, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Annsofie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Experience of being a low priority patient during waiting time at an emergency department2012In: Psychology Research and Behavior Management, ISSN 1179-1578, E-ISSN 1179-1578, Vol. 5, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Work in the emergency department is characterized by fast and efficient medical efforts to save lives, but can also involve a long waiting time for patients. Patients are given a priority rating upon their arrival in the clinic based on the seriousness of their problem, and nursing care for lower priority patients is given a lower prioritization. Regardless of their medical prioritization, all patients have a right to expect good nursing care while they are waiting. The purpose of this study was to illustrate the experience of the low prioritized patient during their waiting time in the emergency department. Methods: A phenomenological hermeneutic research method was used to analyze an interview transcript. Data collection consisted of narrative interviews. The interviewees were 14 patients who had waited more than three hours for surgical, orthopedic, or other medical care.Results: The findings resulted in four different themes, ie, being dependent on care, being exposed, being vulnerable, and being secure. Lower priority patients are not paid as much attention by nursing staff. Patients reported feeling powerless, insulted, and humiliated when their care was delayed without their understanding what was happening to them. Not understanding results in exposure that violates self-esteem. Conclusion: The goal of the health care provider must be to minimize and prevent suffering, prevent feelings of vulnerability, and to create conditions for optimal patient well being.

  • 246.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Andrews, Johanna
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dawad, Suraya
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, HEARD, Durban, South Africa.
    Contraception use and associations with intimate partner violence among women in Bangladesh2012In: Journal of Biosocial Science, ISSN 0021-9320, E-ISSN 1469-7599, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 83-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the association between contraception use and intimate partner violence (IPV) among women of reproductive age in Bangladesh. The observational study of 10,996 women used the chi-squared test and logistic regressions to assess the associations. Almost 80% of all respondents had used contraceptives at some point in their lives. About half of the respondents (48%) were victims of physical violence, while 11% experienced sexual abuse from their husbands. Urban residents, higher educated women and women aged 20-44 were more likely to use contraceptives than their peers in rural areas, those with lower education and those in their late forties (45-49 years). Women exposed to physical violence were almost two times (OR 1.93, CI 1.55-2.41) more likely to use contraceptives compared with their non-abused peers. Sexual abuse had no significant association with contraceptive use. Physical violence is a predictor for higher levels of contraceptive use among women in Bangladesh. The findings emphasize the importance of screening for IPV at health care centres. The differences in urban and rural contraceptive use and IPV exposure identified by the study have policy implications for service delivery and planning.

  • 247.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Dawad, Suraya
    University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Economic Costs of Domestic Violence: A Community Study in South Africa2011In: HealthMed, ISSN 1840-2291, E-ISSN 1986-8103, Vol. 5, no 6/Suppl 1, p. 1931-1940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study estimated economic costs of domestic violence against women who sought help from a community care centre in South Africa. It aimed to relate the victims' income and victims' family income to violence related injuries and related costs. This was a cross sectional study with face-to-face interviews in a community care center in which victims of domestic violence sought various kinds of assistance. In total, 261 women were interviewed. The average economic cost of each domestic violence incidence was 691 USD while average cost for medical expenditure was 29 USD and average loss of income due to domestic violence was 2092 USD. Larger families and higher individual and family incomes were protective factors for severity of violence related injuries. Pain and discomfort due to domestic violence emerged as expensive for both medical costs and productivity losses. Considering the average monthly income of 482 USD, domestic violence averaged a cost per incident of 691 USD during the previous month, indicating a deficit in household budget. We found that domestic violence against women resulted with expensive injuries, pain and discomforts.

  • 248.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lao, Zhinqin
    China.
    Gifford, Mervyn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Wang, Shu-Mei
    Fudan University, Shanghai, China .
    Knowledge and attitudes towards childhood injury prevention: a study of parents in Shanghai, China2012In: HealthMed, ISSN 1840-2291, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 3783-3789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood injuries are a major problem worldwide. The study explored the parents' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood injury prevention in relation to theirsocioeconomic status. The study also tried to compare parents' perceptions of cause and place of child injury with actual cause and place of injury. This was a cross sectional study of 986 randomly selected parents whose children (3-6 years old) were enrolled at selected kindergartens in a 'Safe Community' in Shanghai, China. Chi-square tests and bar diagrams were used. Almost all parents (97%) thought that injury was a serious problem for their children. Around half of the parents thought that child injuries could be prevented while almost one-third (29%) of parents indicated that there were risk factors in the living environment of their children. Parental perceptions of cause of injuries and place of injuries significantly differed from that of the reality. Parents identified the most common barriers of childhood injury prevention: lack of parental attention (41.6%), environment (35.6%) and children's risky behavior (22.7%). The difference between parental opinions and reality illustrated that parents had incorrect knowledge of childhood injuries, which might lead to incorrect foci of prevention programs. Before tackling environmental modifications to prevent child injuries, policy makers should focus on rectifying parents' incorrect perceptions and on modifying their attitudes as key players. It is important to first raise awareness about childhood injury prevention among the parents for appropriate intervention strategies.

  • 249.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Shabnam, Jahan
    Independent Researcher, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andrews-Chavez, Johanna
    Tufts University, Boston, USA.
    Mårtensson, Lena B.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Economic empowerment of women and utilization of maternal delivery care in Bangladesh2012In: International Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2008-7802, E-ISSN 2008-8213, Vol. 3, no 9, p. 628-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Maternal mortality is a major public health problem in low-income countries, such as Bangladesh. Women's empowerment in relation to enhanced utilization of delivery care is underexplored. This study investigates the associations between women's economic empowerment and their utilization of maternal health care services in Bangladesh. Methods: In total, 4925 women (15-49 years of age) with at least one child from whole Bangladesh constituted the study sample. Home delivery without skilled birth attendant and use of institutional delivery services were the main outcome variables used for the analyses. Economic empowerment, neighborhood socioeconomic status, household economic status, and demographic factors were considered as explanatory variables. The chi square test and unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were applied at the collected data. Results: In the adjusted model, respondent's and husband's education, household economic status, and residency emerged as important predictors for utilization of delivery care services. In the unadjusted model, economically empowered working and microfinanced women displayed more home delivery. Conclusion: The current study shows that use of delivery care services is associated with socioeconomic development and can be enhanced by societies that focus on general issues such as schooling, economic wellbeing, and gender-based discrimination.

  • 250.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Shinn Lee, Ming
    National Dong Hwa University.
    Gifford, Mervyn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Male Adolescents' Attitudes Toward Wife Beating: A Multi-Country Study in South Asia2012In: Journal of Adolescent Health, ISSN 1054-139X, E-ISSN 1879-1972, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 437-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study has aimed to address the gaps in knowledge about male adolescents and their attitudes toward wife beating in multi-country study in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal.

    Methods: The study used secondary data generated from nationally representative samples of male adolescents (aged 15–19 years) in the demographic and health surveys data in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal. These were household surveys using structured questionnaires, with 275 boys in Bangladesh, 13,078 boys in India, and 939 boys in Nepal. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to assess the associations.

    Results: In Bangladesh, 42% of 275 respondents had justified wife beating; in India, 51% of 13,078 male adolescents had supported wife beating; and in Nepal, 28% of 939 respondents had supported wife abuse. Individual-level factors, such as rural residency, low educational attainment, low economic status, being unemployed, and having a history of family violence, were positively associated with the justification of wife abuse.

    Conclusions: This multi-country study indicates a general trend of male adolescents' strong supportive attitude toward wife beating, and hence may suggest that policy makers can specifically target young groups of the population for various interventions for reducing violence against women.

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